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NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""City Slum Single Motherhood and Its Socio-economic Implications for Child Welfare".". In: In African Urban Quarterly (AUQ) Vol. 13 Nos. 1 and 2 of February and May 1998. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Njeru G, Owiti MOD, Mute L, Geoffrey; Wanyande P. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
Wanyande P, Njeru G, Mute L, Owiti MOD. Civic Education for Marginalised Communities.; 2001.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Civic Education for Political Participation: A Case Study of a Kenyan NGO's Efforts', UNLJ No. 2, 1995.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Civic Education for Schools and Colleges: A Source Book. Daraja, The Civic Initiative and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Nairobi; 2003.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract
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OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Civic Education Methodology', in Maria Nzomo (ed) Civic Education: A Field Companion (NCSW Civic Education Series, No.2) (NSCW, Nairobi) 1-13.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1997. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Civil Bureaucracy in Africa: A Critical Analysis of Role Performance,).". In: The Leviathan (W. Berlin), Volume 6/pp. 197-215 (in German). IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Civil Bureaucracy in East Africa," in K. Henderson and P. Dwivedi, (eds.), Public Administration in World Perspective (Iowa: University of Iowa Press.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1990. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Civil Society and Consolidation of Democracy in Africa: Current Trends".". In: Okelo D., Civil Society in the Third Republic (Nairobi: NGO Council). ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Civil Society and Democratization Process in Kenya.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "The Civil Society and Democratization Process in Kenya, in Mushi, S., Mukandala, R., and Yahya-Othman, S., (eds) Democratic Transition in East Africa. Nairobi: East African Education Publishers.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Civil Society and Politics of Democratisation in Kenya; the 1997 elections (pp 30-33). Contribution in Arne Tostensen et al (ed), Kenya.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Civil Society and Politics of Democratisation in Kenya; the 1997 elections (pp 30-33). Contribution in Arne Tostensen et al (ed), Kenya.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998.
Kanyinga K. "Civil Society and Social Capital in East Africa.". In: International Encyclopedia of Civil Society . New York : Springer; 2009.
co-authored with(ed) DOLOOADAMRA. "Civil Society and the Consolidation of the Democratic Space in Kenya.". In: Two Countries One Dream. The Challenges of Democratic Consolidation in Kenya and South Africa. SOUTH AFRICA: KMM Review Publishing Company; 2009.
joshua Kivuva. "Civil Society and the Management of Ethnic Conflict: The Role of Ethnic Welfare Associations in Kenya.". In: The 9th Annual Graduate School of Public and International affairs Student Conference, on Transcending Boundaries: Engendering Human Security . The School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh; 2004.
Katumanga M. "Civil Society And The Politics Of Constitutional Reforms In Kenya: A Case Study Of The National Convention Executive Council (NCEC) .". 2004. Abstractcivil_society_and_the_politics_of_constitutional_reforms_in_kenya_a_case_study_of_the_national_convention_executive_council_ncec.pdfWebsite

This paper examines and analyses the role of the National Convention Executive Council (NCEC) in engaging the Kenyan state for constitutional reforms. It argues that although NCEC (through mass action) was able to force the regime to initiate dialogue with the opposition and civil society formations, it did not succeed in engendering state commitment to the letter and spirit of accords emergent out of these engagements. The paper attributes this to two core factors: that is the regimes ability to divide and successfully isolate the radical formation from the mainstream opposition and the religious sector co-optation, economic motivation and diplomatic duplicity and the inability of NCEC’s leadership to interpret social process correctly, to the extent of evolving right institutional design and programmatic responses for mobilisation; and engagement of state.

K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "'Civil Society Formations in Kenya: A growing Role in Development and Democracy.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004.
Nzomo M. "Civil Society in the Kenyan Political Transition: 1990-2002." The Kenyan Politics in Transition: 1990-2002; 2003. Abstract
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Nzomo M. "Civil Society in the Kenyan Political Transition: 1990-2002." The Kenyan Politics in Transition: 1990-2002; 2003. Abstract
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with and in(ed.) DOLOOADAMSOAJODO. "Civil Society in the New Dispensation: Prospects and Challenges.". In: Civil Society in the Third Republic. NAIROBI: National Council of NGOs; 2004.
M DRNJOKAHJOSEPHM. "Civil war Surgery, Medcom,(under print) 2002.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Conference. 2004 Kabete Nairobi. au-ibar; 2002. Abstract
   
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Civill Society and Democratization in Africa's Third Republi Republics".". In: Paper Presented at the Conference of NGO Council, Pan Africa Hotel, Nairobi, Dec 9-10,. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "CL Schoenfeld, KHM Kollmann, P Nyaga, OM Onyango, V Klauss, A Kampik Training programme for vitreoretinal surgery in Nairobi, Kenya from 2000 .". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To establish ocular fi ndings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study . Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital (Nairobi) MSF-Belgium HIV clinic support center and paediatric ward. Subjects: HIV infected children. Results: A total of 208 HIV infected children were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular fi ndings was 67.3% (140 patients). 113 patients (54.3%) of the patients were on ARV therapy. The most common finding was adnexal lesions observed in 40.9% of the patients, followed by posterior segment findings in 31.3%. Conjunctival microvasculopathy (30 patients,14.4%), allergic conjunctivitis (27 patients, 13.0%) and molluscum contagiosum 12 patients, 5.8%) were the main adnexal findings. Five cases (2.4%) of infectious conjunctivitis, 4 cases (1.9%) of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and conjunctival growth were also recorded. Keratoconjunctivitis (6 patients, 2.9%), anterior uveitis (6 patients, 2.9%), and corneal ulcer (3 patients, 1.4%) were the main anterior segment findings. Peripheral retinal perivasculitis (28 patients, 13.5%) was the commonest posterior segment finding, followed by cotton wool spots (18 patients, 8.7%) and presumed retinal pigment epitheliopathy (18 patients, 8.7%) . Two cases of white retinal infiltrate associated with frosted branch vasculitis and 2 cases of focal retinal haemorrhages were also observed. Tuberculosis was the major systemic finding (93 patients, 44.7%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the duration of exposure to HIV infection (age), to the severity of clinical state of the disease (WHO clinical staging)and to the severity of immune suppression (CD4 count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in Kenyan children with HIV/AIDS. Retinal perivasculitis was the commonest retinal finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual fi ndings of retinal pigment epitheliopathy observed in this study.
Ngugi M. "Claims of US Disinterest in Africa are Misleading." Daily Nation, June 22, 2022.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Clark GP, Kahuho SK, Ayim EN.Brain death. some medical, ethical, legal, socio-economic and diagnostic considerations: a review.East Afr Med J. 1979 Aug;56(8):362-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Aug;56(8):362-7. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1979. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Clark KA, Kataaha P, Mwangi J, Nyamongo J. Predonation testing of potential blood donors in resource-restricted settings.". In: Transfusion. 2005 Feb;45(2):130-2. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Nairobi, Kenya. A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study. PMID: 15804381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Clark, G.P.M., Kahuho, S.K. and Ayim, E.N.: .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1979; 56:362-367. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1979. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Clarke SE, Brooker S, Njagi JK, Njau E, Estambale B, Muchiri E, Magnussen P. Malaria morbidity among school children living in two areas of contrasting transmission in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;71(6):732-8.". In: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;71(6):732-8. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Research in malaria-endemic areas is usually focused on malaria during early childhood. Less is known about malaria among older school age children. The incidence of clinical attacks of malaria was monitored, using active case detection in primary schools, in two areas of western Kenya that differ in the intensity of transmission. Clinical malaria was more common in schools in the Nandi highlands, with a six-fold higher incidence of malaria attacks during the malaria epidemic in 2002, compared with school children living in a holoendemic area with intense perennial transmission during the same period. The high incidence coupled with the high parasite densities among cases is compatible with a low level of protective immunity in the highlands. The malaria incidence among school children exposed to intense year-round transmission (26 per 100 school children per year) was consistent with reports from other holoendemic areas. Taken together with other published studies, the data suggest that malaria morbidity among school age children increases as transmission intensity decreases. The implications for malaria control are discussed.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Njagi JK, Khasakhala L, Cundill B, Otido J, Crudder C, Estambale BB, Brooker S.Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled tr.". In: Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):127-38. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune schoolchildren in an area of high perennial transmission. METHODS: A stratified, cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPT was done in 30 primary schools in western Kenya. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with amodiaquine or dual placebo) by use of a computer-generated list. Children aged 5-18 years received three treatments at 4-month intervals (IPT n=3535, placebo n=3223). The primary endpoint was the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration below 110 g/L. This outcome was assessed through cross-sectional surveys 12 months post-intervention. Analysis was by both intention to treat, excluding children with missing data, and per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00142246. FINDINGS: 2604 children in the IPT group and 2302 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome; the main reason for exclusion was loss to follow-up. Prevalence of anaemia at 12 months averaged 6.3% in the IPT group and 12.6% in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93; p=0.028). Significant improvements were also seen in two of the class-based tests of sustained attention, with a mean increase in code transmission test score of 6.05 (95% CI 2.83-9.27; p=0.0007) and counting sounds test score of 1.80 (0.19-3.41; p=0.03), compared with controls. No effect was shown for inattentive or hyperactive-compulsive behaviours or on educational achievement. The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results. 23 serious adverse events were reported within 28 days of any treatment (19 in the IPT group and four in the placebo group); the main side-effects were problems of balance, dizziness, feeling faint, nausea, and/or vomiting shortly after treatment. INTERPRETATION: IPT of malaria improves the health and cognitive ability of semi-immune schoolchildren. Effective malaria interventions could be a valuable addition to school health programmes.
Etyang, P. P. & Okoth UA. "Class Teachers’ Role in Maintaining Students’ Discipline In Secondary Schools in Teso South District, Kenya ." International Journal of Human Resources Management (IJHRM). 2018;7(3):1-8.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Class Two space-time of Product Space in Relativity.". In: Proc. Indian Sci: Cong., Maths. Sec. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1975. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Class Two space-time of Product spaces in General Relativity.". In: Lettere al Nuovo Cimento Serie.2. Vol. 18 PP 119-22. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1977. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Ndetei DM, Mamah D, Owoso A, Mbwayo AW, Mutiso VN, Muriungi SK, Khasakhala LI, Barch DM. Classes of Psychotic Experiences in Kenyan Children and Adolescents.; 2012.classes_of_psychotic_experiences_in_kenyan_children.pdf
Sojitra NA, Sojitra NA, Patel RK, Dixit BC. "Classical and microwave assisted synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives and their antimicrobial activities." Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2016;20(1). Abstract

A simple and efficient methodology was developed for the synthesis of new 4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo)-N-(2-substituted-4-oxo-4H-quinazolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 10a–10j in good amount of yields. They have been prepared using 2-acetamidobenzoic acid derivatives 2a–2j via intermediates benzenesulfonamide substituted quinazolinone derivatives 8a–8j, and its corresponding hydrazono derivatives 9a–9j. Entitled compounds (10a–10j) were also obtained using microwave heating in good amount of yields. The structures of all the new compounds have been evaluated on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral studies. Entitle compounds have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and all these compounds displayed excellent to moderate activities, which were found to be significantly potent against bacteria compared to fungal.

Omwenga EI. "Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In thi.". 2006. AbstractPedagogical Issues and E-learning Cases: Integrating ICTs into Teaching and Learning process

Classical instructional methods have been used and will continue to be used in the teaching and learning process. However, their limitations in different circumstances vary depending on student and instructor needs, where they are and who they are. In this paper we consider issues and implications o f ICT-supported learning with regard to pedagogy in the teaching and learning process. We will consider the context of developing ICT methodologies and strategies which can be integrated into the teaching and learning process within schools and higher learning institutions. The paper first presents a background and a justification for the underlying work. Approaches that can be applied to integrating ICTs effectively in the teaching and learning process are then discussed. Intelligent teaching and learning methods are then considered and issues on how to ameliorate the impediments are discussed within the schools’ and higher learning institutions’ set-ups respectively. The paper ends by making some recommendations and a conclusion at the end.

Beck E, Rehder H, Kokwaro JO. Classification and mapping of the vegetation of the alpine zone of mount Kenya. Nanyuki, Kenya; 1991.
Kokwaro JO. Classification of East African Crops. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013.University of Nairobi Press
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Classification of East African Crops, Nairobi,.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
"Classification of Land Use of Major Soils Along Lake Victoria Swampland Area, Kenya." International Society of Soil Science. 1994;(1994).
Were J. H. MJK. "Classification of Operators With the Property ." GJPAM. 2013;vol.9(no.1):13-24 .
Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Nilotic languages.". Forthcoming.
Mungania BG, Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in the Kiswahili clause." Kiswahili. 2018;Vol. 81:120-146.
Schroeder H. "Clause chaining in Toposa, a pragmatic approach ." Lodz Papers in Pragmatics. Submitted;VOL. 9,2 .
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia P.G. Claw disorders in dairy cows under smallholder zero-grazing units. Saarbrucken: Scholar's Press; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars' Press; 2015.
Nguhiu J, P M F M, Mbuthia P G. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Smallholder Zero-grazing Units. Saarbrucken, Germany: Scholars’ Press; 2015. Abstract
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Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Mbuthia PG. Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Units. Scholars’ Press. ; 2015.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "The Cleavage Studies of the Carboxamide Protected Derivatives of Asparagine and Glutamine in Trifluoroacetic Acid-Dichloromethane-Anisole (50:48:2 v/v) and Boron Tristrifluoroacetic Acid.". In: presented at the Fifth International Chemistry Conference in Africa, Gaborone, Botswana. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 1992. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KIMANI DRWANJERIJOSEPH. "Cleft Lip and Palate: A Descriptive Comparative, Retrospective, and Prospective Study of Patients With Cleft Deformities Managed at 2 Hospitals in Kenya. pg. 1352-1355 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181ae41fe Wanjeri, Joseph Kimani MB ChB, MMed (Surg); Wachira,.". In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. UoN College of Health Sciences; 2008. Abstract

This was a combined retrospective and prospective study in which 2 sets of results from 2 hospitals in Nairobi were analyzed and compared. The retrospective study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, whereas the prospective study was conducted at Metropolitan Hospital.The main objective of the study was to establish the presentation and pattern of patients with cleft lip and palate and complications of repair at the 2 hospitals.In the retrospective arm of the study, files of all patients presenting with clefts at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007 were retrieved, and a questionnaire was filled out for each of them, whereas all patients seen and operated on for clefts at the Metropolitan Hospital from January 2007 to October 2008 were recruited into the prospective study.There was a predominance of male participants in both studies, and most clefts were on the left side. The retrospective and prospective studies had positive family history in 3.5% and 30.9%, respectively. Associated congenital malformations were 8.2% for the retrospective study and 25% for the prospective study. In both studies, the central province had the largest number of clefts, whereas the coast province had very few.Cleft lip and palate is a significant congenital malformation in Kenya, and there seems to be a higher incidence of familial tendency and associated congenital malformations than that reported elsewhere

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) Organic acid concentration and digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the bushbaby and the vervet monkey. Journal of Zoology London 194, 487-497.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1978) Cyclic changes in the osmolarity and electrolyte composition in thegastrointestinal tract of the rock hyrax. Journal of Nutrition 108, 988-993.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1981) Colonic eletrolyte flux and gut composition in four species of sub14 human primates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 96A, 543-552.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1982) The digestive physiology of three East African herbivores: the elephant, rhinoceros and hippopotamus. Journal of Zoology London 198, 141-145.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1983) Digestive physiology of East African wild ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A, 319-333.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Colonic absorption and secretion of fluids, electrolytes and organic acids in East African wild ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 77A, 51-56.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T., MALOIY, G.M.O. and SUTTON, J.D. (1983) Molar proportions of fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract of East African wild ruminants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A,217-224.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "CLEMENS, E.T., MALOIY, G.M.O. and SUTTON, J.D. (1983) Nutrients digestability and gastrointestinal electrolyte flux in the elephant and rhinoceros. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 76A,653-656.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Clemetson DB, Moss GB, Willerford DM, Hensel M, Emonyi W, Holmes KK, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Roberts PL, Hillier S, et al. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.Detection of HIV DNA in cervical and vaginal secretions. Prevalence an.". In: JAMA. 1993 Jun 9;269(22):2860-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1993. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–Factors that influence heterosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including sexually transmitted diseases, contraceptive practices, sexual practices, HIV-related immunosuppression, and presence of cervical ectopy and the penile foreskin, have been identified through cross-sectional and prospective cohort epidemiological studies. To more directly characterize factors that influence infectivity, we conducted a study of HIV shedding from the genital tract in women. DESIGN–Ninety-seven HIV-seropositive women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, completed a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination and an evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases. Cervical and vaginal secretions were obtained for HIV DNA detection using polymerase chain reaction amplification. RESULTS–Human immunodeficiency virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28 (33%) of 84 cervical samples and 13 (17%) of 77 vaginal samples. The prevalence of HIV was higher in specimens from the endocervix than from the vaginal wall (P = .002), and there was no correlation between presence of virus at the two sites. After adjusting for age, cervical HIV shedding was independently associated with oral contraceptive pill use (odds ratio [OR], 11.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 77.6), cervical mucopus (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 41.4; P = .05), cervical ectopy (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 16.9), and pregnancy (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 16.3). CONCLUSIONS–Human immunodeficiency virus was detected in one third of cervical samples and one sixth of vaginal samples. The presence of HIV DNA in cervical secretions was significantly associated with oral contraceptive pill use, cervical ectopy, and pregnancy. There was a marginally significant association with cervical mucopus. The identification of factors that increase the infectivity of women suggests potential strategies for reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV.
Nyabuga G. "Click on democracy: An Assessment of Internet use in Kenya’s 2007 General Election.". In: Politics: Web 2.0. London, U.K.; 2008.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Client Perceptions of Health Workers and impact on health services offered at Kombewa Demonstration Health Centre. Healthline 8 (3): 39-43.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2004. Abstract
Client Perceptions of Health Workers and impact on health services offered at Kombewa Demonstration Health Centre. Healthline 8 (3): 39-43.
Olenja J, Ndavi PM MKHCNEPAS. Client Satisfaction as a Measure of Quality of Care Among Antenatal Clinic Clients inFactors that Contribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care:Findings from Further Analysis of the Service Provision Assessment of 1999: . Nairobi: Ministry of Health, National Council for Population and Development-Ministry of Planning and National Development, Measure Evaluation-USA; pp 37-50; June 2003. ; 2003.
MBOYA DROLEWETOM. "Clients.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2009.
Odero MT. "Clients' Perception of Health Workers and Impact on Health Services Offered a Kombewa Demonstration Health Centre." Health Line. 2004;8(3):39-43. Abstractodero-_clients_perception_of_health_workers_and_impact_on_health_services_offered_at_kombewa_demonstration_health_centre.pdf

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the clients' perception of health workers in relation to the services provided at the centre, thus defining the relationship between the client and the health worker and the impact of this relationship on the services provided.

Study Design: A Series of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), interviews and observations were carried out in three (3) stages: i.e baseline (T1), intervention (T2), and evaluation (T3) after nine (9) months. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected at all three levels. However, the study has laid more emphasis on the results of the qualitative data of the study.

Study population and setting: The study population were rural women who received health services from Kombewa Rural Health Centre.

Sampling: A selection of the women receiving the health services from the health facility within a five-kilometer radius who had consented to participate were identified. The were selected and grouped according to the following age groups: 12-20, 21-35, and over 35.

Results: Indicated that the initial relationship between health workers and clients were very poor, but tremendously improved after the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) intervention at T2 and improved further at evaluation after nine months (T3).

Conclusion: The clients' perspective of the health workers has an impact on how the health services are used. The poor interpersonal relationship between the clients and the health facility staff led to lack of compliance with treatment and delayed seeking of health services among the women. The health workers also developed negative attitude towards their clients, which made them lax in attending to them. The situation started improving with the initiation of HWFC intervention, where the health workers explored their situation and that of clients, which made them positive towards those that they served.

Obiero JPO, Onyando JO. "Climate.". In: KENYA : A NATURAL OUTLOOK GEO ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND HAZARDS. Netherlands: ELSEVIER; 2013.
Phiri IA, et al. "Climate Change and Food Security: A Challenge for African Christianity.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Odingo RS. "Climate and Human Health." Prepared for workshop on Climate change and Human health, 7th January 2008, Panafric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract
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Odingo RS. "Climate and Human Health in Africa and its Impact on economic development.". Commencement Address to the School of Dentristy, Stonybrook University, Long Island,New York USA on Friday, 23 May, 2008; 2007. Abstract
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Odingo RS. "Climate and Human Health,." Prepared for workshop on Climate change and Human health, 7th January 2008, PanafricHotel, Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
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Ulrich W, Soliveres S, Maestre FT, Gotelli NJ, Quero JL, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Bowker MA, Eldridge DJ, Ochoa V, Gozalo B, others. "Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands." Journal of biogeography. 2014;41:2307-2319. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change 2001: Mitigation." Review Editor; 2001. Abstract
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The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
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Simotwo* HK, Mikalitsa† SM, Wambua† BN. "Climate change adaptive capacity and smallholder farming in Trans-Mara East sub-County, Kenya." Geoenvironmental Disasters. 2018;(2018) 5:5. Abstract

Abstract
Background: At the centre of smallholders’ adaptation is a need to understand their perceptions on key climatic
scenarios so as to glean helpful information for key decision-making processes. In Kenya at the moment, downstream
information regarding these circumstances remain scanty, with many smallholders being ‘on their own’, in spite of the
imminent threats from shifting precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, and intensifying droughts. At the sub-national
levels, potential impacts of these situations are likely to deepen due to extensive cases of land use transformations,
habitat degradation, plummeting water resources capacity and common inter-ethnic conflicts, among other negative
externalities. The study examined current climatic situations in Trans-Mara East sub-County, to the south-western part of
Kenya, as well as the smallholders’ perceptions about the situations, their adaptation levels and constraints thereof.
Results: Pearson correlation coefficient, indicated a weak positive association between smallholder’s perceptions and
either their age, marital status, level of education, or livelihood streams (r ≤ 0.1; p ≥ 0.05, for all), unlike their climatic
perceptions and farm sizes which showed a strong positive association (r = 0.430; p ≤ 0.01). Key desired adaptation
options, improving crop varieties, livestock feeding techniques and crop diversification, topped their options, with
destocking being least desired. Education levels (r = 0.229; p ≤ 0.05) and farm sizes (r = 0.534; p ≤ 0.01) had a positively
significant association with adaptive capacity, in addition to a significantly weak, association between their adaptive
capacity and both their individual’s marital status (r = 0.154; p ≥ 0.05) and diversity of livelihood streams (r = 0.034;
p ≥ 0.05). The analysis also showed a weak negative association between their adaptive capacity and age (r = − 0.026;
p ≥ 0.05). Amid the key constraints which emerged include high cost of farm inputs, limited access to credit and
market uncertainties, among others. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significantly strong negative association
between smallholders’ constraints and both (r ≥ − 0.3; p ≤ 0.01) their level of education, and diversity of livelihood
streams. A significantly strong positive association (r = 0.280; p ≤ 0.01) was identified between smallholder’s age and
constraints, while marital status and farm sizes both (r ≤ − 0.01; p ≥ 0.05) revealed weak non-significant negative
association with the constraints.
(Continued on next page)

and Gachene, C. K. K. KBANMW. "Climate change and crop yield in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa. Springer International Publishing. ; 2015.
and Gachene, C. K. K. KBANMW. "Climate change and crop yield in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa. Springer International Publishing. ; 2015.
Eunice Ongoro Boruru, Edward Ontita WOO, Oguge NO. "Climate Change and emergence of helter-skelter livelihoods among the pastoral communities of Samburu East District, Kenya." Climate Change Management, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-22315-0_6; 2011. Abstract
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K'Oyugi BO. Climate Change and Environmental Degradation: Impact on Population. Kampala Uganda: Partners in Population and Development; 2008.
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Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2018:1-12. AbstractFull Text

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

Cuni-Sanchez A, Omeny P, Pfeifer M, Olaka L, Mamo MB, Marchant R, Burgess ND. "Climate change and pastoralists: perceptions and adaptation in montane Kenya." Climate and Development. 2019;11(6):513-524. Abstractclimate_change_and_pastoralists_perceptions_and_adaptation_in_montane_kenya.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Tropical montane forests are amongst the most threatened ecosystems by climate change. However, little is known about climatic changes already observed in these montane areas in Africa, or the adaptation strategies used by pastoralist communities. This article, focused on three mountains in northern Kenya, aims to fill these knowledge gaps. Focus-group discussions with village elders were organized in 10 villages on each mountain (n = 30). Villages covered different pastoralist ethnic groups. Historical data on rainfall, temperature and fog were gathered from Marsabit Meteorological station. All participants reported changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall, fog, temperature and wind for the past 20–30 years; regardless of the mountain or ethnicity. They particularly highlighted the reduction in fog. Meteorological evidence on rainfall, temperature and fog agreed with local perceptions; particularly important was a 60% reduction in hours of fog per year since 1981. Starting farming and shifting to camel herding were the adaptive strategies most commonly mentioned. Some adaptive strategies were only mentioned in one mountain or by one ethnic group (e.g. starting the cultivation of khat). We highlight the potential use of local communities’ perceptions to complement climatic records in data-deficient areas, such as many tropical mountains, and emphasize the need for more research focused on the adaptation strategies used by pastoralists.

R.S. O. "Climate Change and Renewable Energy Issues in East Africa.". Paper Prepared for the North-South Conference; 2008. Abstract
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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
Enabulele O, Esen E, Gonzalez-Perez MA, Harvey CR, Herrera-Cano A, Herrera-Cano C, Hiko A, Manterola FJ, Kaartemo V, Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
and Ontita E. OOWN. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter - Skelter Livelihoods in Samburu East District.". In: Experiences of Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Germany: Springer,Hamburg,Germany; 2011.
Ongoro, E.B. EOOWO, Oguge N. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter-skelter Livelihoods among the Pastoralists of Samburu East District, Kenya." W.L. Filho (ed.) The Experiences of Climate Change in Africa. New York: Springer Publishers; 2011. Abstract
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Ongoro, E.B. EOOWO, Oguge N. "Climate Change and the Emergence of Helter-skelter Livelihoods among the Pastoralists of Samburu East District, Kenya." W.L. Filho (ed.) The Experiences of Climate Change in Africa. New York: Springer Publishers; 2011. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
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MBECHE IM, Kumssa A, Mosha AC, Njeru EHN. "Climate Change and Urban Development in Africa." Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation; Filho, WL, Ed.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. 2015:215-226. Abstract

Climate change poses a major threat to sustainable urban development in Africa. Changes in thefrequency, intensity, and duration of climate extremes (droughts,floods, and heat waves, amongothers) will affect the livelihoods of the urban population, particularly the poor and other vulnerablecommunities who live in slums and marginalized settlements. Extreme changes in weather patternswill increase incidences of natural disasters and impact on all key sectors of the economy, includingthe urban economy, agriculture and forestry, water resources, coastal areas and settlements, andhealth. In Africa, where livelihoods are mainly based on climate-dependent resources and environ-ment, the effect of climate change will be disproportionate and severe. Moreover, Africa’s capacityto adapt to and cope with the adverse effects of climate variability is generally weak. This Chapterexamines the relations between climate change and urban development in Africa and looks at therole and effect of climate change on urban development. It also assesses the available policy optionsfor adaptation and mitigating climate change effects in urban Africa

Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
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MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO, P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH, GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Climate Change and Variability: Farmers.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2012. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
HM M. "Climate Change as Driver of Migration, morbidity and Conflicts in Africa." Red Cross Headquarters, Nairobi; 2019.
"Climate Change Challenges and Food Production in Elwak South Madera County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol. 7(Issue 7):379-387.
Gioto V, Wandiga S, Oludhe C. "Climate Change Detection across All Livelihood Zones in Tharaka Nithi County." Journal of Meteorology and Related Sciences. 2016;9(2):14-24. Abstractresearchgate.net

Kenyan agriculture is largely rain-fed and principally dependent on rainfall. According to FEWS NET report for Kenya in August 2010 based on historical data from 70 rainfall stations and 17 air temperature stations to interpolate the long-rains precipitation and temperature trends for all of Kenya from 1960 to 2009 (Funk et al, 2010). The FEWS NET report indicate that in Kenya long-rains traditionally occur between March and June and short rains in October to December. The authors report that Kenya has experienced trend of decreasing rainfall and rising temperatures as Sudan. In Central Kenya, one of the country’s key agricultural regions, the area receiving adequate rainfall to support reliable rain-fed agriculture has declined by roughly 45 per cent since the mid 1970s (Funk et al, 2010). This study investigates change in temperature and rainfall pattern across all livelihood zones in Tharaka Nithi County. Data was collected for 39 years (1976 - 2015) period for the area of Study and in addition divisions were made to three non overlapping climate period of 30 years (1982 - 1991, 1992 – 200 and 2002 - 2012). The data were subjected to Gaussian kernel analysis, moments, regression, and non-parametric approaches based on Mann-Kendal statistics to justify any change in the average monthly and annually rain fall and temperature trend. The results indicate common change points and transitions from wet to dry (upward shift). The test indicates rainfall variation over the study area is significant (p= 0.05).The study recommended on the use of the information for Agricultural development and general socio-economic improvement.

Agesa BL, Onyango CM, M KV, Onwonga RN, GN K. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Githui FW, Gitau W, Mutua FM, Bauwens W. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." Inter. J. Climatol. . 2009;29(12):1823-1834.
Githui F, Gitau W, Mutua F, Bauwens W. "Climate Change Impact on SWAT Simulated Streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2009;29(12):1823-1834. AbstractRoyal Meteorological Society

Weather and climate extremes such as droughts and floods have far reaching impacts in Kenya. They havehad implications in a variety of sectors including agriculture, water resources, health, energy, and disaster managementamong others. Lake Victoria and its catchment support millions of people and any impact on its ability to support thelivelihoods of the communities in this region is of major concern. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess thepotential future climatic changes on the Nzoia catchment in the Lake Victoria basin, and how they might affect streamflow.The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to investigate the impact of climatic change on streamflow of the study area.The model was set up using readily available s patial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily streamflow.Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models.Results obtained showed increased amounts of annual rainfall for all the scenarios but with variations on a monthlybasis. All – but one – global circulation models (GCMs) showed consistency in the monthly rainfall amounts. Rainfall washigher in the 2050s than in the 2020s. According to climate change scenarios, temperature will increase i n t his region,with the 2050s experiencing much higher increases than the 2020s with a monthly temperature change range of 0–1.7°C.The range of change in mean annual rainfall o f 2.4–23.2% corresponded to a change in streamflow of about 6–115%. Theanalysis revealed important rainfall–runoff linear relationships for certain months that could be extrapolated to estimateamounts of streamflow under various scenarios of change in rainfall. Streamflow response was not sensitive to changesin temperature. If all other variables, e.g. land cover, population growth etc., were held constant, a significant increase instreamflow may be expected in the coming decades as a consequence of increased rainfall amounts. Copyright 2008Royal Meteorological SocietyKEY WORDS climate change; streamflow; runoff; general circulation models; hydrology; modelling

DR. FAITH-GITHUI, MR. WILSON-GITAU, PROF. WILLY-BAUMENS, PROF. FRANCIS-MUTUA. "Climate change impact on SWAT simulated streamflow in Western Kenya." International Journal of Climatology. 2008;29(12):1823-1834.Weblink
R.S. O. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya.". Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change; 2004. Abstract
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KABUBO-MARIARA J, Nyangena W. "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options of Farming Households: Empirical Evidence from Kenya. Chapter 5 .". In: Natural Resource Management and Climate Change in Africa. Vol. 3: Climate Change. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) & Moran (E.A.) Publishers; 2012.
M’mboroki KG, Wandiga S, Oriaso SO. "Climate change impacts detection in dry forested ecosystem as indicated by vegetation cover change in —Laikipia, of Kenya." Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2018;190(4):255. Abstractlink.springer.com

The objective of the study was to detect and identify land cover changes in Laikipia County of Kenya that have occurred during the last three decades. The land use types of study area are six, of which three are the main and the other three are the minor. The main three, forest, shrub or bush land and grassland, changed during the period, of which grasslands reduced by 5864 ha (40%), forest by 3071 ha (24%) and shrub and bush land increased by 8912 ha (43%). The other three minor land use types were bare land which had reduced by 238 ha (45%), river bed vegetation increased by 209 ha (72%) and agriculture increased by 52 ha (600%) over the period decades. Differences in spatiotemporal variations of vegetation could be largely attributed to the effects of climate factors, anthropogenic activities and their interactions. Precipitation and temperature have been demonstrated to be the key climate factors for plant growth and vegetation development where rainfall decreased by 200 mm and temperatures increased by 1.5 °C over the period. Also, the opinion of the community on the change of land use and management was attributed to climate change and also adaptation strategies applied by the community over time. For example unlike the common understanding that forest resources utilisation increases with increasing human population, Mukogodo dry forested ecosystem case is different in that the majority of the respondents (78.9%) reported that the forest resource use was more in that period than now and also a similar majority (74.2%) had the same opinion that forest resource utilisation was low compared to last 30 years. In Yaaku community, change impacts were evidenced and thus mitigation measures suggested to address the impacts which included the following: controlled bush management and indigenous grass reseeding programme were advocated to restore original grasslands, and agricultural (crop farming) activities are carried out in designated areas outside the forest conservation areas (ecosystem zoning) all in consultation with government (political class), community and other stakeholders. Groups are organised (environmental management committee) to address conservation, political and vulnerability issues in the pastoral dry forested ecosystem which will sustain pastoralism in the ecosystem.

Odingo RS. "Climate Change in Sub -Saharan Africa; A study of impacts, Vulnerability, and Economic Policy Responses." African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2008; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Climate Change in the IGAD Sub-Region of the Horn of Africa Countries.". Paper Prepared for COF Meeting; 2008. Abstract
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Kiplagat S. Climate Change in the Kenyan Context: Description, impact an way forward. Nairobi: Tegemeo Institute; 2007.
Odingo RS. "Climate change Knowledge Capacity Development." ICPAC Report presented to Director of ICPAC 2012; 2012. Abstract
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Opere A, Olago D, Chidumayo E, Osman-Elasha B. "Climate Change Processes and Impacts." Climate Change and African Forest and Wildlife Resources. 2011:18-33. AbstractAfrican Forest Forum

Climate change is expressed as deviations from a regional climatology determined by analysis of long-term measurements, usually over a period of at least 30 years, or the normally experienced climate conditions and a different, but recurrent, set of climate conditions over a given region of the world (IPCC, 1998). Climate change may also refer to a shift in climate, occurring as a result of human activities (Wigley, 1999). Changing climate is expected to continue in the 21st century in response to the continued increasing trend in global green house gas (GHG) emissions (IPCC, 2007a), stimulating three main responses: technical and livelihood adaptations by affected communities, mitigation actions that sequester GHGs or reduce fossil fuels dependence, and formal international dialogue on the scope and correction of this now rapidly emerging threat to human existence.

Climate change scenarios for Africa include higher temperatures across the continent estimated to be increasing by 0.2°C per decade (Elagiband Mansell, 2000) and more erratic precipitation with slight increase in ecozones of eastern Africa and moist forest ecozones of West Africa and sustainable declines in the productivity in the Sahel and the ecozones of southern, Central and North Africa (Stige et al., 2006). This projection is in part reinforced by changes in rainfall over the last 60 years that has declined by up to 30% (Sivakumar et al ., 2 0 05 ), with the greatest negative impacts felt in Alfred Opere, Daniel Olago, Emmanuel Chidumayo and Balgis Osman-Elasha the Sahel of West Africa (Nicholson et al., 2000; Hulme et al., 2001).

Ogallo LA, Omondi P, Ouma G, Wayumba G. "Climate Change Projections and the Associated Potential Impacts for Somalia." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(2):153. Abstractclimate_change_projections_and_the_associated_potential_impacts_for_somalia.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Somalia has faced severe challenges linked to climate variability, which has been exacerbated by conflict and limited governance that persisted for decades. Today climate extremes such as floods, drought, and coastal marine severe systems among others are always associated with the destruction of property and livelihoods; losses of lives lost, migrations, and resource based conflicts among many other miseries. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has shown that climate change is real and requires sound knowledge of local future climate change scenarios. The study attempted to provide projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios over Lower Jubba, Somalia. This was done using the downscaled Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) RCMs data. The simulated temperature and rainfall data derived from the CORDEX RCMs ensemble were compared with the observed data. The study focused on the IPCC projected periods of
2030, 2050 and 2070 benchmarks. Analysis of the projected rainfall indicated a decreasing trend in rainfall leading up to 2030 followed by an increase in rainfall with the 2050 and 2070 scenarios. In the case of temperature, the projections from all the models showed increase in minimum and maximum temperatures in all seasons and sub periods, like being observed by temperature projection over other parts of the world. The 2030, 2050 and 2070 projected rainfall and temperature change scenarios show that Somalia future development and livelihoods will in future face increased threats of climate extremes unless effective climate smart adaptation systems form integral components of national development strategies.

Kronk REAS &. "Climate Change, Law and Indigenous Peoples in Kenya.". In: Climate Change, Indigenous Peoples and the Search for Legal Remedies. London: Edward Elgar; 2013.Climate Change.pdf
and Nyukuri PK-ME. "CLIMATE CHANGE, LAW AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN KENYA." IELRC. 2013.
Ogola JS, Okoth SA. "Climate Change: Potential Impacts on Kenya’s Ecosystem and Biodiversity." World Resource Review . 1999;2(2):161-173.
Ouma GO. "Climate Data.". 2009.
Gichira PS, Agwata JF, Muigua KD. "Climate Finance: Fears and Hopes for Developing Countries." Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization. 2014;Vol.22. Abstract

This article looks at the current climate finance architecture and its impact on developing countries climate
change responses. The primary aim is to capture the contradictions that exist in the climate finance architecture
particularly between those recommended by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and those advanced by developed countries otherwise known as non-UNFCCC climate financing
mechanisms. The overall observation is that once non-UNFCCC climate financing mechanisms emerged and the
more they were justified using the UNFCCC, the global response to the climate change problem was fatally
wounded through a procedural derailment of UNFCCC objectives. This article calls for a review of nonUNFCCC
with the aim of divesting them of the profit factor which in this case is the problematic.

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "CLIMATE FORECAST INFORMATION: THE STATUS, NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AMONG SMALLHOLDER AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT, KENYA." International Journal of Current Research. 2011;Vol. 3(Issue:11):006-012. Abstract

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Ngugi RK, Mureithi SM, Kamande PN. "Climate forecast information: the status, needs and expectations among smallholder agro-pastoralists in Machakos District, Kenya." Intern. J. Current Res. . 2011;6(11):006-012. Abstract2011_ngugi_et_al_ijcr-3-11_climate_forecast_information.pdfWebsite

The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied
in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that
smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This
study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the
aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District,
Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal
forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The
results show high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and
potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of
the El Niño tendency to increase the rainfall as in the case of 1997/98 El Niño was clear from their
emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-or below-normal rainfall. Applications of
information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as
interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of
concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds.
We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information
may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal
phenomenon such as droughts or floods, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning
campaigns with clear guidelines of how to prepare, distributed through the FM radio in local
languages order to abate human suffering

Keywords: Climate forecast, Smallholders, Agro-pastoralists, El Niño, Kenya.

Wilkinson E, Budimir M, Ahmed AK, Ouma G. "Climate Information and Services in BRACED Countries." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2015;(1). Abstractclimate_information_and_services_in_braced_countries.pdfOverseas Development Institute

Access to sound climate information is vital for anticipating climate-related risks and adapting to climate change. As such, it is recognised as an essential input to projects being funded by the Building Resilience and Adaptation
to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme.

R.S. O. "Climate Risk management training. African Development Bank,." African Development Bank,; 2008. Abstract
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Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Climate Risks and Responses in Semi-Arid Kenya: Implications for Community-Based Adaptation." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;VI(IX):171-180.
Dulo. "Climate Smart Infrastructure.". In: Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation workshop for professional bodies and researchers . Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi ; 2012.
Dulo. "Climate Smart Infrastructure.". In: Institute for Climate Change and Adaptation workshop for media practitioners. Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi; 2012.
Ndathi AJN, MNM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Climate variability and dry season ruminant livestock feeding strategies in Southeastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23(9). Abstract

Availability of feeds for livestock production is a major constraint to livestock production in drylands of Kenya. This study was conducted to generate information on the climate of the semi-arid lands of Southeastern Kenya and the livestock keepers’ dry seasons feed provision strategies. Information on climate was generated through analysis of long-term and short-term rainfall and temperature data. The dry seasons’ livestock feed provision strategies were generated through a household survey using a questionnaire.

Livestock keepers have a period of 6 months to grow and harvest feeds to bridge a5 months feed shortage gap. Long-term rainfall amounts showed irregular peaks and troughs and seem to have a stable mean over the years. However, even with the troughs and peaks, the temperatures seem to be increasing. This means that moisture available for feed production may be decreasing. Buying of feeds and using on-farm conserved feeds were the most commonly used feed provision strategies during the dry seasons. However, these strategies were constrained by lack of money, availability of the feeds to buy, inadequate space for conservation and rotting of the conserved feeds.

Key word: constraints, feed conservation, droughts, drylands

o. c. Ghibingal, Musimba NRK, Nyangito MM, Simbay J, Daural MT. "Climate variability; enhancing adaptive utilization of browse trees for improved livestock production among agro-pastoralists communities in Southern Zambia." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2012;6((7)):267-274. Abstract

Agro-pastoralists whose sources of livelihood depend on rain-fed agriculture are very vulnerable to
ecological disturbance due to increasing climate variability. They are unable to adequately feed their
animals in times of extreme weather conditions of floods and droughts thereby causing a disruption in
their maior source of (rve(ihood. fhfs study ana$zed (he feedrng s(ra(egies empfoyed by agropastoralists
in Southern Zambla and important browse species used in extreme weather conditions, in
order to improve their utilization for improved livestock production. The major feeding strategies during
droughts include browse utilization, dambo grazing, grazing along streams and supplementary feeding.
While during floods, upland grazing and browse grazing were the main strategies. However, most of the
agro-pastoralists do not practice pasture management and fodder conservation for their animals. Of the
21 lree browse species identified by the agro-pastoralists, 18 species were found to be important during
droughts and 8 during floods. Most of the agro-pastoralists neither knew how to plant these browse
species nor how to manage them for befter and sustainable use in feeding their animals. Therefore, the
agro-pastoralists in the study area need to take up management and feed conservation measures for
their animals. Deliberate effort should be made to teach the agro-pastoralists how to plant and manage
the important browse species that are suitable in extreme weather conditions. This will enhance
productive use of the browse species for improved animal feeding to ensure food security among the
pastoralists.

Key words: Extreme weather conditions, adaption, browse species, Agro-pastoralists.

Wandiga, S. OM, others. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." Leary, N. et. al. (eds.) Climate Change and Adaptation, Earthscan: London and Sterling,VA, pp.109-130; 2008. Abstract
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Yanda P, Wandiga S, Kangalawe R, Opondo M, Olago D, Githeko A, Downs T, Robert Kabumbuli, Opere A, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Apindi E, Marshall M, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Kirumira E, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Sigalla R, Achola P. "Climate, Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region: Adapting to Changing Risks.". In: Climate Change and Adaptation. Routledge; 2012. Abstract

In the East African countries, malaria is ranked as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. It causes about 40,000 infant deaths in Kenya each year; in Uganda annual cases of malaria range between 6 to 7 million, with 6500 to 8500 fatalities, and in Tanzania the annual death toll is between 70,000 and 125,000 and accounts for 19 per cent of health expenditure (De Savigny et al, 2004a and b). In the case of cholera, the first epidemic in Africa was reported as far back as 1836 (Rees, 2000). Major outbreaks were next reported in 1970 and affected West Africa (Guinea), the horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) and Kenya (Waiyaki, 1996). The most severe cholera outbreak on the African continent was in 1998, accounting for more than 72 per cent of the global total number of cholera cases and acutely affecting the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Cholera outbreaks in East Africa have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1972. In the Lake Victoria region of East Africa both malaria and cholera are common, with malaria endemic in the lowlands and epidemic in the highland areas and cholera endemic in the basin since the early 1970s (Rees, 2000).

Olago D, Joordens J, Beck C, Sier M, der Lubbe JV, et al. "Climate-driven lacustrine dynamics from the Early Pleistocene Lorenyang Lake, Turkana Basin, Kenya.". In: EGU General Assembly 2016. Vienna Austria; 2016. Abstract

Two stratigraphic records from Kaitio in West Turkana, Kenya, span 1.87 - 1.34 Ma, and document environmental character and variability through a critical interval for human evolution and cultural development. The WTK13 core collected by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) recovered 216 m of sediment at 95% recovery. A parallel outcrop record of 180 m was investigated in exposures along the Kaitio laga close to the drill site. Six tephrostratigraphic markers, the Chari, Lokapetamoi, 22Q-3, Etirr, Ebei and KBS Tuffs are present in the outcrop and/or core. These were characterized by single-shard geochemical analysis, and provide links to the well-established tephrochronology of the Turkana Basin. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the two records documents the top of the Olduvai Subchron (C2N) at 1.78 Ma. The lithostratigraphic record, bolstered by magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary facies characterization, demonstrates a first-order transition from a deeper lacustrine system to a dynamic lake margin setting, followed by delta progradation. Facies analysis reveals repeated fluctuations of lake level at Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch scales. Core-outcrop correlation allows detailed comparisons between diagenetically-prone outcrop samples and more pristine samples from the deep core. The excellent preservation of the core sediments makes it possible to obtain critical climate records of organic biomarkers, pollen, phytoliths and other proxies. This detailed archive of environmental variability is closely linked to the rich paleontological and archaeological discoveries from nearby sites and around the Turkana Basin.

Olago D, Marshall M, Wandiga SO, Opondo M, Yanda PZ, Kangalawe R, Githeko A, Downs T, Opere A, Kabumbuli R, Kirumira E, Ogallo L, Mugambi P, Apindi E, Githui F, Kathuri J, Olaka L, Sigalla R, Nanyunja R, Baguma T, Achola P. "Climatic Socio-economic and Health Factors Affecting Human Vulnerability to Cholera in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa." AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 2007;36:350-358.

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