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WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Wisdom Stories by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1985. Abstract
  
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "The Chilean Experience: Lessons for Kenyan Economic Policy in Kasned Newsline, The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September.". In: The Professional Journal of the Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examinations Bord, July-September. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
The article is based on the premise that there are many valuable lessons that can be learnt from the experience of other developing countries. Chile has since the early 1990s been considered as one of the most successful developing countries, registering impressive rates of growth. It has also, unlike many developing countries been able to carry out economic reforms to significantly alleviate poverty without adversely affecting growth. The lessons for Kenya which is also attempting to pursue an export-oriented strategy are evaluated.
KURIA KAMAU, Harneit-Sievers ASM,(Eds) SN. "China." Fountain Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-906387-33-4; 2010. Abstract
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OlusanyaAjakaiye, Owiti E. "China and Africa – Opportunities and Challenges.". In: Task Force on Strategic Partnership between Africa and the Emerging Countries of the South,. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2006.
Dorothy McCormick. "China and Africa: Win-Win Strategies for the Clothing Trade.". In: Annual Meeting of the African Development Bank. Arusha, Tanzania,; 2012.
Dorothy MC. "China and India, Africa's new donors." Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2008. Abstract

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Onjala J, OSCAR OTELE. "China’s Africa Policy on Trade, Investment and Development Assistance: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Otele O, Onjala J. "China’s African Economic Policy: An Overview and Assessment.". In: The Conference on China-Africa Cooperation on Human Resources in the Sector of Mineral Resources . Yunnan University, Kunming; 2015.
Joseph O. "China’s Development Loans and the threat of Debt Crisis in Kenya." Development Policy Review. 2018; 36(S2): 0710-0728.Website
Were O, Benn M, Munavu R. "Chinchona Alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii." Planta medica. 1997;63(1):90-92. AbstractFull text link

Investigation of the Tanzanian Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp. cottonii resulted in
the isolation of the cinchona alkaloid, cinchonidine (2). Conversion of cinchonidine to deoxy-
cinchonidine was achieved in high yield using zinc dust in aqueous sulphuric acid. This
illustrates the first reduction of a quinoline system using these reagents.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, ELIZABETH DRDIMBA. "Chindia M. L., Dimba E: Neural Tumours of the Head and Neck. East African Medical Journal; 77:531-533, 2000.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):531-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the pattern of occurrence of all primary neural tumours arising in the neck and craniofacial region over the period 1982 to 1991. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Cancer Registry, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Out of the 289 cases who were identified to have had whole body neural tumours, 225 (77.8%) had the lesions distributed in the neck and craniofacial area. While 80% of the neoplasms located in this region were retinoblastomas (mainly occurring in the age group 0 to 4 years), other lesion types occurred in small numbers thus: neurofibromas comprised 12.4%, Schwannomas four per cent, neuroblastomas and neuromas each 0.4%; and extracranial gliomas 2.7%. Overall, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and the site distribution revealed that over 90% of the lesions afflicted the upper face. CONCLUSION: Neural tumours of the neck and craniofacial region appear generally rare in this population as has been shown elsewhere.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., and Guthua S.W.: Orofacial Neoplasms in Children. African Health,17:20-21, 1995.". In: African Health,17:20-21, 1995. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., and Guthua S.W.: Orofacial Neoplasms in Children. African Health,17:20-21, 1995.". In: African Health,17:20-21, 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., and Valderhaug, J: Periodontal status following Trapezoidal and Semilunar Flaps in apicectomy. East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):564-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
Apicectomy is offered where routine endodontics cannot resolve periapical inflammation. This study compared the influence on periodontal attachment level of two surgical procedures, the trapezoidal (TF) and the semilunar (SF) flaps. Twenty patients aged 16-44 years (mean 23.2 years), were randomly assigned to either flap procedure. Prior to surgery the patients received periodontal prophylaxis and oral hygiene instruction. Records were made of gingival indices, pocket depth and the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival pocket. The measurements involved buccal surfaces of 13 to 23. The TF flap extended from 14 to 24 between the interdental papillae, whereas the SF flap was carried in a semi circle from 14 to 24 about 2mm from the attached gingiva. The surgical wounds were closed with black silk sutures. Antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. Sutures were removed after one week. On recall after 6, 12 and 24 weeks the same measurements as before surgery were made. No statistically significant change was observed in pocket depth or attachment level between TF and SF flaps (p > 0.05). However, the TF flap produced less noticeable scarification than the SF flap.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Awange D.O., Wakoli K.A.: Osteosarcoma of the Maxillofacial bones in Kenyans. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Awange D.O., Wakoli K.A.: Osteosarcoma of the Maxillofacial bones in Kenyans. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia M.L., Guthua S.W., Kimaro S.S., Moshy J: Gangrenous Stomatitis (cancrumoris) Clinical features, etiologic factors and complications. Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81.". In: Quintessence Int. 1997 Apr;28(4):277-81. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Gangrenous stomatitis (cancrum oris) is a lesion involving the orofacial structures that is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene. The general clinical features, associated etiologic factors, and ensuing complications in eight consecutive cases diagnosed between 1991 and 1995 are presented and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Swaleh S.M., Godiah P.M: Sarcomas of the Head and Neck at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 May;77(5):256-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial region. DESIGN: A retrospective study (1982-1991). SETTING: Cancer Registry, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD: Examination was performed of the cancer records in the registry over the period 1982 to 1991 inclusive. Histopathological types of the sarcomas were then analysed to indicate the numbers that occurred per year; and also the pattern of occurrence according to age groups, gender and site. RESULTS: Of the 10,897 whole body neoplasms, 985 were sarcomas. Among these sarcomas, 160 (16%) were located in the neck and craniofacial region. The histopathological types of the neoplasms included Kaposi's sarcoma (39%), osteosarcoma (23%), rhabdomyosarcoma (21%), fibrosarcoma (13%), chondrosarcoma (two per cent), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (one per cent) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (one per cent). CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation, in concordance with those of other series worldwide, indicate that the various sarcomas afflicting the neck and craniofacial area are generally rare.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L., Valderhaug J and Ng'ang'a P.M.: Oral Health habits and Periodontal Health among a group of University Students in Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal, 69: 337 - 340, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L.: Pathogenesis of odontogenic cysts: An update. East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):276-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):276-82. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article briefly reviews the origin, classification and pathogenesis of the various odontogenic cysts. Keratocysts and follicular cysts are said to be developmental lesions arising from the remnants of the dental lamina and the cell rests of the dental follicle respectively. The radicular cysts are the most commonly occurring lesions associated with the apices of non-vital teeth. They are said to arise from proliferation of the cell rests of Malassez in chronically inflamed granulomata. It is noted that bone resorption is the major requirement for any bony lesion to expand; hence the interest in the role of diverse cellular and chemical mediators of bone resorption in disease. The current concepts of the role, in cyst initiation and growth, of enzymes including cellular metabolites and cytokines are presented. Evidence on the activities of collagenase, arachidonic acid metabolites, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, interleukin–1 and prostaglandins is cited. It is observed that the understanding of these cellular and molecular biological behaviour patterns may yield more appropriate information necessary for the development of more effective management modalities for such tissue degrading lesions as odontogenic cysts.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia M.L: Fighting Orofacial Cancer. Africa Health 14:41, 1992.". In: Africa Health 14:41, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Chindia ML, Akama MK, Awange DO.Ameloblastic fibroma at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):418-21. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To document the occurrence of cases of ameloblastic fibroma. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine histopathology laboratory at the Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, January 1991 to December 2000. RESULTS: Seven complete records of histopathologically confirmed cases of ameloblastic fibroma were identified. There were four male and three female cases with an age range of 10 to 22 years (mean=14 years). Remarkably, six of the cases had lesions in the molar regions of the mandible with a single case with a maxillary molar area lesion. One of the cases had the neoplasm associated with an unerupted tooth. From the clinical notes all the patients were managed by meticulous enucleation and curettage of the lesions. After follow up periods ranging from several months to eight years no recurrences had been recorded. CONCLUSION: Evidently ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon neoplasm as noted in the earlier literature. Although the lesions can be quite extensive at the time of diagnosis, the recurrence rate appears to be relatively low if the neoplasms are meticulously extirpated.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Awange DO, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports. East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Sep;70(9):595-6. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Awange DO.Congenital epulis of the newborn: a report of two cases.Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8.". In: Br Dent J. 1994 Jun 11;176(11):426-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
Congenital epulis of the newborn is a rare lesion whose histogenesis and natural clinical history have remained obscure. Even with the advent of modern histopathological techniques, it has not been possible to depict specific cellular features unique to this lesion. However, it is important that new cases are reported from all populations so that their occurrence and frequency may be easily noted. Furthermore, the lesion is important as a differential diagnosis of other aggressive lesions early in life. This report presents two Kenyan cases.
KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Awange DO, Wakoli KA.Osteosarcoma of the maxillofacial bones in Kenyans.J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101.". In: J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 1998 Apr;26(2):98-101. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.Ameloblastoma after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular molar. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
A case of an ameloblastoma diagnosed about 3 1/2 years after removal of an impacted mandibular 3rd molar is presented. The pre-operative radiographs, though poor in quality, showed an ill-defined radiolucency in relation to the tooth. This feature was not apparent to the examiners at the time of first presentation. Despite unfavourable working conditions in developing countries, a high level of suspicion should be maintained to avoid serious sequelae at a later stage.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Chindia ML, Guthua SW, Mwaniki DL.Ameloblastoma after surgical removal of an impacted mandibular molar. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Apr;20(2):73-4. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
A case of an ameloblastoma diagnosed about 3 1/2 years after removal of an impacted mandibular 3rd molar is presented. The pre-operative radiographs, though poor in quality, showed an ill-defined radiolucency in relation to the tooth. This feature was not apparent to the examiners at the time of first presentation. Despite unfavourable working conditions in developing countries, a high level of suspicion should be maintained to avoid serious sequelae at a later stage.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Kimaro S.Congenital lower lip pits and bilateral clefting of the upper lip.East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 May;71(5):332-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
An apparently sporadic case of congenital lower lip pits in association with upper lip bilateral clefts is described in an 11-month-old boy. The presentation, mode of inheritance, aetiology and genetic significance are briefly reviewed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM. Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Sugery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ng'ang'a PM.Alcohol injection in the management of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia: a report of six cases.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):49-50. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1994. Abstract
The report revisits the role of alcohol in the treatment of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN). The study included 6 patients, 3 male and 3 female, average age 50 years. In 3 cases PTN involved both the infraorbital and mental nerves; in 2 cases the infraorbital alone while one case had buccal branch involvement. In each case 2mls standard Lignocaine was infiltrated at each site followed by 2mls 60% sterile alcohol. All patients reported swelling postoperatively. One case with mental and infraorbital nerve involvement complained of oral dysaesthesia. Another patient with similar involvement failed to respond and developed trismus. Responders remained pain-free for 9 months on average. While paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN) has been recognised for centuries, the aetiology and definitive treatment remain obscure. Since this is a debilitating condition, management should aim at improving the quality of life. Alcohol is available, affordable and offers useful results where medical resources provide limited PTN treatment modalities.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Ocholla TJ, Imalingat B.Osteopetrosis presenting with paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia. A case report.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991 Aug;20(4):199-200. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract

Osteopetrosis is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. The relentless bone growth may progressively obliterate the various craniofacial skeletal foramina leading to nerve compression and a diversity of neurological disorders. A case is reported of a 37-year-old woman who was seen because of frequent attacks of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (PTN); other orofacial neurologic deficits and generalised craniofacial skeletal thickening. The prompt recognition and management of associated disorders such as PTN is emphasized. Despite the lack of definitive treatment modalities for both osteopetrosis and PTN, the patient's quality of life must be sustained.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML, Riyat MS, Nyong'o A.Multiple myeloma presenting as a painful mandibular swelling: a case report.Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.". In: Dent Update. 2001 Jun;28(5):258-60.v. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Multiple myeloma is a disease characterized by monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, the most differentiated stage of B-cells. Primary manifestation of multiple myeloma in the jawbones is rare. In the case reported here, a 29-year-old woman who presented with a right mandibular swelling after extraction of a mobile painful tooth turned out to have multiple myeloma. Current diagnostic criteria and management strategies of the disease are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "Chindia ML, Valderhaug J, Ng'ang'a PM. Oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):337-40. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health habits and periodontal health among a group of university students in Kenya. The study comprised 243 randomly selected first year students, mean age 23 years, at the University of Nairobi. Questionnaire response showed that 39% of the participants had visited a dentist before, mainly for extraction. Sixteen per cent said they visited a dentist at least once a year and 96% said they brushed daily. Clinical examination was done in a room with natural daylight using the WHO criteria. Plaque was visible on 35% of the surfaces. 11% of gingival sites examined bled on probing. Only one participant had pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm. Supra- and sub-gingival calculus was recorded at 18% of index tooth surfaces. The study will be considered as a baseline for later studies on oral health trends in similar populations.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. A conservative management of an extensive odontogenic residual cyst: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Feb;68(2):143-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article briefly reviews the clinical presentation and management of odontogenic cysts. A case is reported of an 18-year-old girl who, on 12-3-1986, presented for the first time at the Dental Department, University of Nairobi with a painful bony swelling in the chin area. The extensive swelling apparently arose long after the traditional removal of two mandibular incisors. After periodontal prophylaxis the cystic lesion was enucleated under a local anaesthetic and the cavity lining subjected to histopathological examination which revealed appearances consistent with those of an odontogenic residual cyst. Immediate wound care involved dressing the defect with zinc iodoform paste on ribbon gauze for 4 weeks when complete granulation and epithelialisation occurred. Subsequently the patient was instructed on homecare irrigation of the cavity without packing. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed progressively satisfactory healing of both the soft tissue and bone through a follow-up period of about two years. It is suggested that the cavity filling in process by periosteal and endosteal bone deposition may be faster where the defect is left without a pack or obturator following complete granulation and epithelialisation.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Coping with the management of orofacial cancer with limited resources. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109.". In: Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1990 Apr;18(2):109. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1990. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2335062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Fibrous dysplasia of the jaws: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):312-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1991. Abstract
This article reviews the present clinical, radiographic and histologic features of fibrous dysplastic lesions of the jaws. A case is presented of an apparently reactivated fibrous dysplastic jaw lesion, with evidence of cystic degeneration, in a 33-year-old female school-teacher who was first seen at the Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi in March 1986. The dilemma in the management of fibrous dysplasia is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that while conservative surgical procedures remain the treatment of choice, situations arise where tremendous tissue activity would require early intervention by numerous cosmetic surgical shaving procedures. The present case, however, offers a unique management challenge due to the occurrence of extensive cystic degeneration in the mandible.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Giant twin sialoliths presenting with acute cellulitis: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):171-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

Sialolithiasis is a process of unknown aetiology in which calculus concretions form in the salivary gland ducts and tissue. It may occur at any age but it is most common in middle-aged adults. A case is presented of the occurrence of double giant sialoliths in the left Wharton's duct in a 16-year-old boy. The clinical symptoms and signs were somewhat atypical and included acute suppurative cellulitis in the floor of the mouth plus localized periodontitis involving 36. Under a local anaesthetic the stones were surgically extracted and healing was uneventful. Proper interpretation of symptoms and thoughtful investigation for localization of salivary stones is emphasized.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Intracranial tumour presenting with facial pain .Br Dent J. 1989 Apr 22;166(8):282-3.". In: Br Dent J. 1989 Apr 22;166(8):282-3. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2719885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML. Some modalities of initiating and sustaining oral health research. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;17(5):274. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1989. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 2791520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Cleft lip and/or palate: searching for aetiological factors.East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Oct;79(10):509. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Clinical recognition of odontogenic tumours.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2002. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12380861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Evolution of cancer management. East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Oct;77(10):521-2. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2000. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 12862116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Facing the burden of malignant orofacial neoplasia.East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):61. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2006. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 16771100 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.HIV-associated fulminating herpes zoster infection with alveolar necrosis and tooth exfoliation: a case report.Dent Update. 1997 Apr;24(3):126-8.". In: Dent Update. 1997 Apr;24(3):126-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1997. Abstract
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. This paper presents a case of HIV-associated fulminating herpes zoster infection (HZI) that culminated in right mandibular necrosis and tooth exfoliation. The occurrence of such infection in immunosuppression and the impending clinical features are briefly reviewed and discussed.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteomyelitis of the mandible in HIV infection.Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154.". In: Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999 Apr;37(2):154. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1999. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 10371330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Osteosarcoma of the jaw bones.Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7.". In: Oral Oncol. 2001 Oct;37(7):545-7. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract
Currently, it has been established that osteosarcoma (OS) of bone is not a stereotyped disease, and several varieties have been identified by clinical findings, radiographic and histopathologic appearances. Generally, it is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm that accounts for at least 30% of all primary tumours of bone. In the jaw bones, OS accounts for about 4% of all the primary malignant neoplasms. In the general skeleton, the highest incidence is observed in the second decade of life; the neoplasm is said to be unusual before the age of 5 years and very rare after age 50 years. The aetiology and precise pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. A diagnosis of clinically and radiologically suspicious OS requires meticulous histologic examination. However, histologic diagnosis may also be difficult since the different varieties of OS may have different morphological patterns in different sample sites. Currently, the two therapeutic modalities used in the primary treatment of OS include radical surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the general skeleton, the use of surgery alone results in a 90% rate of recurrence of OS. Notably, the advent of adjuvant and neoadjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy as an adjunct to radical surgery has greatly improved the prognosis of many cases of OS of the jaw bones.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Chindia ML.Traditional dental practices.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):205-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 7621750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M. L., GUTHUA S.W.: Neonatal chondroblastic oesteosarcoma of the mandible. E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press).". In: E. Afri. Med. J. (In Press). Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L, GUTHUA, S.W., KIMARO, S.S., MOSHY, J.: Gangrenous Stomatitis (Cancrum Oris): Clinical Features, aetiology factors and complications. Quintessence International 28:277-281, April 1997.". In: Quintessence International 28:277-281. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA S.W.: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR, Dec. 1992 (Abs).". In: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W. Bacterial infections in head and neck region. Association of ENT Surgeons Conference, 25th - 26th March, 1994, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Association of ENT Surgeons Conference, 25th - 26th March, 1994, Nairobi, Kenya. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Florid Periapical Cemento-osseous Dysplasia. IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992.". In: IADR Conference, Harare, Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Orofacial neoplasms in children. Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21, July 1995.". In: Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, ML., AWANGE, D.O., GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L, Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in Kenyan African Girls. Case reports. East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596, 1993.". In: East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

Dorothy McCormick, Kamau. P. "Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Textile Trade.". In: : African Clothing Exports in the Post-MFA Era.’ Paper presented at final workshop of project on ‘Chinese Ascendancy in the Global Clothing Industry. Nairobi - Silver Springs Hotel; 2012.
Onjala J. "Chinese Direct Investments in Africa: Motivations and Environmental Implications." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. 2016;Volume XVII(Number 1):91-102.
Onjala J. "The Chinese Factor in Africa’s Urban Infrastructure Development: Lessons from Nairobi and Kisumu Cities in Kenya.". In: 2015 International Conference on Chinese and African Sustainable Urbanization. University of Ottawa Canada; 2015.
P PROFONIANG'OCLEMENTM. "Chinua A. Achebe Things Fall Apart. DINI NA MILA, Vol. VII, No. 1 pp 40-42, 1975. Makerere University Kampala.". In: Makerere Historical Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1 1975 (pp 103-112).; 1975. Abstract
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N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Chloris roxburghiana Schult grass genetic variation between ecological sites: the case for in situ reseeding seed multiplication. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part I: Interaction with drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. I. ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI , IVAN ADDAE-MENSAH, DAVID K. NJOROGE; 1998. Abstract

Chloroquine is extensively used in the management of malaria in Kenya. It is widely available for self medication. Often it is used concurrently with other drugs. In the present paper, possible drug interactions with Chloroquine have been investigated. Isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation was used to study the effect of Chloroquine alone and in combination with several drugs on neuromuscular impulse transmission. Chloroquine in the dose range 0.025 - 0.3 vg/m1 organ bath concentration induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission blockade. The drug significantly potentiated the NMJ transmissionblockade induced by commonly used agents gallamine, succinylcholine and lignocaine. It antagonised the NMJ facilitatory action of physostigmine, calcium chloride and barium chloride. Chloraquine could. be interfering with ion conductance processes. It is suggested that Chloroquine should be used with caution in conditions characterised by muscle contractile disorders or during treatment with drugs that cause decreased skeletal muscle activity. Key Words: Chloroquine, interactions, neuromuscular junction.

M. DRGUANTAIERIC. "Chloroquine Resistance: Proposed Mechanisms and Countermeasures.". In: Current Drug Delivery. DMW; 2010. Abstract
Malaria has been, and remains, one of the biggest global health concerns as far as infectious diseases are concerned, with yearly incidence and mortality figures running into millions. One of the major drawbacks to the control of this disease has been the emergence of drug resistant strains of the causative agent, which limits the successful use of many clinically available antimalarial drugs. This review discusses chloroquine resistance; it highlights some of the proposed molecular mechanisms of chloroquine resistance, but dwells more on efforts at reversing chloroquine resistance and the concept of chloroquine resistance-reversal agents.
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Chobe District Settlement Strategy, Botswana: A Participatory Pilot Approach for District Settlement Planning. In collaboration with United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. UNDP and Government of Botswana June 2000 (Forthcoming in UNCHS Publications).". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Chohan BH, lavreys L, Mandaliya KN, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO,Martin HL Jr. Validation a modified commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 immunnoglobulin G antibodies in saliva. Clin Diagn Lab .". In: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:346-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the performance of a saliva collection device (OmniSal) and an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) designed for use on serum samples (Detect HIV1/2) to detect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies in the saliva of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. The results of the saliva assay were compared to a "gold standard" of a double-EIA testing algorithm performed on serum. Individuals were considered HIV-1 seropositive if their serum tested positive for antibodies to HIV-1 by two different EIAs. The commercial serum-based EIA was modified to test the saliva samples by altering the dilution and lowering the cutoff point of the assay. Using the saliva sample, the EIA correctly identified 102 of the 103 seropositive individuals, yielding a sensitivity of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 100%), and 96 of the 96 seronegative individuals, yielding a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 95 to 100%). In this high-risk population, the positive predictive value of the assay was 100% and the negative predictive value was 99%. We conclude that HIV-1 antibody testing of saliva samples collected with this device and tested by this EIA is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to make this protocol useful in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Chohan VH, Baeten J, Benki S, Graham SM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko WG, Overbaugh J & McClelland RS (2009) A prospective study of risk factors for Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative Kenyan women.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(7):489-92; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Chohan VH, Baeten J, Benki S, Graham SM, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko WG, Overbaugh J & McClelland RS (2009) A prospective study of risk factors for Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 acquisition among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative Kenyan women.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(7):489-92; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Choice Between The Human Capital Approach and Willingness To Pay Approach in Evaluation of Primary Health Care Programmes -A Kenyan Example, in Economics, Health and Tropical Diseases, ed. A.N. Herrin, P.L. Rosenfield, University of the Philippines, Schoo.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1988. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

Serra AJ, McNicholas KW, Olivier HF, Boe SL, Lemole GM. "The choice of anticoagulation in pediatric patients with the St. Jude Medical valve prostheses." J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1987;28(5):588-91. Abstract

Between February 1982 and January 1984 27 St. Jude Medical cardiac valve prostheses were implanted in 24 children ranging in age from 5 to 20 years (mean 12.38 years). There were 10 isolated aortic valve replacements, 14 isolated mitral valve replacements and one triple valve replacement (aortic, mitral and tricuspid). There was one operative and four late deaths. All patients were maintained on Aspirin and Dipyridamole from the early postoperative period. There were six documented thromboembolic events occurring in five patients. There were 0.68 thromboembolic events per patient year in the aortic valve group and 0.19 events in the mitral valve group. Because of the significant incidence of thromboembolic events in our patients, we now recommend universal anticoagulation with Coumadin in all pediatric age patients in whom the St. Jude Medical prosthesis is implanted.

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: European Journal of Development Research. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Kisumbi B.K, Simila O.H ONBIJ. "Choice of Impression Materials and Techniques by Dentists.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition. Boma Inn, Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Osiro OA, Omondi BI, Nyagah J. "Choice of impression materials and techniques by dentists.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret, Kenya; 2015.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Choice of methods of farmer contact." Agricultural Administration. 1982;11(3).
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Choice of methods of farmer contact. In: Agricultural Administration, Vol. 11 (3).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Choice of Place of Delivery during Pregnancy in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub-County." International Journal ofbScience Arts and Commerce. 2018;3(5).
Otedo AEO, Otieno JO, Otieno CF, Oyoo GO. "Cholangiopathy in a Cohort of HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):25-32.
O PROFORINDADA. "Cholelithiasis in the Kenyan African. East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Sep;67(9):656-60. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1990. Abstract
A prospective and retrospective review of 20 cases of cholelithiasis diagnosed at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and June 1989 was done. Females were more often affected (6 times) than their male counterparts. 94% of the females were parous with a mean parity of 5.6. Most patients were in the 4th decade at the time of diagnosis. Qualitative analysis for gall-stones showed evidence of cholesterol in all stones analysed with calcium being detected in only one female patient.
Fluck RA, Jaffe MJ. "Cholinesterases from plant tissues. VI. Preliminary characterization of enzymes from Solanum melongena L. and Zea mays L." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):130-4. Abstract

Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing esters of thiocholine have been assayed in extracts of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) and Zea Mays L. (corn). The enzymes from both species are inhibited by the anti-cholinesterases neostigmine, physostigmine, and 284c51 and by AMO-1618, a plant growth retardant and they both have pH optima near pH 8.0. The enzyme from eggplant is maximally active at a substrate concentration of 0.15 mM acetylthiocholine and is inhibited at higher substrate concentrations. On the basis of this last property, the magnitude of inhibition by the various inhibitors, and the substrate specificity, we conclude that the enzyme from eggplant, but not that from corn, is a cholinesterase.

T.M. O, Guthua SW, Chindia ML. "Chondrosarcoma of the Temporomandibular joint.". 2007.
Long J, Kanyinga K, Ferree K, Gibson C. "Choosing Peace over Democracy." Journal of Democracy. 2013;Vol. 24(No. 3):140-155.
Ogana W. "Choosing the decay function in the transonic integral equation." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 1988;Vol. 9, (Series A, Nos. 1 & 2):pp. 11-21.
Ogana W. Choosing the decay function in the transonic integral equation. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report,; 1983.
Kimuyu PK. "Choosing the Right Values: Which way for Kenya.". In: Choosing the Right Values: Which way for Kenya.; 2009.
Irungu LW, Mutinga MJ, Kokwaro E. "The chorionic sculpturing of eggs of some Kenyan Phlebotomine sandflies." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1986;7(1):45-48. AbstractWebsite

Studies of outer chorionic sculpturing of eggs of four species of sandflies were carried out by the use of scanning electron microscope. Two species, P. martini and S. garnhami, which utilize similar resting sites, termite hill ventilation shafts, had similar chorionic sculpturing, while two other species (S. bedfordi and S. kirki) which use several resting sites, i.e. rock crevices, tree holes and termite ventilation shafts, had chorionic sculpturings which were dissimilar.

C.O.N K, Anne N. Chosing a Spouse. In Kassim A (2005) True Love Waits(Eds). Nairobi: BARA manual ; 2005.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Choudhry VP, Acharya SK.Hepatitis B, C & D viral markers in multitransfused thalassemic children: long-term complications and present management.Indian J Pediatr. 1995 Nov-Dec;62(6):655-68.". In: Indian J Pediatr. 1995 Nov-Dec;62(6):655-68. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract

The average estimated carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India is 4%, with a total pool of approximately 36 million carriers. Wide variations in social, economic, and health factors in different regions may explain variations in carrier rates from one part of the country to another. Professional blood donors constitute the major high risk group for HBV infection in India, with a hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate of 14%. Blood transfusions represent the most important route of HBV transmission among adults. However, most of India's carrier pool is established in early childhood, predominantly by horizontal spread due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Acute and subacute liver failure are common complications of viral hepatitis in India and HBV is reckoned to be the aetiological agent in 42% and 45% of adult cases, respectively. HBV is reported to be responsible for 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis and 80% of cases of cirrhosis of the liver. About 60% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are HBV marker positive. Small numbers of patients have been reported to be infected with the pre-core mutant virus but none with the S mutant. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis delta virus is comparatively uncommon. In conclusion, hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India and will continue to be until appropriate nationwide vaccination programmes and other control measures are established.

Mogambi H. Chozi Langu. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2012.
Mogambi H. Chozi Langu. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2014.
Chozi la Jiwe ( children literature) . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2014.
Wangiri ME. Christ and Culture in Africa : An African Christian’s Perspective . New York: State University of New York; 1991.
N. WACHEGEPATRICK. CHRIST OUR ELDER: A Christological Study From the Agĩkũyũ Concept of Elder.. NAIROBI: CUEA (Catholic University Of East Africa); 1986.pn_wachegesma.pdf
K DRGITAUSAMSON. "Christian Environmentalism in Kenya in Bron R.Taylor(Ed.),The Encyclopeadia of Religion and Nature(BRISTOL,Thoemmes Continnum).". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Christian ethics, "Social Education and Ethics, form III pupils' Kenya Literature Bureau, 1988), Chapter I.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1988. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Jesse N.K. Mugambi, producer (Eds.). Christian Faith and the Current Ecological Crisis. WCC; 2013.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Christian Presence and African Response in Western Kenya in Ogbu U. Kalu (ed) African Church Historiography: An Ecumenical Perspective, Geneva, 1988.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1988. Abstract
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M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Christian Presence and African Response in Western kenya" in Ogbu U.Kalu (ed) African Church Historiography: An Ecumerrical Perspective, Geneva.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1988. Abstract
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AYAKO MSANANGWECATHLEEN. "Christian Religious Education Secondary School pupils'course books- Form 1 to 4: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. ""Christian Response in Dehumanizing Situation", in The Churches Responding to Racism in the 1980s.".; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction. Nairobi: Acton; 2003.
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christianity and African Culture. Nairobi: Acton; 2002.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Christine L. Mattson, Robert C. Bailey, Kawango Agot, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola and Stephen Moses. A Nested Case-Control Study of Sexual Practices and Risk Factors for Prevalent HIV-1 Infection Among Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, May 2007, Vol. 34, No. 5. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracta_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.doca_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, VINCX MAGDA, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the Indian Ocean:.". In: difficulties in morphological identification of Actinonema Cobb, 1920 and Rhips Cobb, 1920. Hydrobiologia 364: 155-167. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1998.
Dossaji SF, Mabry TJ, Wallace JW. "Chromatographic and UV-Visible spectral identification Biflavanoids." Rev. Latinomer Ouim... 1975;6:37-45. Abstract

Thin layer chromatography, coupled with UV-visible spectral data using various
diagnostic shift reagents, was used to differentiate between nineteen bioflavanoids which were
either unsubstituted, partially methylated, or fully methylated. These included biflavanoids of
the amentoflavone type (1-9), 2,3,Klihydroamentoflavone (12), hinokiflavone type (10-11),
2,3,-dihydrohinokiflavone (13), cupressuflavone type (14-16), agathisflavone type (17-18), and
morelloflavone (19).

O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analysis of Kenyan Myrsinaceae benzoquinones.". In: The Matsumae International Foundation Fellowship Report,(1992), Vol. 2. 143.; 1992. Abstract
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P DRKITHINJIJACOB. "Chromatography with supercritical fluids, in Piggott and A. Paterson (eds) Distilled beverage flavour: Recent developments.". In: VCH Publishers, Cambridge, U.K. University of nairobi; 1989. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium Exposure and Related Health Effects among Tannery Workers in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. Abstract

Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process. Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed. Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer. Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 µg/m3) compared to those in the control group (1.39±0.64 µg/m3), and general workers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cr (66.8±13.1 µg/m3) than those in other lines of production. A significant positive association (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001) was also observed between urinary and breathing zone air Cr levels. Mean urinary Cr level exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index for Cr of 30 µg/g creatinine, and 78% of Cr levels of the general workers exceeded this limit. Tannery workers showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms (30% and 20%, respectively) compared to the control group (10% and 7.5%, respectively). It was further established that production workers had significantly reduced ventilatory function, with 17% experiencing pulmonary obstruction, 13% pulmonary restriction, and 7.5% both manifestations compared to 5% for each of the listed corresponding manifestations in the control group. Conclusions. Our study revealed inadequate engineering controls, work practices and personal hygiene, together with improper management of tannery wastes that has led to considerable exposures to Cr and related health effects among workers.

Key Words. Kenya; developing country; chromium; tannery workers; adverse health effects; respiratory diseases; dermatological condition

Faridah H Were, Moturi CM, Wafula GA. "Chromium exposure and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya." Journal of Health Pollution. 2014;4(7):25-35. AbstractJournal of Health Pollution

Description
Background. There is increasing concern over the health effects of chromium (Cr) exposure stemming from various activities in tanneries in Kenya. Chromium is a toxic metal in its hexavalent form, and is widely used in the tanning process.
Objectives. A detailed exposure assessment of Cr and related health effects among tannery workers in Kenya was performed.
Methods. Spot urine and 8-hour full-shift personal breathing zone air samples of the workers (N = 40) and control group (N = 40) were collected and subsequently analyzed for total Cr using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The medical history, respiratory, and dermatological condition of each of the selected workers was determined. Lung function was further investigated using a spirometer.
Results. Tannery workers in various production lines had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean airborne Cr levels (± standard deviation [SD] of 63.0±11.6 μg …

Githang'a JN. Chromosomal Abnormalities In Childhood Acute Leukaemia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 14 patients aged from
ten months to 13 years admitted to KNH with acute leukaemia
(AL). Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed in
nine children. The clinical and laboratory features of the
patients were also analysed in relation to cytogenetic
abnormalities identified.
The study revealed that eight out of 14 (57!1~) of the
patients had acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) and 43%
had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Out of the five
children with ANLL who had chromosomal analysis performed
three (60%) had karyotype abnormal it i es: two pat i en ts had
hyperdiploidy, one with AML M5a had 47 chromosomes, and the
other with AML M2 had trisomy 21; the third patient had
monosomy 7. None of the four patients with ALL who had
chromosomal analysis performed had any karyotype
abnormalities.
Four out of the nine patients, whose karyotypes were
determined, died. All the four had normal karyotypes . Two
died of haemorrhage having had platelet counts less than 20
x 109/1 which is a poor prognostic feature. The other two
died of overwhelming infections.
Surface marker studies done during the course of the
study were helpful in making a final
complemented the morphological diagnosis.
diagnosis and

Evidence from the study shows that karyotypic
abnormalities in ANLL occur as frequently as those found in
other studies. The prognostic significance of the
chromosomal abnormalities has not been clearly demonstrated
in this study in view of the sample size. It is therefore
recommended that further similar but larger studies be
performed. A larger study should also bring out any
associations between certain karyotypes and morphologi cal
types of acute leukaemia.

Riccardo Castiglia, Afework Bekele RMNO, Corti M. "Chromosomal Diversity in the Genus Arvicanthis from the Horn and East Africa: a taxonomic and phylogenetic evaluation." Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 44(3):223-235; 2006. Abstract
n/a
J.O. K. "Chromosomal studies on East African Geraniaceae." Taxon. 1969;18(6):684.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Chronic administration of and dependence on halazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E, Dickey KM. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64.". In: Drug Alcohol Depend. 1991 Oct;28(3):249-64. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
produced physical dependence which was revealed by a flumazenil precipitated abstinence syndrome and measured by the Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale score (NPAS) (McNicholas et al., 1988; Sloan et al., 1990). This abstinence as measured by the NPAS score was more severe in diazepam- and halazepam-dependent than in nordiazepam-dependent dogs whereas the incidence of precipitated clonic seizures was greater in the diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent than in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that in the dog the major conversion of halazepam, like diazepam, was to nordiazepam and an oxazepam conjugate. Appreciable quantities of oxazepam, 3-OH halazepam and its conjugated metabolite were also identified in plasma. The NPAS score obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs, however, was greater than the NPAS score obtained in nordiazepam-dependent dogs who had nordiazepam plasma levels over three times higher than those obtained in the halazepam-dependent dogs. Further, the precipitated abstinence observed in the halazepam-, diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs differed in qualitative as well as in quantitative aspects including marked differences in the time course of abstinence signs. These data argue that the different dependencies produced by halazepam, diazepam and nordiazepam are not due solely to either the parent compound or to a single metabolite but most likely to their combined effects.
S.O. ML, J.K K, J.S O, S.M M. "Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma." Nephron :,. 1996;74:495-496. Abstract

Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in a patient with end-stage renal disease following radiotherapy and surgery for transitional cell carcinoma. Nephron. 1996;74(2):495-6. No abstract available.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
A 30 year old female with an unexpected right adrenal phaechromacytoma invading the renal vein, the inferior vena cava and extending into the right atrium is presented. She also had BuddChiari syndrome due to invasion of the hepatic veins by the tumour. Additionally, the tumour had metastasised to the liver and the lungs. Despite elevated 24 hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) the patient was normotensive pre-operatively. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and extended nephrectomy with milking of the tumaur from the inferior vena cava. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple hypotensive episodes and adult respiratory distress syndrome post-operatively and died three weeks after surgery.
Awad O, Ochieng SJ, Malek A, Ogeng’o J. "Chronic anaemia causes degenerative changes in trophoblast cells of the rat placenta." Anatomy . 2017;11(2). Abstractchronic_anaemia_causes_degenerative_changes.pdfWebsite

Objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia causes adverse pregnancy outcome. There are few studies on effects of anaemia on the
structure of trophoblastic cells which are important in placental function. These data are important for understanding the
function and disorders of the placenta. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructural cellular changes associated
with iron deficiency anaemia in rat placenta.
Methods: Forty-nine female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into experimental and control groups. The
experimental group was rendered anaemic by removing 1.5 ml of blood per bleed on five alternate days, and the placentas
were collected on gestational days 17, 19 and 21. For light microscopy, five cubic millimeter segments were fixed in 10%
buffered formaldehyde solution; dehydrated in ethanol and embedded in paraffin wax. Five micron thick sections were cut,
deparaffinized and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. For transmission electron microscopy, 1 mm3 sections were fixed in
2.5% phosphate buffered glutaraldehyde, post fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in propylene
and embedded in epon resin. Ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate were examined with JEOL electron
microscope.
Results: Cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and giant trophoblastic cells of placentas of anaemic rats showed cytoplasmic
and nuclear vacuolation with loss of cell margins. In addition, there was atrophy of microvilli on the cell surface, as well
nuclear chromatolysis, nucleolar degeneration and appearance of dark bodies.
Conclusion: Chronic anaemia causes trophoblastic cell degeneration. This may undermine the functional integrity of the
cells and constitute part of the mechanism for poor fetal outcome.

Kingori J, Sitati FC. "Chronic bilateral heel pain in a child with Sever disease: case report and review of literature." Cases Journal. 2009;2:10-11. Abstractchronic_bilateral_heel_pain_in_a_child_with_sever_disease.pdf

We are presenting a case report of a 10-year-old male with a 1 year history of bilateral heel pain. Sever disease is self limiting condition of calcaneal apophysis. It is the most common cause of heel pain in the growing child. There is no documented case of this condition in this region. This case highlights the clinical features of this self limiting disorder as seen in this patient and reviews the current literature.

Kitaa JMA, Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Muraya J. "Chronic demodecosis in a Great Dane." Kenya Veterinarian. 2012;36(1):1-5.
Rees BI, Lari J. "Chronic intussusception in children." British Journal of Surgery. 1976;63:33-35. AbstractWebsite
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S.S. S, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, LULE GN. "Chronic kidney disease in rheumatoid arthritis at Kenyatta National hospital." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;3(1):14-18. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis on follow up at the rheumatology outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.
Setting: Rheumatology outpatient clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, a public national and referral hospital.
Subjects: Patients diagnosed to have rheumatoid arthritis who met the 2010 ACR-EULAR criteria.
Results: Out of 104 patients recruited, 93 (89.4%) were female with a female to male ratio of 8.5:1. Mean age of patients was 48.7(±15.6) years. Majority of the patients (90%) were on at least one Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug (DMARD) with methotrexate being the commonest used. Other DMARDs were leflunomide, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine. None of our patients was on a biologic agent. Use of NSAIDs and/or prednisone was very frequent (88.5%). Median duration of disease since time of diagnosis was 4 years. Majority of patients (60%) had active disease. We found the prevalence of chronic kidney disease to be 28.7% (95% CI 19.1- 37.2%) based on estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Cockroft-Gault formula. Majority (50%) of which was stage 3a disease and none with end stage renal disease. We found no patients with proteinuria using urinary dipstick.
Conclusion: Although we did not find any proteinuria in our study population, prevalence of chronic kidney disease based on estimated glomerular filtration rate was high with the majority having early stages of kidney disease. Use of urine strips alone is not an adequate screening tool.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyabola LO, Kiarie GW, Ndege R, Maina MD. "Chronic myeloid leukaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):593-597. Abstract

To determine the clinical and haematological factors associated with treatment and outcome of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Retrospective survey of patients treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Kenyatta National hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between April 1990 and August 2000.
Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
One hundred and four patients, 55 males and 49 females, age range 10-72 years with a median age of 35 years. Treatment with busulphan getting less popular in favour of hydroxyurea. Median follow-up 20 months with none of the clinical and haematological parameters impacting significantly on duration of follow-up.
CML occurs at a younger age-group in Kenya, and none of the clinical or haematological parameters appears to impact on follow-up duration.

Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyabola LO, Kiarie GW, Ndege R, Maina JM. "Chronic myeloid leukaemia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2002;79(11):593-597. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the clinical and haematological factors associated with treatment and outcome of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) at Kenyatta National Hospital.
DESIGN:

Retrospective survey of patients treated for chronic myeloid leukaemia.
SETTING:

Kenyatta National hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between April 1990 and August 2000.
SUBJECTS:

Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
RESULTS:

One hundred and four patients, 55 males and 49 females, age range 10-72 years with a median age of 35 years. Treatment with busulphan getting less popular in favour of hydroxyurea. Median follow-up 20 months with none of the clinical and haematological parameters impacting significantly on duration of follow-up.
CONCLUSION:

CML occurs at a younger age-group in Kenya, and none of the clinical or haematological parameters appears to impact on follow-up duration.

"Chronic Pododemodicosis in a Great Dane." Kenya Veterinary Association. 2012;36(2012).
Kitaa JMA, Abuom TO, Gitonga P, Muraya J. "Chronic pododermatitis in a Great Dane.". In: 44th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Almond Resort, Garissa Kenya; 2010.
Thomasson B, Sutinen S. "Chronic primary intussusception in an infant." Journal of pediatric surgery. 1972;7:299-301. AbstractWebsite
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Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "The Chronology of the Kikuyu".". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
n/a
and Kyule SAMHD. Chronology of the Middle and Later Stone Age, Kenya Rift Valley. Nairobi: Report to the Office of the President, Republic of Kenya, and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2000. Abstract

The ultimate objective of the program of research on the chronology of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Early Later Stone Age (LSA) in the southern and central Rift Valley of Kenya is to document the emergence of modern human behavior in East Africa. Archaeological evidence suggests that behavioral innovations that characterize modern human behavior occurred during the later MSA and early LSA in eastern and southern Africa, at an earlier date than in other parts of Africa and the Old World.

Accurate chronometric dates for the MSA and the transition to the LSA will contribute to testing the hypothesis of an East African origin for modern human behavior.

The primary objective of the 1999 field season in the southern Rift Valley was to excavate MSA and Early LSA archaeological occurrences that contain volcanic tephra stratified for Single Crystal Laser Fusion (SCLF) 40Ar/39Ar dating. One paleontological and four archaeological sites were excavated. The paleontological site, apparently a fossil hyena den, contains cut-marked bones.

Two sites have typical MSA occurrences characterized by lithic assemblages with radial cores and faceted platform flakes, made predominantly on locally available lavas. Two sites have artifact occurrences with diagnostic features of both the MSA and LSA, including backed microliths and elongated triangular flakes with faceted platforms from levallois cores, predominantly made on obsidian. These sites have excellent faunal preservation. Twelve stratified tephra were sampled from these five sites. Samples from the four archaeological sites have been submitted for dating
and chemical fingerprinting by Al Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center. Three sites also contained ostrich eggshell, permitting dating by amino acid racemization by Gifford Miller.

Three hydroelectric dams will be constructed by KenGen in the heart of the survey area, and river discharge will be increased by diverting a major tributary of the Mara River. Construction will begin in 2001, and be completed by 2006. Many important fossil and archaeological localities will be inundated, so intensive survey and excavations must be undertaken in a timely fashion.

MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "Chronosequence analysis of two enclosure management strategies in degraded rangeland of semi-arid Kenya. Verdoodt A, Mureithi SM, Ye L and Van Ranst E. 2009. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332. Elsevier J. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 129 (1-3): 332; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. , and J.K.A. Keter. 2000. Changes in soil chemical properties due to nitrogen fertilizer application and maize-bean cropping systems in a semi-arid region of Eastern Kenya. Intl. J. Biochem Physics, Vol. 10 & 11, 6-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. and J.K.A. Keter 2001. Effects of Nitrogen fertilizer and bean residue on yield of beans in different cropping systems. East Afr. Agr. For J. Vol. 67, No. 1, 37- 46.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Chui, J.N. and J.K.A. Keter. 1997. Effects of N fertilization, bean spatial arrangements and residue on maize performance in a semi-arid area of Kenya. African Crop Sci. Soc. J. Vol. 3, pp. 499-508.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON, B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Chunge C.N., Estambale B.B.A., Pamba H.O., Chitayi P.M., Munanga P.N. and Kang.". In: E Afr. Med. J. 66: 724, 1989. Taylor & Francis; 1989. Abstract
One hundred and sixty seven volunteer medical students were exposed to intradermal skin tests for schistosomiasis. 35(21%) were positive. On further screening using routine stool and urine examinations, only 11(6.6%) were found to have eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. We conclude that although a useful procedure, schistosomal skin test should not be used alone for the diagnosis of schistosoma infections but should be complimented with the routine stool and urine examinations.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON, B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Chunge C.N., Estambale B.B.A., Pamba H.O., Chitayi P.M., Munanga P.N. and Kang.". In: E Afr. Med. J. 66: 724, 1989. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1989. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Chunge C.N., Estambale B.B.A., Pamba H.O., Chitayi P.M., Munanga P.N. and Kang.". In: Afr. Med. J. 65: 532, 1988. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Chunge C.N., Kang.". In: Afr. Med. J. 69: 398, 1992. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1992. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Chunge C.N., Kang.". In: Nairobi J. Med. 15: 1989. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1989. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Chunge C.N., Owate J., Pamba H.O., Dono L., Kibati F., Mulega P.C., Bwibo N.O., Kang.". In: Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 84: 221, 1990. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1990. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Chunge R, WAMOLA I.A, Kinoti J, Mutunga LN etc. Mixed infections in childhood diarrhoea: Results of a community study in Kiambu district, Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Nov;66(11):715-23. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
One thousand four hundred and twenty diarrhoea specimens from 846 children aged 0 to 60 months were collected and analysed for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus over a 16 month period, from June 1985 to September 1986 inclusive. The study was conducted in 4 villages situated in Kiambu District, Kenya. All the specimens were analysed for rotavirus and parasites, including Cryptosporidium. The majority of the specimens were analysed for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Aeromonas. Only 387 specimens were analysed for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). However, of this proportion analysed for ETEC, 33% were positive. A total of 344 specimens were negative for any organisms while a further 140 were only positive for parasites which have been implicated as being pathogenic, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis and Blastocysts hominis were considered to be at least potentially pathogenic and capable of causing diarrhoea. An average of only 29.4% of these organisms occurred as single isolates. The remaining infections were mixed, with a maximum of 7 potentially pathogenic organisms occurring together in a single specimen. The associations of certain organisms were significant, notably Campylobacter with Giardia lamblia. Campylobacter with EPEC, EPEC with Ascaris, and G. lamblia with rotavirus. The latter was a negative association.
Wamitila KW. Chura na ndovu.; 2006.Website
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Church as a Teaching Community in J.N.K. Mugambi, Ed. Christian Mission and Social Transformation, Nairobi, Initiatives & NCCK.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Church History 11. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distance Learning ; 2009.
OTIENO MROWUOCHESOLOMON. The Church in the Struggle for Democracy in Kenya. MvuleAfrica Publishers, Nairobi; 2010.Website
WACHEGE PATRICK. "The Church: Its role in God's plan of Salvation." AFER. 2000;42(1 & 2):27-51.abstract_scans.pdf
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Chyulu Hills and Yatta Plateau geology.". In: In Kenya from Space. CREDU, France. , Nairobi. East African Educational Publishers. 124-127. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
F.G. M, Ogwell AEO, Dimba EAO, Komu P. "cigarette smoking and oral health among health care students.". 2009.
Were O, Munavu R. "Cinchona alkaloid from Dendrosenecio kilimanjari subsp cottonii ." Planta Medica. 1997;63(6):578.
Bore M. "Cinical grading of ocular allergy .". In: Ophthalmological Society of South Africa . South Africa; 2014.
PENINAH MUTONGA (Eds.). Circular Affordable Urban Housing: developing a viable new typology for affordable housing. NAIROBI: A project run by Orkidstudio and supported by the DOEN Foundation.; Submitted.
Jaton JC, Huser H, Blatt Y, Pecht I. "Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies of homogeneous antibodies to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5308-11. Abstract

The near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) of three homogeneous anti-type III pneumococcal antibodies in the absence and the presence of the specific hexasaccharide ligand was studied. In addition recombinations and hybridizations of H and L chains derived from two of these antibodies were carried out and the CD spectra of bound and free reconstituted IgG molecules were measured. The results indicate that the CD spectra of the native antibodies in the 260-310-nm range are very similar in shape and sign and exhibit a positive band at 285 nm. The homologous reconstituted antibody molecules exhibited CD spectra very similar in shape and sign to those of the native antibody molecules although recombinant molecules are no longer stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. Upon addition of the hexasaccharide ligand, a significant decrease in amplitude of the CD spectra (18-21%) occurred in all three native antibodies and their Fab fragments as well as in the homologous recombinant molecules. No CD spectral changes could be detected upon interaction of the hapten ligand with the heterologous recombinants. All homogeneous antibodies studied exhibited fluorescence quenching upon oligosaccharide binding and a blue shift of the emission maximum. This property allowed the determination of the binding constant of one selected antibody to be made. Taken together, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic data suggest that oligosaccharide ligands induced detectable conformational changes in the Fab fragment of the antibody.

Mehta SD, Krieger JN AMN-AJOPBRCKSC. "Circumcision and reduced risk of self-reported penile coital injuries: results from a randomized controlled trial in Kisumu, Kenya." J Urol. . 2010;184(1):203-9. Abstractcircumcision_and_reduced_risk_of_self-reported_penile_coital_injuries_results_from_a_randomized_controlled_trial_in_kisumu_kenya.pdfWebsite

PURPOSE:

Injuries to the penis during intercourse represent a hypothesized mechanism by which uncircumcised men are at increased risk for HIV. There are no published, systematically collected data regarding mild penile coital trauma to our knowledge. We identified risks of self-reported penile coital injuries in men 18 to 24 years old in a randomized trial of circumcision to prevent HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Each participant underwent standardized interview, medical history and physical examination at baseline, and 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after enrollment. Self-reported penile coital injuries were assessed at each visit, and were defined as penis feels sore during sex, penis gets scratches, cuts or abrasions during sex, and skin of the penis bleeds after sex. Generalized estimating equation analysis estimated odds ratios for penile coital injuries.

RESULTS:

From February 2002 to September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized. At baseline 1,775 (64.4%) men reported any coital injury including 1,313 (47.6%) soreness, 1,328 (48.2%) scratches, abrasions or cuts and 461 (16.7%) bleeding. On multivariable analysis coital injury risk was lower for circumcised than for uncircumcised men with soreness (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80), scratches/abrasions/cuts (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46-0.59), bleeding (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75) and any coital injury (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.68). Other significant risks included increasing age, multiple recent sex partners, HSV-2 seropositivity and genital ulcers (p <0.05). Condom use, cleaning the penis soon after intercourse and being married/cohabiting were protective (p <0.05, each).

CONCLUSIONS:

Self-reported penile coital injuries were common in these healthy young men. Circumcised

Magoha GAO. "Circumcision in various Nigerian and Kenyan hospitals. ." East African Medical Journal, 76: 583-586, 1999.. 1999;76:583-586. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate circumcision practices in Nigerian and Kenyan Africans.
DESIGN: Continuous prospective study involving:- two hundred and forty-nine consecutive circumcisions performed from 1981 to 1998 and; fifty patients with post circumcision complications referred for further management during the same period.
SETTING: Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Duro-Soleye Hospital and First Foundation Medical Centre in Lagos, Nigeria; and Kenyatta National Hospital, Mater Misericordiae and Nairobi Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Males of all ages presenting for circumcision and males of all ages referred with post circumcision complications.
RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two (61.04%) of circumcisions performed were in adolescents and young adults for cultural initiation into 'manhood'. The remaining seventy-nine (31.73%) neonates were circumcised for religious, parental, cultural and medical reasons. Eighty per cent of the patients referred with circumcision complications were initially circumcised by unqualified traditional "surgeons". One patient (2%) died from septicaemia; two patients (4%) lost their penis from gangrene and five other patients (10%) remained with permanent disability from complete or partial amputation of the penis or glans.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that circumcision is a commonly performed operation but can have serious, life shattering and prolonged complications sometimes resulting in death. It should therefore be performed only in medical institutions under sterile conditions and by suitably trained surgeons for specific medical indications. Ritual circumcision whether mass or single for cultural or religious reasons remains controversial without medical benefit and should be discouraged.

Shilabukha K. "Circumcision mask: Ingolole.". In: Hazina: Transittions, trade and tradtions in Eastern Africa. Nairobi and London: National Museums of Kenya and the British Museum; 2006.
Westercamp M, Agot KE N-ABRCJ. "Circumcision preference among women and uncircumcised men prior to scale-up of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Kisumu, Kenya." AIDS Care. . 2012;24(2):157-66. AbstractWebsite

Following the endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) of male circumcision as an additional strategy to HIV prevention, initiatives to introduce safe, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services commenced in 2008 in several sub-Saharan African communities. Information regarding perceptions of circumcision as a method of HIV prevention, however, is largely limited to data collected before this important endorsement and the associated increase in the availability of VMMC services. To address this, we completed a community-based survey of male circumcision (MC) perceptions in the major non-circumcising community in Kenya, which is the current focus of VMMC programs in the country. Data was collected between November 2008 and April 2009, immediately before VMMC program scale-up commenced. Here we present results limited to women (n = 1088) and uncircumcised males (n = 460) to provide insight into factors contributing to the acceptability and preference for MC in those targeted by VMMC programs. Separate multivariable models examining preference for circumcision were defined for married men, unmarried men, and women. Belief in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV risk was strongly associated with preference for MC in all models. Other important factors included education, perceived improvement in sexual pleasure, and perceptions of impact on condom utilization. Identified barriers to circumcision were the belief that circumcision was not part of the local culture, the perception of a long healing period following the procedure, the lack of a specific impetus to seek out services, and the general fear of pain associated with becoming circumcised. A minority of participants expressed beliefs suggesting that behavioral risk compensation with increased MC prevalence and awareness is a possibility. This work describes the early impact of a large-scale VMMC program on beliefs and behaviors regarding MC and HIV risk. It is hoped that our findings may offer guidance into anticipating potential impacts that similar programs may observe in populations throughout Eastern Africa.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Cities and Climate Change: Examination of City Planning Opportunities.". In: Sensitization Speech in Preparation for 2011 World Habitat Day in Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Omwenga M. "Cities Save the World: Let’s Reinvent Planning.". In: The 51st ISOCARP Congress. Rotterdam, Netherlands; 2015.
Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Citizen-Centric Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of E-Government: A Case Study of Kenya Huduma Centres." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(2):102-109. Abstractjournal_vol7no2_9_citizen-centric_critical_success_factors_io_eio.pdfJournal website

The development of the Internet and emerging technologies offer governments new opportunities to serve and interact with citizens in transformative ways that were not possible before. E-government is concerned with transforming service delivery and the fundamental relationship between government and citizens. Most governments have realized the importance of ICT and are therefore moving away from the conventional means of services delivery to the use of egovernment.
However, e-government has been faced with multiple implementation challenges, particularly in the developing countries, consequently, affecting their success rates.There are very few studies that have been conducted in Kenya to establish success factors and uptake of e-government from a citizen perspective. The aim of this research was to identify these factors and challenges that hinder successful implementation of e-government from a citizen-centric
perspective. Specifically, the study identified implementation challenges of e-government in the Kenyan context with special focus on Huduma (Service) Centres. We developed and administered a data collection instrument to citizens at the main Huduma Centre in Nairobi County. Our findings indicate that the greatest challenges faced by citizens in accessing egovernment services in order of importance are: inadequate ICT Infrastructure, low citizen participation, poor Internet Connectivity, low government funding and low level of awareness. We also identified challenges and made recommendations to inform future projects.
Keywords: E-government, success, challenges, developing countries, citizen-centric

Kanyinga K. "Citizenship and Globalisation." Special issue of African Development. 2004;XXVIII(1&2).Website
Kanyinga K. "Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State." Special issue of African Development. 2004;XXVIII(1&2).

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