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KAAYA GP. "Future prospects of biological control of tsetse.". In: Proceedings of Scientific Meeting of Nairobi Cluster and Kenya Veterinary Association. ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986.
MARY MWIANDI. ""Future of United States-Kenya Educational Relations".". In: Paper presented at the 6th Regional conference on American Studies in East African. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1998. Abstract

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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "The Future of the Housing Sector in Kenya’s Development." Reef Hotel,Mombasa; 2009.
Owakah F, Nyarwath O. "The Future of Sage Philosophy in Africa.". In: The Role of Philosophy in the African Context: Traditions, Challenges and Perspectives. Rome: Urbaniana University Press; 2019.
Mugambi JNK. "The Future of Religion .". 1990.Website
Wahome RG. "Future of Pig Production in Kenya."; 1989.
Aila FO, Nyangara CA, Ojera PB, Owaga EE, Odera O, Ogutu M. "The Future Of Organizations: Musings Of A Manager." ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES AND EDUCATION. 2013;2(2). Abstractthe_future_of_organizations_musings_of_a_manager.pdf

Dominant forces of the last century, developments in science and technology, the presence of ideological rigidities and the complexity of organizational environment will continually shape the future. Developments in human skills can readily catapult organizations to their future. Four views of the future highlighted include: the future is an extension of the past; the future is new; the future is now; and the future is somewhat “past”. In our attempt to (re)invent the future, we need a leadership skill that will propel the organization to its future.
Keywords: Future organizations, leadership, environment

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "The Future of Mortgage Financing in Kenya.". In: Marketing Review.; 1996.
Ogana W. The future of mathematics in Africa, in K. Smith (ed.). Stellenbosch, South Africa: Department of Mathematics, University of Stellenbosch; 1992.
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Oredo J. "A Future in Information Technology." The Standard, May 9, 2022.
Baldassarre GD, Elshamy M, v. Griensven A, Soliman E, Kigobe M, Ndomba P, Mutemi J, Mutua F, Moges S, Xuan Y, Solomatine D, Uhlenbrook S. "Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin: a review." Hydrological Sciences Journal . 2011;56(2).abstract.doc
Baldassarre DG, Elshamy M, Soliman E, Kigobe M, Ndomba P, Mutemi J, Mutua F, Moges S, Y X. "Future hydrology and climate in the River Nile basin." 3. G. Di Baldassarre, M. Elshamy, E. Soliman, M. Kigobe, P. Ndomba, J. Mutemi, F. Mutua, S. Moges, Y, Xuan (2011): Future hydrology anHydrological Sciences Journal. 2011;56(2):199-211.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "Fusion of Multi-sensor Data and the Automatic Classification of Urban Environments: A Case Study of Colour Aerial Photography and Airborne Laser Scanning Data.". In: South African Journal of Surveying and Geo-information. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2001. Abstract
This paper examines the influence of multisensor data fusion on the automatic extraction of topographic objects from SPOT panchromatic imagery. The suitability of various grey level co-occurence based texture measures, as well as different pixel windows is also investigated. It is observed that best results are obtained with a 3x3 pixel window and the texture measure homogeneity. The synthetic texture image derived together with a Landsat TM imagery are then fused with the SPOT data using the additional channel concept. The object feature base is expanded to include both spectral and spatial features. A maximum likelihood classification approach is then applied. It is demonstrated that the segmentation of topographic objects is significantly improved by fusing the multispectral and texture information.
Riungu GM, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK. "Fusarium head blight, DON and Fusarium contamination of Wheat and Maize.". 2008.
and 4. Muthomi, J. W. RN’u NGGMJK. "Fusarium head blight in Kenya and possible management strategies. .". In: 10th International Fusarium Workshop and the Fusarium Genomics Workshop. Alghero (Sardinia), Italy. ; 2008.
Gathumbi, J. K.; Muthomi N'u C'waJW; JK. Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested wheat grain in Kenya.; 2005. Abstract

A survey was carried out during the 2004 wheat-cropping season in 6 agro-ecclogical zones to determine fusarium contamination of freshly harvested wheat grain. This was done by plating in culture media. Contaminations with mycotoxins t!cnxynivalcnol, zenralenonc and aflatoxin B I were determined by competitive EUSA. Farmers indicated presence ol'hcnd blight 111 wheat fields and occurrence of wet weather during flowering. Wheat residue was mainly directly grazed to animals in the field or ploughed in. Most popular rotation was wheal-maize followed by continuous wheat cropping. Fusarium contaminated 85 % of the wheat samples, but kernel infection rate was 15%. Fusarium species most isolated were F.poae. F. chlumvdospnrum and F. grammC:Ul1lfll. Other fungi isolated were Alternaria. Epicoccum. Aspergigiilus anti Penicillium. Mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. There is need for regular screening for Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat grain.

Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574.
Varma S, Lumb WV, Johnson LW, Ferguson HL. "Further Studies with Polyglycolic Acid (Dexon) and Other Sutures in Infected Wounds." American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1981;42:571-574. Abstract
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Wanyonyi LS. "Further remarks on unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):06-10. Abstractfull text

In this paper we investigate results on unitary equivalence of operators that include n-binormal, skew
binormal and n-power-hyponormal operators acting on complex Hilbert space H.
AMS subject classification 47B47, 47A30, 47B20.

M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "Further remarks on the Operator Equation AB+BA*=A*B+BA=I.". In: Kenya J. Science Technology Series A 4(l): 31-35. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1983. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
KAAYA GP, ALEMU P. "Further observations on survival and fertility of Glossina morsitans morsitans maintained on immunized rabbits. ." . Insect Science and Its Application. 1984;5:443-446.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Further Mortality declines in Kenya. Critical issues for 1990.". In: Journal of Healthline Vol.2 No. 4 October . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Wagacha JM, Mutegi C, Karanja L, Kimani J, Christie ME. "Fungal species isolated from peanuts in major Kenyan markets: Emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi." Crop Protection. 2013;52:1-9. Abstract

Abstract
A survey was conducted in Nairobi, Nyanza and Western provinces in Kenya between March and July 2009 with 1263 peanut products sampled out of which 705 samples underwent microbial analysis. The study aimed at determining the incidence of fungal species - emphasis on Aspergillus section Flavi - associated with peanut products. A 0.5kg representative sample was obtained from each surveyed vendor and the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal species determined. The samples were also analyzed for total aflatoxin level while isolates of A. flavus and A. parasiticus were screened for production of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. Eight fungal species were detected in the samples and were in decreasing order of CFU/g of sample: A. flavus S-strain (467), A. flavus L-strain (341), Penicillium spp. (326), A. niger (156), A. tamari (27), A. alliaceus (21), A. parasiticus (10), and A. caelatus (5). The overall incidence of A. flavus S-strain in samples from Nairobi was 92 and 1425% higher than samples from Nyanza and Western regions, respectively. The combined incidence of A. flavus and A. parasiticus was varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with peanut product: peanut flour (69%), shelled raw peanuts (53%), spoilt peanuts (49%), boiled podded peanuts (45%), podded peanuts (39%), peanut butter (31%), fried peanuts (22%) and roasted peanuts (20%). Seventy three percent of A. flavus and A. parasiticus isolates produced at least one of the aflatoxin types, with 66% producing aflatoxin B1. The total aflatoxin level among peanut products ranged from 0 – 1629 µg/g; and there was a positive correlation (r = 0.2711) between the incidence of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and total aflatoxin level. The high incidence of aflatoxin producing fungi in peanuts traded in Kenyan markets implies a risk of aflatoxin contamination, highlighting the need for stakeholders to promote sound practices at all stages of the peanut value chain in order to minimize market access by non-complying products.

Keywords: Aflatoxin; Aspergillus section Flavi; fungal species; peanuts.

A M. "Fungal Biomass Load and Aspergillus flavus in a Controlled Environment.". In: Biotechnological Applications of Biomass. intechopen.com; 2020.
Dorothy McCormick. "Fundis and Formality: Very Small Manufacturers in Nairobi.". In: World Employment Programme Research Working Papers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1987. Abstract

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Kioko UM, Guthrie T, Lara G, Sumbana H, Phororo H, Kerapeletswe C, Fairstein C, Valdes A, Sotomayor J, Darce D. Funding the fight: Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. ISBN 1-919798-71-4, . Idasa, Cape Town; 2004.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Funding the Fight. Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. Edited by Teresa Guthrie and Alison Hickey. BOOK CHAPTER Pp 13-52, by Urbanus Kioko & Enos H.N. Njeru.". In: Cape Town: AIDS Budget Unit, IDASA. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Funding the Fight. Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries Edited by Teresa Guthrie and Alison Hickey. KENYA CHAPTER: pp 13-52. Co-authored by Urbanus Kioko & Enos H.N. Njeru. Cape Town: AIDS Budget Unit, IDASA.". In: ISBN 1-919798-71-4. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Kioko, Urbanus M.; Njeru EH. "Funding the fight against HIV / AIDS.". 2004.Website
Marston A, Gafner F, Dossaji SF, Hostettmann K. "Fundigicidal and moluscicidal saponins from Dolichos kilimandascharicus; ." Phytochemistry. 1988;27(5):1325-1326. Abstract

—Three saponins with moUuscicidal and fungicidal activities have been isolated from the roots of Dolichos
kilimandscharicus. They were shown to be the 3-0-jS-D-glucopyranosides of hederagenin, bayogenin and medicagenic acid.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Surveying and Geodesy.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Although the environment has remained at the forefront of scientific interest for well over four decades (e.g., Lein (2012)), it is not until this decade that remote sensing of the environment using geodetic methods started gaining momentum. This has largely been fuelled by the launching and modernization of satellites that enable the environment to be measured, mapped, and modelled.

Kibera LW, Kimokoti A. Fundamentals of sociology of Education African Perspective.; 2007. Abstract

In an academic field, research project and/or thesis is an integral and mandatory component of the higher degree programmes. The guidelines on how to write research proposals are therefore expected to assist a student to identify and choose a viable research problem. Many research proposals are turned down each year because of content and methodological deficiencies. The research proposal serves to present the research question or problem to be researched on; discuss its importance to society; the research efforts of others who have worked on related research; suggests sources of data pertinent to solving the research question and how the data will be gathered, analysed and interpreted. A good research proposal is concise and focused although its length is dependent on regulations of different universities; it often ranges between ten and forty double-spaced pages inclusive of appendices. A research proposal has three main chapters or sections namely introduction, titerature review and research methodology. Kibera, loW. and Kibera F.N. (2009). Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects in Fountain, Journal of Faculty of Education, November 3, pp 117-129. Abstract The social changes being experienced worldwide cannot be overemphasized. Children are growing up in several and different environments at home, school and community and religious organizations are the settings for social and intellectual experiences from which children acquire and develop the skills, attitudes and attachments which characterize them as individuals and shape their choice and performance of adult roles. This book is about practices and processes involved in socialization and education, particularly the agencies concerned about the ways in which schools, through their teachers, curricula and organization, deliberately and/or informally influence the young. Among all agencies of socialization, schools are in a strong position to exert influence upon the young. This stems in part from their specialized functions and expertise concerning scholastic and technical instruction. Schools introduce to students forms of authority, social and working relationships and occupational roles. Some of this influence is specific and overt, operating through deliberate instruction to more or less determined objectives. Although there is much emphasis on schools and their students, it would make little sense to discuss schools in isolation from the other agencies of socialization. Consequently, we have approached each of our topics through a broad discussion of practices and processes. By doing this we hope that the influence of each socialization agent has been put in its proper perspective and that its limitations can be appreciated. The first chapter on sociology discusses the development of sociology as a discipline and some of its various branches. Chapter 2 deals specifically with the origins and development of sociology of education and its concerns. Sociological theories and their application to education are contained in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 looks at socialization particularly, the agents of socialization and the relationships between socialization and education. To appreciate formal education, indigenous education cannot be overlooked. Chapter 5 and 6 therefore discuss the role and purpose of indigenous education. Chapter 7 examines the relationship between culture and education. Culture basically is seen as the main content of curriculum of any education system while education is always seen as the major agent of development. However, as much as education means well for the society it has detriments, for instance creating social classes. Chapter 8 discusses education and social stratification. Chapter 9 looks at the sociology of the classroom and examines its complex environment. Chapter 10 highlights the factors affecting the education of girls while chapter 11 discusses the teacher and teaching profession and the changing multiple roles of the teacher in response to societal changes. Finally, chapter 12 is a case study of the Kenya's undergraduate students' attitudes and perceptions towards the teaching profession.

Elhadi Y;A, Nyariki DM, Wasonga VO, Ekaya WN. "Fundamentals of sociology of Education African Perspective.". 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out in Baringo District of Kenya to determine poverty among sedentary and semi-nomadic pastoral households. Results indicate that the sedentary agro-pastoralists tend to diversify their sources of income more than semi-nomadic pastoralists. Poverty and income inequality levels were found to be higher during the dry season than the wet season. Lorenz curves demonstrated significant income gap between the rich and the poor during the dry season than the wet season. The findings demonstrate that poverty indicators in the study area vary with respect to seasonal climatic variability. Despite relying on relatively degraded environment, sedentary agro-pastoralists were found to be almost twice wealthier than the semi-nomadic pastoralists. This is explained by the higher contribution of the climate-proof economic activities pursued by sedentary agro-pastoralists than their semi-nomadic counterparts. Diversification of livelihood activities through pursuance of off-farm activities is, therefore, imperative in unpredictable environments to ensure income and food security of pastoral households.

Elhadi YA, Nyariki DM, Wasonga VO, Ekaya WN. "Fundamentals of sociology of Education African Perspective.". 2012. Abstract
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Gakuu, C. M. KKHJ & PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2017.
Gakuu, C. M., Kidombo HJ, Keiyoro PN. Fundamentals of Research Methods: Concepts, Theories and Application.. Aura Publishers, Nairobi; 2018.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Remote Sensing.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Remote sensing is defined as the art, science and technology through which the characteristics of object features/targets either on, above or even below the earth’s surface are identified, measured and analyzed without direct contact existing between the sensors and the targets or events being observed, see e.g., (Jensen 2009; Lillesand et al. 2010; Richards 1994; Murai 1999) etc.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of Photogrammetry.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Like in many other disciplines, there is no universally accepted definition of the term photogrammetry. The Manual of Photogrammetry (2003) defines photogrammetry as the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic (EM) radiant energy and other phenomena. Notably, the extracted information could be of a geometric, physical, semantic or even temporal nature, although in many photogrammetric applications the geometric information is more relevant. Other popular definitions of this non-contact discipline are given e.g., in Moffit and Mikhail (1980),Wolf (1980),Kraus (1994), Schenk (2005) etc. In a very broad sense, and from a network design point of view, (Fraser 2000) reckons that a photogrammetric system is one that meets the following basic requirements:

KONGERE TO. "Fundamentals of Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2003. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

FN. K, Waruingi) BC. "Fundamentals of Marketing: An African Perspective; Nairobi: ." Kenya Literature Bureau; 1998.
H.J. K, C.M. G, P.N. K. Fundamentals of Management:Theories, Concepts & Practice. Nairobi: Aura Books; 2013.
H.J K, C.M G, P.N. K. Fundamentals of Management. Nairobi: Aura Books, Nairobi, ISBN 9966-123-456-7; 2012.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Fundamentals of GIS.". 2013.Website
Orata D. Fundamentals of Electrochemistry. Germany: Lambert Academic Publisher; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry is a text which discusses all aspects of the electrochemical processes. This includes, discussions ranging from primary definition of terms in electrochemistry to solution of advanced electrochemical equations which is key in explaining the various electrode processes. The textbook is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Universities.

SHEIKH ABDULATIFAHMED. Fundamentals of Arabic Grammar.; 2009.
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Fundamental Concepts in Seasonal Prediction and Current State of Seasonal Prediction, Science and Technology.". In: The First Climate Prediction Capacity Building Training Workshop for the Greater Horn of Africa. Drought Monitoring Centre, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
Dehayem A, Orphal J, Ibrahim N, Kleiner I, Bouba O, Flaud J-M. "The fundamental bands of trans-and cis-DONO studied by high-resolution Fourier-transform spectroscopy." Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy . 2005;238:29-35.
H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Functions of Juakali Artisans.". In: University of Wuppertal, Germany. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
McGill T, of of and Science ULFA. Functionally non-adaptive retinal plasticity in rat models of human retinal degenerative disease. Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Arts and Science, 2008; 2008. Abstract

The established model used for evaluating potential therapies for retinal disease has significant limitations. A new model is proposed to account for these limitations: the visual adaptation model. The visual adaptation model was developed to provide a novel approach for testing potential treatments for retinal disease, and the work in this thesis provides empirical support for this model. Specifically, we evaluated two potential therapies for retinal degenerative disease and examined their effects on vision and retinal anatomy. In addition, the profile of retinal reorganization and its functional correlates were examined in RCS rats and transgenic rats which express a rhodopsin mutation; however, immunohistological work targeted one specific line (S334ter-4). Collectively, these studies provide evidence that supports the retinal adaptation model. These studies also provide a novel view of retinal and visual function in retinal disease which should be considered when evaluating treatments involving retinal degeneration.

Sitonik N. "Functionality of the Dispute Settlement System: A world Trade Organization's (WTO) Approach." Global Journal of Politics and Law Research. 2016;4(2):19-28.
Qin W, Xuan Y, Liu Y, Jiang T, Yu C. "Functional {Connectivity} {Density} in {Congenitally} and {Late} {Blind} {Subjects}." Cerebral Cortex. 2014:bhu051. AbstractWebsite

Visual deprivation during different developmental periods leads to different structural and functional alterations in the brain; however, the effects of visual deprivation on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analyses to investigate the effects of visual deprivation during different developmental periods on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Compared with the sighted controls (SC), both the congenitally blind (CB) and the late blind (LB) exhibited decreased short- and long-range FCDs in the primary visual cortex (V1) and decreased long-range FCDs in the primary somatosensory and auditory cortices. Although both the CB and LB exhibited increased short-range FCD in the dorsal visual stream, the CB exhibited greater increases in the short- and long-range FCDs in the ventral visual stream and hippocampal complex compared with the LB. Moreover, the short-range FCD of the left V1 exhibited a significant positive correlation with the duration of blindness in the LB. Our findings suggest that visual deprivation before the developmental sensitive period can induce more extensive brain functional reorganization than does visual deprivation after the sensitive period, which may underlie an enhanced capacity for processing nonvisual information in the CB.

Makanya AN, Tschanz SA, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Functional respiratory morphology in the newborn quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus)." J. Anat.. 2007;211(1):26-36. Abstract

A morphological and morphometric study of the lung of the newborn quokka wallaby (Setonix brachyurus) was undertaken to assess its morphofunctional status at birth. Additionally, skin structure and morphometry were investigated to assess the possibility of cutaneous gas exchange. The lung was at canalicular stage and comprised a few conducting airways and a parenchyma of thick-walled tubules lined by stretches of cuboidal pneumocytes alternating with squamous epithelium, with occasional portions of thin blood-gas barrier. The tubules were separated by abundant intertubular mesenchyme, aggregations of developing capillaries and mesenchymal cells. Conversion of the cuboidal pneumocytes to type I cells occurred through cell broadening and lamellar body extrusion. Superfluous cuboidal cells were lost through apoptosis and subsequent clearance by alveolar macrophages. The establishment of the thin blood-gas barrier was established through apposition of the incipient capillaries to the formative thin squamous epithelium. The absolute volume of the lung was 0.02 +/- 0.001 cm(3) with an air space surface area of 4.85 +/- 0.43 cm(2). Differentiated type I pneumocytes covered 78% of the tubular surface, the rest 22% going to long stretches of type II cells, their precursors or low cuboidal transitory cells with sparse lamellar bodies. The body weight-related diffusion capacity was 2.52 +/- 0.56 mL O(2) min(-1) kg(-1). The epidermis was poorly developed, and measured 29.97 +/- 4.88 microm in thickness, 13% of which was taken by a thin layer of stratum corneum, measuring 4.87 +/- 0.98 microm thick. Superficial capillaries were closely associated with the epidermis, showing the possibility that the skin also participated in some gaseous exchange. Qualitatively, the neonate quokka lung had the basic constituents for gas exchange but was quantitatively inadequate, implying the significance of percutaneous gas exchange.

Mathara JM;, Schillinger U, Kutima PM, Mbugua SK, Guigas C, Franz C, Holzapfel WH. "Functional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk products in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Lactobacillus plantarum was the major species among the lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk of the Maasai in Kenya. Selected strains were characterized for their functional properties using in vitro standard procedures. All strains expressed acid tolerance at pH 2.0 after 2-h exposure of values that ranged from 1% to 100%, while bile tolerance of acid-stressed cells at 0.3% oxgal varied from 30% to 80%. In vitro adhesion to the mucus-secreting cell line HT 29 MTX and binding capacity to extracellular protein matrices was demonstrated for several strains. The four strains tested in a simulated stomach duodenum passage survived with recovery rates ranging from 17% to 100%. Strains were intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics tested. From these in vitro studies, a number of Lb. plantarum strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk showed probiotic potential. The strains are good candidates for multifunctional starter culture development.

Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: {Dark} rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision Research. 1994;34:709-720. AbstractWebsite

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (PIT) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5–6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19–P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Fagiolini M, Pizzorusso T, Berardi N, Domenici L, Maffei L. "Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation." Vision research. 1994;34:709-720. Abstract

Postnatal development of rat visual cortical functions was studied by recording extracellularly from the primary visual cortex of 22 animals ranging in age from postnatal day 17 (P17) to P45. We found that in the youngest animals (P17-P19) all visual cortical functions tested were immature. Selectivity for orientation and movement direction of visual stimuli was almost absent, most cells received binocular input and their mean receptive field size was 5-6 times the adult size. Visual acuity was half its adult value. These functional properties developed gradually during the following weeks and by P45 they were all adult-like. This functional development is affected by manipulations of the visual input such as dark rearing (DR) and monocular deprivation (MD). DR prevented the normal postnatal maturation of visual cortical functions: in P60 rats, dark reared from birth, their visual cortical functions resembled those of P19-P21 rats. MD from P15 to P45 resulted in a dramatic shift of the ocular dominance distribution (ODD) in favour of the open eye and in a loss of visual acuity for the deprived eye. To determine the sensitive period of rat visual cortex to MD (critical period) we evaluated the shift in ODD of visual cortical neurones in rats that were subjected to the progressive delay of the onset of fixed MD period (10 days). Our results show that the critical period begins around the end of the third postnatal week, peaks between the fourth and fifth week and starts to decline from the end of the fifth week.

Kiama SG, Maina JN, Bhattacharjee J, Weyrauch KD. "Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted eagle owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus):.". 2001. Abstract

Abstract The pecten oculi is a highly vascularized and pigmented organ that overlies the optic disc and projects into the vitreous body in the avian eye. First reported over 300 years ago, its function(s) remains a puzzle to ornithologists, ophthalmologists and anatomists. Morphometric study of this unique organ was undertaken in birds exhibiting apparently different visual acuities, namely two species of diurnal birds (the ground-dwelling domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus and a highly active predator bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and a nocturnal bird (the spotted-eagle owl Bubo bubo africanus). The volume of the owl's eye was 4.8 and 2.2 times larger than that of the fowl and the kite, respectively. However, the pecten of the fowl consisted of more pleats (16±18) compared to the kite (12±13) and the owl (5±6). The volume of the pecten of the kite was 1.4 and 2.7 times larger than that of the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the surface area of the pecten of the kite was 2.6 and 4 times larger than that of the fowl and owl, respectively (P < 0.05). The volume density of blood vessels (lumen and wall) in the pecten of the kite, fowl and owl comprised 67.7%, 66.9% and 62.6%, respectively, the pigmented tissue constituting the rest. Both the volume density and the volume of the blood in the pecten were higher in the diurnal birds (kite, fowl) than the owl (P < 0.05). The surface area of the capillary luminal surface was 1.7 and 5.3 times higher in the kite than in the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the functional morphology of the pecten correlates with the life-style of the bird and with functional need, and lends further support to the nutritive role of the pecten

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Kiama SG, Maina JN, Bhattacharjee, Weyrauch KD. "Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted eagle owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus.". 2006. Abstract

the pecten oculi is a highly vascularized and pigmented organ that overlies the optic disc and projects into the vitreous body in the avian eye. First reported over 300 years ago, its function(s) remains a puzzle to ornithologists, ophthalmologists and anatomists. Morphometric study of this unique organ was undertaken in birds exhibiting apparently different visual acuities, namely two species of diurnal birds (the ground-dwelling domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus and a highly active predator bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and a nocturnal bird (the spotted-eagle owl Bubo bubo africanus). The volume of the owl's eye was 4.8 and 2.2 times larger than that of the fowl and the kite, respectively. However, the pecten of the fowl consisted of more pleats (16–18) compared to the kite (12–13) and the owl (5–6). The volume of the pecten of the kite was 1.4 and 2.7 times larger than that of the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the surface area of the pecten of the kite was 2.6 and 4 times larger than that of the fowl and owl, respectively (P < 0.05). The volume density of blood vessels (lumen and wall) in the pecten of the kite, fowl and owl comprised 67.7%, 66.9% and 62.6%, respectively, the pigmented tissue constituting the rest. Both the volume density and the volume of the blood in the pecten were higher in the diurnal birds (kite, fowl) than the owl (P < 0.05). The surface area of the capillary luminal surface was 1.7 and 5.3 times higher in the kite than in the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the functional morphology of the pecten correlates with the life-style of the bird and with functional need, and lends further support to the nutritive role of the pecten.

Onyono PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG, Makanya AN. "Functional Morphology of the Olfactory Mucosa and Olfactory Bulb in Fossorial Rodents: The East African Root Rat (Tachyoryctes splendens) and the Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)." Tissue Cell. 2017;49(5):612-621. Abstract

Optimal functioning of the olfactory system is critical for survival of fossorial rodents in their subterranean lifestyle. This study examines the structure of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb of two fossorial rodents exhibiting distinct social behaviors, the East African root rat and the naked mole rat. The social naked mole rat displayed simpler ethmoturbinates consisting of dorsomedial and broad discoid/flaplike parts that projected rostrally from the ethmoid bone. In the solitary root rat however, the ethmoturbinates were highly complex and exhibited elaborate branching which greatly increased the olfactory surface area. In addition, when correlated with the whole brain, the volume of the olfactory bulbs was greater in the root rat (4.24×10) than in the naked mole rat (3.92×10). Results of this study suggest that the olfactory system of the root rat is better specialized than that of the naked mole rat indicating a higher level of dependence on this system since it leads a solitary life. The naked mole rat to the contrary may have compensated for its relatively inferior olfactory system by living in groups in a social system. These findings demonstrate that structure of the olfactory system of fossorial mammals is dictated by both behavior and habitat.

Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicondid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens)." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;35:52-58. AbstractWebsite

Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute order Macroscelidae. Epididymal morphology in the rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The three topographic regions were distinct with the caput and cauda epididymis placed further apart and the two are connected by a slender corpus. The caput occurred as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the testis while the caput occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells; the former exhibiting granules and apical blebing in the caput. The lumen of cauda was densely packed with spermatozoa, with occasional masses that appeared to engulf them, and its principal cells had numerous vacuoles. This study demonstrates that beside merocrine secretion, principal cells of the caput exhibit apocrine secretion as shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, with the vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid re-absorption and phagocytosis.

Onyango DW, Oduor-Okelo D, Makanya AN;, Kisipan ML. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicndid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". 2011. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute Order Macroscelidae. The epididymal mo rphology in the rufous sengis ( Elephantulus rufescens ) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in this testicondid mammal. The three topographic regions were distinct with the caput and cau da epididymis placed far apart, connected by a slender corpus. The caput occurred as a longitudinal mass on the dorsolateral border of the testis while the Cauda, pear shaped mass, was laterally placed between the rectum and the pelvic urethra. The epidid ymal epithelium comprised principal and basal cells; the former exhibiting granules and apical blebbing in the caput. The lumen of the cauda was densely packed with spermatozoa that are occasionally wrapped by amorphous dark masses, and its principal cells had numerous vacuoles. This study demonstrates that beside merocrine secretion, principal cells of sengi’s caput also exhibit apocrine secretion as shown by apical blebs. The blebs are shed off plausibly as a means of delivering epididymosomes to the lum en, which in turn transfer epididymis secreted proteins to the spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, with the vacuoles indicatin g its involvement in fluid re absorption and phagocytosis.

Kisipan ML, Makanya AN, Oduor-Okelo D, Onyango DW. "The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a Testicndid Mammal, The Rufous Sengi (Elephantulus rufescens). ." Keny Veterinarian. 2011;35(1):52-58.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Functional HIV-1 specific IgA antibodies in HIV-1 exposed, persistently IgG seronegative female sex workers. Broliden K, Hinkula J, Devito C, Kiama P, Kimani J, Trabbatoni D, Bwayo JJ, Clerici M, Plummer F, Kaul R. Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):29-36.". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):29-36. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
Although HIV-specific cellular immune responses are found in a number of HIV highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) cohorts, late seroconversion can occur despite pre-existing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), suggesting that a protective HIV vaccine may need to induce a broader range of HIV-specific immune responses. Low levels of HIV-specific IgA have been found in the genital tract and plasma of the majority of Nairobi HEPS sex workers and appeared to be independent of HIV-specific cellular responses. IgA purified from genital tract, saliva and plasma of most HEPS sex workers were able to neutralize infection of PBMC by a primary (NSI) clade B HIV isolate, as well as viral isolates from clades A and D, which predominate in Kenya. In addition, these IgA were able to inhibit transcytosis of infective HIV virions across a transwell model of the human mucosal epithelium in an HIV-specific manner. Preliminary work in other HEPS cohorts has suggested the recognition of different gp41 epitopes in HEPS and HIV-infected subjects. Although present at low levels, these IgA demonstrated cross-clade neutralizing activity and were able to inhibit HIV mucosal transcytosis, suggesting an important functional role in protection against HIV infection.
Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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Germain F, Pérez-Rico C, Vicente J, de la Villa P. Functional histology of the retina. Formatex; 2010. AbstractWebsite
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OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "A Functional Grammer of Dholuo (Koln: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1997. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "A Functional Approach to the Description of Morphemic Configurations of The Swahili Verbal Form.". In: Conference of the Linguistic Association for Southern Africa Development Co-coordinating Conference (SADCC) Universities. Malawi; 1984.
K. LP, Kevin O, Pamela M, Paul O. "Functional Adaptability of the Tunica Media of the Atriopulmonary Junction." Austin J Anat.. 2015;2(2):1034. Abstract

Introduction: The histoarchitecture of the tunica media of the Atriopulmonary Junction (APJ) has not been extensively studied and yet the tunica media is the backbone, which provides the structural strength for optimum function. This study therefore strives to unravel the structural components of the tunica media of the APJ.
Methods: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Histological studies were done on tissues from the APJ of 20 hearts using light microscopy. The proportion of elastic fibers in the tunica media of the APJ was determined using the point intercept method by dropping a grid in ImageJ software.
Results: The smooth muscle cells were concentric and more prominent in males extending the entire extent of the tunica media compared to females where they were confined to the intimal side of tunica media. The collagen bundles were mainly longitudinal. The elastic fibers showed a diverse pattern of organization and side and sex differences in orientation and quantity.
Conclusion: Gender and regional variations in the histology of the tunica media of the pulmonary veins suggest a mechanism for controlling hemodynamic forces at the APJ.
Keywords: Tunica media; Atriopulmonary junction

Loyal PK, Ongeti K, Mandela P, Odula P. "Functional adaptability of the tunica media of the atriopulmonary junction." Austin J of . 2015;2(2):1034.poonamjeet_atj_austin.pdf
P L, K O, P M, P O. "Functional Adaptability of the Tunica Media of the Atriopulmonary Junction." Austin Anatomy Journal . 2015;2(1):1034.
Masikini M, Mailu SN, Tsegaye A, Njomo N, Molapo KM, Ikpo CO, Sunday CE, Rassie C, Wilson L, Baker PGL, Iwuoha EI. "A fumonisins immunosensor based on polyanilino-carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots." Sensors. 2015;15(1):529-546. AbstractSensors

Description
An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly (2, 5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly (2, 5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB 1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L− 1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng− 1 and 0.46 pg L− 1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB 1, and FB 2 and FB 3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB 1, FB 2, and FB 3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg− 1 and the maximum level recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L− 1). View Full-Text

MBERIA PROFKITHAKAWA. ""FumoLiyongo" 'in Mulika (Jarida la Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili, Chuo Kikuu, Dar-es-Salaam (journal of the Institute for Kiswahili Research, University of Dar-es-salaam) 21:25-43.". In: Proc.7th SR-CRSP workshop, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. 27th to 28th Feb, 1989. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1989. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Fumbo la Maisha. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2011.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Fumbo La Maisha . Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2009.
Lachenmeier DW, Teipel J, Scharinger A, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Grosch F, Bunzel M, Okaru AO, Schwarz S. "Fully automated identification of coffee species and simultaneous quantification of furfuryl alcohol using NMR spectroscopy." Journal of AOAC International. 2020;103:306-314. Abstract
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Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Full View Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities.

Graphical abstract
Keywords: MonoterpenesCarvacrolCis-3-hydroxypiperitoneAnti-MRSAAnti-cryptococcal

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Fuelwood energy requirements in Nyandarua District. Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Fuelwood energy requirements in Murang'a District. Republic of Kenya. Murang's District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Fuelwood energy requirements in Bungoma District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Fuel value of Refined vernonia galamensis seed oil".". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Fuel value of Refined vernonia galamensis seed oil".". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
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NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Fudyk TC, Maclean IW, Simonsen JN, Njagi E, Kimani J, Brunham RC, Plummer FA. Genetic diversity and mosaicism at the por locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol 1999 Sep;181(18):5591-9.". In: J Bacteriol 1999 Sep;181(18):5591-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
(IIRR) TO,(KAPP) FO,(KAPP) EIC,(MKU) NJH,(IIRR) EM,(IIRR) CM,(IIRR) NB. Fruits of our toil. Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Cathedral road, Nairobi; 2015.Fruits of our toil kapap_book_d10-1.pdf
Siddiqui KA, Banerjee AK. "Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity of Rhizobium species." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(5):412-7. Abstract

FDP aldolase was found to be present in the cell-free extracts of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium phaseoli, Rhizobium trifolii, Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium lupini, Rhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium species from Arachis hypogaea and Sesbania cannabina. The enzyme in 3 representative species has optimal activity at pH 8.4 in 0.2M veronal buffer. The enzyme activity was completely lost by treatment at 60 degrees C for 15 min. The Km values were in the range from 2.38 to 4.55 X 10(-6)M FDP. Metal chelating agents inhibited enzyme activity, but monovalent or bivalent metal ions failed to stimulate the activity. Bivalent metal ions in general were rather inhibitory.

Wasunna A. "The front line in the African AIDS crisis." Hastings Cent Rep. 2001;31(5):12.
Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From {Progenitors} to {Differentiated} {Cells} in the {Vertebrate} {Retina}." Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2009;25:45-69. AbstractWebsite
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Thim T, Hagensen MK, Bentzon JF, Falk E. "From vulnerable plaque to atherothrombosis." Journal of internal medicine. 2008;263:506-516. Abstract

Plaque rupture precipitates approximately 75% of all fatal coronary thrombi. Therefore, the plaque prone to rupture is the primary focus of this review. The lipid-rich core and fibrous cap are pivotal in the understanding of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture is a localized process within the plaque caused by degradation of a tiny fibrous cap rather than by diffuse inflammation of the plaque. Atherosclerosis is a multifocal disease, but plaques prone to rupture seem to be oligofocal at most.

Maina, wanjiku. "From Vernacular to Modern: Transitioning East African Traditional House Design to Contemporary." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;14(3):2081-2093.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "From the women's Decade to Multiparty Era, Women's Political Participation in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the International Workshop on Women's Involvement in Democratic Change. Bonn Germany 20-30 October.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "From the Women's Decade to Multi-Party Era: Women's Political Participation in Kenya.". In: L. Klempt (ed.) Women Shaping Democratic Change, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Musonye MM, Ndede L, Otieno SP. "From The Snows of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;1(5).
Otieno SP, Ndede, L.A., Musonye M. "From the Snow of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 5):51-63.
Mwangi AP-. "From the Editor’s Desk." The Nairobi Journal of the Literature: Convergence and Divergence in Literature. 2014;(7):3.
Mwangi AP-. "From the Editor’s Desk." The Journal of the Department of Literature. 2015;(8):4.
KIMINGICHI, WABENDE. FROM THE BUKUSU FIRESIDE TO THE STAGE: THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ORAL NARRATIVE IN THE SHIFTING SPACES. PETER PROFWASAMBA, PETER DROTIENOS, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
KYALO PROFKIEMAJOHNBOSCO. "From Surveying to Geospatial Engineering: Proposal for New Academic Programs at the University of Nairobi.". In: 5th Africa Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE) Conference. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2004. Abstract
Surveying is a profession that finds itself increasingly at major crossroads today. This fact is perhaps best vindicated by the increasingly less number of students who are opting to study surveying as their first-degree choice at university level. The number of postgraduate students is also relatively low. In an effort to address this stark reality as well as re-engineer itself, the Department of Surveying, University of Nairobi is in the process of launching new academic programs at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. This paper traces developments in the curriculum review process at the Department of Surveying, University of Nairobi that began almost a decade ago. A review of the basic principles in curriculum development is presented. The objectives of the above new programs are outlined together with their respective regulations. The course structures for both the undergraduate and postgraduate programs are then presented. A proposal for implementing the new programs is finally outlined before conclusions are drawn.
Kanyinga K. "From speeches, Uhuru will focus on quick deliverables." Sunday Nation, April 21, 2013.
NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. ""From Rio to Johannesburg: a Ten- year Review of Agenda 21 and other of Kenya, august 2002, Published as a UN/Kenya document.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
M. MS. "From Qatar with the Love for the Soil: Between Agro-Colonialism and Globalization.". In: (Re)membering Kenya Vol. III: Governance, Citizenship and Economics. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2013.
S.M. M. From Qatar with the Love for the Soil. From Qatar with the Love for the Soil; 2013.
Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

Agathocleous M, Harris WA. "From progenitors to differentiated cells in the vertebrate retina." Annual review of cell and developmental biology. 2009;25:45-69. Abstract

Multipotent retinal progenitors undergo a varied number of divisions to produce clones of heterogeneous sizes and cell types. We describe the transition from a proliferating progenitor to a differentiated postmitotic cell and discuss how controls of proliferation operate within individual cells as well as in the whole tissue. We discuss how extracellular and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle kinetics, interkinetic nuclear migration, orientation of cell division, and epigenetic modifications all interact to regulate a progenitor's transition from division to differentiation. We also propose some directions for future research.

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "From Oral Narration to the Publishing House: An Examination of Thematic Development of Kiswahili Short Story." International Journal of Education and Research (IJER) . 2013;1(9):1-8.
WAFULA DRMUYILAJACKSON. "From Nyayoism to Majiboism: A Rebellion or Leadership Fatigue". A Seminar Paper, 1998.". In: Research partnership 3/2006. The Danish Institute for human rights; 1998. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "From Literacy To Life Long Learning: A Renewed Thinking For Educating The Kenyan People: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Et.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Adult Literacy, The German Adult Education Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Association (DVV), December 2006,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (to be Assoc. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""From Linguistic to Literary Competence." In The Role of Language and Literature in the School Curriculum. Published proceedings of a seminar held at the British Council, Nairobi, February.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1991. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
and Dr. OLOO ADAMS co-authored with Grignon, F. M(eds)H. "From FORD-Kenya to National Development Party: Political Mobilization in Luoland.". In: L’Afrique Orientale. PARIS: IFRA; 2000.
Ngugi M. "From Fetters to Freedom" in The Long Walk to Media Freedom . Nairobi : Media Council of Kenya; 2012.
Odhiambo T. "From Fairyland to Lived Life: Narrative Transitions in Children’s Fiction." Journal of African Children’s and Youth Literature. 2004;Vol. 15-16:88-95.
Oucho JO. "From Drain to Gain: Development Aspects of Africa‟s Brain Drain, Labour Migration and Remittances.". In: World Migration. Geneva: International Organisation for Migration; 2003.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "From circle of poison to circle of virtue: Pesticides, export standards and Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Economics. INTECH Publishers; 2010. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Osaaji M, Odari M, Muchiri J. "From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):1-16.
Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye C;, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

Gitonga ZM;, Okello JJ;, Mithoefer D;, Olaye, C; Ritho CN, Ritho CN. "From a success story to a tale of daily struggle: The case of leafminer control and compliance with food safety standards in Kenya’s snowpea/horticultural industry."; 2009. Abstract

Kenyan horticultural industry has often been cited as success story because of the way it has successfully responded to pest challenges and notably the international food safety standards. However, the industry faces a new challenge that emanates from invasion by quarantine leafminer which has recently become a pest of economic importance in Kenya. Controlling leafminer poses serious challenges due to its biology and quarantine status in Kenya’s’ main fresh produce market. This paper examines farmers’ awareness of the leafminer pest and challenges faced by farmers to control it. There is high leafminer awareness among farmers and that pesticides are not effective in controlling it. Majority of snow pea growers use chemical control coupled with pest scouting. However, the timing of chemical control is poor as it occurs when the pest in its larval stage is buried in plant tissue. Results further show that farmers whose production practices are monitored for compliance with GlobalGAP use fewer control strategies. The implication of this study is that leafminer is likely to become a serious challenge unless integrated leafminer management strategy is developed and farmers educated on methods of identifying it in its early stages.

CHEGE DRGITAOGEORGE, CHEGE DRGITAOGEORGE. "Frida W. Mugo, George Gitao 2002. "Regional workshop for agricultural markets and market information in Eastern and Southern Africa. Held at Lillian Towers, Safari Club Nairobi, Jan. 24-27". Under the auspices of Regional Land Management unit (RELMA)189 p.". In: AU/IBARApril 2-4. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2002. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Friction Coefficient of Cereal Grains on Various Surfaces. Journal of AMA. 21(4): 61-64.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Odada EO, Gash, J. H., Oyebande L, Schulze(eds)RE. Freshwater Resources in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Oucho JO. "Freshwater and Population Dynamics in Africa.". In: Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle Project. Germany; 2001.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "The Fresher, the Better: Life in the Lake Victoria Fishery, IDRC.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1987. Abstract
n/a
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "The Fresher, the Better : Life in the Lake Victoria Fishery", IDRC 1987 also the IDRC Reports Vol. 16 No. 4.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1987. Abstract
n/a
Mugambi JNK, Kebreab G. Fresh Water to Eradicate Poverty. Oslo: Norwegian Church Aid; 2006.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. "A Fresh Look at Evangelism in Africa.". In: The Study of Evangelism: Exploring a Missional Practice of the Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans; 2008.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology . 2020.
MW N, GO O, M M, W S. "Frequency of thyroid dysfunction among rheumatoid arthritis patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." afr j Rheumatal. 2022;10(1):34-44. Abstractfrequency_of_thyroid_dysfunction_among_ra_patients_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis
(RA) affects 0.5-1% of the adult
population. A higher prevalence of
thyroid dysfunction is observed in
patients with RA compared to the
general population.
Objectives: To establish the
frequency of thyroid dysfunction
among ambulatory RA patients and
to describe the association between
thyroid dysfunction and the patients’
socio-demographic characteristics,
clinical characteristics, level of disease
activity, and their functional status.
Design: This was a cross-sectional
descriptive study.
Methods: Adult patients on follow
up for RA at the outpatient clinic were
sampled. Sociodemographic data was
recorded. The Clinical Disease Activity
Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment
Questionnaire (HAQ) scores were
computed from examination findings
and questionnaires respectively. A
venous blood sample was analyzed for
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH),
free triidothyronine (fT3), and free
tetraiodothyronine (fT4). This data
was analyzed to determine frequencies
and associations.
Results: Seventy-six patients were
recruited into the study. Sixty-one
participants were female. The mean
TSH level was 5.8Miu/L. The frequency
of thyroid dysfunction was 47.4%.
Overt hypothyroidism was the most
common form of thyroid dysfunction at
39.5% while 6.6% had Sick Euthyroid.
Majority of the participants, 75%, had
low disease activity, mean CDAI was
11.6. Forty-one (53.9%) participants
had no disability, mean HAQ was
0.5. Correlations between thyroid
dysfunction and advancing age,
duration of disease, level of disease
activity, and functional disability did
not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Thyroid dysfunction
is common among patients with RA
with no significant association found
between thyroid dysfunction sociodemographic characteristics, clinical
characteristics, level of disease activity,
and functional status.
Key words: Thyroid dysfunction,
Rheumatoid arthritis, Disease activity,
Functional disability
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a
symmetric polyarthritis with a variety
of systemic manifestations. In the
general population thyroid dysfunction
affects 1-10% of adults, with variations
in geographical areas, age and sex1
.
The causes of thyroid dysfunction
include; iodine deficiency, infections
and autoimmune associated thyroid
disease2
. Thyroid dysfunction is more
prevalent in patients with autoimmune
diseases such as RA. This is attributed
to overlap of autoimmune conditions
that are initiated by loss of tolerance to
self-antigens3
.
The burden of thyroid dysfunction
among RA patients has been found
to vary between 6-47% in various
studies. The entire spectrum of thyroid
dysfunction has been described,
however, hypothyroidism occurs
more frequently. Patients with thyroid
dysfunction have higher RA disease
activity scores and poorer functional
status measured using the

Masakhwe C, Ochanda H, Nyakoe N, Ochiel D, Waitumbi J. "Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in Kenya." PloS one. 2016;11(5):e0155308. AbstractWebsite

Background

Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya.

Methodology/Principal Findings

A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya.

Conclusions/Significance

This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells.

Ombui, J., J.K. M, Nduhiu J.G. "Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from milk." E. Afr. Med. J. . 1995;72:228-230.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of E. coli strains isolated from milk.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
Susceptibility to eight commonly used antimicrobial agents and plasmid profile analysis was done on forty one Escherichia coli strains isolated from milk. Most (95%) of the strains were resistant to sulphamethoxazole with a relatively low rate of resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Twenty nine percent of the isolates showed multiple resistance. The number of plasmids carried per strain was between 1 and 5, while plasmid sizes ranged between 107 and 1.0 megadaltons (Mda). There was no relationship between carriage of plasmids and antimicrobial resistance patterns.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles of B. cereus strains isolated from milk.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
Plasmid profile analysis and susceptibility to eight commonly used antimicrobial agents was done on sixty Bacillus cereus(B. cereus) strains isolated from milk. About seventy two percent (71.7%) of the isolates contained plasmids. The number of plasmids per isolate ranged between 1 and 5, while plasmids sizes ranged between 60 and 1.0 megadaltons (Mda). All isolates were resistant to ampicillin with a relatively high rate of resistance to cotrimoxazole and sulphamethoxazole. The isolates showed a low frequency of resistance to the other antimicrobial agents, with all of them being susceptible to streptomycin. Approximately ninety one percent (90.7%) of the isolates showed multiple resistance. There was no apparent relationship between carriage of plasmids and drug resistance.
3. Ombui J.N., J.M M, Kimotho A.M., J.K. M, Nduhiu J.G. "Frequency of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiles in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from milk." Afr. Med. J.. 1996;73:380-384.
Idenya PM, Oburra HO. "Frequency of Adenotonsillectomy in some Nairobi Hospitals." East African Medical Journal. 2001;78(7):338-342. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors.
Design: Retrospective, descriptive study.
Setting: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals.
Results: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1 % of cases.
Conclusion: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.

M DRININDAJOSEPH. "The Frequency and persistence of droughts in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Scientific Conference if East, Central and Southern Africa Network of the International Biometric Society IBS-Kenya. International Biometric Society; 1997. Abstract
Western Kenya, which comprise the highlands west of the Rift Valley and the Lake Victoria basin, receive substantial amount of rainfall almost throughout the year. This region has therefore a high agricultural potential. The characteristics of rainfall in this part of the country are influenced by several factors, which range from meso-scale to global. One of the global teleconnection systems that influence the rainfall over this region is the Southern Oscillation (SO). The SO is an irregular, interannual and global scale see saw fluctuation in surface pressure between Indonesia and Southwest Pacific, and occurs at interval of 2 to 7 years. Both the rainfall and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) data were obtained from the Drought Monitoring Centre (DMC) in Kenya. The Data consisted of monthly rainfall from 24 stations distributed over the region and the monthly-normalized SOI. The period of study was between 1957 to 1993. The seasonal data was derived from the data. The monthly and seasonal rainfall and SOI were subjected to correlation analysis. The t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the computed correlation values. The spatial and temporal patterns of the correlation values were used to determine the nature of the relationship between the SO and rainfall over western Kenya during various months and seasons. Significant positive correlation values were observed during the months of July- September, while significant negative correlation values were observed during October-December. Low correlation values were however observed during January- May. The significant correlation values observed during July-September and October-December suggest that the SOI can be used as a predictor for the rainfall during these seasons
Bonet M, Brizuela V, Abalos E, Cuesta C, Baguiya A, Group TWHOGMSS(GLOSS) R. "Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries: Results of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS), a one-week inception cohort." Lancet Global Health. . 2020;8(5):661-671. AbstractWebsite

Background
Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.
Methods
We did a facility-based, prospective, 1-week inception cohort study in 713 health facilities providing obstetric, midwifery, or abortion care, or where women could be admitted because of complications of pregnancy, childbirth, post-partum, or post-abortion, in 52 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs). We obtained data from hospital records for all pregnant or recently pregnant women hospitalised with suspected or confirmed infection. We calculated ratios of infection and infection-related severe maternal outcomes (ie, death or near-miss) per 1000 livebirths and the proportion of intrahospital fatalities across country income groups, as well as the distribution of demographic, obstetric, clinical characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of a set of core practices for identification and management across infection severity groups.
Findings
Between Nov 28, 2017, and Dec 4, 2017, of 2965 women assessed for eligibility, 2850 pregnant or recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed infection were included. 70·4 (95% CI 67·7–73·1) hospitalised women per 1000 livebirths had a maternal infection, and 10·9 (9·8–12·0) women per 1000 livebirths presented with infection-related (underlying or contributing cause) severe maternal outcomes. Highest ratios were observed in LMICs and the lowest in HICs. The proportion of intrahospital fatalities was 6·8% among women with severe maternal outcomes, with the highest proportion in low-income countries. Infection-related maternal deaths represented more than half of the intrahospital deaths. Around two-thirds (63·9%, n=1821) of the women had a complete set of vital signs recorded, or received antimicrobials the day of suspicion or diagnosis of the infection (70·2%, n=1875), without marked differences across severity groups.
Interpretation
The frequency of maternal infections requiring management in health facilities is high. Our results suggest that contribution of direct (obstetric) and indirect (non-obstetric) infections to overall maternal deaths is greater than previously thought. Improvement of early identification is urgently needed, as well as prompt management of women with infections in health facilities by implementing effective evidence-based practices.

"Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries (GLOSS): a 1-week inception cohort study." Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(5):e661-e671. Abstract

Maternal infections are an important cause of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. We report the main findings of the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study, which aimed to assess the frequency of maternal infections in health facilities, according to maternal characteristics and outcomes, and coverage of core practices for early identification and management.

Chege BM, Waweru MP, Frederick B, Nyaga NM. "The freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hypoinsulinemic on type 2 diabetes rat model.". 2019;244:112077. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb is a plant species used in traditional medicine for the management of diabetes in the lower eastern part of Kenya (Kitui, Machakos and Makueni Counties, Kenya) that is mainly inhabited by the Kamba community.
Aim
This study investigated the antihyperglycaemic, antidyslipidemic and antihyperinsulinemic activity of the freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb (RME) in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced by dietary manipulation for 56 days via (high fat- high fructose diet) and intraperitoneal administration of streptozocin (30 mg/kg). Forty freshly-weaned Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the negative control (high fat/high fructose diet), low dose test (50mg/kg RME, high dose test (100mg/kg RME and positive control (Pioglitazone, 20mg/kg) groups. Fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured at weekly intervals. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 28 and 56. Lipid profile, hepatic triglycerides, fasting serum insulin levels and serum uric acid were determined on day 56.
Results
The RME possessed significant antihyperglycemic [FBG: 6.5 ± 0.11 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 4.62 ± 0.13 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 5.25 ± 0.15 mmol/l in (high dose test) vs. 4.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001] and antihyperinsulinemic effects [1.84 ± 0.19 (negative control) vs. (0.69 ± 0.13 (low dose test) vs. (0.83 ± 0.17 (high dose test) vs. (0.69 ± 0.10 (positive control): F (3, 36) = 0.6421: p < 0.0001. The extracts also possessed significant antidyslipidemic effects [LDL levels: 3.52 ± 0.19 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 0.33 ± 0.14 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 0.34 ± 0.20 mmol/l (high dose test) vs. 0.33 ± 0.01 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001].RME significantly lowered plasma uric acid levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weights. Network pharmacology analysis indicated that the observed pharmacological effects are mediated via the modulation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor.
Conclusions
The freeze dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides possessed significant antihyperglycemic and antidyslidemic effects. In addition it lowered serum uric levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weight. These results appear to validate the traditional use of this plant species in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Kinuthia DG, Muriithi AW, Mwangi PW. "Freeze dried extracts of Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. and Sheriff. show significant antidiarrheal activity in in-vivo models of diarrhea.". 2016;193:416-422. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevance of the studyDiarrhea remains one of the main killers of children aged below five years. Traditional antidiarrheal remedies form a potentially viable source of novel low cost efficacious treatments in low resource settings. There is therefore a pressing need to scientifically evaluate these remedies.
Aim of the study
This study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiarrheal activity of freeze dried Bidens biternata, a herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in the management of diarrhea.
Materials and methods
In the castor oil test, twenty (20) adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to a negative control (normal saline, n=5), a positive control (5mg/kg loperamide, n=5), and two test groups. The low dose test group received 200mg/kg Bidens biternata extract (n=5) while the high dose test group received 400mg/kg B. biternata extract (n=5). Castor oil (4ml/kg) was then administered to the animals one hour after administration of the respective treatments after which the total mass of fecal output excreted after four (4) hours was determined. In the charcoal meal test fifteen (15) Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to a control group (normal saline 5ml/kg orally, n=5), a positive control group (atropine sulfate 0.1mg/kg i.p., n=5) and a test group (400mg/kg B. biternata extract, n=5). Charcoal meal was then administered via oral gavage to each rat thirty (30) minutes after the administration of the various treatments. The distance covered by the charcoal meal from the pylorus was then determined after sacrifice of the animals thirty minutes after the meal. In the enteropooling test twenty (20) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to a control group (5% v/v ethanol in normal saline, n=5), a positive control group (5mg/kg loperamide, n=5) and a test group (400mg/kg B. biternata extract, n=5). For each group prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (100μg/kg) was administered immediately after the treatments. The animals were then sacrificed half an hour later and the volume of the small intestine contents determined. The effects of different concentrations of B. biternata extract (0.5. 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0mg/ml) on jejunal contraction were investigated and a dose-response curve constructed using the experimental data after which The ED50 dose was determined. The effect of tamsulosin (α1 adrenergic blocker), yohimbine (α2 adrenergic blocker), propranolol (β adrenergic blocker) and naloxone (μ opioid blocker) on the contractile activity of the extract were also investigated. The experimental data were expressed as mean±standard error of mean (SEM) and then analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test in cases of significance (set at p<0.05).
Results
The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had significant antidiarrheal effects in the castor oil induced diarrhea model (p<0.01) with the highest activity being observed at the 400mg/kg dosage level (1.66±0.81g vs. 4.54±0.51g control, p=0.01). B. biternata extract had significant effects on intestinal motility in the charcoal meal test compared to the control group (43.61±4.42% vs. 60.54±3.33%: p<0.05). B. biternata extract had a significant effect on PGE2 induced enteropooling (3.06±0.07ml vs. 4.74±0.10ml; p<0.001). The freeze dried extracts of B. biternata had a significant negative effect on the contractility of the isolated rabbit jejunum (p<0.001). The effects of the extract were significantly attenuated by tamsulosin (53.94±4.20% vs. 80.57±4.09%; p<0.01) and naloxone (53.94±4.20% vs. 73.89±7.26%; p<0.05). Yohimbine (p>0.05) and propranolol (p>0.05) however did not have any significant effect on the contractile activity of the extract.
Conclusions
The freeze dried extract of B. biternata possess significant antidiarrheal activity in both in vitro and in vivo models which appears to be mediated by modulating both the intestinal motility as well as the secretory activity. The results of this study also validate its traditional use as an antidiarrheal remedy.

AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Freeman, H. A.; D. D. Rohrbach and C. Ackello-Ogutu .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop, 1-3 July 2002, ICRISAT Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
and Wasserman JMMH. "The freedom to be silent? Market pressures on journalistic normative ideals at the Nation Media Group in Kenya, ." Review of African Political Economy. 2014;(10.1080/03056244.2014.928277 ):1-13.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Freedom of the Press and the Anti-Monopoly Law: Problems of Striking a Proper Balance. 10(1).". In: Journal of Media Law and Practice, London, 11-23.; 2011. Abstract
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Menghistu HT, Thaiya AG, Bajitie M, Bundi J, Gugssa G, Bsrat A, Kirui G, Kitaa JMA, Tsegaye Y, Teferi T. "Free Roaming Dogs and the Communities’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Rabies Incidence/Human Exposures: Cases of Selected Settings in Ethiopia and Kenya." The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development (EJHD). 2017;31. Abstract
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f c Francis M. Awahe, Peter N. Uzoegwua PIJOJRO, XiaoJian Yaob, Frauke Fehrmannb KFMERO. "Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants." Food chemistry. 2012;131(4):1279-1286.
and 1. Francis M. Awah, Peter N. Uzoegwu JOJRPIX-JYKFMOR. "Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract. Food Chemistry, Volume 119, Issue 4, 15 April 2010, Pages 1409-1416." Food Chemistry. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Plant extracts with antioxidant activity could also have immunomodulatory ability. The free radical scavenging activity of an ethanol extract of the leaves of Stachytarpheta angustifolia was assessed by measuring its capability for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH), nitric oxide radicals (NO), as well as its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, using appropriate assay systems. The extract was also assessed for its ability to decrease the phenotypic expression of the immune activation markers CD38 and CD69. This extract showed a potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EC50 = 9.65 μg/ml), significantly inhibited OH radical (IC50 = 99.43 μg/ml), O2- anion radical (IC50 = 64.68 μg/ml), non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 282.91 μg/ml) and accumulation of nitrite in vitro. Ex vivo the extract inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced production of superoxide anion (O2-), and also exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of the immune activation marker CD38 and CD69 on phytohemagglutinin A (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The observed antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory potentials of the extract suggest that it could impart health benefits when consumed. However, further investigation to verify its effect in vivo is warranted.

Francis M. Awah, Peter N. Uzoegwu JOJRPIO, Xiao-Jian Yao, Keith R. Fowke MEO. "Free radical scavenging activity and immunomodulatory effect of Stachytarpheta angustifolia leaf extract." Food Chemistry. 2010;119(4):1409-1416.
Nangole WF, Khainga S, Aswani J, Kahoro L, Vilembwa A. "Free Flaps in a Resource Constrained Environment: A Five-Year Experience-Outcomes and Lessons Learned." Plast Surg Int. 2015;2015:194174. Abstract

Introduction. Free flap surgery is a routine procedure in many developed countries with good surgical outcomes. In many developing countries, however, these services are not available. In this paper, we audit free flaps done in a resource constrained hospital in Kenya. Objective. This is a five-year audit of free flaps done in a tertiary hospital in Kenya, between 2009 and 2014. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of patients operated on with free flaps between 2009 and 2014. Results. A total of one hundred and thirty-two free flaps in one hundred and twenty patients were performed during the five-year duration. The age range was eight to seventy-two years with a mean of 47.2. All the flaps were done under loupe magnification. The overall flap success rate was eighty-nine percent. Conclusion. Despite the many limitations, free flaps in our setup were successful in the majority of patients operated on. Flap salvage was noted to be low due to infrequent flap monitoring as well as unavailability of theatre space. One therefore has to be meticulous during surgery to reduce any possibilities of reexploration.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "The Free Enterprise System and The Anti-Monopoly Law, Nairobi Law Monthly 29, 31.". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1989. Abstract
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