Publications

Found 3606 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Asc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is C  [Clear All Filters]
A B [C] D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
omari HK, Kayeli E. "Comprehensive sex education in Kenya: Islamic perspective.". In: THE 2ND ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MACHAKOS UNIVERSITY, KENYA. machakos university; 2019.
(
co-authored with(ed) DOLOOADAMRA. "Civil Society and the Consolidation of the Democratic Space in Kenya.". In: Two Countries One Dream. The Challenges of Democratic Consolidation in Kenya and South Africa. SOUTH AFRICA: KMM Review Publishing Company; 2009.
with and in(ed.) DOLOOADAMSOAJODO. "Civil Society in the New Dispensation: Prospects and Challenges.". In: Civil Society in the Third Republic. NAIROBI: National Council of NGOs; 2004.
.
., Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Mdegela RH, Murugami JW, Maina KW. "Comparative management practices and parasitic infestations of farmed tilapia in Kiambu and Kirinyaga counties, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences,. 2018;5(3):156-161.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Calorific Content of Water Hyacinth. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Controlling the Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-9 October, Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1998. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "A Computer Program for Predicting the Storage Environment of Crops. Proceedings of Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineering Annual Conference of 2001.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Considering Material Behaviour in Silo Design. Kenya Engineer, March/April, 1988.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Creep and Stress Relaxation Behaviour of Naturally Dried Blue-Gum Timber. Agricultural Engineering in South Africa. 32(1)135 - 142.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Co-editor with Dr. Vogel of a book entitled "Health and Disease in Kenya" - published by the East African Literature Bureau, 1974.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1974. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Contribution of a 33 page article on the Human Aspects of the Geography of East Africa included in the book entitled "UNESCO Source Book on the Teaching of African Geography", 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
1
1. Choi RY, Fowke KR JL-POJOBERBJ-SFJBR. "C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1. Disease Progression Among Postpartum Women in Kenya. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep 27." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011. Abstractsingle_nucleotide_polymorphism_and_hiv_type_1._disease_progression_among_postpartum_women_in_kenya.pdf

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

1. Oyugi JO, Vouriot FC AWLLAMAYSRPELJSJNBTBJJSM. "A Common CD4 Gene Variant Is Associated with an Increased Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Kenyan Female Commercial Sex Workers. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199 (9):1327-1334." J Infect Dis. 2009. Abstracta_common_cd4_gene_variant_is_associated_with_an_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_infection_in_kenyan_female_commercial_sex_workers._j.pdf

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
It has been predicted that CD4 C868T, a novel CD4 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that has been found to be highly prevalent among Africans, changes the tertiary structure of CD4, which may alter susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
METHODS:
Participants were from a Kenyan cohort and included 87 uninfected and 277 HIV-1-infected individuals. DNA sequencing was used to determine CD4 genotype. A2.01 cells expressing similar levels of either wild-type CD4 or CD4-Trp240 as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected donors were infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or a Kenyan primary HIV-1 isolate. HIV-1 p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the outcome of infection.
RESULTS:
CD4 C868T was found to be significantly more prevalent among HIV-1-infected participants than among HIV-1-uninfected participants (P = .002), and C868T was associated with an increased incidence of HIV-1 infection as well (P = .005, log-rank test; P = .009, Wilcoxon test), with an odds ratio of 2.49 (P = .009). Both in vitro and ex vivo models demonstrated a significant association between CD4 C868T and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Overall, the present study found a strong correlation between CD4 C868T and increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Given the high prevalence of both HIV infection and CD4 C868T in African populations, the effect of this SNP on the epidemic in Africa could be dramatic

12. Ojwang J.D., R O.Nyankanga, J. Imungi, and M. Olanya, Ukuku D. "Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya." Food Security . 2016;8:757–767. DOI 10.1007/s12571-016-0592-8(8):757-767.. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya.pdf
16. Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T FKRKKNBAONBMDJPHT. "Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi." J Clin Invest. 1998. Abstract

Abstract
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women.

2
2. Kimani S, Moterroso V MWKBMT-KPJSF. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part II. Cross species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium . NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
2. Kyalo DN, Matula DP. Conflict management in Educational Institutions in Kenya: The Art of Avoiding Destructive Conflict Management Strategies in Secondary Schools.. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-337822; 2011.
2. Oyugi J., Bwayo J PNKEFASJ. "Changes in percentages of CD4 in HIV seropositive and seronegative children during a 2-year follow- up.". In: 9th International conference on AIDS, 4th STD World congress. Berlin; 1993.
3
;
A
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Hans R Tinnerberg. Early Pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsiella pneumonia infection: A mini Review of possible Occupational Health Risk.". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 273 (5): 258 .; 2006. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. The etiology in the vast majority of the cases is unknown or at best poorly understood. Although Klebsiella pneumonia infections have been reported in humans and animals during pregnancy, there is hardly any information to indicate whether or not these infections may be responsible for early pregnancy loss. We present a review of literature and report for the first time in humans, Klebsiella pneumonia infection in placenta of a 38-year-old secondary recurrent aborter (parity 2 + 3).

A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "Control Of Energy In Offices In Nairobi: A Study Of Fenestration In A Tropical Highland Climate.". In: Architecture, Energy And Environment: Tools For Climatic Design, 1998. Lund Centre for Habitat Studies. Lund University; 1998. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Timothy K. Roberts, Hans R Tinneberg. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG): Modes of action in the management of Recurrent Pregnacy loss and selected Autoimmune disorders.". In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 42 (4): 359 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
n/a
A MRMAKACHIAPETER. "A Cost Modeling Design Strategy For Dweller-Initiated Transformation In Urban Housing.". In: 3rd International Conference On Construction Industry Development Post-Graduate Conference (CIDB) 2005. Lund Centre for Habitat Studies. Lund University; 2005. Abstract
Heavily glazed office buildings in the Kenyan Capital City Nairobi, common in recent times does not augur well for a micro and macro architectural environment. This has a consequent negative impact on energy use in office spaces. By use of computer simulations, traditional tools and literature review glazing use in office fenestration is analysed and its implications for architectural design investigated. The results indicate a direct relationship between the variable parameters of glazing type and size, glazed opening orientation, shading devices and control of energy loads within the office spaces and the objective of human comfort in the office spaces. In conclusion it is recommended that optimum levels of glazing size and type as well as suitable glazing orientations for architectural use in office buildings in Nairobi.
A K, Folayan MO, Sabbah W, El Tantawi M, Ramos-Gomez F. "Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries.". In: Country Profile of the Epidemiology and Clinical Management of Early Childhood Caries. Lausanne: Frontiers Media SA.; 2020.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. OMWANDHO(1)and Takayuki KUBOTA(2) 1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi (P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) 2.Department of Drug Formulation Development, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research.". In: Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ Vol. 44 No. 1, 2020).; 2010. Abstract

Salmonellosis is assocciated with massive public health and economic losses globally. It is estimated to cost poultry farmers in the United States of America up to US$114 million annually. Attempts to develop effective vaccines and eradicate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) from hen hopuses are undermined by serios limitations. This article reviews documnet contamination routes and limitations on the rapid development of vaccines. Host-parasite interactions and clinical pathology are discussed and methods for reducing S. Enteritidis infection and transmission suggested.

A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030”: .". In: the Kenya Public Service Week . Kenyatta International Conference Center (KICC) ; 2009.
A O, EC R, chindia ML, FG M, M N, Fred W. "Craniofacial anomalies amongst births at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012;41:596-603. Abstractcraniofacial_anomalies_amongst_births_at_two_hospitals_in_nairobi_kenya.pdf

The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively).

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN A MULTI-HEAD MAGIC BULLET?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
n/a
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho1 , Lutz Konrad 2, Gulden Halis3,4, Frank Oehmke 2 and Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg 2 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi,Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Gynecology ond Obstetrics, klinskstr. 32, 35392 Giessen, Germany 3Fertili.". In: http://biochem.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool/biochem/Role%20of%20FGF-Bs%20in%20normal%20human%20endometrium%20and%20endometriosis1.doc.; 2009. Abstract
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Characteristics of the ITCZ over equatorial Eastern Africa based on station rainfall records.". In: J. Afric. Meteorol. Soc.,3, 61-101. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
Kindly check later
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Characteristics of Real Property," paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Carcinoma of the Esophagus - II. An experience in Kenya.". In: The Nairobi Journal of medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. and J.K.A. Keter. 1997. Effects of N fertilization, bean spatial arrangements and residue on maize performance in a semi-arid area of Kenya. African Crop Sci. Soc. J. Vol. 3, pp. 499-508.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. MRJALEHAALEXC. "Currently developing a manual for distance learning undergraduate students, " Principles of Management.". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 1993. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
A. K, Folayan. MO. "A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries.". In: A compendium on Oral health of children around the world – Early childhood caries. New York: Nova Biomedical Publishers; 2018.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Congenital Heart Disease - MEDICOM.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine 2. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1980. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The Climatology of Duststorm Events in northern Kenya.". In: Jour. African Meteor. Soc., VOL. 5.No. 2, 11-19. Kenya Met Soc; 2002. Abstract
Kindly check later
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Chunge R, WAMOLA I.A, Kinoti J, Mutunga LN etc. Mixed infections in childhood diarrhoea: Results of a community study in Kiambu district, Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
One thousand four hundred and twenty diarrhoea specimens from 846 children aged 0 to 60 months were collected and analysed for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus over a 16 month period, from June 1985 to September 1986 inclusive. The study was conducted in 4 villages situated in Kiambu District, Kenya. All the specimens were analysed for rotavirus and parasites, including Cryptosporidium. The majority of the specimens were analysed for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Aeromonas. Only 387 specimens were analysed for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). However, of this proportion analysed for ETEC, 33% were positive. A total of 344 specimens were negative for any organisms while a further 140 were only positive for parasites which have been implicated as being pathogenic, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis and Blastocysts hominis were considered to be at least potentially pathogenic and capable of causing diarrhoea. An average of only 29.4% of these organisms occurred as single isolates. The remaining infections were mixed, with a maximum of 7 potentially pathogenic organisms occurring together in a single specimen. The associations of certain organisms were significant, notably Campylobacter with Giardia lamblia. Campylobacter with EPEC, EPEC with Ascaris, and G. lamblia with rotavirus. The latter was a negative association.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. , and J.K.A. Keter. 2000. Changes in soil chemical properties due to nitrogen fertilizer application and maize-bean cropping systems in a semi-arid region of Eastern Kenya. Intl. J. Biochem Physics, Vol. 10 & 11, 6-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cunnington AJ, Kendrick SF, Wamola B, Lowe B, Newton CR.Carboxyhemoglobin levels in Kenyan children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;71(1):43-7.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Jul;71(1):43-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Heme oxygenase (HO) is thought to be induced in severe malaria, but the pathophysiologic consequences have not been examined. It is induced by hemolysis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It degrades heme, producing carbon monoxide (CO), which causes elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In a prospective study of 1,520 children admitted to a Kenyan district hospital, COHb levels were no higher in children with malaria than with other infections. The COHb levels in children with severe malarial anemia were higher than in other children with malaria, but significantly lower than in children with other causes of severe anemia such as sickle cell disease. Levels of COHb were not significantly higher in children with cerebral malaria or in those dying of malaria. These results do not support a systemic increase in HO activity in malaria compared with other infectious diseases, but the roles of HO and CO in malaria require further study.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Curriculum Issues - Bachelor of Pharmacy Syllabus Review &. Development.".". In: Workshop on Bachelor of Pharmacy Syllabus Review and Development; at Machakos Garden Hotel on llth April 1997. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Curriculum Issues - Bachelor of Pharmacy Syllabus Review &. Development.".". In: Workshop on Bachelor of Pharmacy Syllabus Review and Development; at Machakos Garden Hotel on llth April 1997. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract

 

 

A. HASHIM. "Coping with Conflicts: Colonial Policy towards Muslim Personal Law in Kenya and Post-independent Court Practice.". In: Muslim Family Law in Colonial and Postcolonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Publishers; 2009.coping_with_conflicts.pdf
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The characteristics of cold air outbreaks over the Eastern Highlands of Kenya.". In: Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 73, 177-187. Kenya Met Soc; 2000. Abstract
Kindly check later
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. and J.K.A. Keter 2001. Effects of Nitrogen fertilizer and bean residue on yield of beans in different cropping systems. East Afr. Agr. For J. Vol. 67, No. 1, 37- 46.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cameron W, Clementson D, D.". In: J. Inf. Diseases. 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Community Approach".". In: The Women's Workshop in Gambia. March 1984. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Community Approach".". In: The Women's Workshop in Gambia. March 1984. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Company Secretary: Reflections on a Dying Profession in Kenya(JICGK0.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2000. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. HASHIM. Crown and Crescent: Competing Policies on the Administration of Islamic Law in the East African Coast. University of Johannesburg, South Africa: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) Istanbul; 2009.crown_and_cresecent.pdf
A.B. R. "The Concept of Biodiversity in the IUCN-CES/NES Biodiversity Module for Primary Teacher Training College Tutor." The Concept of Biodiversity in the IUCN-CES/NES Biodiversity Module for Primary Teacher Training College Tutor. 1995.
AA S, D V, E M. "A Controller for a Wind Driven Micro-Power Electric Generator.". In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology. Entebbe, Uganda; 2006.
Abate, Gugsa; Kogi-Makau, Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Muroki NM, Muroki NM. "Child-feeding practices as predictors of nutritional status of children in a slum area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia."; 1999. Abstract

In a across-sectional study carried out in four purposefully selected slum kebeles of Addis Ababa, the nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 - 36 months was measured and subsequently classified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Child-feeding practices of randomly selected mothers of the two groups of children were compared with the view of identifying practices that contribute to child-nutrition insecurity in the study area. The result indicated that the majority of the mothers (i.e. 99.5% in the malnourished and 98.4% in well nourished groups) had initiated breast-feeding, and no significant difference was found either in the median or mean duration of breast-feeding between the two groups of mothers. After adjustment has been made (through logistic regression) for covariates, the study established that exclusive breast-feeding beyond four months, feeding low quality diet with a frequency of less than four times and giving porridge with feeding bottle as well as low household income are the risk factors contributing to young children’s nutrition-insecurity in the slum section of Addis Ababa. Hence, demonstrative and sustained education focusing on appropriate child-feeding is recommended together with initiation of income generating projects with a view of empowerment of those families whose monthly income is low. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1999;13(3):229-2 Introduction About 79% of the population of Addis Ababa lives in low-grade, congested slum areas (1). Studies which address nutritional problems have found that malnutrition continues to be a serious health problem in the slums (2-5). One study in Nairobi slum (6), where 86.2% of the preschoolers were reported to have been stunted, provides a good basis for understanding that slum children are most vulnerable to malnutrition. Hofvander and Eksmyer (7), who found about 3% prevalence of severe PEM, reported that PEM is the main nutritional problem for young children in the slum of Addis Ababa. It is a well established fact that malnutrition manifests itself as a function of many and complex factors (8-10). It is directly linked to poor dietary intake and diseases, which in turn result from an interaction of various underlying factors which include crisis in household food security, inappropriate child care and feeding practices, unhealthy place of residence, and insufficient basic health services (8-11). An unfavourable health environment caused by inadequate water and sanitation can increase the probability of infectious diseases and indirectly form certain types of malnutrition (8-11). Further, poor socio-economic variables, cultural beliefs, and lack of parental education, especially that of mothers, are all cited to affect a person's nutritional status (8-13). Thus, nutrition planning and advice to a community needs to be grounded on good information and knowledge of which individual variables

Abdalla F, Mwanda OW, Rana F. "Comparing walk-in and call-responsive donors in a national and a private hospital in Nairobi.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Background: The non-remunerated donors in many of Kenya's hospital blood banks are either call responsive (CR) or walk-in (Wl) donors. These donors impact differently
on the national blood transfusion services.
Objective: To examine the walk-in (Wl) and call responsive (CR) donors' influence on the national blood transfusion services.
Design: A retrospective study.
Setting: A national referral and a private hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
Main outcome measures: Donor's age, sex, whether walk in or responded to a call to donate for a relative or emergency blood requirement and test results of; HIV, HBsAg, syphilis and HCV.
Results: Between April 1999 and April 2000, 10,295 persons donated blood either
responding to a call or walked in. The national referral hospital had 8,563 (83%) and private hospital 1,732 (17%). In total, 2.5% were Wl and 97.5% CR. The lowest age of donors were CR 15, and Wl 18 years. Of 1,138 (11.1%) rejected were 4.6% Wl and 11.2% CR donors. The infections 5.8% HIV, 4% HBSAg, 1.2% VDRL and 0.2% HCV were statistically significant in Wl compared to CR (p=0.002), also in female compared to male donors (p=0.001).
Conclusion: This study shows that walk in donors were fewer than call responsive but had less rates of transfusion associated infections.

ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Changes and Improvement in Water Management Practices in the Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, Rural and Environmental Engineering Journal.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
Abinya NAO, Weinreb M, Day PJR, Niggli F, Green EK, Nyong'o A a, Riyal MS, Raafat F, Mann JR. "The Consistent Association Between Epstein-Barr Vir us and Hodgkin's Disease in Children in Kenya.". 1996. Abstractthe_consistent_association_between_epstein-barr_virus_and_hodgkins.pdfWebsite

Recent studies have suggested that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease (HD). In a previous study, we used a latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-specific antibodies to examine archival material from 74 British children with HD and found 50% of cases to be positive. It is known that there are geographic and ethnic variations in the incidence of HD. We have investigated LMP1 status in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lymph nodes with HD involvement from 53 children and 48 adults from Kenya using immunohistochemical staining. We also developed sensitive and specific in vitro gene amplification protocols for examining the EBV strain type in such material using several combinations of primers derived from the EBNA 2 and EBNA 3 coding regions. LMP1 positivity was present in 100% of the pediatric cases (two lymphocyte-predominant, 25 nodular sclerosis, 16 mixed cellularity, 5 lymphocyte depletion, and 5 unclassified) and in 66% of the adult cases (two of three lymphocyte-predominant, 26 of 39 nodular, sclerosis, two of two mixed cellularity, and two of four lymphocyte depletion). Tests to type the EBV strain were undertaken in 25 EBV-positive pediatric cases. A combination of type-specific polymerase chain reactions for EBNA 2 and EBNA 3C genes indicated that seven patients had type 1, eight had type 2, and 10 had dual infections with both types. Five cases with dual infections were further investigated using a sensitive in situ hybridization for the EBV-encoded, small nuclear nonpolyadenylated RNAs (EBERs). EBER transcripts were detected in Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells and in occasional infiltrating lymphocytes. These observations indicate that in Kenya EBV is consistently associated with pediatric cases of HD, and that biopsies from a number of such cases appear to carry both type 1 and type 2 viral sequences.

ABINYA NO, D.A.SPINA, LLEONCINII, MEGHA T, A NYONG'0, GALLORINII M. "CELLULAR KINETIC AND PHENOTYPIC HETEROGENEITY IN AND AMONG BURKITT'S AND BURKITT-LIKE LYMPHOMAS.". 1997.
Abong GO;, Okoth MW;, Imungi JK;, Kabira JN. "Consumption pattern and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi city, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

Objective: To determine the consumption pattern and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi City, Kenya. Methodology and results: Potato crisps consumption pattern was studied using studied structured questionnaires to collect data from 215 crisps consumers. A total of 80 shops were surveyed to establish the brands and characteristics of potato crisps sold within Nairobi City. The available brands were then sampled and evaluated at the University of Nairobi. Of the sampled 215 consumers were males while 67.4 % were females. A majority, 73.9 % consumed potato crisps on average once a week. A part from gender, the frequency of purchasing crisps was also influenced by factors such as occasions, seasons and availability of money. Most consumers (22.3 %) preferred Tropical heat brand, 10.82 % preferred Krackles while the least (0.57 %) preferred Pringles, Delice and Highlands crisps. The most preferred flavor was onion and slightly salted crisps. The most purchased packaging units (51.7 %) ranged from 30-50 g due to affordability, retailing at Kshs. 30-40 (about 0.5 USD) compared to units of 150 g and above that were least purchased (1.7 %) due to their high costs, retailing at Kshs. 100 (about 1.5 USD) and above. A total of 28 % of the consumers bought crisps for self-consumption while 72 % purchased both for self and family members. All the outlets surveyed (100 %) sold potato crisps. Only 15 % of the outlets stocked potato crisps and other potato products such as chevda and potato sticks. A total of 24 brands of crisps were sold in Nairobi city. The most stocked brands in the outlets were Tropical heat and Krackles that were available in 46 and 45 % of the outlets surveyed, respectively. All the shops surveyed stocked brands of crisps made in Kenya while only 15.3 % of the outlets also had imported brands. The units of packaging ranged from less than 10 g to 1 kg. The most popular unit packages (40 %) varied from 10 to 100 g as they were cheap and affordable to most customers selling between Kshs. 10 to Kshs. 60. The study indicates that potato crisps are highly consumed by young children and youths in their teen ages while parents were moderate buyers of the products. Laboratory characteristics of the brands evaluated included colour, size, thickness, moisture, salt and oil contents that significantly (PB0.05) differed among the brands. The oil content ranged from 24.37 to 40.22 % while the moisture and salt contents varied from 1.09 to 5.45 %, and 1.10 to 2.96 %, respectively. Conclusions and application of results: Consumption of crisps in Nairobi city depends on gender, occasions, and seasons of the year and availability of disposable income. Except in the sizes, most brands had characteristics that conformed to the standards set for crisps. This study provides a view of the current scenario in the crisp market and is useful information to consumers, processors and policy makers in the potato sub sector.

ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943. AbstractWebsite

There has been an increase in the number of potato crisps processors in Kenya in the last few decades. However, the characteristics of these firms are not clearly known. This study was designed to characterize the potato crisps processing industry in Kenya in terms of varieties used, pre-processing handling practices and constraints encountered. The potato crisps industry was surveyed between December 2009 and February 2010 using a structured questionnaire. Using labels of a total of 24 brands of potato crisps found selling in 80 supermarkets and kiosks in Nairobi, the processors were identified, contacted, visited and interviewed. Together 23 processors were identified and these had processing plants in Nairobi and Nakuru. The information collected included size of firm, range of products, constraints in processing crisps, marketing of the product and the variety of potatoes processed. The number of employees in the processing industries ranged from 2 to 250; 61 % of the processing firms had 5 or less employees, 22 % had 6-10 employees and only 4 % had 100 or more employees. In addition to potato crisps, 60 % of the firms also processed peanuts, 30 % processed chevda and potato sticks, 26 % processed pop-corns, 13 % processed banana crisps, 9 % processed cassava crisps and 4 % also processed arrow root crisps, spices, peas and herbs. About 4 % identified the main constraints as lack of proper equipment and market, 64 % complained of lack of potatoes and their poor quality while 43 % indicated lack of finances to increase volume of production. As pertains to produce sales, 83 % of the processors sell their products directly to supermarkets, 4 % through wholesalers and 13 % directly to individuals and shops. Dutch Robyjn was the potato cultivar of choice for many processors and other cultivars were used in processing during periods of scarcity of   cv. Dutch Robyjn. A large number of processors (70 %) stored their raw potatoes for relatively short periods of time ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. A few (30 %) processing firms, stored potatoes for a month or longer. The potato crisps processing industry in Kenya is largely dominated by small scale processors who process crisps only as one of a diversity of other products. The industry is faced with several constraints including raw potato price fluctuations, scarcity and poor quality of potatoes, lack of facilities, skills and information on raw potato storage. The industry relies heavily on one variety that is not always available for all the processors. This information is important for potato breeders and postharvest technologists to avail sufficient suitable potato cultivars for crisping

Abong' GO, Kabira JN. "The current status of the potato value chain in Kenya.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Consumption patterns, diversity and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;32:1942-1955.2010_-_crisps_and_consuption_kenya.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of Agricultural Sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi: FaCT Publishing, Kenya.; 2010.2010_-_potato_traders_e-book_publication.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Consumption pattern and characteristics of potato crisps in Nairobi city, Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;32:1942-1955.abstract_for_survey_1_pdf.pdf
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN. The current status of potato value chain in Kenya. Hotel intercontinental, Nairobi: TUD press; 2013.potato_value_chain_abstract_for_staple_food_conf_april_2013.docx
Abubakar LU, Mutie AM, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. "Characterization of algae oil (oilgae) and its potential as biofuel in Kenya." Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation . 2012;1 (4):147-153.abstract-apes.pdf
Abungu NO, Munda JL, Akumu AO. "A Case for the Revision of Power Engineering Syllabi at Kenyan Universities.". In: The IASTED( International Association of Science and Technology for Development ) International Conference, ENERGY AND POWER SYSTEMS. International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a summary of the current status of Electrical Power Engineering Education at Kenyan universities, followed by a summary of the situation on the same at universities world-wide. Against a backdrop of expected changes in the Kenyan power industry, the paper discusses the industry expectations of a power systems graduate currently and in the future, making a case for the revision of the current power engineering syllabi, concluding with recommendations and strategies for making the required changes.

Acevedo JL, Shah RK, Neville HL, Poole MD. "Cystic hygroma." Medscape Reference [actualizado 22 Jul 2011]. Disponível em: http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/994055-overview. 2009. Abstract
n/a
Achilla. R, Bulimo. W, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. Characterization of Adenoviruses Circulating in Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
ADAMS DOLOO. "Commentary on article by Ludeki Chweya “The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate".". In: in Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa. NAIROBI: Spring; 2004.
ADAMS MROLOO. ""Comment on article by Ludeki Chweya "The State and Rural Development: Transcending the Centralization-Decentralization Debate,.". In: Regional Development Dialogue: Local Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Africa, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 2004.; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Addae-Mensah, Muriuki G, Thoithi GN, Karanja C, Wandera C, Waibel R, Achenbach H. "Constituents of the stem bark and twigs of Croton macrostachy(u)s." Fitoterapia. 1992;LXIII:81-82.
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5 …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADUDA JO. "Corporate Governance Practices, and the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance among Broadcasting Stations in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Business and Management. Nairobi: AJBUMA publishing; 2012.
Aduda JA. "A Comparison of the Classical Black-Scholes Model and the GARCH Option Pricing Model for Currency Options." ICASTOR Journal of Mathematical Sciences. 2011;5(2):267-284. Abstract

This paper looks at the consequences of introducing heteroscedasticity in option pricing. The analysis shows that introducing heteroscedasticity results in a better fitting of the empirical distribution of foreign exchange rates than in the Brownian model. In the Black-Scholes world the assumption is that the variance is constant, which is definitely not the case when looking at financial time series data. In this study, we therefore price a European call option under a GARCH Model Framework using the Locally Risk Neutral Valuation Relationship. Option prices for different spot prices are calculated using simulations. We use the non-linear in mean GARCH model in analyzing the Kenyan foreign exchange market.

Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Ahuya CO;, Okeyo, A.M; Hendy. C, Hendy. C. "Community-based Livestock Improvement: A Case Study Of The Farm-africa."; 2001.
AJ W, SO ML. "Cost consideration in renal replacement therapy in Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1995;72(1):69-71. Abstract

End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.

Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
Akama MK. Current pattern of road traffic accidents, maxillofacial and associated injuries in Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract

Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries sustained in Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs).
Study Area: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study including all patients involved in RTAs
brought to casualty and dental departments of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the
KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004.
Results: A total of 482 people involved in RTAs were included in the study. Four hundred and
thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries.
Nonfatal injuries. The 21-30-year-old age group was the most affected. The male to female ratio
was 4:1. Day time injuries were recorded among 60.3% of the participants. The incidence of
RTAs was highest on Fridays. There were 245 (59.5%) pedestrians and 139 (33.7%) passengers
involved. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatu) which were
responsible for 256 (62%) casualties whereas private saloon cars were involved in 150 (36.3%)
cases. Non- use of safety belts was reported in 90 (56.6%) cases whereas over-speeding was
reported by 120 (29.1 %) casualties. Alcohol use by drivers was reported in 26 (6.3%) cases
whereas vehicle defects accounted for 62 (15%) cases.Three hundred and seventy (89.6%)
casualties had soft tissue injuries (STls) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the
majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1 %) incidents of other STls than those of
the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the
casualties had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those
involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. The lower limbs were
more affected with 61 (43%) incidents followed by the upper limbs (24.6%). Pedestrians were
IX
most involved in sustaining skeletal injuries than other categories of road users.
Fatal RTAs: Sixty nine (14.3%) of the 482 participants were fatally injured. The 21-30- year-old
age group was the most affected (20%). The male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Matatus and minibuses
were the leading cause of fatal accidents together having been responsible for 28 (40.6%) of
the accidents. Pedestrians (71.4%) were by far more involved than other categories of road users.
Most participants had multiple injuries with chest injuries having been the most common (50
cases). Fourty six (66.7%) victims had injuries to the head region with subdural haemorrhage
having been the commonest injury found at autopsy (47.8%). Injuries to the chest were found in
fifty (72.2%) victims whereas abdominal and limb injuries were recorded in 42 (60.9%) and 34
(49.3%) victims respectively. Head injury alone was the leading cause of death (37.7%) followed
by head and chest injuries combined (13.0%)
Conclusion: The majority of people involved in RTAs were in their third decade of life with
males having been the predominant group affected. Pedestrians were the leading casualties
amongst road users. Most of the accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles. The lower
limbs sustained most soft tissue and skeletal injuries compared to other anatomic sites other than
the craniofacial area. The leading cause of death was head injury.

Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
Akaranga SI, Moywaywa CK. "The Contemporary challenge of Hindu-Christian relations in Kenya." Journal of Philosophy, Culture and Religion . 2016;16(1):26-33.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Community Neem Seed Hank Establishment and Processing Neem Products. Annex XV, pp 96.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1980.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Community Based Fisher Management on the Kenyan Sector of Lake Victoria" in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex III pp 54.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Catchment Conservation and Rehabilitation Programme, in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex XXL pp 90.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Chabari, F.N., A. C. Ackello-Ogutu and M.O. Odhiambo (1988). Factors Determining Market Prices of Small Ruminants from a Pastoral Production System in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol 52, No.4.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
Akhusama PM, Moturi CA. "Cloud Computing Adoption in Insurance Companies in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems,. 2016;4(1):11-16. AbstractWebsite

Cloud Computing allows companies to access ICT-based services (infrastructure, applications, platforms and business processes) via the Internet. Cloud Computing is still at the infancy stage in Africa. Studies have indicated a lack of cloud based awareness, even among big organizations in Africa. Kenya just like any other African market is yet to fully adopt cloud based systems due to trust and security concerns. This study aimed at identifying the extent and characteristics of Cloud Computing adoption in insurance companies in Kenya. The study assessed Cloud Computing uses in terms of productivity applications, business applications (CRM, SaaS), infrastructure on-demand (storage, network, and server), finance applications, core business application, databases and desktop. The adoption of the Cloud Computing services in insurance companies was relatively low. The results obtained would assist in providing a roadmap for the best practices to improve Cloud Computing services in the insurance industry in Kenya.

Akinyemi R, Sarfo F, Abd-Allah F, Ogun Y, Ogeng'o J. "Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization .". 2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the African philosophy of Ubuntu "I am because we are," the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.

AKUKU DROKOTHPATRICK. "Changing pattern of intracranial lesions.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;77(1):1-3. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Computer Simulation of Orthokinetic Flocculation in a Filterbed.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Challenges in the Smallholder (zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs: A Welfare Perspective (2012). J.W. Aleri., J.M. Nguhiu., E.M. Mogoa and C.M. Mulei.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . KVA; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, T.O. A, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;60:149-152.
Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "A Community Health Worker Program for the Prevention of Malaria in Eastern Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Stromberg DG, Frederiksen J, Hruschka J, Tomedi A, Mwanthi M.; 2011. Abstract
Objective: To assess whether the development and implementation of a community health worker (CHW) project in rural Kenya was associated with an increase in knowledge about malaria and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in children under five years of age.Methods: A baseline knowledge and behavior questionnaire, adopted from the Kenyan Demographic Health Survey, was conducted in August 2007 by Kenyan health officials in 75 villages. Two CHWs were chosen from each village and trained in appropriate use of ITNs. The CHWs provided educational sessions and ITNs to mothers in their respective villages. A follow-up survey was conducted in March 2008 of all families with children less than five years of age within randomly selected villages. The main questions addressed during the follow-up survey included knowledge about malaria and the practice of correctly using ITNs.Findings: There were 267 surveys compiled for knowledge assessment before the intervention and 340 in the post-intervention analysis with an approximate 99% family participation rate. Of the families surveyed, 81% correctly knew the cause for malaria before the study and 93% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01). Of those surveyed before the intervention, 70% owned and correctly used mosquito nets compared with 88% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01).Conclusions: There was a significant increase in knowledge about malaria and use of ITNs after the implementation of the CHW program. Keywords: Community health aides, insecticide-treated bednets, malaria/diagnosis, malaria/prevention andcontrol, Kenya, rural health services, infant, child/preschool, questionnaires
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Control of spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Burns Units. Muthotho JN, Waiyaki PG, Mbalu M, Wairugu A, Mwanthi B, Odongo B. Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Allen RG, Gichuki FN, Rosenzweig C. "CO2‐Induced Climatic Changes and Irrigation‐Water Requirements.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

Effects of CO2‐induced climatic changes on irrigation‐water requirements (IR) in the Great Plains region were evaluated using results of global atmospheric‐circulation models with a water balance‐IR model. Increases were predicted for evapotranspiration Et due to predicted increases in air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed under doubled concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (2×CO2). Predicted increases in humidity under the 2×CO2 scenarios and shifting of crop life cycles to months with lower levels of solar radiation moderated predicted increases in Et. Increases in irrigation requirements were caused primarily by increases in evaporative demands and changes in precipitation patterns. Increases in net seasonal IR for alfalfa were larger due to predicted increases in length of frost‐free growing seasons and higher evaporative demands as compared to winter wheat and corn. Decreases or only modest increases in seasonal irrigation requirements were projected under 2×CO2 scenarios for com and winter wheat due to reductions in length of crop life cycles and projected increases in bulk stomatal resistances.

Alukwe GH, Ngugi PK, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya." Corporate Governance Challenge to Regulation Compliance by Deposit Taking Savings and Credit Co- Operative Societies in Kenya. 2015;5(3).alukhwe_ngugi_ogollah_orwa_corporate_governance_publication_2015.pdf
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "The comparative binding characteristics of nicotinic ligands and their pharmacology. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Bostwick M, Hook R, Wala E. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67.". In: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988 May;30(1):255-67. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Five drugs [(-)- and (+)-nicotine, (-)-lobeline, (-)-anabasine and (-)-cytisine] were infused IV into the urethane-pentobarbital anesthetized rat. Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, minute and tidal volume, which appeared to be largely centrally mediated, were studied. Each of these compounds produced different pharmacologic profiles. The nature of these dissimilarities is not readily explained on the basis of pharmacokinetic considerations suggesting that the drugs have different mechanisms of action. Binding data obtained with these compounds using the rat brain P2 preparation also show differences. (-)-Lobeline and (-)-anabasine, like the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine and hexamethonium, bind predominantly to low affinity sites with KDs in the micromolar range whereas (-)-cytisine binds only to a single high affinity site with a KD in the nanomolar range. Further, the binding patterns of these drugs are different from (-)- and (+)-nicotine which bind to both high and low affinity sites but differ from each other in binding characteristics. Thus the binding data are consistent with the pharmacologic data in suggesting that the drugs have different modes of action and support the concept that the low affinity site has an important role in the central nervous system action of these compounds.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Chronic administration of and dependence on halazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E, Dickey KM. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64.". In: Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
produced physical dependence which was revealed by a flumazenil precipitated abstinence syndrome and measured by the Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale score (NPAS) (McNicholas et al., 1988; Sloan et al., 1990). This abstinence as measured by the NPAS score was more severe in diazepam- and halazepam-dependent than in nordiazepam-dependent dogs whereas the incidence of precipitated clonic seizures was greater in the diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent than in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that in the dog the major conversion of halazepam, like diazepam, was to nordiazepam and an oxazepam conjugate. Appreciable quantities of oxazepam, 3-OH halazepam and its conjugated metabolite were also identified in plasma. The NPAS score obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs, however, was greater than the NPAS score obtained in nordiazepam-dependent dogs who had nordiazepam plasma levels over three times higher than those obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Further, the precipitated abstinence observed in the halazepam-, diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs differed in qualitative as well as in quantitative aspects including marked differences in the time course of abstinence signs. These data argue that the different dependencies produced by halazepam, diazepam and nordiazepam are not due solely to either the parent compound or to a single metabolite but most likely to their combined effects.
Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.

Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Cyclosporin monitoring in Kenya: External Quality Assurance Performance." Proc XVI ICC. 1996:506.
Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, others. "The CoolbotTM: a low-cost cold storage alternative for smallholders in developing countries.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
n/a
Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A comparative evaluation of quality and sensory characteristics of'Apple'mango fruits produced under different agro-ecological zones in Kenya.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): 1120.; 2014:. Abstract
n/a
Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Chemining'wa G, Mwachoni E, Hansen B, Wasilwa L, Owino W, Nenguwo N. "Cold chain management in horticultural crops value chains: options for smallholder farmers in Africa.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
n/a
Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "A Comparative Evaluation of Quality and Sensory Characteristics of 'Apple' Mango Fruits produced under Different Agro-ecological zones in Kenya." Acta Horticulturae. 2016; 10(10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1120.66):1120.66.
Ambuko J, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H, others. "A comparative evaluation of postharvest quality attributes of two banana (Musa spp) varieties as affected by preharvest production conditions." Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 2013;5:170-178. Abstract
n/a
Amiri S, Timamy R. "Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(9):1-181.
Amolo EJA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Credit Enhancement and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." Journal of Finance & Banking Studies. 2020;9(4):47-57.
Amolo EJA;, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Contingent capital and performance of hydroelectric energy projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science . 2020;9(4):134-142.
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "A Case for Inheritance. In More Modern African Stories. Charles R. Larson (editor). Fontana Books, Great Britain.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
Anathan J, Cunningham E, Foradori L, Stuart-Shor E, Sayeed S, Kerry V. "Cultivating the Next Generation of Health Care Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Global Health Service Partnership–Update 2016." Annals of Global Health. 2017;83. Abstract
n/a
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Suprun IS, Waga DD. A comparison analysis of the Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from the Ukrainian Carpathians and Zeravshan region of Tajikistan.. Lviv, Ukraine: Institute of Geological Sciences of the NAS of Ukraine (IGS NAS of Ukraine); 2014.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DDO. "Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleogene deposits of the Northern Forecaucasus (Russia) and South-Eastern Part of Great Donbas (Ukraine)." International Journal of Algae. 2012;14(1. 80):93-106.
Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Anselm OJ. "Common Good as a Mean To Peace ." Culture And Quest . 2001;Sept.
Anyango B;, Keya SO;, Widdowson D;, Wangaruro S;, Mugane C;, Karani FN. "Current Status of Legume Inoculant Production in Kenya.".; 1985.
Anzala O, Bashir MF OOBJJJWGMGOMF. "CD4 and CD8 T - Lymphocyte distribution among healthy Kenyans enrolling in an HIV vaccine trial.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
AOSA E. "Contextual Influence on Strategic Planning: Porter's Industry Analysis Model in the Kenyan Setting.". In: Moi University Business Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

n/a

Arias M, Kitala P, Baboon K, Lekolol I, Okoth E, Bulimo DW, Gallardo C, Pelayo V, Macharia JM, Omore A, et al. "Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:198-205. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Arimura H. "Correlation between molecular size and interferon- inducing activity of poly I:C." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):457-66. Abstract

Electron microscopy showed that commerical poly I: C consisted of molecules varying in length from less than 0.05 nm to more than 5 nm and also in morphology . To clarify the relationship between its molecular size and interferon-inducing activity, poly I: C was sonicated or fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the molecular length distribution and interferon-inducing activity of each preparation was determined in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that (1) poly I : C molecules 0.1-0.3 nm long were the most effective for interferon induction; (2) sonication of poly I : C reduced its molecular length and also the interferon-inducing activity, the degree of reduction varying in different fractions; and (3) the interferon-inducing activity of poly I: C of 0.1-0.3 nm obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation was higher than that poly I: C of corresponding length prepared by sonication.

Attardo GM, Abd-Alla AMM, Acosta-Serrano A, Allen JE, Bateta R, Benoit JB, Bourtzis K, Caers J, Caljon G, Christensen MB, Farrow DW, Friedrich M, Hua-Van A, Jennings EC, Larkin DM, Lawson D, Lehane MJ, Lenis VP, Lowy-Gallego E, Macharia RW, Malacrida AR, Marco HG, Masiga D, Maslen GL, Matetovici I, Meisel RP, Meki I, Michalkova V, Miller WJ, Minx P, Mireji PO, Ometto L, Parker AG, Rio R, Rose C, Rosendale AJ, Rota-Stabelli O, Savini G, Schoofs L, Scolari F, Swain MT, Takáč P, Tomlinson C, Tsiamis G, Van Den Abbeele J, Vigneron A, Wang J, Warren WC, Waterhouse RM, Weirauch MT, Weiss BL, Wilson RK, Zhao X, Aksoy S. "Comparative genomic analysis of six Glossina genomes, vectors of African trypanosomes." Genome Biol. 2019;20(1):187. Abstract

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies are distinguished from other Diptera by unique adaptations, including lactation and the birthing of live young (obligate viviparity), a vertebrate blood-specific diet by both sexes, and obligate bacterial symbiosis. This work describes the comparative analysis of six Glossina genomes representing three sub-genera: Morsitans (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. austeni), Palpalis (G. palpalis, G. fuscipes), and Fusca (G. brevipalpis) which represent different habitats, host preferences, and vectorial capacity.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Community Development: Its Theoretical Conceptions and Historical Background and Practice with Empasis on Africa. Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi (Chitere, P.O., ed.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1994.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Choice of methods of farmer contact. In: Agricultural Administration, Vol. 11 (3).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Awad O, Ochieng SJ, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "Chronic anaemia causes degenerative changes in trophoblast cells of the rat placenta." Anatomy . 2017;11(2). Abstractchronic_anaemia_causes_degenerative_changes.pdfWebsite

Objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. There are few studies on effects of anaemia on the
structure of trophoblastic cells which are important in placental function. These data are important for understanding the
function and disorders of the placenta. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural cellular changes associated
with iron deficiency anaemia in rat placenta.
Methods: Forty-nine female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The
experimental group was rendered anaemic by removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days, and the placentas
were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and 21. For light microscopy, five cubic millimeter segments were fixed in 10%
buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut,
deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. For transmission electron microscopy, 1 mm3 sections were fixed in
2.5% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde, post fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in propylene
and embedded in epon resin. Ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were examined with JEOL electron
microscope.
Results: Cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and giant trophoblastic cells of placentas of anaemic rats showed cytoplasmic
and nuclear vacuolation with loss of cell margins. In addition, there was atrophy of microvilli on the cell surface, as well
nuclear chromatolysis, nucleolar degeneration and appearance of dark bodies.
Conclusion: Chronic anaemia causes trophoblastic cell degeneration. This may undermine the functional integrity of the
cells and constitute part of the mechanism for poor fetal outcome.

Awino ZB, Wamalwa RW. "Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited.". In: AIBUMA 2010 Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi-Kenya; 2010.
Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
AYAKO MSANANGWECATHLEEN. "Christian Religious Education Secondary School pupils'course books- Form 1 to 4: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Controlled Texturing of Aluminum Sheet for Solar Energy Applications." Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry,. 2015;5:458-466. AbstractJournal Article Website

Aluminum sheets were polished to reduce ruggedness and then textured in varying acid-ethanol
concentration etchant to form pores. The textured surface was characterized structurally by using
X-ray diffraction (XRD) which revealed aluminum crystallographic planes (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0)
and (3 1 1). Its morphology was studied by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning
electron microscope (SEM) that confirmed purity of aluminum sheet to be 99.66% at. Reflectance
of textured and plain aluminum sheet was analyzed by spectrophotometric measurements which
showed that texturing reduced the reflectance of the polished surface by 26% in the UV-VIS-NIR
spectrum of solar radiation. With reduced reflectance of the textured aluminum sheet, it was applicable
for solar radiation absorption.
Keywords
Aluminum, Texturing, Reflectance, Solar Energy, Electro-Polishing

Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Ayuo PO, Abinya NA, JOSHI MD, Lore W. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". 1993. Abstractcardiovascular_features_in_adolescents_and_adults_with_sickle_cell_anaemia.pdfWebsite

Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function

Ayuya, J.M., Mangi, N., Gichanga J. "Cattle gastrointestinal helminths on some farms in Njabini area of Kinangop Division, Nyandarua District, Kenya.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
B
B PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Chien-Hsiun Chen, Toshiki Mizuno, Robert Elston, Monica M Kariuki, Kathleen Hall, Fred Unverzagt, Hugh Hendrie, Samuel Gatere, Paul Kioy, Nilesh B Patel, Robert P Friedland, Raj N Kalaria. (2008) A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes i.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2008. Abstract

Laboratory of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E varepsilon4 allele frequencies were high ( approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status.

PMID: 18703255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "The Concept of 'Falling' in Akan. University of Wisconsin Department of African Language & Literature Seminars, 1992.". In: Occasional Papers in Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, 2004. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
B O, P G, H S, J O’o. "Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):412-416.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Comparative study of aminosidine, etophamide and nimorazole, alone or in combination, in the treatment of intestinal amoebiasis in Kenya. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;39(4):353-7.". In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;39(4):353-7. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
417 patients suffering from intestinal amoebiasis were randomly allocated to 6 different treatment groups in a controlled study in 3 District Hospitals in Kenya. The patients received either aminosidine (A), etophamide (E), nimorazole (N), or the combinations NA, NE, EA. Treatment in all cases was given twice daily for 5 days. Before and after treatment, rectosigmoidoscopy was done in each patient, and stool examination with characterization of invasive (IF) and non invasive (NIF) forms of amoeba was done daily throughout treatment, and on Days 15, 30 and 60 of follow-up. Clinical cure was good after all the treatments, varying from 90 to 100%; parasitological cure at the end of treatment was 100% in the NA and EA treatments groups, and 98% in A group. The incidence of relapses was nil in the EA group, followed by 3% in NA and 6% in A groups. Anatomical cure (healing of ulcers) was 97.8% in the NA group, 95.5% in the N group and 88.5% in the A group. Drug tolerance was excellent or good after all the treatments, except that the EA combination produced diarrhoea in 76.5% of patients. Overall analysis of the findings, including tolerance of the various treatments, showed that aminosidine either alone or in combination with nimorazole gave the best results. Ulcers seen on rectosigmoidoscopy were more common in patients excreting invasive forms of amoebae in their stools.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Njagi JK, Khasakhala L, Cundill B, Otido J, Crudder C, Estambale BB, Brooker S.Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled tr.". In: Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):127-38. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune schoolchildren in an area of high perennial transmission. METHODS: A stratified, cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPT was done in 30 primary schools in western Kenya. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with amodiaquine or dual placebo) by use of a computer-generated list. Children aged 5-18 years received three treatments at 4-month intervals (IPT n=3535, placebo n=3223). The primary endpoint was the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration below 110 g/L. This outcome was assessed through cross-sectional surveys 12 months post-intervention. Analysis was by both intention to treat, excluding children with missing data, and per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00142246. FINDINGS: 2604 children in the IPT group and 2302 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome; the main reason for exclusion was loss to follow-up. Prevalence of anaemia at 12 months averaged 6.3% in the IPT group and 12.6% in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93; p=0.028). Significant improvements were also seen in two of the class-based tests of sustained attention, with a mean increase in code transmission test score of 6.05 (95% CI 2.83-9.27; p=0.0007) and counting sounds test score of 1.80 (0.19-3.41; p=0.03), compared with controls. No effect was shown for inattentive or hyperactive-compulsive behaviours or on educational achievement. The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results. 23 serious adverse events were reported within 28 days of any treatment (19 in the IPT group and four in the placebo group); the main side-effects were problems of balance, dizziness, feeling faint, nausea, and/or vomiting shortly after treatment. INTERPRETATION: IPT of malaria improves the health and cognitive ability of semi-immune schoolchildren. Effective malaria interventions could be a valuable addition to school health programmes.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Clarke SE, Brooker S, Njagi JK, Njau E, Estambale B, Muchiri E, Magnussen P. Malaria morbidity among school children living in two areas of contrasting transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;71(6):732-8.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;71(6):732-8. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Research in malaria-endemic areas is usually focused on malaria during early childhood. Less is known about malaria among older school age children. The incidence of clinical attacks of malaria was monitored, using active case detection in primary schools, in two areas of western Kenya that differ in the intensity of transmission. Clinical malaria was more common in schools in the Nandi highlands, with a six-fold higher incidence of malaria attacks during the malaria epidemic in 2002, compared with school children living in a holoendemic area with intense perennial transmission during the same period. The high incidence coupled with the high parasite densities among cases is compatible with a low level of protective immunity in the highlands. The malaria incidence among school children exposed to intense year-round transmission (26 per 100 school children per year) was consistent with reports from other holoendemic areas. Taken together with other published studies, the data suggest that malaria morbidity among school age children increases as transmission intensity decreases. The implications for malaria control are discussed.
B.MUTSOTSO, E.M. MUYA. "CHARACTERISTICS OF BELOW -GROUND BIODIVERSITY SITES IN KENYA:THEIR CONSTRANTS ,INTERVENTIONS AND EMERGING ISSUES." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2008:991-1003.
B.N N, Ogula PO. "Characteristics examples of indigenous Government systems in Africa." In S. Nyanchoga, P.O Ogula and Muchoki F.M (eds). Government in Africa: Historical and contemporary perspectives Nairobi: catholic University press. 2010.

UoN Websites Search