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OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "CO-AUTHORED Gateway Secondary Revision English." Published by Longhorn Publishers; 2007. Abstract
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M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Co-authored Secondary Geogrpahy Revision book with Mr. Francis W> Wegulo.". In: published by Longman, Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Co-authored with Patricia Mbote: Women and property rights in Kenya.". In: A study commissioned by the international federation of women lawyers (FIDA-K). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Osuna. F, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Co-circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the pH1N1 Outbreak of 2009 In Kenya.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi . University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Nyambura J, Achilla R, Mitei K, Mukunzi S, Njiri J, Coldren R, Bulimo W. Co-circulation of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya, Jan 2013-Sep 2013. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) belong to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV is the major cause of croup in which type 1 is most frequent cause, followed by type 3 and type 2 respectively. Surveillance has shown that Human Parainfluenza viruse are a major cause of respiratory infections in Kenya. In January 2013 through an existing influenza surveillance network at the Kenyan National Influenza center, we screened for parainfluenza and other non-influenza respiratory viruses. This was done within the designated Influenza network made up of eight sentinel sites. Objective: The objective of this study was to monitor and document circulation of Human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya in the period January–September 2013. Materials and Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx using a flocked swab from consenting patients meeting the WHO influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definition. Specimens were transported to the NIC while observing the cold chain and inoculated into LLCMK2 cell line. After incubation and observation for cytopathic effect, all samples were screened by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the Respiratory Panel I Viral Screening and Identification kit (Chemicon International, Inc).Results and Discussion: A total of 972 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected between January – September 2013. HPIVs were detected in 108 (11%) cases. Out of these, there were 36 co-infections of the parainfluenza viruses. In general, Their seasonality patterns shows two peaks; one severe one occurring in April with 40.6% and the second milder peak occurring in June with 23.1% of all the cases. There was co-circulation of HPIV sub-types throughout the year. The three subtypes circulated between January to May with a peak in April with type 1 dominating in the month of April. They formed a second peak in June with type three dominating and type three lagging behind and appearing a month later. From our analysis we found that the conditions that trigger their occurrence are the same since their peaks are synchronized.Conclusion: This study shows that parainfluenza viruses are the major contributor of influenza in Kenya.

Maina, akach, osanjo. "CO-DESIGN: CATALYST FOR INCLUSION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS." Machakos University Press. 2021.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Maina S. "Co-Design: Tools, Methods and Techniques for Designing with Users." African Habitat Review. 2021;15(1):2145-2156.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani"- Hadithi za watoto.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Co-edited some common weeds of East Africa (Magugu ya Afrika ya Mashariki FAO Publication ISBN 92-5 002426-6).". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Co-editor with Dr. Vogel of a book entitled "Health and Disease in Kenya" - published by the East African Literature Bureau, 1974.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1974. Abstract
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NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology.". In: University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.". In: University of Nairobi,Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Co-Editor:Africa Challenge.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KYALO PROFNZIOKACHARLESB. "Co-editors (Bahemuka, J and Nganda, B) Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya.". In: Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
Ogana W. "Co-existence (Short story)." Hambone. 1974;Vol. 1.:pp. 61-65.
KURIA JOSEPHNGEIK, MOGOI DONALD, GACHUHI SAMUELGUCHU. "Co-infection by dimorphic fungi in tuberculosis patients in Kenya." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2020;9:116-120.
Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07380-9):1-14.
Osuna. F, Bulimo. W, Achilla. R, Gachara. G, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Obura. B, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. "Co-Infections and Co-Circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the H1N1 Outbreak of 2009 in Kenya.". In: Virology Africa 2011 conference. University of Cape Town South Africa.; 2011. Abstract
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Jane Aduda1, Patrick Weke2 PN2. "A Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices." journal of mathematical finance. 2018;8(2):478-496. AbstractA Co-Integration Analysis of the Interdependencies between Crude Oil and Distillate Fuel Prices

The co-evolution and co-movement of financial time series are of utmost importance in contemporary finance, especially when considering the joint behaviour of asset price realizations. The ability to model interdependencies and volatility spill-over effects introduces interesting dimensions in finance. This paper explores co-integrating relationships between crude oil and distillate fuel prices. Existence of multivariate co-integrating relations and bidirectional Granger-Causality is established among the series. It is also established that even after fitting a full VECM, the residuals are not necessarily multivariate normal suggesting the noise could as well be multivariate GARCH.

Okoth S. "Co-occurrence and Diversity of Soil Trichoderma and Fusarium species from Different Land Use Intensities in Machakos County, Kenya." Arch. Curr. Res. Int. 2016;4(1):1-13. Abstractmaina412016acri24894.pdfWebsite

Soil fungi are important components of the soil biota and their diversity is a good indicator of soil
health. Soil fungi respond differently to land use practices and to their relative populations. The cooccurrence
and diversity of Trichoderma and Fusarium species against various land use types
(LUTs) was investigated. The genus Trichoderma contains many important species with potential
for biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens as well as high saprophytic capacity while the genus
Fusarium has many species that are highly pathogenic to plants and with potential for mycotoxin
production. This research adopted a cross-sectional study design. Soil samples were collected
from 3 land-use types (LUTs) in Kabaa irrigation scheme in Machakos County, Kenya, that is,
intensive land-uses under irrigation and rain-fed agriculture and undisturbed lands. From the top
soil layer, 100 soil samples were collected. The samples were processed and 369 Trichoderma and 1,546 Fusarium isolates recovered. Fusarium had a higher abundance than Trichoderma in
the highly disturbed lands. In the undisturbed lands, Trichoderma had a higher abundance than
Fusarium. There was a clear negative correlation between Trichoderma and Fusarium occurrence
and diversity. The study further revealed that disturbance had a positive effect on Fusarium but a
negative one on Trichoderma.

Mwihia EW, Lyche JL, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi JK, Maina J, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, Mulei IR, Eriksen GS. "Co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in fish feed in Kenya.". In: ASM 2018 Scientific Programme. Leisure Lodge Resort, Mombasa, Kenya; 2018.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Co-operative Banking in Kenya, (Co-editor with Patrick Alila.". In: Cooperative Bank of Kenya, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Co-operative Management Improvement Project (CMIP) - Project Proposal for UNDP and MOCD 1990.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1990. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Co-operatives as Credit Institutions: Some Policy Recommendations, Freidrich Ebert Foundation POLIS Supplement, March 1983.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1983. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Co-operatives in Development' Chapter Contribution in Kenya: 25th Independence Anniversary Official Handbook, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Nairobi, 1988.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1988. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Co-operatives in the Dairy Industry in Kenya', Chapter Contribution as Co-operative Specialist in the Kenya Dairy Master Plan to the Year 2000, 1990.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1990. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Allen RG, Gichuki FN, Rosenzweig C. "CO2‐Induced Climatic Changes and Irrigation‐Water Requirements.". 1991. AbstractWebsite

Effects of CO2‐induced climatic changes on irrigation‐water requirements (IR) in the Great Plains region were evaluated using results of global atmospheric‐circulation models with a water balance‐IR model. Increases were predicted for evapotranspiration Et due to predicted increases in air temperature, solar radiation, and wind speed under doubled concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (2×CO2). Predicted increases in humidity under the 2×CO2 scenarios and shifting of crop life cycles to months with lower levels of solar radiation moderated predicted increases in Et. Increases in irrigation requirements were caused primarily by increases in evaporative demands and changes in precipitation patterns. Increases in net seasonal IR for alfalfa were larger due to predicted increases in length of frost‐free growing seasons and higher evaporative demands as compared to winter wheat and corn. Decreases or only modest increases in seasonal irrigation requirements were projected under 2×CO2 scenarios for com and winter wheat due to reductions in length of crop life cycles and projected increases in bulk stomatal resistances.

Rintaugu EG, Bailasha NK. "Coach-Leadership behaviour exhibited by volleyball Coaches in Africa." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;3(9):135-139.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Coagulation Studies in Hypertensive Disease of Pregnancy.". In: J Obstet. Gyna. Centr Afr. 15(2) 2001. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Coagulation Studies in Hypertensive Disease of Pregnancy.". In: J Obstet. Gyna. Centr Afr. 15(2) 2001. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
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Ndavi PM, Oyieke JBO MKCS:G. "Coagulation Studies inHypertensive Disease in Pregnancy in Kenyatta National Hospital:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 2003;16(1):32-36.
Ojiambo PJ, Karuri PE, Nguka G. "COALESCING NUTRITION ACTION FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT IN 21ST CENTURY- (TRIUMPHS, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS).". In: AFRICA NUTRITION CONFERENCE. Mombasa; 2014.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Coalition Politics and Government in Africa Since Independence," in Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24, 1, Jan 2006, pp. 53-79.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Kanyinga K. "Coast has serious issues that require sober heads to handle." Daily Nation, March 27, 2016.
T
C
Odada EO. Coastal Erosion and Flooding in East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean. Metro Manila, Phillipine: Coastal Management Center (CMC); 1995.
Omuombo CA, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Odada EO, Olago DO. "Coastal Erosion: A Natural Outlook-Geonvironmental Resources and Hazards."; 2013. Abstract

This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.
Keywords

Urbanization;
Sediment flux;
El Niño;
Sea surface temperature;
Tsunami;
Mombasa;
Tana delta;
Marine protected areas;
Beach Management Units

Omuombo C, Olago DO, Odada EO. "Coastal Waters: Developments in Earth Surface process ."; 2013.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Coconut Shell and Fiber Ashes, and Coconut Fiber Reinforced Concrete.". In: RICH Africa Workshop. BAM, Berlin; 2016.
Sihanya B, Mute L. Code of Conduct for Community Broadcasting.; 1997.
Rinkanya AN. "Code Switching in Kenyan Women’s Literature after 2000 // Matatu 46." Brill: Leiden-Boston. 2015:169-184.
Kiragu N. "Codependency you can be drug free .". In: The Battle is in your mind. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.presentation1.pptx
Gichuhi S, Hawkins BS, Dickersin K. Coding of clinical trials and systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library using international standards.. Vol. 4. Montreal, Canada: Society of Clinical Trials; 2007. Abstractcoding_of_clinical_trials_sct_conference_presentation.pdf

Registers and databases of reports of clinical trials and systematic reviews are invaluable resources for clinical trialists, health professionals, and consumers. However, their utility in retrieval of information about a particular health condition and/or intervention is limited by variations in terminology used by different medical specialties and researchers. Coding clinical trials and systematic reviews using international coding standards in common use may improve access to and translation of evidence to practice. WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is used internationally across research and clinical settings and presents a good option. The International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is in beta testing prior to public release and would add additional indexing information.

The Cochrane Library currently includes 4,539 systematic reviews and review protocols and over 470,000 citations to controlled trials. The Library is searched using textwords and MeSH. A project is underway within the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group (CEVG) to tag vision-related systematic reviews and over 7,000 clinical trials available to the public on The Cochrane Library, with ICD codes for (a) the disease entity(ties) addressed and (b) the intervention(s) evaluated. We present the results of the pilot study.

In our pilot study, two independent reviewers completed coding for 43 CEVG systematic reviews published in The Cochrane Library. Inter-observer agreement using ICD-10 was 81.4%. ICHI was suboptimal for coding of individual medications.

In the next phase of piloting, we will code a subset of trials and compare search results using the current MeSH and textword approach versus the new ICD coding.

Support by NIH contract NO1-EY-2-1003, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Published in Clinical Trials, vol 4, issue 4, pg 390

Oucho JO. "Coexistence of Rural-Urban Migration and urban-Rural Links in Sub-Saharan Africa." Development Policy and Administration Review. 1986;XI(2):33-60.
John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Farquhar C, Ruth Nduati, and Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha GJ-S. "Cofactors for HIV-1 Incidence during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period." Curr HIV Res. 2010 October ; 8(7): 510–514.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Objectives—To estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy
and postpartum.
Design—Retrospective study among women who were HIV seronegative during pregnancy.
Methods—Mothers accompanying their infants for routine 6-week immunizations at 6 maternal
child health clinics in Nairobi and Western Kenya were tested for HIV-1 after completing a
questionnaire that included assessment of sociodemographics, obstetric history and HIV-1 risk
perception.
Results—Of 2,135 mothers who had tested HIV-1 seronegative antenatally, 2,035 (95.3%)
accepted HIV-1 re-testing at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 53 (2.6%) were HIV-1 seropositive
yielding an estimated HIV-1 incidence of 6.8 (95% CI: 5.1-8.8) per 100 woman-years). Mothers
who seroconverted were more likely to be employed (45.3% vs 29.0%, p=0.01), married (96.2 vs
86.6%, p=0.04) and from a higher HIV-1 prevalence region (60.4% in Western Kenya vs 28.8% in
Nairobi, p<0.001). Among married women, those in polygamous relationship were significantly
more likely to seroconvert (19.6% vs 6.7%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, region and
employment independently predicted seroconversion.
Conclusions—Repeat HIV-1 testing in early postpartum was highly acceptable and resulted in
detection of substantial HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period. Within
prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission programs strategic approaches to prevent
maternal HIV-1 acquisition during pregnancy are urgently needed.

John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson B, Ruth Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart G. "Cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum period." Curr. HIV Res.. 2010;8(7):510-4. Abstract

to estimate HIV-1 incidence and cofactors for HIV-1 incidence during pregnancy and postpartum.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cofactors for the acquisition of HIV-1 AIDS among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya. Rakwar J; Lavreys L; Thompson ML; Jackson D; Bwayo JJ Hassanali S; Mandaliya K; Ndinya-Achola J; Kreiss J. 1999 Apr 1;13(5):.". In: Kreiss J. 1999 Apr 1;13(5):607-14. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Cognitive abilities of Kenyan children in relation to nutrition, family characteristics, and education. Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Jansen AA, Bwibo N.". In: Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical School 90024.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nutritional factors, family characteristics, and the duration of schooling were associated with cognitive and attentional capacities in children growing up in rural Kenya. Food intake was measured by direct observation and weighment twice monthly over the course of a year. Families were characterized in terms of socioeconomic status and the literacy of the parents. Children who were better nourished had higher composite scores on a test of verbal comprehension and the Raven's matrices. Better-nourished females were more attentive during classroom observations than malnourished female schoolchildren. Family characteristics and duration of school participation were associated with cognitive abilities for both boys and girls. For the children considered as a group, cognitive scores were best predicted by a combination of factors including duration of schooling, food intake, physical stature, and SES.

PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mrumbi K, Rono R, Ngare D, Obondo A, Oladimeji BY, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)."; 2006.
Oketch Oboth JWB. Cognitive Psychology . Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distant Learning, University of Nairobi; 2012.
Cohen CR, Koochesfahani KM, Meier AS, Shen C, Karunakaran K, Ondondo B, Teresa Kinyari, Mugo NR, Nguti R, Brunham RC. "Cohen C.,Koochesfahani K..,Meier A.,Shen C.,Karunakaran K.,Ondondo B.,Kinyari T.,Mugo N.,Nguti R., Brunham R. Immunoepidemiologic Profile of C. trachomatis Infection: Importance of hsp 60 and IFγ. JID 2005;192:591-599 ." The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005;192:591-599. AbstractWebsite

Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Cohen CR, Sine S, Reilly R, Bukusi E, Esenbach D, Holmes KK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Grieco V, Stamm W, Karanja J, Kreiss JK. Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 Infection upon Acute Salpingitis: A Laparoscopic StudyJ. Inf. Dis 178: 1352-8, 1.". In: Inf. Dis 178: 1352-8, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "COHEN CR,SINEI S, REILLY M, BUKUSI E, ESCHENBACH D, HOLMES K, NDINYA-ACHOLA JO, BWAYO J, GRIECOV, STAMM W, KARANJA JG, KREISS J.: Effect of HIV-1 infection upon acute pelvic inflammatory disease: A laparoscopic study in Kenya. Abstracts. The XI Internatio.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
This was a cross sectional descriptive study to discuss the median age of menopause in a rural area of Western Kenya. The broad objective of the study was to describe the demographic and biophysical characteristics of the study population and determine the age of menopause. A review of the current and medieval records shows average age of menopause has remained relatively constant at 50 years in contrast to the receeding age of menarche. A total of 1078 women aged between 40-60 years were interviewed. The majority (98.8%) were from one ethnic group, the Luhya. Of the 1078 women, 880 (81.4%) were married and 198 (18.6%) were single. The average number of children per woman was 7.74. Most of the women (75.1%) had attained primary school education. Their husbands were unskilled workers in 30.1% of the cases. The mean weight and height of the women was 60.74 kg and 161.1 cm respectively. Using methods of probit analysis, the median and modal age of menopause was found to be 48.28 years in this group of western Kenya women. If generalised for the whole country, these results suggest that an average Kenyan woman lives for over ten years beyond menopause. It is recommended that more attention should be given to the special health problems of postmenopausal population. PIP: This study describes the demographic and biophysical characteristics of rural menopausal women in Western Kenya. Menopause occurs as the gradual unresponsiveness of the human ovary to gonadotropins, premature ovarian failure at under 40 years, and menopause following surgical procedures of the uterus and ovaries. A 3-phase process starts with low serum estradiol and progesterone, followed by a rise in follicle stimulating hormone, and a rise in luteinizing hormone. Clinical symptoms include vasomotor ones, genitourinary ones, osteoporosis and increased incidence of bone fractures, increased incidence of thromboembolic and ischemic heart disease, and psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory loss. The age of menopause varies with socioeconomic conditions, race, parity, height, weight, skinfold thickness, lifestyle, and education. Data were obtained for this study from a sample of 1078 women from 7 sublocations in Vihiga division, Kenya. Women were aged 40-60 years. The most populous ethnic group was the Luhya. 81.6% were married, 15.6% were widowed, and 0.7% were divorced. 4 women had never been married. 75.1% had a primary school education; 18.6% had not received any formal education. 30.1% had husbands who were unskilled workers, 28.8% had husbands who were farmers, and 20.6% had husbands who were skilled workers. 1.3% had no children, and 1 woman had 17 children. The average number of children was 7.74. 9 of the nulliparous women were menopausal. The mean height was 161.1 cm. The median age at menopause was 48.28 years. Almost all women were menopausal by 55 years. The total fertility period averaged 35 years. Female life expectancy was 59 years
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "COHEN CR,SINEI S, REILLY M, BUKUSI E, ESCHENBACH D, HOLMES K, NDINYA-ACHOLA JO, BWAYO J, GRIECOV, STAMM W, KARANJA JG, KREISS J.: Effect of HIV-1 infection upon acute pelvic inflammatory disease: A laparoscopic study in Kenya. Abstracts. The XI Internatio.". In: The XI International Conference on Aids, Vancouver, Canada 1996. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cohen CR; Sinei S; Reilly M; Bukusi E; Eschenbach D; Holmes KK; Ndinya-Achola JO; Bwayo JJ; Grieco V; Stamm W; Karanja J; Kreiss J.Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study.Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;17.". In: Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1352-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH, K. PROFSINEISAMUEL, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Cohen R, Joseph Gichuhi, Rukaria R, Sinei SK, Gultai S.Investigation of immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis associated tubal infertility. American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 .". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "COHESION AND DEIXIS IN PRACTICE: The Case of an Opinion Column.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. VDM Verlag, Saarbrucken, Germany.; 2011. Abstract
Readers of Newspapers may regard an opinion column text by a specific writer as popular and judge another opinion column text as bland. Granted, the basis of judgement by readers may be extra linguistic. However, it is possible to track and attribute part of the judgement by some readers as having a basis on language use. If the argument to choose one text over another exists in language, then we can account for this using linguistic tools.Such an account can give a glimpse to the judgement on how one text is popular while another is not.This book exploits linguistic tools in examining a journalese text to show how the smallest details that enable sentences to glue together have an impact in overall textual harmony.
P OS. "Cohesion and Youth Development in Film: A Case Study of Kenyan Schools and Colleges Drama/Film Festival.". In: National Culture Symposium 2016: Fostering Peace, National Cohesion and Development through Culture. Kenyatta University; 2016.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Cohesion in the Kiswahili Complex Sentence." University of Nairobi. 2012;2/2.
Mweri JG. "Cohesion: Structuring Content Through Textual Features in Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) Formal Discourse." Linguistics and Literature Studies. 2015;3(4):131-147.
E.N. PN. "Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation.". 2008. Abstract

Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation.
Sheth PM, Sunderji S, Shin LY, Rebbapragada A, Huibner S, Kimani J, Macdonald KS, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Moses S, Kovacs C, Loutfy M, Kaul R.
Source

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Chronic coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with an increased HIV viral load and more rapid disease progression, perhaps related to HSV-2-associated alterations in host immunity.
METHODS:

Studies were nested within (1) a cross-sectional study of men coinfected with HIV and HSV-2 and (2) women not infected with HIV, both before and after HSV-2 acquisition. HSV-2 infection status was determined by ELISA. HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell epitopes were mapped, and proliferation of HIV-specific cells was also assessed. Systemic inflammatory and regulatory T cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry.
RESULTS:

The breadth of both the HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell interferon-gamma and proliferative responses was reduced in participants coinfected with HIV and HSV-2, independent of the HIV plasma viral load and CD4(+) T cell count, and the magnitude of the responses was also reduced. HSV-2 infection in this group was associated with increased T cell CD38 expression but not with differences in the proportion of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. However, in women not infected with HIV, acquisition of HSV-2 was associated with an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells.
CONCLUSIONS:

HSV-2 coinfection was associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic inflammation. The immune effects of HSV-2 may underlie the negative impact that this coinfection has on the clinical course of HIV infection.

PMID:
18444797
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product (GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment(YUN) in Kenya over time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First, logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%, 0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increasein population reduces youth unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to be statistically significant

Shem Otoi Sam, Manene MM, Isaac C Kipchirchir, Pokhariyal GP. "Cointegration analysis of youth unemployment in Kenya." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3): 129-133. AbstractWebsite

In this paper analysis of contribution of macroeconomic variables gross domestic product
(GDP), external debt (ED), foreign direct investment (FDI), private investment (PI), youth
population (POP), and youth literacy rate (LR) to youth unemployment (YUN) in Kenya over
time is done. The analysis is done under framework of cointegration of time series data. First,
logarithmic transformation of the series is carried out followed by stationarity test to determine
the order of stationarity. The Philip-Ouliaris cointegration test is carried out to determine
whether the series are individually cointegrated in a pair-wise manner. Then the Johansen
cointegration test is conducted to determine the rank of cointegration. The paper does not
proceed to identify cointegration relations as that is superfluous as far as estimation of linear
cointegration model is concerned. Finally the linear cointegration equation of the
macroeconomic variables is estimated and interpreted. Philip-Ouliaris test reveals that six pairs
are I(0) while 15 pairs are I(1). The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test finds that GDP, FDI, and
ED are stationary at level, i.e. without differencing whereas PI, LR, YUN, and POP are
stationary of first difference. According to Johansen cointegration test, the rank of
cointegration is 3, revealing three cointegration relations among the variables used. The results
indicate that 1% increase in GDP, ED, FDI, and LR increases YUN by 0.356204%, 0.269%,
0.002441%, and 0.154216 respectively. Contrarily, 1% increase in population reduces youth
unemployment by 0.350833%.The model is subjected to F-test and p-value test and found to
be statistically significant.

Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Chemining'wa G, Mwachoni E, Hansen B, Wasilwa L, Owino W, Nenguwo N. "Cold chain management in horticultural crops value chains: options for smallholder farmers in Africa.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
n/a
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Cold Solvent Extraction and Phyico-Chemical Study of Avocado Oil", Internat. J. Biochemi Physics, 2, 81-84.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
   
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Cold solvent extraction and physico-chemical study of Avocado oil," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 75.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
n/a
Hutchinson MJ, Muchiri JN, Waithaka K. "Cold Storage and Flower Keeping Quality of Cut Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum L.)." Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences. 2011;7(2):4-11.12cold_storage_and_flower_keeping_quality_of_cut_lisianthus._2011._2.pdf
"Cold Storage and Flower Keeping Quality of Cut Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum L.)." College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. 2011.
NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Coliform counts and E. coli in raw commercial milk from dairy farmers in Kiambu District, Kenya.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
The rate of contamination with coliforms and incidence of Escherichia coli(E.coli) in raw milk supplied by farmers to dairy cooperative societies for marketing was investigated. About forty two percent(42.2%) of milk samples from farmers cans and 10.3 % of samples from cooperative cans were found to be free of coliforms, while 89.5% of the samples from farmers cans and 50% samples from cooperative cans could be considered to be of good quality with no more 500,000 coliforms/ml of milk. Forty-two E.coli strains were isolated from the milk samples, five of which were found to be enteropathogenic. None of the isolates was found to be of serogroup 0157. The results indicated that a good number of farmers draw milk under satisfactory conditions, but awareness campaigns on clean milking, milk handling and storage practices should be stepped up in order to reach farmers who may not be informed. Again the study showed that raw milk can get contaminated with enteropathogenic E. coli that can pose a potential risk to humans, thus calls for extra care when preparing millk and milk products that are to be consumed by humans beings.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Collaboration in the provision of Family Health Education in Swaziland published in Development Bulletin No. 52.". In: Regional Workshop on Designing and Writing Distance Education Material for Higher Education, Kampala Uganda April 2002. Thought and Practice; 2000. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Duque RB, Ynalvez M, Sooryamoorthy R, aul Mbatia P, aul Mbatia P, esley Shrum W. "Collaboration paradox: Scientific productivity, the Internet, and p roblems of research in developing areas." Social Studies of Science. 2005;5(35):755-785.
BEVLYNE SITHOLE, TORBEN BIRCH-THOMSEN, OLE MERTZ, TREVOR HILL THILDEBECHBRUUNANDTHUITATHENYA, BRUUN THILDEBECH, Thenya T. "Collaborative education across continents: Lessons from a partnership on sustainable resource management education.". In: Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa. 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routledge; 2016.higher_education_and_capacity_building_i.pdf
Collaborative Filtering: A Comparison of Graph-based Semisupervised Learning Methods and Memory-based Methods.; 2008. AbstractWebsite

Collaborative filtering is a method of making predictions about the interests of a user based on interest similarity to other users and consequently recommending the predicted items. There is a widespread use of collaborative filtering systems in commercial websites, such as Amazon.com, which has popularized item-based methods. There are also many music and video sites such as iLike and Everyone’s a Critic (EaC) that implement collaborative filtering systems. This trend is growing in product-based sites. This paper discusses the implementation of graph-based semisupervised learning methods and memory-based methods to the collaborative filtering scenario and compares these methods to baseline methods such as techniques based on weighted average. This work compares the predictive accuracy of these methods on the MovieLens data set. The metrics used for evaluation measure the accuracy of generated predictions based on already known, held-out ratings that constitute the test set. Preliminary results indicate that graph-based semi-supervised learning methods perform better than baseline methods. However, some of the memory-based methods outperform the graph-based semi-supervised learning methods as well as the baseline methods.

Mwaniki, S.W, Gakuya, F., Mwaura, F., Muthama, J.M. "Collaborative Governance for Sustainable Delivery of Public Open Spaces in Nairobi City, East African Journal of Science." Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2019.
Collaborative management of wildlife in Kenya: an empirical analysis of stakeholders' participation, costs and incentives.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Selected wildlife co-management arrangements in Kenya are analysed using descriptive methods, benefit-cost analysis and econometric models. In 2000, household and community-level data were collected from Kimana and Golini-Mwaluganje (GM) community sanctuaries in the wildlife dispersal areas of Amboseli National Park and Shimba Hills National Reserve, respectively. It is shown that transaction costs arising from landowners' participation in the information acquisition, negotiations and operation activities are not a major factor influencing co-management efficiency. Although the lack of profitability may be a disincentive for landowners' participation, co-management can also create other stronger incentives such as protection of landowners' property rights and economic interests. The importance of structuring the co-management process in such a way that all categories of landowners participate effectively in the information gaining and negotiation phase is emphasized. There is also a need to look into ways of compensating categories or groups of landowners who incur wildlife conservation costs without access to direct benefits.

Kahurananga J;, Akundabweni L;, Jutzi S;, Kategile JA. "Collection and preliminary forage evaluation of some ethiopian trifolium species. Proceedings.".; 1985.
McCormick D;, Kinyanjui, Mary Njeri; Mitullah WV. "Collective efficiency and small enterprise in kenyA proposal to study the vehicle repair and fish processing industriesa .". 1995. AbstractWebsite

A proposal for research into two clusters of small-scale activities in Kenya. The first is a group of auto repair businesses and related activities located in Nairobi and neighbouring Thika. The other consists of small-scale fisheries and related trading, services and processing activities around Lake Victoria. The proposed research is part of an international study investigating the nature and dynamics of industrial clusters in developing countries. The study focuses on the clustering of enterprises and the competitive advantage which they derive from local external economies and joint action, captures in the concept of collective efficiency. The Kenya case study aims, at determining whether each of the two clusters has the characteristics associated with industrial districts elsewhere; assessingthe capacity of each cluster to both to opportun ities and shocks in their environment; and and developing recommendations for strengthening each cluster. The research methodology will include a general and detailed studies of selected firms and their relationships with suppliers of inputs, buyers of outputs, firms with which they compete/cooperate, and institutions relevant to their businesses. Relationships to be studied include both economic and socio-cultural ties and gender differences in producers' networks.

MBUNDE LUMITIGRACE. College of Humanities and Social Sciences.; 2013. Abstractmbunde_employees__perception_of_staff_appraisal_in_public_organisations_a_case_study_of_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

The topic of this study was Employees’ Perception of Performance Appraisal: A
Case Study of the University of Nairobi. Despite the fact that various studies exist on
performance appraisal, none has specifically explored employee perception of
performance appraisal at the University of Nairobi among the Administrative Staff
from Grades A to Academic.The objectives of the study were: To examine
employees’ views of performance appraisal results in the University of Nairobi, to
find out the extent to which employees and employers understand performance
appraisal in the University of Nairobi and assessing the tool used in performance
appraisal of employees in the University of Nairobi.
In the Literature of this study the following themes were addressed: the concept of
performance appraisal, objectives of performance appraisal, staff benefits, the
process of appraisal, appraisal styles, requirement for effective performance
appraisal and performance appraisal methods. A sample of 138 respondents was
selected. The respondents were drawn from the six colleges and Central
Administration of the University of Nairobi. Semi structured questionnaires were
administered to the respondents. Primary data was collected, summarized and
analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables and pie charts.
The study established that whereas there was a performance appraisal system in place,
it faced various challenges. Among the factors found to influence employee perception
were: lack of clarity on the purpose of staff performance appraisal, inexistent link
between performance appraisal results and reward system, lack of communication on
problem areas that require improvement and absence of performance standards.

C.O.N. K. "College student’s views about purported male chauvinism." The Fountain. . 2010;Journal of Education(University of Nairobi).
J.J. Muturi, J.P. Mbugi, J.M. Mueke, Jan Langerlof, J.K. Mungatu, Nyamasyo GHN, Gikungu M. "Collembola density and diversity along a gradient of land-use types in Embu District, Eastern Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2009:361-369.
Gikungu M, Nyamasyo G, Muturi J, Mbugi JP, Mueke J, Jan Langerlof, Mungatu J. "Collembola Richness And Diversity Along A Gradient Of Land-use Intensity And Soil Abiotic Factors In Taita, Kenya.". 2009.Website
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "A Social System Description of Small Farmers in two Western Kenya Districts.".". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "African Family and Child Welfare" Tradition in Transition.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology: Vol. 36(1):56-65. JOENSUU UNIVERSITY PRESS. ISSN 0019, 1999. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Culture and Gender in Kenya:The Conceptual Connection and the Agenda for Change Mila Vol.4 1999, pp. 1 - 8.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Differential Participation of Men and Women in Production and Reproduction in Kakamega District" Implications for Equity. 0169-796X.". In: Journal of Developing Societies. Vol. V, Nos 3 and 4. pp. 234 244. Edited by K. Ishwaran and published by E. J. Bril, Leiden, The Netherlands. ISSN. European Psychiatric Journal; 1989. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Fertility and the Status of Women in Kericho District" Reflections on some key Reproductive Issues.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Social Sciences 4(1): 61-76)A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi .ISSN 0250 - 8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Gender Disparities in the Kenyan Labour Market Implications for Poverty Reduction".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 11:3, pp. 301 . European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Labour and Land Use Patterns in Small Scale Farms in Siaya and Kakamega Districts": Correlates and Determinants of Farm Labour Supply. Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences. Vol. 3. pp. 19-34.". In: A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Natural Disaster Preparedness, Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development in Kenya".". In: African Study Monographs Vol. 21 No. 3, 2000, pp. 91-103. ISSN 0285-1601. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Sex Behaviour, Cultural Practices and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in South Nyanza District, Kenya".". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences. Series C: Social Sciences.: Vol.3. pp. 5 18. A Publication of The Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. European Psychiatric Journal; 1993. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Street Children in Nairobi and the African Cultural Ideology of Kin-based Support System: Change and Challenge".". In: Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. A Journal of the British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, UK, Child Abuse Review Vol. 6. pp: 199-217. ISSN 0952 - 9136. European Psychiatric Journal; 1997. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Centrality of Women in the Moral Teachings in African Society".". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies, 5(2) pp. 71-83. Published by the Nordic Association of African Studies, Uppsala and Printed in Helsinki by the Helsinki University Press, Finland. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 1996. Abstract
Poverty, rapid urbanization, population growth rate, family instability and the declining role of the extended family system are among the key factors responsible for the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Nairobi. In this state of flux, cases of children who have been battered, abandoned, abused and neglected by their families or displaced as a result of armed conflict in the region have increased at an astounding pace over the past several years. One out of every three children from poor urban families in Kenya is regularly battered or subjected to other forms of maltreatment by a parent or other family members, the public and the authorities. Basically, there are two levels of abuse and neglect. There is abuse and neglect which children experience at home and which drives them onto the streets. There is also abuse and neglect which street children endure while on the streets. This paper discusses some of the ways in which abuse and neglect affect the lives of street children and families. It also highlights the difficulties which they endure while on the street.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Impact of Social Change on Marital Stability Among the Luo Community in Kisumu Town.".". In: African Journal of Sociology, 1(1), pp: 46 71. European Psychiatric Journal; 1981. Abstract

The existing structure of the division of labour between men and women and the changing roles of women in Kenya are at once rooted in cultural norms and institutions and reinforced by structural arrangements. The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on the agricultural sector. The great majority of the small farms are worked by family labour, and women provide the bulk of the labour force. Differences in male and female labour contributions to production and reproduction and the rewards associated with such roles constitute a basis for gender inequality. Changes in the historical processes and in the structure of the division of labour have conjointly led to the expansion of female roles, intensification of women's workload, and their economic and social marginality. This paper speaks to these issues and details the ways in which cultural and structural forces interact to define and perpetuate the role and subordinate status of women in Western Kenya.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Invisible Child Worker in Kenya: The Intersection of Poverty, Legislation and Culture.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 10 No. 2 pp.163-175, 2001. A Publication of the Nordic Association of African Studies. ISSN 1235-4481. European Psychiatric Journal; 2001. Abstract

Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya's enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which flooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "The Underlying Assumptions of the Dependency Perspective, the World System Theory and the Modes of Production Approach" Some Disjunctures in Thinking Globally and Acting Locally, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development Vol. 2.". In: Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Towards an Understanding of Smallholder Agriculture in Western Kenya: An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Crop Production, Discovery and Innovation", 4 (4): 15 23.". In: A Publication of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) and the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS), Nairobi, Kenya, ISSN 1015-079X. European Psychiatric Journal; 1992. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, .pp 281-294,October 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda Agricultural Development Policies and Institutional Support Systems in Post Colonial Kenya and Tanzania.". In: Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol. 20: pp. 104 126. Published by Gideon S. Were Press, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN 0251-0405. European Psychiatric Journal; 1990. Abstract
Family life in Nairobi has undergone some major transformation in the recent past as a result of the changes in the wider socio-cultural-economic systems. This transformation has had adverse consequences for children who depend primarily or solely on one parent for care, protection and livelihood. This paper examines such changes in the specific salient features of the family system in Kenya and discusses the implications for the well-being of urban children, particularly those living in difficult and deprived circumstances in the slums of Nairobi. What emerges from the analyses is a situation in which changes in the structure and function of the family unit have generated conflicting conceptions of mutual kinship obligation. Such trends have led to the erosion of vital social support systems in the family and community and worsened the condition of many Nairobi children from poor families. The slowing economic growth and deteriorating social infrastructure have also heightened the level of deprivation and marginalization of the urban poor, particularly the children.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette A. Suda and Jens Aagaard-Hansen Research Capacity Strengthening and Applied Medical Anthropology within the Kenyan-Danish Health Research Project (KEDAHR).". In: MILA. VOL.5 Pp:1-8, 2003. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Collette Suda, Mary Omosa and Philista Onyango Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Development in Nyanza Province.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C: Humanities and Social Sciences 5 (1) pp 66 - 75. A Publication of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi. ISSN 0250-8265. European Psychiatric Journal; 1999. Abstract

Many aspects of African traditional family patterns and child-rearing practices are increasingly being challenged by new pressures, re-evaluated against emerging values and replaced by new arrangements as part of a continuing transition in the social and cultural ecology of African family life. All the interlocking forces of change discussed in this paper have put added stress on the family's capacity to secure sustainable well-being. Although the changes affect everyone, women and children from the poorest families who already suffer different kinds of deprivation in many aspects of their lives are usually the worst affected. At the crossroads of family tradition and transition is the issue of sustainable child welfare. New and innovative strategies are required to strengthen the capabilities of individuals, families and communities to share care-giving responsibilities within the framework of reciprocity and partnerships to facilitate sustainable social relationships in and outside the family. This may require building alliances beyond the family and community to open a wider range of opportunities for men, women and children and a change in the overall perception of parenting to make the unique role of women in childcare meaningful, viable and sustainable

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Collins O. Ondiek, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, Adoption of cloud computing architecture-software as a service (saas) for the development of micro, small and meduim size entreprises (msmes) in Kenya. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Collision Broadening of Rotational Spectrum.". In: J. Chem. Phys. 57, 2229. University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
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Peng B, Smallenburg F, Imhof A, Dijkstra M, van Blaaderen A. "Colloidal clusters by using emulsions and dumbbell-shaped particles: Experiments and simulations." Angewandte Chemie. 2013;125:6841-6844. Abstract
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Saidi H, Njuguna E MSWAO-ANAOAHIA. "Colon Cancer.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya . Nairobi: Ministry of Heath, Kenya; 2013.
Mwiandi. "Colonial Vision for Rural Kenya? Case of Community Development Training at the Jeanes School, Kabete, 1945-1961.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The Establishment of Jeanes School at Kabete was from the onset a government venture to train men and women whose task was advance the colonial government hegemonic control of the population. This was done mainly through community development programs and activities both in the urban and rual areas. During the pre-Second World War period, the school trained school supervisors and their wives who in different capacities made their schools and homes radiating centers of change and progress. Later the chiefs and sub-chiefs and their wives having underwent short courses training at the school led the way in the rural in propagating government agenda. The Second World war period transformed the school into military training center for the purpose of advancing government’s control policies. It was the period after the war the School systematically embarked of crash programs to train men and women to spearhead development in their respective communities as well as become agents keeping law and order in the colony

PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Colonisation of resistant and susceptible bean tissue by Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferr.". In: African Crop Science Journal Vol. 7(4): 523 -527. Taylor & Francis; 1999. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

Luambano N;, Kimenju JW;, Narla R;, Waceke JW. "Colonisation of the Rhizosphere of plants which are poor host to root-knot nematodes by the biological agent Pochonia chlamydosporia."; 2011. Abstract

Management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.,) using fungi that parasitize eggs of root-knot and cyst nematodes has been gaining popularity. Application of this fungus to plants that are poor host to root-knot nematodes has shown good results. This study was conducted to screen plants that support growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia on its rhizosphere. Seedlings of cabbage, sunhemp, maize, velvet bean, African marigold and tomato were planted in pots containing sterilized soil which had Pochonia chlamydosporia. Thirty days after planting, the fungal propagules in the soil and roots increased significantly (P<0.05) in all plants with the exception of velvet beans. Ninety days after planting, the counts of the fungal propagules taken from the soil were significant higher (P<0.05) in the rhizosphere where maize was planted than in other plants. This study concluded that maize is a promising rotational in system where P. chlamydosporia is used as a biocontrol agent.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Colonization and adaptation of predacious mites. Ph.D. Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 134 pp.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
M DRSENERWADANIEL. "Colonization of Neonates in a Nursery Ward with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Correlation to the Clinical Histories of the Children.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 1989. Abstract
Stool samples were examined  from 30 preterm to a nursery ward; 16 neonates had diarrhea 12 constituted an aged-matched control group without diarrhea, and had an unknown history regarding diarrhea. Variable number of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotype0111:HNT strains possessing the gene coding for the enteroadherence factor(EAF) were found in stool samples from 13 of the neonates. No other microbiological enteropathogen was found. A total of 294 strains (9 or 10from each neonate, comprising 229 E. coli and 65 Klebsiella pneumonia strains) were characterized with respect to plsmid content and grouped into 37 plasmid profile groups. Diarrhea was found not to be correlated with any specific plasmid profile or with the number of EAF-positive strains but rather with the number of strains with one specific plasmid profile or with the number of EAF-positive strains (of the 9 or 10 strains) isolated from each stool sample. All the neonates who died had diarrhea (5 died of 16 with diarrhea); all five of the neonates who died possessed strains with one specific plasmid profile group, and EAF-positive strains were isolated from four of them .of the seven neonates from whom seven or more EAF-positive isolates were isolated, three died, compared with only one of five of those whom only few (1 to 3 of 10)EAF-positive strains were isolated. Both plasmid profiling and genetic probing with the EAF-positive probe were found to be good alternatives when serotyping is not available for identification of 0111:HNT enteropathogenic E.coli strains.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Colorectal Cancer Surgery Trends in Kenya. Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Githaiga JW, Karuri D. 1993-2005. World Journal of Surgery, 2008; 32: 217-223.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

Sheikh MA. Colostomy closure as seen at kenyatta national hospital both retrospective and prospective study.; 2003. Abstract

This is both a prospective study of thirty patients from March 2002 to February 2003 and a
retrospective study of eighty-five patients from January 1999 to February 2002 who underwent colostomy closure at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There was no significant difference in the
results of the two groups.
The main objective of the study was to analyse variables that determine outcome of colostomy
closure. All patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study.
The average age of patients in the prospective group was 34 (range, 15-85) years and 35 (range
16-87) years in the retrospective group. There were more males than females in the study with a
male to female ratio of 5:1 and 4.3:1 in the prospective and retrospective groups respectively.
The common indications for colostomy were colon injury and colon obstruction accounting for
more than eighty five percent (85%) of the patients.
Hartman's colostomy was the commonest type of colostomy fashioned accounting for fifty
percent (50%) and 44.7% of the colostomies in the prospective and retrospective studies
'respectively. Seventy percent (70%) of the colostomies in the prospective group and 58.8% of
those in the retrospective group were sited at the sigmoid colon. Mean time until colostomy
closure was 7.6 (range, 0.82 to 91) months in the prospective group and 5.3 (range, 0.79 to 29) ,
months in the retrospective group.
All the patients had mechanical bowel preparation. Seventy three percent (73%) in the
prospective group and 63.3% in the retrospective group had prophylactic systemic antibiotics.
All the patients had intraperitoneal closure of the colostomy. About ninety percent (90%) of the
patients in the study had two-layer anastomosis of the colon. About sixty percent (60%) of the
patients in the study had their colostomies closed in less than two hours. The average hospital
stay for patients in the prospective group was 7.1 (range, 2 to 18) days and 9.8 (range, 4 to 61)
days in the retrospective group.
The rate of developing early complications was 16.7% in the prospective group of which 13.4%
had wound infection and 15.3% in the retrospective group of which 11.8% had wound infection.
There was no death. There was a trend of increasing morbidity in patients who had colon
obstruction, colostomies sited at the sigmoid colon, Hartman's colostomy, operations lasting
more than two hours and those operated by Registrars.

Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science, Abuja, Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: Elsevier; 2007. Abstract

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Aduda B. O., S.M W, Ogacho A. A., J.M. M, R.J. M, Simiyu J. "Columnar and passivated nanoporous TiO2 based excitonic solar cell.". In: Paper presented at the US/Africa workshop on frontiers in Material Science. Abuja, Nigeria; 2007. Abstract

Excitonic solar cells which include organic, hybrid organic–inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSSCs) promise inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion devices. We report on the charge transport (electron drift mobility) sputter deposited TiO2 and surface photovoltage and photocurrent transients of alumina-passivated TiO2, and on the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized cells whose photoelectrodes are sputtered.

Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
Jitta JN, Wafula EM, Wasunna A. "The comatose child in Paediatric Observation Ward of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr Med J. 1984;61(12):917-24.
Sihanya B. Combating Counterfeit Trade in Kenya.; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Product counterfeiting and trade in counterfeit products, labels and packaging involve imitation of genuine products that are marketed under brand names.3 Counterfeit products are becoming a major problem to consumers, innovators and traders in Kenya and globally. Such imitations are usually clones or falsified products, labels and packaging designed to look like those of genuine products. The aim is to confuse or deceive consumers as to their quality, source, origin or legitimacy. Counterfeits are manufactured, processed or supplied by unscrupulous traders who infringe and unlawfully apply other corporations’ or individuals’ innovations and intellectual property (IP).4 The basic thesis in this Chapter is that although there are short-term gains to consumers and the Kenyan economy from counterfeiting, the medium and long-term losses are massive. This Chapter adopts a three-pronged strategy on combating counterfeiting in Kenya. First, I evaluate the nature and extent of counterfeit trade in Kenya in the context of trade liberalization and the development of an information society. I also assess the effects of counterfeit trade on the various economic players including consumers, innovators, traders, investors, and the Kenyan Government. Second, I evaluate the intellectual property regime in Kenya and how IP can combat counterfeiting. I then carefully examine the anti-counterfeiting law and enforcement mechanisms in Kenya, including their effectiveness in addressing the problem. Third, I explore how that law can be reformed to ensure sustainable development by protecting innovators, consumers and other stakeholders.

Maingi N. "Combating Cysticercosis In ECA."; 2006.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Combating HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Priority setting and resource allocation. Christopher Onyango & Enos Njeru. 64p. ISBN 9966-948-06-6.". In: Discussion Paper No. DP059/2004. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has emerged as one of the leading challenges to global public health and development. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, has become the epicenter of the pandemic, with over 29.4 million people currently living with the virus and more than 2.4 million people having succumbed to the
disease. In Kenya, the agonies of the HIV/AIDS to individuals, families and societies are overwhelming. Much of the hard-won gains in economic growth, life expectancy and child survival have been wiped out. Besides, many sectors, including education, agriculture, industry and health are staggering under the
burden of the disease. These sectors lose trained professionals and have to contend with higher costs of production and delivery of services.

In Kenya, the Sessional Paper No.4 of 1997 on AIDS lays down the contemporary long-term framework for response to the pandemic. After declaring AIDS a national disaster in 1999, the government established the National AIDS Control Council (NACC) to guide implementation of the National HIVIAIDS Strategic
Plan 2000-2005, within the framework of the multi-sectoral approach. But despite these efforts, successes have been far too few and on too small a scale to reverse the pandemic. This study looked into the priorities and allocation of resources among alternative HIV-related interventions within the framework of the AIDS strategic plan. It also examined the link between the national HIV/AIDS Programme, the macroeconomic framework and the participatory role played by various actors in HIVIAIDS-related activities. Finally, the study
assessed the impacts of alternative patterns of resource allocation with regard to reduction of HIV prevalence, programme coverage and future expenditures averted.

The study entailed the use of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. HIV related demographic, behavioral and financial data, gathered by the National AIDS Control Council during the year 2002 was heavily used. In particular, we used the GOALS simulation model to assess the consequences and trade-offs
of HIVIAIDS resource allocation options. The study also investigated the policies, planning and budgetary commitments to HIV/AIDS-related priorities using secondary data sources, complemented with primary data collected mainly through in-depth interviews with key informants based in Nairobi.

The study established that the costing of the multi-sectoral HIVIAIDS strategic plan lies outside the center of the national budget allocation decisions and the Mid Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), despite the existence of a strong institutional framework and enabling policy environment. Further, our analysis showed that given available resources, there is great potential to improve the national response to HIV/AIDS by increasing expenditures on preventive measures and treatment and care services as opposed to policy development and management in the coming years. The study therefore strongly recommends,
among others, the need to fully integrate the HIV/AIDS strategic plan into the national framework of the poverty reduction and economic recovery strategies in order to achieve a more comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. An effective way of mainstreaming HIV/AIDS and supporting an
effective multi-sectoral response to illY/AIDS will be through ensuring that HIV/AIDS is adequately addressed as part of the poverty reduction agenda and economic recovery strategies, the objective being to get HIV/AIDS routinely mainstreamed into government planning, programming and budgeting processes
(ERS and MTEF). This will ultimately result in HIV/AIDS being mainstreamed into sector strategies.

P.M M, Okweba D. Combating new Piracy in the Indian Ocean. German: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller; 2012.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Combating piracy and maritime crime in the Indian Ocean.". In: Indian Ocean Naval Symposium. Abu Dhabi (UAE; 2010.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Combating piracy and maritime crime in the Indian Ocean.". In: Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS. Abu Dhabi (UAE); 2010.
Kahiu Ngugi*, Abigail J. Ngugi, Sarah Osama, Mugoya C. "COMBATING STRIGA WEED IN SORGHUM BY TRANSFERRING RESISTANCE QUANTITATIVE TRAIT." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science . 2015;3(3): 67-76.combating_striga_weed_in_sorghum_by_transferring_resistance.pdf
OLIECH JS. "Combination drug treatment of beingn prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).". In: The Annals of African Surgery. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 2010. Abstract

Combination use of alpha-adrenergic blockers (tamsulocin or alfuzocin) and 5 alpha iso-enzyme 1&2 inhibitor (dutasteride) in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the best first optional mode of treatment giving good results with minimal treatment  adverse effects especially for those at risk for surgical intervention and those who are still sexually active. 

Kirui JK, Ngure R, Bii C, Karimi PN, Mutai C, Amugune BK. "Combined Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Eucalyptus citriodora and Syzygium aromaticum Essential oils." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(1):29-37.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
JOSEPH DRDIENYATOM, BISHAR DRALASOWKASSIM, R PROFLESANWILFRED, KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique in the management of enamel flourotic stains. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1) : 24-28.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. International Journal of Climatology; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
Manteaw ED, Abungu NO. "Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch Solution Using ABC_PSO Hybrid Algorithm with Valve Loading Effect." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2012;2(12):1-9. Abstractijsrp-p1299.pdfClick here to read more...

The problem of power system optimization has become a deciding factor in current power system engineering practice with emphasis on cost and emission reduction. The economic and emission dispatch problem has been addressed in this paper using two efficient optimization methods, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). A hybrid produced from these two algorithms is tested on a 10 generator test system with valve point effects. The results are compared with differential evolution (DE), Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) and Non Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) and found to be effective on the combined economic and emission dispatch problem.

Mwangi  WE, Mogoa EM, Kimeli P, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Gitonga PN, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Combined Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine isoflurane Anaesthesia for management of Femoral Fracture in a Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).". 2016.
W.E. M, E.M. M, P K, D.W. M, A.N. K, G. K, J.D. M, E. K, D. M. "Combined Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine- Isoflurane Anaesthesia for Management of Femoral Fracture in a Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine . 2016;71(1):48-52.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Kimeli P, Muasya DW, Kipyegon AN, Kirui G, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Mijele D. "Combined Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine-Isoflurane Anaesthesia for Management of Femoral Fracture in a Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2016;71:1. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM KMDWKANKMJDKPGE,(2016). MD. "Combined Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine-Isoflurane Anaesthesia for Management of Femoral Fracture in a Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)." Israeli Journal of Veterinary Medicine 71(1):48-52. 2016;71:48-52. Abstract
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DHARMADHIKARY VM, KONDITI DBO, KOECH EK, MAKICHE JK. "Combined Field Integral formulation for Broadwall Radiating Slots of arbitrary Shape.". In: IEEE-Africon 2009. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi; 2009.
W. GS, F.G. M, M. OT, A. WK. "Combined Modality Approach in the management of Oral and Circumoral Haemangiomas with emphasis on the use of Absolute Ethyl Alcohol.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Although various modalities of treatment of haemangiomas including embolic therapy have been proposed, consideration of cost and technological requirements suggest that cheaper methods with less technological re-quirements need to be developed for use particularly in developing countries. The study objective was to de¬scribe the pattern of circumoral haemangiomas and explore the possible role of absolute ethyl alcohol in their management. It was a prospective study using hospital based study group at the University of Nairobi teaching and referral Dental Hospital. Of the 25 cases (24 females, 1 male) on follow-up, 68% had carvemous while 20% had capillary haemangiomas. The majority of the haem angiomas ranged in size from 2cm 2 - 31.5cm2. The lower lip was the most frequently affected (52%). None of the cases underwent spontaneous involution even after 10 years of follow-up. After intra lesions administration of alcohol, 3 cases of carvenous haeman¬gioma measuring 2cm2 and none of the capillary type underwent complete resolution. Other benefits of ethyl alcohol included better localization of the lesion and negligible intra and post operative haemorrhage for cases requiring surgery. Although pain and swelling for a few days were recorded in all cases and superficial tissue necrosis in two cases, there were no major alcohol-related complications. Therefore, Intra-lesion administra¬tion of absolute ethyl alcohol appears to be effective adjuvant to surgery and in addition may result in com¬plete resolution of small cavernous types of lesion. Spontaneous resolution of haemangiomas is not common in our set-up.

NO A. "A combined sensitivity factor based GA-IPSO approach for system loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Science. 2013;12(2):2319-5665. Abstractabungupaper.pdfWebsite

Though several algorithms for optimizing DG location and size in a network with the aim of reducing system power losses and enhancing better voltage profile have already been proposed, they still suffer from several drawbacks. As a result much can be done in coming up with new algorithms or improving the already existing ones so as to address this important issue more efficiently and effectively. Majority of the proposed algorithms have emphasized on real power losses only in their formulations. They have ignored the reactive power losses which is key in the operation of power systems. In modern practical power systems reactive power injection plays a critical role in voltage stability control, thus the reactive power losses need to be incorporated in
optimizing DG allocation for voltage profile improvement. The results of the few works which have considered reactive power losses in their optimization can be improved by using more recent and accurate algorithms. This research work aimed at solving this problem by proposing a hybrid of GA and IPSO to optimize DG location and size while considering both real and reactive power losses. Both real and reactive power flow and power loss sensitivity factors were utilized in identifying the candidate buses for DG allocation. This reduced the search space for the algorithm and increasing its rate of convergence. This research considers a multi-type DG; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active
power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power)."

Charlese JK, Abungu DNO. "A Combined Sensitivity factor based GA-IPSO approach for System Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Enhasment." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Science. 2013;12(2).j._kilonzi_and_dr._abungu_3.pdf
Mwaniki JM, Mbugua SN. "Combined Solvent Extraction – Clevenger Distillation method for producing blue essential oil from matricaria chamomilla flowers." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society Vol 4 No 1, 2007, p12-26. 2007;Vol 4(1):12-26. Abstract

Abstract
Ground chamomile flowers were mixed with distilled acetone in a large conical flask, kept under varying period of days without agitation/shaking, yielded an organic extract, which when concentrated, mixed with water and Clevenger distilled produced the blue essential oil. Thin layer chromatography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra and Gas Chromatography analysis of the oil obtained from the direct Clevenger distillation of chamomile flowers and that from the Solvent Extraction-Clevenger Distillation (SECD) revealed similar components of essential oil extracted, though in varying proportions. The SECD method offers a cheaper method of producing chamomile essential oil on large scale without the use of expensive high-pressure steam systems currently being used for the extraction of the essential oil on industrial scale. The yield of the essential oil produced on a 400 g scale of flowers after eight days of contact between solvent and flowers (extraction) is comparable with that of Clevenger distillation on a laboratory scale (1.1% yield).

Nzuve F, Githiri S, Mukunya DM, Gethi J. "Combining abilities of maize inbred lines for grey leaf." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science. 2013;5(3):41-47.
Karaya H, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Nderitu H. "Combining ability among twenty insect maize inbred lines resistant to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca stem borers." International Journal of Plant Production. 2009;3(1):115-127.
Karaya H;, Njoroge K;, Mugo S;, Nderitu H. "Combining Ability among Twenty Insect Resistant Maize inbred lines Resistant to Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca Stem borers."; 2006. Abstract

A partial diallel design was used among 20 maize inbred lines to form 110 F1 hybrids to generate information on the values of these lines for developing insect resistant maize varieties during the short rains season of 2006. The hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the C. partellus and B. fusca, and for agronomic performance over two seasons during long and short rains of 2007 at a mid-altitude dry early maturity site at KARI Kiboko, and the moist mid-altitude medium maturity site at KARI Embu. leaf damage score (using a scale of 1-9 where: 1= No damage and 9= extremely damaged), number of exit holes, cumulative tunnel length, and grain yield were measured as resistance traits. The genotype sum of square was partitioned into general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects. Maize inbred lines with good general combining ability for insect resistance including maize inbred lines with significant and negative GCA`s for leaf damage were identified as lines 12,16,18,19 and 20 at Kiboko and lines 8, 17, 18, and 20 in Embu. Results showed that the problem of stem borers intensified by over 40% within four years in the experimental region of Eastern Kenya; currently mean yield loss due to stem borers was assessed to be about 56%. Several hybrids had significant negative SCA for leaf damage and significant positive SCA for grain yield. The maize inbred lines studied revealed their potential for use in breeding programs for insect resistance that could result in a correlated response for increased grain yield. Recurrent selection would be the best option to develop high yielding insect resistant germplasm for this region of Kenya considering that additive gene action were predominant. Evidently, it would be more difficult to develop host plant resistance to B. fusca than to C. partellus

Yuga ME, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani PM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Combining Ability and Heterosis for Agronomic and Yield Traits in Indica and Japonica Rice Crosses." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2018;10(12):92-103.
Malemba GM, Nzuve FM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW. "Combining Ability for Drought Tolerance in Upland Rice Varieties at Reproductive Stage." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(3):138-150.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Rono S, Nzuve F, Muthomi J, Kimani J. "Combining Ability of Agronomic and Yield Traits in Rice Genotypes." Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology. 2018;6:2.

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