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A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The Climatology of Duststorm Events in northern Kenya.". In: Jour. African Meteor. Soc., VOL. 5.No. 2, 11-19. Kenya Met Soc; 2002. Abstract
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Musoni A;, Buruchara R;, Kimani PM. "Climbing Beans In Rwanda: Development, Impact, And Challenges."; 2001. Abstract

Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are the second major contributor of dietary protein in East and Central Africa. With an adoption rate of 50% among farmers just 10 years after their introduction, improved climbing beans are fast replacing the bush type, raising on-farm productivity and contributing significantly to the GDP in Rwanda. Due to their yield advantage of 150% to 300% and better disease resistance, climbing beans have shown great potential for intensified production in other densely populated, humid, root-rot infested highlands in southern Uganda and central and western Kenya, as well as northern Tanzania, where improved varieties of climbing beans released in Rwanda have been introduced in recent years. The economic returns from growing climbers have encouraged farmers to invest in species like Leucaena and Calliandra to overcome staking problems, which has, at the same time, enabled farmers to exploit other values of the species, such as soil protection, soil improvement, fodder for ruminants, or a source of cooking fuel. Current research by Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Rwanda (ISAR) aims at developing climbing beans with red and red-mottled seed, having multiple disease resistance to meet the internal, regional, and international market demand.

Patrick K, Mercy M, Margaret O, Collins O, Alessandra F, Amanj K, B G, Brian G. "Clinical and Financial Implications of Medicine Consumption Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya to Guide Future Planning of Care. Front." Front. Pharmacol. 2018;(9):1348.
ENOCH DROMONGE. "Clinical and laboratory predictors of cholelithiasis in patients with sickle cell anaemia .East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
Munyoki G, Edwards T WKCKOVMSJWNBGNCRSTEG. "Clinical and neurophysiologic features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population-based study." Epilepsia. 2010;51. Abstract

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes.
METHODS:
We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms.
RESULTS:
Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children aged 6 to 18 years. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, and 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurologic deficits, or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and nonattendance at school in children (p < 0.01).
DISCUSSION:
Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented.

MANDE JOHNDEMESI. Clinical and Pathological features of Osteoarthritis of the Hip Joints in German Shepherd Dogs in Kenya”. MBITHI PETERFELIXMULWA, ed. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2003.
Karanja DN, Ngatia TA, Wandera JG. Clinical and Pathological observations in Kenyan donkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1992.
Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2015;9:62-66.clinical_and_socio-demographic.pdf
Oyoo GO, Genga EK, Otieno CF, Ilovi CS, Omondi EA, Otieno FO. "Clinical and socio-demographic profile of patients on treatment for osteoporosis in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2016;9(2). Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial aetiology and one of the most common metabolic bone diseases worldwide. There is a paucity of data on osteoporosis in Africa as it’s generally thought not to affect the non-Caucasian population. We sought to describe the population with osteoporosis in a Nairobi rheumatology clinic.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with osteoporosis seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.

Methods: Clinical, with emphasis on musculoskeletal manifestations, treatment and selected comorbidities in 56 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis were followed up and evaluated in the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic.

Results: The age distribution was 31- 95 years with majority being above the age of 60 years at 71.5%. Majority were female (89.3%). The main musculoskeletal manifestations were polyarthralgia (30.4%) followed by lower back pain (19.6%) and pathological fractures (12.5%). The types of osteoporosis were grouped as primary (9%), secondary (44.6%) and post-menopausal (46.4%). The most common clinical association being rheumatoid arthritis (39.3%) followed by steroids therapy (25%). Other comorbidities included osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythromatosus and diabetes. Seven study participants had history of fracture with lumbar spine fractures leading at 42.8%. None of the study participants were smokers. The number of patients on calcium supplements was at 71.4% and bisphosphonates was low at 32%.

Conclusion: The findings of this study from age to comorbidities on osteoporosis are in keeping with literature. The number of patients on bisphosphonates was low which differed from Western literature. Persons at increased risk for osteoporosis in this set-up include post-menopausal women with debilitating chronic illness causing reduced mobilization over time and presenting with bone pains.These patients should be investigated for osteoporosis and effective treatment administered early.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Clinical profile, Nairobi, Kenya

Mathai LW. clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal conditions in dogs. Nairobi- Clinical studies department: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Slyker JA, Casper C, Tapia K, Richardson B, Bunts L, Huang M-L, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, John-Stewart G. "Clinical and virologic manifestations of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Kenyan infants born to HIV-infected women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2013;207(12):1798-806. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas. Characterizing primary infection may elucidate risk factors for malignancy.

Onyambu CK, MN Wajihi, Odhiambo AO. "Clinical Application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Diagnosis of Intracranial Mass Lesions." Hindawi Radiology Research and Practice . 2021;2021:1-10.
Kuria DJ. "Clinical application of tumour markers." East Africa Med. Journal. 2009;86(12):76-83 .
ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Clinical Aspects of Infertility in Kenya: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the couple.". In: J.Obs. Gyn. East Centr.Afr. 6:61, 1987. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

ONJUA PROFOYIEKEJB, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Clinical Aspects of Infertility in Kenya: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the couple.". In: J.Obs. Gyn. East Centr.Afr. 6:61, 1987. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract

PIP: In this study, 273 university students (161 men and 112 women) were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practice concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mean age of the men was 22.4 +or- 1.6 years and that of the women was 22.1 +or- 1.6 years. 97.4% of the students were sexually experienced. Knowledge of common STDs was high, but knowledge of their signs, symptoms, and consequences was low. 24.5% of the male and 3.7% of the female students had had an STD. The principal sources of information on STDs included books, films, and TV for 39.6% of the students and teachers for 16.8% of the students. Parents played a very minimal role. It is suggested that primary and secondary school students be taught about STDs as part of reproductive health education and that such education be continued at the college level in order to increase the awareness among young people. author's modified

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Clinical aspects of sickle cell disease in Nairobi children. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 187-90 . PMID: 6956242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO, Kasili EG.". In: Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 187-90 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

Children with sickle cell disease in Nairobi come from tribes living in malarial regions of Kenya. The clinical presentation and complications of this disease are described. The symptoms at onset are nonspecific but the typical features that follow are easy to recognize. Cardiac murmurs and persistently enlarged spleen in older children pose diagnostic challenges. Poor appetite and failure to thrive are common; so are school absenteeism due to crises and infection. The use of white blood cell counts to determine the presence of infection during crises is described.

PMID: 6956242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
EK G, G.O.Oyoo, F.O O, E.A O, S J, J O, B.C S. "Clinical characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):62-66. Abstractclinical_characteristics_of_patients.pdf

Abstract
Background: Systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE), a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease with a
wide spectrum of manifestations, shows
considerable variation across the globe,
although there is data from Africa is
limited. Quantifying the burden of SLE
across Africa can help raise awareness and
knowledge about the disease. It will also
clarify the role of genetic, environmental
and other causative factors in the natural
history of the disease, and to understand
its clinical and societal consequences in
African set up.
Objective: To determine the clinical
profile of SLE patients at a tertiary care
centre in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Case records of patients who
were attending the Nairobi Arthritis
Clinic seen between January 2002
and January 2013 were reviewed.
This was a cross-sectional study done
on 100 patients fulfilling the 2012
Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics
(SLICC) criteria for SLE attending
the Nairobi Arthritis Clinic, Kenya.
The patients were evaluated for sociodemographic,
clinical and immunological
manifestations and drugs used to manage
SLE.
Results: Hundred patients diagnosed with
SLE were recruited into the study. Ninety
seven per cent of the study participants
were female with a mean age of 36.6
years. Thirty three years was the mean
age of diagnosis. The mean time duration
of disease was 3 years with a range of
0-13 years. There was extensive disease
as many had multi-organ involvement.
Majority (83%) of the study participants
met between 4 and 6 manifestations
for the diagnosis criteria for SLE. Non
erosive arthritis and cutaneous disease
were the commonest initial manifestation.
The patients had varied cutaneous,
haematological, pulmonary, cardiac, renal
and neuropsychiatric manifestations.
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) assay and
anti-dsDNA was positive in 82% and
52%. Patients on steroids, non-steroidal
drugs and synthetic disease modifying
anti-rheumatic drugs were 84%, 49% and
43% respectively. None of the patients
were on biologic disease modifying antirheumatic
drugs.

Genga EK, Shiruli BC, Odhiambo J, Jepkorir S, Omondi EA, Otieno FO, Oyoo GO. "Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Nairobi, Kenya." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(2):62-66.
E Genga OG, Otieno F, Shiruli B, Odhiambo J, Omondi E. "CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHROMATOSUS IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". 2016;34(4):S118.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Monroe-Wise A, Kibore M, Kiarie J, Ruth Nduati, Mburu J, Drake FT, Bremner W, Holmes K, Farquhar C. "The Clinical Education Partnership Initiative: an innovative approach to global health education." BMC Med Educ. 2014;14:1043. Abstract

Despite evidence that international clinical electives can be educationally and professionally beneficial to both visiting and in-country trainees, these opportunities remain challenging for American residents to participate in abroad. Additionally, even when logistically possible, they are often poorly structured. The Universities of Washington (UW) and Nairobi (UoN) have enjoyed a long-standing research collaboration, which recently expanded into the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Based on MEPI in Kenya, the Clinical Education Partnership Initiative (CEPI) is a new educational exchange program between UoN and UW. CEPI allows UW residents to partner with Kenyan trainees in clinical care and teaching activities at Naivasha District Hospital (NDH), one of UoN's MEPI training sites in Kenya.

Muraguri GR, Ngumi PN, Wesonga D, Ndungu SG, Wanjohi JM, Bang K, Foxb A, Dunneb J, McHardy N. "Clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of two formulations of buparvaquone in cattle infected with East Coast fever.". 2006.Website
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.". 2008.a_clinical_epidemiological.pdf
DR. MUTISO VINCENTMUOKI. "Clinical epidemiology in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;43(9):736-42. Epub 2008 May 8.PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process].". In: PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Maru H, Pizzo M, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. Africa Mental Health Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya. dmndetei@mentalhealthafrica.com BACKGROUND: Knowledge of types and co-morbidities of disorders seen in any facility is useful for clinical practice and planning for services. AIM: To study the pattern of co-morbidities of and correlations between psychiatric disorders in in-patients of Mathari Hospital, the premier psychiatric hospital in Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: All the patients who were admitted at Mathari Hospital in June 2004 and were well enough to participate in the study were approached for informed consent. Trained psychiatric charge nurses interviewed them using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders Clinical Version (SCID-I). Information on their socio-demographic profiles and hospital diagnoses was extracted from their clinical notes using a structured format. RESULTS: Six hundred and ninety-one patients participated in the study. Sixty-three percent were male. More than three quarters (78%) of the patients were aged between 21 and 45 years. More than half (59.5%) of the males and slightly less than half (49.4%) of the females were single. All the patients were predominantly of the Christian faith. Over 85% were dependents of another family member and the remainder were heads of households who supported their own families. Schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, psychosis, substance use disorder and schizo-affective disorder were the most common hospital and differential diagnoses. Of the anxiety disorders, only three patients were under treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nearly a quarter (24.6%) of the patients were currently admitted for a similar previous diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most frequent DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition) diagnosis (51%), followed by bipolar I disorder (42.3%), substance use disorder (34.4%) and major depressive illness (24.6%). Suicidal features were common in the depressive group, with 14.7% of this group reporting a suicidal attempt. All DSM-IV anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorders, were highly prevalent although, with the exception of three cases of PTSD, none of these anxiety disorders were diagnosed clinically. Traumatic events were reported in 33.3% of the patients. These were multiple and mainly violent events. Despite the multiplicity of these events, only 7.4% of the patients had a PTSD diagnosis in a previous admission while 4% were currently diagnosed with PTSD. The number of DSM-IV diagnoses was more than the total number of patients, suggesting co-morbidity, which was confirmed by significant 2-tailed correlation tests. CONCLUSION: DSM-IV substance use disorders, major psychiatric disorders and anxiety disorders were prevalent and co-morbid. However, anxiety disorders were hardly diagnosed and therefore not managed. Suicidal symptoms were common. These results call for more inclusive clinical diagnostic practice. Standardized clinical practice using a diagnostic tool on routine basis will go a long way in ensuring that no DSM-IV diagnosis is missed. This will improve clinical management of patients and documentation. PMID: 18465102 [PubMed - in process]
Bore M, Ilako D, Kariuki M. Clinical evaluation criteria and approach to management of ocular allergy by ophthalmologists in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.
Bore M. "Clinical evaluation criteria and approach to management of ocular allergy by ophthalmologists in Kenya.". In: College of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Congress. Kigali; 2013.
J.G KIBOI, PETER KITUNGUU, MUSAU C K, NIMROD MWANGOMBE. "clinical experience and outcome of pitutary surgery in kenyan patients at the kenyatta national hospital." AFRICA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2012;DECEMBER(2012):1-10.
Onyambu CK, Amayo EO, Ktonyi JM. "Clinical features and patterns of imaging findings in patients with cerebral Venous sinus thrombosis." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(10):181-188.
Chindia ML, Odhiambo W, Gathece LW, Dimba EAO, Okumu SB. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children. Patients and methods: The study involved patients aged 15years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme. Results: 65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%),proptosis 19(29%)and loss of vision 15 (23%).The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%)and maxilla 11(17%).Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%),followed by 14(21%)cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)and occurred in patients under 5 years ofage (40 cases) followed by 19cases in children aged 5-10 years. Conclusions: Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10years. Retinoblastoma and BLwere the most common neoplasms. © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Clinical features and types of paediatric orofacial malignant neoplasms at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-facial Surgery. 2011(xxx)1-7. Sanya BO, Chindia ML, Gathece LW, Dimba EO, Odhiambo W.; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Gupta H, Davidoff AM, Pui C-H, Shochat SJ, Sandlund JT. "Clinical implications and surgical management of intussusception in pediatric patients with {Burkitt} lymphoma." Journal of pediatric surgery. 2007;42:998-1001. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Blakelock RT, Beasley SW. "The clinical implications of non-idiopathic intussusception." Pediatric surgery international. 1998;14:163-167. AbstractWebsite
n/a
F M, JJ C. "Clinical Learning Experiences: A study among Undergraduate Nursing Students, Kenya." Nursing Research and Practice Journal. 2018.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Clinical malaria in Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):303-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Apr;61(4):303-5. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1984. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen GF, Knols, B.G.J. "Clinical malaria reduces human attractiveness to mosquitoes." Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society. 2007;18:125-129.
Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.

Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations of sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Bundi LB, Mwango GN, Otieno VO, Mulama BM. "Clinical neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury: Cranial ultrasound spectrum of findings in neonates admitted to a Newborn Unit in Nairobi, Kenya." West African Journal of Radiology. 2020;27(2):108-113.
Sun C, Dohrn J, Klopper H, Malata A, Omoni G, Larson E. "Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Priorities in Eastern and Southern African Countries: Results From a Delphi Survey." Nurs Res. 2015;64(6):466-75. Abstract

Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes.

Sun C, Dohrn J, Omoni G, Malata A, Klopper H, Larson E. "Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries." Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(1):104-10. Abstract

This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer in Kenya ." Ann. Afr. Surg.. 2011;7. AbstractWebsite

Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Saidi H, Abdihakin M, Njihia B, Jumba G, Kiarie G, Githaiga J, ABINYA NO. "Clinical Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2011;7. Abstract

Background
The incidence of colorectal cancer in Africa is increasing. True data on clinical outcomes of the disease is hampered by follow up challenges.
Method
Follow up data of 233 patients treated for colorectal cancer between 2005 and 2010 at various Nairobi hospitals were evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality while secondary outcomes included recurrence rates, time to recurrence and the patient, disease and treatment factors associated with mortality and recurrence. Kaplan Meir charts were charted for survival trends.
Results
Half of the lesions were located in the rectum. There was no relationship between the sub-site location and recurrence and mortality. The mean follow-up period was 15.9 months. Overall recurrency and mortality rates were 37.5% and 29.4% respectively. Most recurrences occurred within one year of surgery. Recurrence was not influenced by age, gender, sub-site, chemotherapy receipt or presence of comorbidity.
Factors significantly associated with mortality included the
male gender ( p 0.04), presence of co-morbidity (p 0.029), recurrence (p 0.001), curative intent (p 0.01), disease stage (p 0.036) and receipt of chemotherapy ( p< 0.01).
Conclusion
Follow up of colorectal cancer patients is still challenging. The mortality and recurrence rates are high for the short follow up periods. Further studies are needed to explore the determinants of both survival and recurrences, especially with longer follow ups.

Okusanya BO, Oladapo OT, Long Q, Lumbiganon P, Carroli G, Qureshi Z, Duley L, Souza JP, Gulmezoglu AM. "Clinical pharmacokinetic properties of magnesium sulphate in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia." A systematic Review 2015. 2015. Abstractclinical_pharmacokinetic_properties_of_magnesium_sulphate_in_women_with_pre.pdf

Background
The pharmacokinetic basis of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) dosing regimens for eclampsia prophylaxis and treatment is not clearly established.
Objectives
To review available data on clinical pharmacokinetic properties of MgSO4 when used for women with pre-eclampsia and/or eclampsia.
Search strategy
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, POPLINE, Global Health Library and reference lists of eligible studies.
Selection criteria
All study types investigating pharmacokinetic properties of MgSO4 in women with preeclampsia and/or eclampsia.
Data collection and analysis
Two authors extracted data on basic pharmacokinetic parameters reflecting the different aspects of absorption, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of MgSO4 according to identified dosing regimens.
Main results
Twenty-eight studies investigating pharmacokinetic properties of 17 MgSO4 regimens met our inclusion criteria. Most women (91.5%) in the studies had pre-eclampsia. Baseline serum magnesium concentrations were consistently <1 mmol/l across studies. Intravenous loading dose between 4 and 6 g was associated with a doubling of this baseline concentration half an hour after injection. Maintenance infusion of 1 g/hour consistently produced concentrations well below 2 mmol/l, whereas maintenance infusion at 2 g/hour and the Pritchard intramuscular regimen had higher but inconsistent probability of producing concentrations between 2 and 3 mmol/l. Volume of distribution of magnesium varied (13.65–49.00 l) but the plasma clearance was fairly similar (4.28–5.00 l/hour) across populations.
Conclusion
The profiles of Zuspan and Pritchard regimens indicate that the minimum effective serum magnesium concentration for eclampsia prophylaxis is lower than the generally accepted level. Exposure–response studies to identify effective alternative dosing regimens should target concentrations achievable by these standard regimens.

Nzou C, Kambarami RA, Onyango FE, Ndhlovu CE, Chikwasha V. "Clinical predictors of low CD4 count among HIV infected pulmonary tuberculosis clients: a health facility-based survey." S. Afr. Med. J.. 2010;100(9):602-5. Abstract

The study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory predictors of a low CD4+ cell count (<200 cells/microl) in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB).

OLIECH JS. "Clinical presentation and management of renal cell carcinoma.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Oct;75(10):594-7. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1998. Abstract

A study of clinical presentation and management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 35 patients during the period 1983 to 1997 is presented. The peak age was 40-50 years. Haematuria, abdominal pain, fever of unknown origin and abdominal mass were the commonest presenting features. Computerised tomographic (CT) scanning, intravenous urography (IVU) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were the important diagnostic tools. Early diagnosis and surgery are the most important approaches in management.

KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH, KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. "Clinical presentation and treatment outcome in children with nephroblastoma in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical presentation and management of children with nephroplastoma and the factors influencing the outcome at Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: This was a retrospective case series study based on secondary data accumulated between 1990 and 1996. SETTING: The relevant data were extracted from records of all children aged 12 years and below, admitted for cancer at KNH, Nairobi. RESULTS: Out of 803 children with cancer, 71 (8.8%) had histologically proven nephroblastoma. At presentation, 1.5% were in stage I, 13.2% stage II, 36.8% stage III, 41.2% stage IV and 7.4% stage V. Eighty five per cent presented with stage III-V disease. Ninety five per cent had nepherectomy and received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 50.7% of the patients. Nine patients died before commencement of chemotherapy, two of whom died in the immediate post-operative period. The median duration between admission and surgery was 41 days. Pre-operative chemotherapy was given to 42% of the patients. Approximately 25.5% of the patients received little or no induction chemotherapy due to unavailability of drugs while only 2.8% received the prescribed maintenance treatment with the remainder getting erratic or no treatment. Overall, only 34.7% remained disease free two years from time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Late presentation, poor availability of cytotoxic drugs and frequent treatment interruptions for various reasons have contributed to the poor outcome of nephroblastoma in Kenya.
Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. "Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya." JAMA Ophthalmology. 2015;133(11):1305-1313. AbstractWebsite

IMPORTANCE:
There is a trend toward treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression.

OBJECTIVE:
To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features that distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognizability.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
Prospective multicenter study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features.

EXPOSURES:

Comprehensive history, slit lamp examination, and photography before excision biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions were recorded. Proportions and means were compared using χ2, Fisher exact test, or t test as appropriate. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the κ statistic. Examiners' assessments were compared with a reference.

RESULTS:
Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). Patients with OSSN were slightly older (mean [SD] age, 41 [11.6] vs 38 [10.9] years; P = .002) and tended to have lower levels of education than patients with benign lesions (P = .001). Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P = .65). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was common among patients with OSSN (74%). The most common location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P < .001). Signs more frequent in OSSN included feeder vessels (odds ratio [OR], 5.8 [95% CI, 3.2-10.5]), moderate inflammation (OR, 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-6.8]), corneal involvement (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.8-4.0]), leukoplakia (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7-3.9]), papilliform surface (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]), pigmentation (OR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0-2.2]), temporal location (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.2]), circumlimbal location (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), severe inflammation (6.7% vs 0.3%; P < .001), and larger mean (SD) diameter (6.8 [3.2] vs 4.8 [2.8] mm; P < .001). All OSSN signs were also observed in benign lesions. There was slight to fair inter-observer agreement in assessment of most signs and diagnosis (κ, 0.1-0.4). The positive predictive value of clinical appearance in identifying OSSN was 54% (interquartile range, 51%-56%) from photographs in which prevalence was 32%.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
With overlapping phenotypes and modest inter-observer agreement, OSSN and benign conjunctival lesions are not reliably distinguished clinically. Point-of-care diagnostic tools may help.

FO Otieno, GO Oyoo CFOEAO, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF, Omondi EA. "Clinical presentation of patients with adult onset still’s disease in Nairobi: case series." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2015;3(1). AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adult Still’s Disease (ASD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, typically characterized by a clinical triad (daily spiking high fevers, evanescent rash, arthritis), and a biological triad (hyperferritinemia, hyperleukocytosis with neutrophilia and abnormal liver function test).
Objective: This case series set out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ASD seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi.
Results: After a record search, 8 patients were noted to have ASD. Fever and arthritis were noted to be most predominant presenting features with almost all the patients having hyperferritinemia.

Aleri JW, T.O. A, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;60:149-152.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
JW A, TO A, JM K, AN K, CM M. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi. ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.. 2012;60::149-152 .
"clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,. 2012; 60:149-152.
Ndaguatha PLW. "Clinical presentations of urinary bladder in Kenya." East Afr.Med. J.. 1990;67(3):182-190.
Karita, E. AGBNOJIOOBPJ, H. Park, A. Gumbe CWVCCBBKSCL, B. Farah, P. Hayes ZSLDBIHDKMF, and T. Hironaka, T. Shu HMSPAFGCLMTEC, Laufer D. "Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Two Hiv Vaccines Sev-G (Np) and Ad35-Grin in Hiv-Uninfected, Healthy Adult Volunteers." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A85.
Ogeng’o J. "Clinical significance of Anatomical variations." Anat J Afr. 2013;2(1):57-60.Website
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Clinical significance of strongyloides in African children. J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . No abstract available. PMID: 5574874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: J Trop Med Hyg . 1971 Apr; 74 ( 4 ): 79-81 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available

Mbuthia P G, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Clinical signs of fowl cholera in experimental immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed Kenyan indigenous chickens and ducks.". In: Kenya veterinarian association annual general meeting and scientific conference . Nomad palace, Garissa; 2003.
Mbuthia PG. "Clinical Signs Of Fowl Cholera In Experimental Immunosuppressed And Non-immunosuppressed Kenyan Indigenous Chickens And Ducks."; 2003. Abstract

P. multocida causes peracute, a cute and chronic fowl cholera in poultry. Twenty chickens and ducks were inoculated int ra - tracheally with 0.5 ml of 10 8 colony forming units of laboratory maintained str ain NCTC 10322 T of P. multocida, 10 of which were immnunosuppressed with dexamethasone 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days prior to infection. 15 control chickens or ducks were given 0.5 ml of brain heart infu sion broth, 5 of which were similarly immunosuppress ed. All the birds were observed for clinical signs of fowl cholera for 14 days post - infection. Both indigenous chickens and ducks in the immunosuppressed groups showed lower clinical signs compared t o the non - immunosuppressed birds. No clinical signs were observed in all control birds. However, infected birds manifested anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, nasal discharges, dyspnoea, ataxia, nervous tics, cyanosis, diarrhea and mucoid mouth discharges. In each bird under observation, the signs recurred s ingly or in combination, at the time of observation. Ataxia, nervous tics and head scratching are additional signs of fowl cholera hereby reported in indigenous chickens and ducks for the first time. There were less clinical signs observed in the immunosup pressed birds and this may, under field conditions, create problems in the detection and clinical diagnosis of fowl cholera

Ayah R. "Clinical Team Effectiveness and Scaling up of HIV Treatment and Care: A Survey of ART Services Nairobi County.". In: HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kamucha G, Kompa G. "Clinical Trial of Intraoperative Laser Radar Imaging in Hip-joint Replacement Surgery.". In: Proceedings of ODIMAP IV, 4th Topical Meeting on Optoelectronic Distance Measurements and Applications. University of Oulu, Finland; 2004.
Mwachaka PM, Kigera JWM. "Clinical Trials in Surgery." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11(2):1-2.
Mwachaka P, Kigera JWM. "Clinical trials in {Surgery}." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka P, Kigera JWM. "Clinical trials in {Surgery}." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Newyork: Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

Yaşargil MG. Clinical {Considerations}, {Surgery} of the {Intracranial} {Aneurysms} and {Results}. Thieme; 1984. Abstract

Clinical Considerations, Surgery of the Intracranial Aneurysma and Results

O PROFORINDADA. "A clinical, biochemical and histochemical study of carcinoma of the cervix as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Apr;62(4):271-8. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA, Ngatia, T.A; Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
Thaiyah AG;, Nyaga PN;, Maribei JM;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;, Kimeto BA. "The clinical, biochemical, haematological and pathological effects of long-term administration of Solanum incanum L. to goats."; 2006.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Clinical, haematological and parasitological response to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. A study of 64 patients. Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1984. Abstract
PIP: Malaria is the most prevalent and devastating public health problem in Africa despite much research and control effort over the last two decades. In most parts of Africa, individuals should take 200 mg of Proguanil daily together with chloroquine 5 mg/kg per week as prophylaxis. Pregnant women and individuals with underlying disease such as sickle cell making them susceptible to severe or complicated malaria, however, should take just 200 mg Proguanil daily. In hard-core multi-drug resistance areas, mefloquine 250 mg once weekly together with chloroquine 300 mg weekly is recommended as prophylaxis. Since no anti-malarial drug confers absolute protection against infection, however, using mosquito nets impregnated with permethrin, insecticides, and mosquito repellents is also advocated for those at high risk of severe malaria. The need also exists to treat cases of malaria when prevention is unsuccessful. Chloroquine in total dose 25 mg/Kg over three days is the first choice treatment of uncomplicated malaria in 4-aminoquinoline sensitive areas. Amodiaquine 25 mg/Kg over three days is the second line treatment, while pyrimethamine/sulphonamide combinations are useful in areas where there is resistance to 4-aminoquinalines. Finally, quinine 10 mg/kg every eight hours for seven days is the treatment of choice for severe and complicated malaria.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Mwangi WE, Kimeli P, Oliang'a F, Shah D, Mande JD, Kariuki E, Gakuya F. "Clinical, Hemato-Biochemical, Histopathological Features and Surgical Management of Pyometra in a Captive African Lioness (Panthera Leo).". In: 49th annual Kenya Veterinary Scientific Conference. Busia-Kenya; 2015.
JK M, JM M, AG T, DN K, DW G. "Clinical, hematological, biochemical and pathological manifestations of subacute toxicity due to Nicadra physaloides (L) Gaertn in calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2011;59:53-59.
Kihu SM, Gitao GC, Bebora LC, J NM, Wairire GC, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, and others. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1:98-102.
M KS, Bebora LC NMJ, Wairire GG MN, RG, Karanja D.N OJO, Lut W. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology – Open access. 2014;1(3):98-102.
Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, D.N. Karanja, Oyugi JO, Lutomia E. "Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Investigations of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Goats from Turkana County in Kenya. ." British Journal of Virology. 2014;3(1):98-102.ppr_turkana.pdf
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CLINICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN GOATS INFECTED WITH CORYNEBACTERIUM PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS THROUGH CUTANEOUS AND SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Goats were injected with caseous pus containing 106 colony forming units CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis either subcutaneously (s/c), intradermally (i/d) or smeared with caseous pus on either scarified or intact skin. All animals were then examined regulary for clinical abnormalities and also for antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis. All animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after infection and examined for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) lesions.  Acute lameness was observed in all animals infected s/c but not in the other groups. The regional draining lymph nodes were detected palpably swollen by day three post infection in all animals infected i/d and in one infected on scarified skin. The route of infection did not influence the onset of serological response but animals infected i/d had more rapid and higher response. At post mortem, animals infected s/c; i/d or on scarified skin had abscesses in the regional draining lymph nodes but those infected on intact skin had none. These results indicted that CLA can be transmitted through either s/c, i/d or through scarified skin but that infection through intact skin was unlikely. The disease induced by i/d injection or on scarified skin was more typical of the natural disease in that it had no acute clinical signs.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK, Nyaga PN. "Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes." Bulletin of Animal Health and Prodroduction in Africa. 1997;45:73-78.
J.K.Muthee, J.M. Mbaria, A.G.Thaiyah, D.N. Karanja, D.W. Gakuya. "Clinical,haematological,biochemical and pathological manifestation of sub-acute toxicity of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertan in calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Kitonyi GW, Macharia WM MOW. "Clinical- pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes in Children with Neuroblastoma at the Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi." EAMJ. 2009;(86):39-46. AbstractWebsite

Objertive: To determine clinical-pathologic characteristics, treatment modalities and treatment outcomes of children diagnosed with neuroblastoma.
Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study based on secondary data from patient records.
Setting: Records department of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a tertiary teaching and referral hospital based in Nairobi.
Subjects: Children aged 15 years and below, admitted with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, between January 1997 and December 2005.
Main outcome measures: Presenting clinical features, diagnostic modalities including laboratory and imaging data, treatment modalities, response to treatment and patient survival.

Kihu SK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Munene JN, Wairire GD, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Karanja DN, Oyugi JO, e. Lutomia. "Clinical.pathological and Molecular investigations of Peste des Petits Ruminants virus infection from Turkana County in Kenya." British Journal of Virology. 2014;1(3):98-102.bjv_1_3_98-102.pdf
Braitstein P, Siika A, Hogan J, Kosgei R, Sang E, Sidle J, Wools-Kaloustian K, Keter A, Mamlin J, Kimaiyo S. "A clinician-nurse model to reduce early mortality and increase clinic retention among high-risk HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment." J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(1):7. Abstracta_clinician-nurse_model_to_reduce_early_mortality_and_increase_clinic_retention_among_high-risk_hiv-infected_patients_initiating_combination_antiretroviral_treatment.pdf

In resource-poor settings, mortality is at its highest during the first 3 months after combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) initiation. A clear predictor of mortality during this period is having a low CD4 count at the time of treatment initiation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect on survival and clinic retention of a nurse-based rapid assessment clinic for high-risk individuals initiating cART in a resource-constrained setting.

Chindia M, Gathece L, Dimba EAO, Kamau MW, D.awange. "Clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies with emphasis sarcomas-A 10 Year Review.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Sarcomas are malignant neoplasms that occur anywhere in the human body. Though their occurrence in the head and neck region is rare vis-a-vis other malignancies, their presence is of tremendous concern due to their often grave prognosis. Objective: To determine the pattern of occurrence, histopathologic types of maxillofacial sarcomas and their proportion to other malignant neoplasms of this region based on archival material accumulated over 10 years (2000-2009). Design: A combined retrospective and prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: The University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH).
Subjects: All caseswithadiagnosisofsarcomaregisteredbetween2000-2009wereevaluated. Results: Of the 528 malignancies recorded over the ten-year period, 427 (80.9%) were of epithelial origin while 101 (19.1 %) were sarcomas. Patients with epithelial malignancies were older (54.16 ± 15.94 years) than patients with sarcomas (31.73 ± 16.78) with the differences having been statistically significant. Osteosarcoma was the most commonly occurring sarcoma (29.7%), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (28.7%), fibrosarcoma (FBS) (18.8%), and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) (9.9%). Sarcomas peaked in the third decade with 70% occurring below the age of 40 years. The maxilla and the mandible were the most afflicted sites in the maxillofacial region accounting' for 52%. The patients on average presented to medical personel about nine months after noticing the lesion with the most frequent complaint having been swelling.
Conclusion: The present study confirms the relative rarity of maxillofacial sarcomas. It also provides data on the histopathologic types and demographic characteristics of maxillofacial sarcomas in a select Kenyan population. This information is a contribution to the comprehensive documentation of sarcomas that occur globally and is useful in the provision of baseline data upon which future prospective analytical protocols may arise.

M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Clinico-pathological analysis of jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions at the Kenyatta national hospital. East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
KAAYA, G.P. WINGVISTANDJOHNSONGLW. "Clinico-pathological aspects of Trypanosoma congolense infection in goats." Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1977;25:397-408.
Muse E, Matondo RB, Karimuribo E, Misinzo G, Albano M, Gitao CG. "Clinico-pathological findings of the 2011 outbreak of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Tandahimba district, southern Tanzania." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences. 2012;2(4):256-262.
Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "Clinico-pathological Observations in Sheep & Goats Exposed to Lineage III Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection in Kenya." Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science. 2015;3(1):72-80.
Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN SHEEP & GOATS EXPOSED TO LINEAGE III PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS VIRUS INFECTION IN KENYA." Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences,. 2015;3(1):ISSN No. 2320-8694.jebas_pathol_maina_et_al.pdf
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Clock-Time,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002): 10.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

Okoth S. "Clonal population expansion in an outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum on the northwest coast of Ecuador." Malaria journal. 2015;14(1):497. Abstracts12936-015-1019-2.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Determining the source of malaria outbreaks in Ecuador and identifying remaining transmission
foci will help in malaria elimination efforts. In this study, the genetic signatures of Plasmodium falciparum isolates,
obtained from an outbreak that occurred in northwest Ecuador from 2012 to 2013, were characterized.
Methods: Molecular investigation of the outbreak was performed using neutral microsatellites, drug resistance markers
and pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genotyping.
Results: A majority of parasite isolates (31/32) from this outbreak were of a single clonal type that matched a clonal
lineage previously described on the northern coast of Peru and a historical isolate from Ecuador. All but one isolate
carried a chloroquine-resistant pfcrt genotype and sulfadoxine- and pyrimethamine-sensitive pfdhps and pfdhfr genotypes.
Pfmdr1 mutations were identified in codons 184 and 1042. In addition, most samples (97 %) showed presence
of pfhrp2 gene.
Conclusions: This study indicates that parasites from a single clonal lineage largely contributed to this outbreak and
this lineage was found to be genetically related to a lineage previously reported in the Peruvian coast and historical
Ecuadorian parasites.
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, Malaria, Ecuador, Outbreak, Microsatellite markers

T.K. M, Cockburn A.F., P.E. K, J.A.Seawright. "Cloned RNA-gene DNA probe for Anopheles bradleyi." Internl.J.BioChemPhysics . 1996;5:35-38.
Kangethe RT, Taracha E, Pelle R, Bulimo WD, Tonukari NJ. Cloning and characterisation of Theileria parva RESA2 ortholog.. University of Nairobi, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract

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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Cloning and characterization of functional subtype A HIV-1 envelope variants transmitted through breastfeeding. Curr HIV Res . 2007 Mar; 5 ( 2 ): 189-97 . PMID: 17346133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Rainwater SM, Wu X, Nduati R, Nedellec R, Mosier D, Jo.". In: Curr HIV Res . 2007 Mar; 5 ( 2 ): 189-97 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-0124, USA. Previous studies of HIV-1 variants transmitted from mother-to-infant have focused primarily on computational analyses of partial envelope gene sequences, rather than analyses of functional envelope variants. There are very few examples of well-characterized functional envelope clones from mother-infant pairs, especially from envelope variants representing the most prevalent subtypes worldwide. To address this, we amplified the envelope variants present in 4 mother-infant transmission pairs, all of whom were infected with subtype A and three of whom presumably transmitted HIV-1 during the breastfeeding period. Functional envelope clones were constructed, either encoding full-length envelope sequences from the mother and baby or by making chimeric envelope clones in a common backbone sequence. The infant envelope sequences were genetically homogeneous compared to the maternal viruses, and pseudoviruses bearing these envelopes all used CCR5 as a coreceptor. The infant viruses were generally resistant to neutralization by maternal antibodies present near the time of transmission. There were no notable differences in sensitivity of the mother and infant envelope variants to neutralization by heterologous plasma or monoclonal antibodies 2G12 and b12, or to inhibition by sCD4, PSC-RANTES or TAK779. This collection of viral envelopes, which can be used for making pseudotyped viruses, may be useful for examining the efficacy of interventions to block mother-infant transmission, including sera from vaccine candidates, purified antibodies under consideration for passive immunization and viral entry inhibitors. PMID: 17346133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O DRODONGOMAHACLA. "Cloning and Functional Characterization of an Endoglucanase Gene, cel A From Clostridium Chartatabidum M O Odongo, J D Brooker, C Bottema, H Ward." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2006;30 (2):37-52. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

An endoglucanase gene (celA) was isolated from a genomic library of the ruminal bacterium Clostridium chartatabidum. DNA sequence analysis of celA revealed 3 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF 1 and ORF 3 showed homology with xylanase II and xylanase, xynZ from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Clostridium thermocellum, respectively. ORF 2 showed homology with the catalytic domains of endoglucanase, celA (family A) of Clostridium cellulolyticum and endoglucanase, celD of Clostridium thermocellum. Endoglucanase gene, celA of Clostridium chartatabidum was successfully expressed in E. coli and cell extracts of E. coli cells harboring the recombinant plasmid, pcel 1 exhibited both endoglucanase and xylanase activities. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities were optimum at pH 6.0 and 7.2, respectively. Specific endoglucanase and endoxylanase activities were 8.3 and 5.9 μmoles of glucose or xylose equivalent / mg, respectively. Deletion analysis showed that the catalytic domain of endoglucanase gene, celA was located on the HincII (1.1kb) fragment of clone pCel 1. A pUC19 subclone containing the HincII (1.1 kb) fragment was successfully expressed in E.coli, and the levels of its endoglucanase and xylanase activities were equal to those of the entire pcel 1 clone. Xylanase activity was located on the HindIII-HincII fragment of pcel 1. These results show that celA gene encodes a bifunctional enzyme with separate endoglucanase and xylanase domains.
Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 30 (2) 2006: pp. 37-52

Njoroge NC. "Cloning of a T-DNA-linked phosphatase gene that mediates salt tolerance in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana." Kenya Journal for Science and Technology. 2006;Vol. 13 .
Shinuo Cao, Gabriel Oluga Aboge MATMZYLLYYLYGKK. "Cloning, characterization and validation of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase of Babesia gibsoni as molecular drug target." Parasitology International. 2013;62(2013):87-94.dr._aboge_1.pdf
NJOROGE MRGACHIESTEVE. "Close-Up.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
Dorothy McCormick, Rogerson C. "Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation.". In: Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. Johannesburg: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Dorothy McCormick, Ligulu P, Kinyanjui N. "The Clothing and Footwear Industries in Kenya.". In: Clothing and Footwear in African Industrialisation. Africa Institute of South Africa, Johannesburg. ISBN 0-7983-0162-7. University of Leipzig: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2004. Abstract

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Oredo J. "Cloud Computing Adoption and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Organizational Mindfulness.". In: Kibabii University 3rd Interdisciplinary International Scientific Conference. Bungoma; 2018.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
Akhusama PM, Moturi CA. "Cloud Computing Adoption in Insurance Companies in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems,. 2016;4(1):11-16. AbstractWebsite

Cloud Computing allows companies to access ICT-based services (infrastructure, applications, platforms and business processes) via the Internet. Cloud Computing is still at the infancy stage in Africa. Studies have indicated a lack of cloud based awareness, even among big organizations in Africa. Kenya just like any other African market is yet to fully adopt cloud based systems due to trust and security concerns. This study aimed at identifying the extent and characteristics of Cloud Computing adoption in insurance companies in Kenya. The study assessed Cloud Computing uses in terms of productivity applications, business applications (CRM, SaaS), infrastructure on-demand (storage, network, and server), finance applications, core business application, databases and desktop. The adoption of the Cloud Computing services in insurance companies was relatively low. The results obtained would assist in providing a roadmap for the best practices to improve Cloud Computing services in the insurance industry in Kenya.

Limo PJ, William Okelo-Odongo, Opiyo ETO. "Cloud Computing Opensource Iaas Platforms.". 2012. Abstract
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Wanjiku PW, Moturi CA. Cloud Computing: Transforming Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya. Durban, South Africa; 2016. Abstract

Cloud Computing provides novel perspectives in internetworking technologies and has the potential to dramatically change business models. This study aimed at establishing Cloud Computing adoption in Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya, with an ultimate intention of recommending an appropriate model for its adoption. Using questionnaires, data was collected from 126 Medium and High Tech Industries within Nairobi and interviews were conducted with 25 Cloud Computing providers. Data analysis was done using SPSS and qualitative content analysis. Approximately 70% of cloud users and providers had recognized Cloud Computing as a force that is reshaping ICT and powering innovation. The major factors influencing the adoption of Cloud Computing were identified as cost, performance and reliability of The Cloud application. After analysis of four existing models for technology adoption, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model is recommend for adoption of Cloud Computing.

FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "Cloud Cover Estimation Over Selected Locations in East Africa Using Satellite Derived Reflectivity Data.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2008.
K PROFNGANGAJOHN. "Cloud cover estimation over selected locations in East Africa using satellite derived reflectivity data.". In: Journal of KMS VOL 2,NO.2,Pg 85-91. Muthama N.J,K.H. Kai,G.O. Ouma,J.K.Nganga,F.J. Opijah; 2008. Abstract
will be availed soon
T
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Oredo J. "The Cloud is the Limit." MANAGEMENT March (2015).
"Cloud SAMS: Cloud computing solution for public schools within South Africa's ‘second economy’.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference, 2016 . Durban, South Africa ; 2016. Abstract

South Africa's education system is one of the most unique in the world; among other reasons for this, is the notion of ‘Second Economy” which the former president, Thabo Mbeki described in the “ANC Today, Letter from the President Characteristics of South Africa's first and third world economies” on 28th August 2003 [1]. The usage of this phrase (and its twin phrase; “two parallel economies”) in the context of the country is different from the conventional meaning found in Development Theory. It instead describes actual living conditions that affect more than one third of the South Africa's population - it is undeveloped, isolated from the first economy (and global economy), includes both urban and rural poor. Besides, this section of the society contributes very little to the country's economy ([2], [3] and [4]).
Keywords
IEEE Keywords
Cloud computing, Education, Computational modeling, Delays, NIST, Software as a service

Otieno, R.O. "The Clouds.". In: Many in One and Other Stories. Nairobi: Nsemia Inc. Publishers; 2019.
Chaga H. CLS 101 Module: Introduction to Swahili Language Skills . Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Karita E, Ketter N PMAKKNAJMRMKPAO, Sanders EJ, Mwangome M ABBAOFABYSAUK, Stoll-Johnson L, Gilmour J SSMHDSSFKGEOP. "CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa." PLoS One. . 2009;4(2):e4401.
Karita E, Ketter N PMAKKNAJMRMKPAO, Sanders EJ, Mwangome M ABBAOFABYSAUK. "CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa." PLoS One.. 2009;4(2):e4401. AbstractWebsite

Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local
intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs) among African participants. Using
laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes AE
assessment challenging. The objective of this study was to establish clinical laboratory reference intervals for 25 hematology,
immunology and biochemistry values among healthy African adults typical of those who might join a clinical trial

JALEHA MRSJEFWAJUDITHJAI. "CLT 102: Introduction to Drama (Teaching module for the Faculty of Arts- Distance learning program)- Awaiting publication by the Center of Distance Learning UON.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Owino JO, Olago D, Wandiga SO, Ndambi A. "A cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(7):1007-1014. AbstractA cluster analysis of variables essential for climate change adaptation of smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenyadoi.org

Smallholder dairy farmers occupy high potential areas of Kenya and are a source of manure, crops and milk. There is need to use other means of characterising smallholder dairy farmers as they mostly practice mixed farming. The objective of this paper is to use cluster analysis method to characterize the smallholder dairy farmers with added farmer and activity data variables. Clusters of 336 farmers in this study were derived using 28 key variables. This paper demonstrates how to conduct farmer assessments for climate change adaptation activities, climate smart technologies implementation using knowledge of key farmer variables and their distribution in the smallholder dairy farmers of Nandi County, Kenya. This paper demonstrates the importance of integrating agricultural information for smallholder dairy farmers to machine models to characterize the groups and observe the natural groupings. This allows for policy managers to know the key characteristics and how to use them in policy implementation especially in designing climate change adaptation programs factoring education and training of farmers as demonstrated in this paper that they are practicing many activities on their farms.

Key words: Cluster analysis, smallholder dairy farmers, farm utilisation, climate change adaptation.

PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Cmmunity Farmers and Breeders Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Frameworkfor sui generis Legislation in University of Nairobi Laq Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
"Co - generation in the sugar industry." Department of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. 2004.
Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - generation in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Gumbe LO;, Okoth MW. "Co - products in the Sugar Industry.".; 2004.
Nganga CJ, Gakuya DW, Otieno RO, Githinji RW. "Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple anthelmintic resistant nematodes in a sheep farm in Kabete Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2014;62(3):275-278.1_nganga_et_al._2014.pdfWebsite
C.J Nganga, D.W Gakuya, R.O Otieno, Githinji. RW. "Co-administration of Albendazole and Levamisole to control multiple anthelmintic resistant nematodes in a sheep farm in Kabete Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa . 2014;62(3):275-278.abstract.pdf
Njeru G. "Co-author of Making Informed Choices A Curriculum for Civic Education. Nairobi: CE." CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.. 2001.
Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Handbook for Civic Education: Nairobi. CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.; 2001.
ODAGO MROPIYOTOM. "Co-author of "PRODUCTIVE AND LIVEABLE CITIES: GUIDELINES FOR PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRAFFIC IN AFRICAN CITIES", World Bank, SSATP, January 2001.". In: World Bank, SSATP, January 2001. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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Njeru G. Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. . Nairobi: Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. ; 2001.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Co-authored - Kenya Sign Language Syllabus for Beginners.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1992. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Co-authored a book entitled .". In: published by Phoenix Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2006.
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Co-authored a chapter entitled 'Haematologic manifestations of HIV.' The chapter is contained in the handbook 'Clinical care in times of AIDS.' These are guidelines intended for health workers in rural district hospitals and health centres. The handbook, .". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "CO-AUTHORED Gateway Secondary Revision English." Published by Longhorn Publishers; 2007. Abstract
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M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "Co-authored Secondary Geogrpahy Revision book with Mr. Francis W> Wegulo.". In: published by Longman, Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Co-authored with Patricia Mbote: Women and property rights in Kenya.". In: A study commissioned by the international federation of women lawyers (FIDA-K). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Osuna. F, Achilla. R, Schnabel. D, Majanja. J, Wadegu. M, Mukunzi. S, Njiri. J, Opot. B, Wurapa. E, Bulimo. W. "Co-circulating Respiratory Viral Pathogens during the pH1N1 Outbreak of 2009 In Kenya.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi . University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Nyambura J, Achilla R, Mitei K, Mukunzi S, Njiri J, Coldren R, Bulimo W. Co-circulation of Human Parainfluenza viruses in Kenya, Jan 2013-Sep 2013. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) belong to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV is the major cause of croup in which type 1 is most frequent cause, followed by type 3 and type 2 respectively. Surveillance has shown that Human Parainfluenza viruse are a major cause of respiratory infections in Kenya. In January 2013 through an existing influenza surveillance network at the Kenyan National Influenza center, we screened for parainfluenza and other non-influenza respiratory viruses. This was done within the designated Influenza network made up of eight sentinel sites. Objective: The objective of this study was to monitor and document circulation of Human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya in the period January–September 2013. Materials and Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx using a flocked swab from consenting patients meeting the WHO influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definition. Specimens were transported to the NIC while observing the cold chain and inoculated into LLCMK2 cell line. After incubation and observation for cytopathic effect, all samples were screened by direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using the Respiratory Panel I Viral Screening and Identification kit (Chemicon International, Inc).Results and Discussion: A total of 972 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected between January – September 2013. HPIVs were detected in 108 (11%) cases. Out of these, there were 36 co-infections of the parainfluenza viruses. In general, Their seasonality patterns shows two peaks; one severe one occurring in April with 40.6% and the second milder peak occurring in June with 23.1% of all the cases. There was co-circulation of HPIV sub-types throughout the year. The three subtypes circulated between January to May with a peak in April with type 1 dominating in the month of April. They formed a second peak in June with type three dominating and type three lagging behind and appearing a month later. From our analysis we found that the conditions that trigger their occurrence are the same since their peaks are synchronized.Conclusion: This study shows that parainfluenza viruses are the major contributor of influenza in Kenya.

Maina, akach, osanjo. "CO-DESIGN: CATALYST FOR INCLUSION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS." Machakos University Press. 2021.
Akach JA, Osanjo L, Mwituria SM. "Co-Designing Eco-community Based Tourism." Design for All. 2021;16(3):3-33.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
RAYYA DRTIMAMMY. "co-edited "Sauti Kutoka Pwani"- Hadithi za watoto.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Co-edited some common weeds of East Africa (Magugu ya Afrika ya Mashariki FAO Publication ISBN 92-5 002426-6).". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Co-editor with Dr. Vogel of a book entitled "Health and Disease in Kenya" - published by the East African Literature Bureau, 1974.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1974. Abstract
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NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology.". In: University of Nairobi, for Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

NAMAN DRMIMUNYAJAMES. "Co-editor. (With Dr. Joseph G. Karanja): 1996: Curricula in Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, for Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.". In: University of Nairobi,Third and Fifth year Undergraduate Medical Students.1996.; 1996. Abstract

This paper describes the experiences of physicians-in-training at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, where medical professionals practice in an environment characterized by both significant lack of resources and patients with HIV/AIDS in historically unprecedented numbers. The data reported here are part of a larger study examining ethical dilemmas in medical education and practice among physicians in East Africa. A questionnaire and semi-structured interview were completed by fifty residents in four medical specialties, examining social and emotional supports, personal and professional sources of stress, emotional numbing and disengagement from patients and peers, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. The factors affecting resident well-being are found in this study to be more complex than previous interviews suggested. This study highlights the fact that as a result of working in an environment characterized by poor communication among hospital staff as well as a lack of resources and high numbers of patients with HIV/AIDS, residents' perceptions of themselves–their technical proficiency, their ability to care and feel for others and themselves, and for some their entire sense of self–are significantly affected. Also affected are the patients they work to treat.

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Co-Editor:Africa Challenge.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KYALO PROFNZIOKACHARLESB. "Co-editors (Bahemuka, J and Nganda, B) Poverty Revisited: Analysis and Strategies towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya.". In: Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1998.
Ogana W. "Co-existence (Short story)." Hambone. 1974;Vol. 1.:pp. 61-65.
KURIA JOSEPHNGEIK, MOGOI DONALD, GACHUHI SAMUELGUCHU. "Co-infection by dimorphic fungi in tuberculosis patients in Kenya." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2020;9:116-120.
Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07380-9):1-14.

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