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Bishop R, Asefa G, Jamnadass R, Odongo D, Osuji P. "Characterization of Tannin-tolerant Bacterial Isolates from East African Ruminants." Anaerobe. 2001;7: 5-15.
Okeyo. AM;, Mosi; Ahuya, C.O.; Okomo MA, Okomo MA. "Characterization of the Zebu cattle of Kenya. Physical and morphological characteristics.".; 1996.
Maina AN, Mwaura FB, Julius Oyugi, Goulding D, Toribio AL, Kariuki S. "Characterization of Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages isolated from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya." Curr. Microbiol.. 2014;68(1):64-70. Abstract

Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks have become common in some parts of Kenya. The most recent cholera outbreak occurred in Coastal and Lake Victoria region during January 2009 and May 2010, where a total of 11,769 cases and 274 deaths were reported by the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. The objective of this study is to isolate Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya with potential for use as a biocontrol for cholera outbreaks. Water samples from wells, ponds, sewage effluent, boreholes, rivers, and lakes of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya were enriched for 48 h at 37 °C in broth containing a an environmental strain of V. cholerae. Bacteriophages were isolated from 5 out of the 42 environmental water samples taken. Isolated phages produced tiny, round, and clear plaques suggesting that these phages were lytic to V. cholerae. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that all the nine phages belonged to the family Myoviridae, with typical icosahedral heads, long contractile tails, and fibers. Head had an average diameter of 88.3 nm and tail of length and width 84.9 and 16.1 nm, respectively. Vibriophages isolated from the Lake Victoria region of Kenya have been characterized and the isolated phages may have a potential to be used as antibacterial agents to control pathogenic V. cholerae bacteria in water reservoirs.

Kamau JM, Mbui DM, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Characterization of Voltage from Food Market Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells." International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2018;4(3):37-43. Abstract

Waste management and energy supply are among the most pressing problems facing the world today. In the current study, microbial fuel cells technology was employed to convert market waste to electricity using a two chamber fuel cell. Fruit wastes were collected, blended and minced before loading to the anodic chamber. Cow dung was used as bio catalysts. Distilled water was used in the cathodic chamber while salt bridges were made using 3% agarose in sodium chloride solution. The results obtained shows that voltage from fruits increase with time for the first 16 -18 days. The average voltage obtained was highest in avocado waste at 0.357V and lowest in water melon waste at 0.009V. The power and current density for all the fruits were in the range of 0.060856 to 2.53043µW/M2 and 0.751315 to 63.11044 mA/m2 respectively. In conclusion, microbial fuel cells technology employed to generate clean energy from market wastes can provide the Kenyan population with clean and relatively cheap electricity, and also address the problem of solid waste management especially in vegetable markets

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Rop K, Mbui D, Karuku GN, Michira I, Njomo N. "Characterization of water hyacinth cellulose-g-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite polymer hydrogel composite for potential agricultural application." Results in Chemistry. 2020;2:100020. AbstractResults in Chemistry

Description
Polymer nano-composite was prepared by grafting partially neutralized acrylic acid onto swollen cellulose isolated from water hyacinth in the presence of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the free radical initiator. Water absorption tests showed an increase in swelling ratio of the copolymer with increased nano-HA content to value of 120 g/g at 2.5% w/v above which it declined. FTIR spectrum of nano-composite revealed grafting of the monomer (acrylic acid/ammonium acrylate) onto cellulose and nano-HA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of nano-HA synthesized in the presence of Triton X-100 (non-ionic surfactant) displayed rod-shaped agglomerates and nano-particle dispersion within the copolymer matrix. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra revealed the constituents of nano-composite to be …

Munene JM, Onyatta JO, Yusuf AO. "Characterization of Water Hyacinth Powder Using FTIR Spectroscopy and the Adsorption Behaviour of Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cr2+ in Aqueous Solution ." Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2020;6(1):47-55. AbstractAsian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research

Description
The adsorption behavior of selected metal ions on water hyacinth powder was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water hyacinth powder was used as an adsorbent due to its popularity, low cost and ease of availability. Water hyacinth stems were dried and ground to a powder. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature by adding known concentrations of Pb 2+, Cd 2+, Cr 3+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ to 5 g of water hyacinth powder in different test tubes and allowed to stand for the same time respectively. Adsorption is one of the methods used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the functional groups in the water hyacinth powder using the KBr disc method. The study showed a strong broad absorption band in the region of 3300-3200cm-1 which is characteristic of OH stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules at the surface of raw water hyacinth powder particles. Other peaks appeared at 1732cm-1 which corresponded to C= O stretching vibrations while the band at 1396cm-1 could be attributed to CH bonds. The functional groups identified were: CH; OH; C= O or CO. After adsorption there was a disappearance, reduction or a shift in the adsorption bands depending on the type of metal ion. Lead for example showed a strong absorption band in the region of 1732cm-1 which is characteristic of C= O stretching bond structure which is found in esters and carboxylic acids. The disappearance of the peaks indicated that the H atom present in the functional groups of the raw water hyacinth powder could have been substituted …

Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Water Source Types and Uses in Kirisia Forest Watershed, Samburu County, Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):77-90.
Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Characterization of Yeasts Associated with Camel Milk using Phenotypic and Molecular Identification Techniques." Research Journal of Microbiology DOI: 10.3923/jm. 2011.2011-characterization_of_yeasts_associated_with_camel_milk.pdf
Mamah D, Musau A, Mutiso VN, Owoso A, Abdallah AB, Cottler LB, Striley CW, Walker EF, Ndetei DM. "Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents." Schizophr. Res.. 2016;176(2-3):340-8. AbstractWebsite

The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses. More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p=0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity. Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya.

Olumeh1* DE, Adam2 R, Otieno1 DJ, Oluoch-Kosura1 W. "Characterizing Smallholder Maize Farmers’ Marketing in Kenya: An Insight into the Intra-Household Gender, Wealth-Status, Educational and Credit Access Dimensions ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research www.iiste.org. 2018;Vol.48(ISSN):2422-8451.
Olumeh DE, Rahma A, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Characterizing smallholder maize farmers’ marketing in Kenya: An insight into the intra-household gender, wealth-status, educational and credit access dimensions." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research (JMCR). 2018;48(7)(ISSN 2422 – 8451):1-10.
O. KB, Mate P, Mulwa W. "Characterizing Thermo-physical Properties of Surfaces using an Absorption Calorimeter." J. of Measurement Science. 1995.
Fualal J, Moses W, Jayaraman S, Nalugo M, Ozgediz D, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. "Characterizing thyroid disease and identifying barriers to care and treatment in {Uganda}." World J Endoc Surg. 2012;4:47-53. AbstractWebsite
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PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Charasterization of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. populations from six river systems in Kenya by cellulose acetate eletate electrophoresis.". In: Trans.R. Soc.Trop. Med & Hyg. 80: 914-922. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
Wamocho L;, Yamashita K;, Ishii, T; Michieka RW, Ishii, T; Michieka RW. "Charcoal Application and VAM Inoculation Promote Vine Growth, Yield and Quality of Passion Fruits in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

A field experiment was conducted in 1996/1997 to investigate the effect of charcoal (CH) and vesicular-arbuscular mycorhiza (VAM) inoculation on vine growth, fruit development and quality of passion fruits grown in the field. Plants grown in soils that are low (< 30 ppm) in P content, benefited from root colonisation by VAM. Inoculation of passion fruit cuttings raised in sterilised media inoculated with VAM fungi significantly increased vine growth, yield and quality of fruit. Inoculation with VAM fungi resulted to 100% survival of passion fruit transplants

Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371.
Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R. "Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya." Development in Practice. 2013;23(3):359-371. AbstractDevelopment in Practice

Description
In sub-Saharan Africa, 72 per cent of urban and 98 per cent of rural households use fuelwood for energy. In Kenya use of charcoal in urban areas has risen by 64 per cent in two decades. Despite the charcoal industry providing employment to 500,000 people and generating over US $427 million that benefits grassroots communities, it has been kept out of the formal economies of this country. This review presents the status of the charcoal industry in Kenya, highlighting its contribution to livelihoods, production, utilisation, and implications for the environment; policy issues; and stakeholders' involvement. The review also proposes strategies to improve the sustainability of this sector.

Mugo FW. Charcoal trade in Kenya.; 1990.
OMONDI PROFORATADUKE. "Charge state trapping at a coducting polymer-redox cation exchanger interface-A Bilayer electrode. Reactive Polymers, 28(1996), 287-295.". In: Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1996. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Charge transport in bare and MgO-coated TiO2 thin films and in dye-sensitized solar cells: effect of film thickness.". In: ICE2007, International conference on Electroceramics, Arusha, Tanzania. Arusha, Tanzania: Elsevier; 2007. Abstract

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Waita SM, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO. "Charge Transport in Bare and MgO-coated TiO2 Thin Films and in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Effect of Film Thickness.". In: Electroceramics (ICE 2007). Arusha Tanzania; 2007. Abstract

Electron transport in bare and MgO-coated colloidal TiO2 thin films has been studied using surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), while the charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cells based on annealed titanium dioxide films prepared by oblique reactive DC magnetron sputtering has been studied by the intensity–modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS). The SPS results obtained showed a dispersive electron transport with strongly retarded photocurrents, and the electron diffusion coefficient measured in a parallel plate capacitor arrangement was observed to be strongly dependent on film thickness. Further, the MgO buffer layer initially enhanced the effective diffusion coefficient but beyond certain MgO concentration the diffusion coefficient decreased. From the IMPS/IMVS studies, the electrons transit more rapidly at higher light intensities whereas the electron lifetime diminishes with increase in light intensity. The electron transit and lifetimes were found to increase with film thickness. Grain boundaries with associated trap and / or energy barriers and their passivation by MgO are proposed to explain the observed transport properties.

MALLANS DRRAMBOCHARLES. "Charles M. Rambo and Paul A. Odundo; FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE LEARNERS.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol. IV No. 2. European Psychiatric Journal; 2010.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Hans R Tinnerberg. Early Pregnancy loss and neonatal deaths associated with Klebsiella pneumonia infection: A mini Review of possible Occupational Health Risk.". In: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 273 (5): 258 .; 2006. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss is a disease of grave psychological and economic concern. The etiology in the vast majority of the cases is unknown or at best poorly understood. Although Klebsiella pneumonia infections have been reported in humans and animals during pregnancy, there is hardly any information to indicate whether or not these infections may be responsible for early pregnancy loss. We present a review of literature and report for the first time in humans, Klebsiella pneumonia infection in placenta of a 38-year-old secondary recurrent aborter (parity 2 + 3).

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O. A. Omwandho, Susanne E. M. Gruessner, Timothy K. Roberts, Hans R Tinneberg. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG): Modes of action in the management of Recurrent Pregnacy loss and selected Autoimmune disorders.". In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 42 (4): 359 .; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. OMWANDHO(1)and Takayuki KUBOTA(2) 1. Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi (P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) 2.Department of Drug Formulation Development, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agricultural and Food Research.". In: Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ Vol. 44 No. 1, 2020).; 2010. Abstract

Salmonellosis is assocciated with massive public health and economic losses globally. It is estimated to cost poultry farmers in the United States of America up to US$114 million annually. Attempts to develop effective vaccines and eradicate Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) from hen hopuses are undermined by serios limitations. This article reviews documnet contamination routes and limitations on the rapid development of vaccines. Host-parasite interactions and clinical pathology are discussed and methods for reducing S. Enteritidis infection and transmission suggested.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans Rudolf Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN A MULTI-HEAD MAGIC BULLET?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Charles O.A. Omwandho1 , Lutz Konrad 2, Gulden Halis3,4, Frank Oehmke 2 and Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg 2 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi,Nairobi, Kenya. 2Department of Gynecology ond Obstetrics, klinskstr. 32, 35392 Giessen, Germany 3Fertili.". In: http://biochem.uonbi.ac.ke/sites/default/files/chs/medschool/biochem/Role%20of%20FGF-Bs%20in%20normal%20human%20endometrium%20and%20endometriosis1.doc.; 2009. Abstract
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias .H.O. Ayiemba: 2005: .". In: In Maseno journal of Education, Arts and Science. Vol. 5 No. 1 Maseno University. January 2005 pp 61-76. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias, H.O. Ayiemba., 2003: .". In: In African Population Studies Vol. 18, No. 1. April 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
Migration patterns in Kenya in general differentially affect fertility levels, patterns and behaviour. For economically dynamic areas, out-migration and the associated spousal separation and differential sex ratios seem to be associated with falling fertility, though migration is not the only or even the principal factor involved. In lagging and/or peripheral areas, by contrast, the demographic effect of migration seems to promote high fertility by undermining some critical factors of fertility determinants and behaviour. Examples from Africa in general and Kenya in particular are invoked to examine and explain this important association between migration and fertility. Furthermore the paper incorporates the geography of economic and social development to help understand the relationship between migration and fertility.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias, H.O. Ayiemba: 2003: .". In: African Population Studies, Vol.18, No. 2, October 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Chaudhuri V, Tayal R, Nayak B, Acharya SK, Panda SK.Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic liver disease: full-length genome and analysis of mutant surface promoter.Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71.". In: Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov;127(5):1356-71. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genome sequence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from occult chronic infection is scarce. Fifty-six (9.4%) of 591 patients seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with chronic liver disease were positive for HBV DNA. The complete HBV genome from 9 of these patients (S1-S9) and 5 controls positive for HBsAg (SWT.1-SWT.5) were analyzed. METHODS: Overlapping genome fragment amplification, cloning, and sequencing was performed on these cases. Functional analysis of surface promoter was conducted using fusion construct. RESULTS: All patients with occult infection except one (S8) had a low viral titer. Eight patients had infection with genotype A (S1-S5, SWT.1-2, SWT.5) and 6 had infection with genotype D (S6-S9, SWT.3-4). S4 and S5.1 of genotype A had the characteristic nucleotide deletions in core and pre-S1 region seen in genotype D. The major observations in patients with occult HBV infection were as follows: frequent quasispecies variation, deletions in pre-S2/S region affecting the surface promoters (nt 3025-54) and pre-S protein (S3, S5, S6, S8), truncated precore (S6, S8, S7.1) and core (S9) owing to stop signal, alternate start codon for the Polymerase gene (S3, S9), and YMDD mutation (S1, S4, S9) in patients not on antiviral therapy. HBsAg and core proteins could be shown immunohistochemically in 3 of 5 liver biopsy specimens available. The mutant surface promoters (pre-S2 and S) on functional analysis showed alterations in HBsAg expression. CONCLUSIONS: These changes in the regulatory region with possible alterations in the ratio of large and small surface proteins along with other mutations in the genome may decrease the circulating HBsAg level synergistically, making the immunodetection in serum negative.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Chavda S, Saidi Hassan, Magoha G Acute appendicitis at Kenyatta National hospital; an audit East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531.". In: East Afr. Med J. 2005; 82: 527-531. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Appendicitis still remains a diagnostic challenge particularly in women and extremes of age. The incidence of appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis is higher but declining in the developed countries in contrast with a low but increasing incidence in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of appendicitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, with emphasis on epidemiological oddities. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a 2000 bed teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya SUBJECTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients managed for suspected acute appendicitis between July 2000 and June 2001. RESULTS: There were 116 males and 73 females. The peak incidence was in the third decade. Sixty four percent of patients were below 30 years of age. The elderly (< 60 years of age) accounted for 1.6% of cases. The rate of false appendicectomy was 18.0%. This rate of negative appendicectomies was 12.9% for males and 30.1% for females. The rate of perforation/gangrene was 29.7%. Hospital stay averaged 6.4 days. Overall morbidity was 12.3%. It was 19.4% in perforated appendicitis and 7.6% in non-perforated appendicitis. There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of appendicitis has increased at Kenyatta National Hospital over the last 30 years. The disease is common in men in their third decade. These odd characteristics warrant further investigations.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Cheche za Moto . Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2008.
Kokwaro JO, Herlocker DJ. A check-list of Botanical, Samburu and Rendile names of plants of the IPAL (UNESCO) study area, Marsabit District, Kenya,. Nairobi, Kenya: IPAL (UNESCO) Technical Paper No. D-4; 1982.
Kiai W. "A Checklist for Environmental Writers in Kenya.". In: ACCE-Kenya Chapter training workshop on Environmental Writing. Nairobi; 1997.
J. S, Z. Q, C S-K, B. G, T N. "Checklist for ruling out pregnancy among family-planning clients in primary care." Lancet. 1999;354(9178):566. Abstract

Abstract

Where pregnancy tests are unavailable, health providers, fearing possible harm to fetuses, often deny contraception to nonmenstruating clients. In Kenya, a trial of a simple checklist to exclude pregnancy showed a good negative predictive value, which could improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae.

PIP:
This report presents Kenya's checklist (consisting of six simple questions) for ruling out pregnancy among family planning clients; the questions are intended to improve access to service and reduce unwanted pregnancies and their sequelae. The checklist includes questions on most recent birth, duration and frequency of breast-feeding, duration since last menstrual period, duration since last abortion or miscarriage, abstinence from sexual relations, and current contraceptive practices. The checklist was administered and followed by dipstick pregnancy tests at seven family planning clinics in order to test its validity. The checklist ruled out pregnancy for 88% of women. The checklist¿s high negative predictive value (99%) should be regarded as the relevant statistic. Widespread use of this checklist could lessen restriction to contraceptives in many countries.

Nantulya F.N.., Kitonyi G.W. PNKOJ. "Chediaki Higashi Syndrome: a case report on an African infant." EAMJ. 1990;9(67):674-680 . AbstractWebsite

An African Kenyan female infant was born with very light skin and ashen grey, scanty hair. At 18 months she presented with a bluish skin pigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and non-responsive fever. A bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood examination done revealed characteri¬stic features of the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. This is a rare disorder, to our knowledge not previously described in Africans. The case is presented with a brief review of the literature

El-Banhawy EM, Rasmy, A. H. "The cheese mite, Tyrolichus casei Oud., as a test animal for bio-assy avermectin (Acari: Acaridae)." Bull. Zool.Soc. Egypt. 1989;38:5-11.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chege G., Mwenda J., Langat D.K., Wango E.O. and Rensburg E.J.(1996). Non-human primate models for AIDS research.". In: Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society, 21st Annual Scientific Conference, 21st-23rd February. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chege G.K., Mwenda J., Langat D.K., Wango E.O. and Rensburg E.J.(1997). Non-human primate models for AIDS research. J. Obstetr. Gynaecol. East and Central Africa, 13(1), 4-7.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chege G.K., Otsyula M. and Wango E.O. (2000). Infection of baboons with SHIV via the genital mucosa: A potential HIV heterosexual transmission animal model.". In: International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 9-14th July, TuPeA3028. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege M.N., Mwaniki P.K., Waweru C.M., Mwamburi R.L., Miano J.N, Kanjuga A., Karani A. , Syagga E., Macharia J. , Mwamuye J.N. Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N. (2003): Health Seeking Behaviour of Commercial Sex workers. Kenya Nursing Journal, December; 2003.". In: Commun Statist. Theor. Meth. Vol. 16, No. 10, 3095 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
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NJAMBI DRCHEGEMARGARET. "Chege, M.N., Kabiru, E.W., Mbithi, J.N. and J.J. Bwayo (2002): Childcare Practices of Commercial Sex Workers. East African Medical Journal, July; 79 (7): 382-389.". In: PMID: 12638835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the childcare practices of commercial sex workers (CSWs). DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2000 during which a structured questionnaire was administered. SETTING: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Three hundred eighty five CSWs and four focus group discussions (FGDs) held. Health cards from 126 under five years old children belonging to the respondents were reviewed for immunization status and regularity of growth monitoring. RESULTS: The mean age of the 385 CSWs surveyed was 32 +/- 7 years and mean duration of sex work was 6 +/- 4 years. The mean number of living children was 3.4 +/- 2 and 81.2% of the mothers lived with their children. Three quarters of the CSWs practised prostitution at home. The most common daily childcare activities by the mothers were food preparation (96.2%) and washing children's clothes (91.3%). Overall 96.8% of their under-five years old children were fully immunized and 80% of their under one year old children had their growth monitored monthly. About three quarters of the mothers with adolescent children educated them on HIV/STDs. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by health care cost (71.4%) and consumption of alcohol by the mothers. Like other mothers, the CSWs encouraged their adolescent children to take up some adult roles such as maintaining a clean house (93.3%). However only 2.0% took time to converse or counsel the children. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with the CSWs showed that children were left unattended at night while the mothers went out in search of clients. Efforts to provide better education for the children were undermined by lack of funds (52.2%) and truancy (46.6%). One third of the study population had invested for the future maintenance of their children. CONCLUSION: There was more emphasis on physical, rather than psychological aspect of childcare. The practice of living with the children ensured that earnings from the sex trade were used for the immediate needs of the children such as food. However this practice had a negative influence on the children as the majority of the respondents conducted their sexual business at home with little or no privacy. Health seeking behaviour for the children was hampered by lack of funds and to some extent alcohol consumption by the mothers. Efforts to invest in the education of their children were undermined by lack of funds and truancy.

LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek J. B. L. (1997). The present use of state of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy. Letter to the editor. East African Medical Journal. 74(2) : 118.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(2) : 118. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek JB.Monitoring anticoagulant therapy by measuring haemostatic parameters.East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):1-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):1-2. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, A. L. and Chek J. B. L. (2002). Comparative studies in interlaboratory Data on Soil/Plant Tissue analysis in Kenya. African Journal Sc. Tech. 3(1):79-84.". In: African Journal Sc. Tech. 3(1):79-84. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L and Laniko A. L. (2002). The effect of Hypokinesia on cyclic nucleotides and hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in rats. East Medical Journal 79(4): 210 .". In: East Medical Journal 79(4): 210 . University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic of changes in the level of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine–phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and in the Department of Biochemistry, Kharkov State University, Ukrain Republic. RESULTS: Correlation between the changes in the parameters of study was shown. This supports the theory about the relationship between branches of hormonal systems (cyclic nucleotides-calcium), which perform the central role in the regulation of homeostasis. The results show that daily excretion of calcium and phosphate is age dependent in rats during the pathogenesis of hypokinesia: the values are higher in control groups. Changes in calcium in the blood and phosphaturia in the experimental animals of all ages were attributed to changes in the intensive re-absorption process within the bones during the readaptation period of hypokinesia. CONCLUSION: Old rats have a higher ability to adaptation than younger experimental counterparts during hypokinesia.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. (1997). Monitoring anticoagualant therapy by measuring haemostatic parameters. East African Medical Journal 74(1):1.". In: East African Medical Journal 74(1):1. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. , Okello G. B. A. and Kyobe, J. (1992). Estimation of fibrinogen and products of its degradation blood plasma of uncomplicated cases of malaria with low parasitemia. East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 .". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and K^ombutu F. O. X. (1995). The effect on fibrinolytic system of blood plasma of Wister rats after feeding them with coix mixed diet. East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 .". In: East African Medical Journal 72(1):51 . University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and Panchenko (2000). Fibrinogen degradation products in plasma following induced hyperfibrinolysis. East African Medical J. 77(4) : 217 .". In: East African Medical J. 77(4) : 217 . University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in blood as a result of induced hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: This in-vitro and in-vivo study compared the relationship between the plasma FDP levels, the rate of their production, the degree of fibrinolysis and the effect of protease inhibitors in primary hyperfibrinolysis conditions. SETTING: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kharkov General and Emergency Operational and Research Institute, Ukraine in collaboration with the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Blood plasma of humans and rabbits. INTERVENTION: Streptokinase was added to plasma of humans and rabbits to induce in vitro primary hyperfibrinolysis. Studies on the activity of plasmin by protamine degradation was conducted with this streptokinase treated plasma. The effect of natural protease inhibitors of rabbit fibrinolysis were also conducted by adding each inhibitor to the streptokinase treated blood plasma. A further study on FDP levels in experimental rabbits with primary hyperfibrinolysis, was conducted by giving the animals intramuscular injections of pantripin. RESULTS: In vivo studies with rabbits show a correlation between the degree of fibronolysis and the inhibitory effect of natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Increased FDP levels were recorded following hyperfibrinolysis. Natural inhibitors of fibrinolysis decrease FDP levels in experimental samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the possibility of applying plasmin inhibitors during pathological conditions of hyperfibrinolysis.
LUSI DRCHEKJOHNBILLY. "Chek, J. B. L. and Werimo K. E. S. (2000) . Concepts on early and delayed malaria infection. East African Medical Journal 77(12) : 639.". In: East African Medical Journal 77(12) : 639. University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the dynamic of changes in the level of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine–phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and in the Department of Biochemistry, Kharkov State University, Ukrain Republic. RESULTS: Correlation between the changes in the parameters of study was shown. This supports the theory about the relationship between branches of hormonal systems (cyclic nucleotides-calcium), which perform the central role in the regulation of homeostasis. The results show that daily excretion of calcium and phosphate is age dependent in rats during the pathogenesis of hypokinesia: the values are higher in control groups. Changes in calcium in the blood and phosphaturia in the experimental animals of all ages were attributed to changes in the intensive re-absorption process within the bones during the readaptation period of hypokinesia. CONCLUSION: Old rats have a higher ability to adaptation than younger experimental counterparts during hypokinesia.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Chema, S., Chumo, R.S., Dolan, T.T., Gathuma, J.M., James, A.D., Irvin A.D. and Young, A.S. (1987). Clinical trial of Halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Vet. Rec., 120:575 .". In: journal. FARA; 1987. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Chema, S., Chumo, R.S., Dolan, T.T., Gathuma, J.M., James, A.D., Irvin A.D. and Young, A.S. (1987). Clinical trial of Halofuginone lactate for the treatment of East Coast fever in Kenya. Vet. Rec., 120:575 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. Chemical and physical effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Skim-Milk and isolated Casein Micelles.. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1979.
Wangoh J. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk. Chemical and technological properties of camel milk Nr. 12295. Farah Z, Puhan Z, eds. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; 1997.
Muiva C, Santhiaraj S, Mwabora JM. Chemical Bond approach to Crystallisation Kinetics and Thermal Stability in some Se90-xIn10Sbx Chalcogenide Glassy Alloys. Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi, 21-23rd March 2012; 2012.
Muiva CM, Santhiaraj S, Mwabora JM. "Chemical Bond Approach to Optical Properties of some Flash Evaporated Se100-xSbx Chaloconide Alloys." European Physical Journal Applied Physics. 2012;59:10301p1-10301p7 .
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Chemical Characteristics, with particular reference to phosphorus, of the rivers draining into Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Hydrobiologia. 488:57-71. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Fombong AT, Teal PEA, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus harlodi: Role of (Z)-9- Pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38:1463-1473.Website
Fombong AT, Teal TE, Arbogast RT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene." Journal of Chemical Ecology. 2012;38(12):1463-1473. AbstractPubMed link

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40–70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C23–C31), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria." International Journal of Microbiology. 2016;2016:1-9. Abstracttagetes_2016.pdf

The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis.The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevengertype apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to
mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively.The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83mm after 24 and
48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48mg/mL and 95–190mg/mL, respectively.These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria.

Gakuubi M, Wagacha J, Dossaji S, Wanzala W. "Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against selected phytopathogenic fungi." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(3):16-26. Abstract4-3-5.1.pdfWebsite

Over the years, management of plant pathogenic fungi has primarily relied on the use of synthetic
chemical fungicides. However, in the recent past, exploration for biologically active compounds from
plants with the aim of discovery and development of novel and eco-friendly biopesticides to combat
current and emerging plant pathogenic fungi has received increased interest. This study aimed at
extraction and characterization of Tagetes minuta essential oils (EOs) as well as evaluation of their
antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi namely: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani,
Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. niger. Essential oils were extracted using the steam distillation
method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by disc
diffusion method while gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for characterization
of the chemical components of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential
oils and constituting a mixture of monoterpenes (70%) and sesquiterpenes (30%) were identified in the
Eos. They included elixene and silphiperfol-6-ene, which are being reported for the first time in essential
oils of Tagetes minuta. The EOs of T. minuta exhibited potent antifungal activity against the studied
fungi with the highest growth inhibition observed in F. oxysporum and A. niger with mean inhibition
zones of 28.7mm after five days of incubation. Four out of the five test fungi fell within the category of
extremely sensitive (inhibition zone diameters ≥ 20mm) when subjected to the crude EOs. The minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the EOs against the
fungi were in the ranges of 24 - 95mg/mL and 24 - 190mg/mL, respectively. This study thus lays down
significant groundwork for a more comprehensive study on the practical feasibility of using T. minuta
EOs as possible alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of economically important
phytopathogenic fungi.

Matasyoh, Lexa G., Josphat C. Matasyoh, Francis N. Wachira, Miriam G. Kinyua, Muigai ATW, Mukiama TK. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6:760-765 .
Yang X, He Z, Zheng Y, Wang N, Mulinge M, Schmit J-C, Steinmetz A, Seguin-Devaux C. "Chemical Constituents of and Their Anti-HIV-1 Activity." Molecules. 2021;26(9). Abstract

Three new (-) and 25 known compounds were isolated from the crude extract of . The chemical structures of new compounds were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Cassiabrevone () is the first heterodimer of guibourtinidol and planchol A. Compound was a new chalcane, while was a new naphthalene. Cassiabrevone (), guibourtinidol-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin (), taxifolin (), oleanolic acid (), piceatannol (), and palmitic acid (), exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC values of 11.89 µM, 15.39 µM, 49.04 µM, 7.95 µM, 3.58 µM, and 15.97 µM, respectively.

Chalo DM, Kakudidi E, Origa-Oryem H, Namukobe J, Franke K, Yenesew A, Wessjohann LA. "Chemical constituents of the roots of Ormocarpum sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2020;93:104142. AbstractBiochemical Systematics and Ecology

Description
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of O. sennoides subsp. zanzibaricum Brenan & J.B. Gillett resulted in the isolation of three biflavonoids (trime-chamaejasmin, (+)- chamaejasmin, (+)-liquiritigeninyl-(I-3,II-3)-naringenin), one bi-4-phenyldihydrocoumarin (diphysin), one isoflavan (glabridin), one triterpenoid (3-O-acetyloleanoic acid) and a phytosterol (β-sitosterol). Compounds were identified by detailed MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were elucidated based on ECD spectra. The previously undescribed trime-chamaejasmin represents a bis-epi-chamaejasmenin C diastereomer. The chemophenetic significance is discussed in detail. The results contribute to the phytochemical characterization of the genus Ormocarpum and suggest a close chemophenetic relationship with other genera within the subfamily Papilionoideae. Furthermore, this report provides baseline …

Kiprop EK;, Narla RD;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Kiprop EK;, Narla, R. D.; Mibey ARK; LM, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Chemical Control Of Septoria Leaf Spot On Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp,) In Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Three foliar fungicides namely, Antracol, Kocide 101 and Folicur were evaluated for the control of Septoria leaf spot caused by S. vignicola V.G. Rao on cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] at two field sites in Kenya: Kabete and Katumani. The cowpea variety used was the high yielding Machakos 66 that was also susceptible to Septoria leaf spot. Reduction in disease incidence and severity of Septoria leaf spot on cowpea was obtained with the three fungicides. However, significant (P≤0.05) increase in seed yields was obtained when Kocide 101 and Antracol were applied to cowpea plants with the disease at Katumani. Folicur was found to be phytotoxic to cowpea plants and hence reduced plant dry weight and seed yield at both sites. Based on the cost-benefit analysis of the fungicides in the present study, Antracol and Kocide 101 are recommended for the control of Septoria leaf spot on high yielding cowpea varieties in arid and semi-arid areas. The Pearson correlation (r) between the disease incidence and seed yield was 0.75 (P=0.46), while that between disease severity and seed yield was 1.00 (P=0.01).

Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Chemical Reaction Characteristics of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash Blended Cement: Heat of Hydration and Chemical Shrinkage.". In: 2nd Knowledge Exchange for Young Scientists (KEYS), Conference. Accra, Ghana; 2016.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Chemical studies of Kenyan Tea Seeds: Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the kernel Oil", TEA, (1), 23-28.". In: Trop. Sci., 29, 207-213 (1989). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
   
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMYSG, et al. "Chemical studies on roots of Uvaria welwitschii." J. Nat. Med . 2011;65:313-321 .
Yenesew A., and E. Dagne WAIGPG. "The Chemical Systematics of the Rutaceae, Subfamily Toddalioideae in Africa." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 1988;16:179-188. Abstractpaper_4_dagne_et_al__biochemical_sys_eco..1988.pdf

A recent investigation of five Ethiopian species of the Rutaceae subfamily Toddalioideae, Teclea nobilis, T. simplicifolia, T. borenensis, Vepris dainellii and V. glomerata has led to the identification of alkaloids of the 2-quinolone, dihydrofuroquinoline, linear pyranoquinoline, furoquinoline and acridone types. The distribution of alkaloids and limonoids among African genera of the Toddalioideae is discussed in relation to their potential importance for an understanding of the systematics of this group of species.

http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/51366. "Chemicals in the livestock industry."; 2001.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: African Journal of Horticultural Science 5: 92-97. Horticultural Association of Kenya; 2011.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6(7):1113-1118. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2007.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences 3 (2): 164-169. Asian network for Scientific Information; 2007.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 113-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES, N DRCHEMININGWAGEORGE. "Chemining.". In: 7th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society, 5th . African Crop Science Society; 2005. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
Likimani T. Chemistry and its applications.; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased. The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life. The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards. Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

I.O JUMBA, T.LIKIMANI. "Chemistry and its applications. ISBN 9966 846 247.". In: Nairobi University Press. 315 pp. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE
To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased.
The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life.
The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards.
Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

S. PROFEL-BUSAIDYABDULGAFURH. "Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum in Relation toIndustry and Industrial Training". Curriculum written for UNESCO for distribution to Universities in Africa Region.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1984.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

WAMBUGU LYDIAH, WANJIRU ANN. Chemistry Practical Book. Nairobi: Pavement Publishers; 2007.
Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics -Assisted Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of High Background Radiation Areas Geothermal Field Matrices.". In: African Spectral Imaging Network (AFSIN) International Workshop on Spectral Imaging in Remote Sensing. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Dehayem-Massop A, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA. "Chemometrics and Machine Learning Approaches for Direct and Rapid Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis of Trace Elements by LIBS.". In: LAM 10 International Workshop: Optics Photonics and Lasers in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development. 13-18 January 2014, Dakar, Senegal; 2014. Abstract
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K AH, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, R. L. Wabwile, J. Okonda, Irungu. JG. Chemometrics and Machine Learning Assisted Spectral Diagnostics of Cancer.. Trieste (ICTP), Italy, 16-19 September 2013. ; 2013.poster_triestre_bon1.pptx
Githaiga JI, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD. "Chemometrics-Enabled Raman Spectrometric Qualitative Determination and Assessment of Biochemical Alterations during Early Prostate Cancer Proliferation in Model Tissue." Journal of Spectroscopy. 2020;2020:8879985. AbstractWebsite

The use of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate chemometrics for disease diagnosis has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. This is because it is a noninvasive and nondestructive detection approach with enhanced sensitivity. However, a major challenge when analyzing spectra from biological samples has been the detection of subtle biochemical alterations buried in background and fluorescence noise. This work reports a qualitative chemometrics-assisted investigation of subtle biochemical alterations associated with prostate malignancy in model biological tissue (metastatic androgen insensitive (PC3) and immortalized normal (PNT1a) prostate cell lines). Raman spectra were acquired from PC3 and PNT1a cells at various stages of growth, and their biochemical alterations were determined from difference spectra between the two cell lines (for prominent alterations) and principal component analysis (PCA) (for subtle alterations). The Raman difference spectra were computed by subtracting the normalized mean spectral intensities of PNT1a cells from the normalized mean spectral intensities of PC3 cells. These difference spectra revealed prominent biochemical alterations associated with the malignant PC3 cells at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1, 630 cm−1, 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1, and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 bands. The band intensity ratios at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1 and 630 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in relative amounts of nucleic acids and lipids, respectively, whereas those at 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1 and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with a decrease in relative amounts of saccharides and tryptophan, respectively. In the analysis using PCA, intermediate-order and high-order principal components (PCs) were used to extract the subtle biochemical fingerprints associated with the cell lines. This revealed subtle biochemical differences at 1076 cm−1, (1232, 1234 cm−1), (1276, 1278 cm−1), (1330, 1333 cm−1), (1434, 1442 cm−1), and (1471, 1479 cm−1). The band intensity ratios at 1076 cm−1 and 1232 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in subtle amounts of nucleic acids and amide III components, respectively. The method reported here has demonstrated that subtle biochemical alterations can be extracted from Raman spectra of normal and malignant cell lines. The identified subtle bands could play an important role in quantitative monitoring of early biomarker alterations associated with prostate cancer proliferation.

Masiga D, Obiero G, Macharia R, Mireji P, Christoffels A. "Chemosensory receptors in tsetse flies provide link between chemical and behavioural ecology." Trends Parasitol. 2014;30(9):426-8. Abstract

Tsetse flies survive in a variety of environments across tropical Africa, often rising to large numbers, despite their low birth rate of one offspring every seven to nine days. They use olfactory receptors to process chemical signals in their environments to find food, escape from predators, and locate suitable larviposition sites. We discuss the identification of odorant and gustatory receptors in Glossina morsitans morsitans and the role genomics could play in management of nuisance insects.

Jane Ireri, Pokhariyal G, Moindi S. "Chemostat Model with Periodic Nutrient Input Described by Fourier Series." Asian Research Journal of Mathematics. 2020;16(8):16-27. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we present a periodic Chemostat model of two species competing for a single nutrient available in limiting supply. The nutrient input is varied periodically using a Fourier series function to take into account the changing patterns as seasons vary. We show both analytically and numerically that varying the nutrient input using a Fourier Series function results in a better model to describe coexistence of species in natural environments.

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW. "The chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylum L.(Rutaceae) in Kenya." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021; 98, :104319.
Yenesew A., van B-E. WADE. "Chemotaxonomic significance of anthraquinones in the roots of Asphodeloideae (Aspholdelaceae)." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1995; 23: 277-281. Abstractpaper_18_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_277.pdf

The distribution of seven anthraquinones in the roots of some 46 species belonging to the genera Asphodelus, Asphodeline, Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia was studied by TLC and HPLC, 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones based on a chrysophanol unit are the main constituents of the subterranean metabolism in the subfamily Asphodeloideae. The genera Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia elaborate knipholone-type compounds. These compounds appear to be characteristic constituents for the three genera Bulbine, Bulbinella and Kniphofia and support the idea that Kniphofia is not related to the Alooideae.

Yenesew., B-E., van Wyk DE. "Chemotaxonomic significance of root anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones in the genus Lomatophyllum (Asphodelacae)." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1995;23 :805-808. Abstractpaper_19_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_805.pdf

The roots of seven species of Lomatophyllum were analysed by TLC and HPLC for the presence of nine different anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones which are all known to be characteristic constituents of the subterranean metabolism of Aloe. Chrysophanol and asphodelin were detected in all the samples analysed. In addition, the 1-methyl-8-hydroxyanthraquinones aloesaponarin I, aloesaponarin II and laccaic acid d-methyl ester, together with the corersponding pre-anthraquinones were detected in all seven species. The results support the inclusion of Lomatophyllum in Aloe.

Yenesew A., and B-E., van Wyk DE. "Chemotaxonomic survey of anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones in roots of Aloe species." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . 1995;23:267-275. Abstractpaper_17_van_wyk_et_al_biochemical_sys_eco_1995_23_267.pdf

Root samples from 172 species of Aloe were surveyed by TLC and HPLC for the presence of anthraquinones and pre-anthraquinones. With the exception of the three species of the series Serrulatae, 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones (chrysophanol and asphodelin) were detected in all the species sampled. Compounds derived through the 1-methyl-8-hydroxyanthraquinone pathway, i.e. aloesaponarin I, aloesaponarin II and laccaic acid d-methyl ester, together with their corresponding pre-anthraquinones were detected in 129 species. The results also show that isoeleutherol is a useful chemotaxonomic character for the series Saponarieae.

Derese S, Yenesew A, Midiwo JO, Heydenreich, Peter MG. "The Chemotaxonomic Value Of Anthraquinones In Asphodelaceae.". 1994.Website
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Chengole, J.M., L.N. Kimenye and S.G. Mbogoh (2003). Engendered Analysis of the Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Smallholder Dairy Productivity: Experience from Kenya.". In: 25th International Conference of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE), Durban, South Africa. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2003. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1985. Growth and flowering of Alstroemeria. Acta Horticulturae, 218: 115-120.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Chepkairor, M.J. and Waithaka, Kimani, 1988. The effect of floral preservatives on the vase-life of Alstroemeria cut flowers. East African Agricultural & Forestry Journal, 53:229-231.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mwabu GM. chepkoechjosh@gmail.com.; 1986.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "CHESEREM E, KOMBE Y, OTARA AM, KARANJA JG, AGWANDA R, KARAMA M, MUTSUMI J. Genital and Reproductive Morbidity in Women with Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) in Rachuonyo, Nyanza Province of Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and C.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. 17: 1, 41-45, February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Chest x-rays in children with acute respiratory infections or bronchospasm at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J . 1984 Dec; 61 ( 12 ): 900-6 . No abstract available. PMID: 6536466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Wafula EM, Muruka FJ.". In: East Afr Med J . 1984 Dec; 61 ( 12 ): 900-6 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
No abstract available.
Nyamweya NN, Kimani SN, Abuga KO. "Chewable Antacid Tablets: Are Disintegration Tests Relevant?" AAPS PharmSciTech . 2020;21:139. Abstract

A recently published FDA guidance on chewable tablets has addressed the quality attributes of this class of dosage forms. This study evaluated disintegration as a quality attribute for a number of commercially available chewable antacid tablets. Additionally, acid-neutralizing-capacity values were evaluated. A number of the products exhibited prolonged disintegration times—which were far longer than those of conventional immediate-release tablets. The mean disintegration times ranged from 6 to more than 60 min in distilled water and from 9 to over 60 min in 0.1 N HCl. The products with longer disintegration times had higher breaking force and tensile strength values. Despite the range in disintegration times, all products met the criteria for acid-neutralizing capacity. These results indicate a need for patients to be aware of the need to thoroughly chew antacid tablets upon administration. Given these considerations, disintegration testing would be a useful quality control test in evaluating these dosage forms as the implicit assumption by the manufacturer that patients will chew the product sufficiently may not be met in every case.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Chiappini J, Arbib F, Heyraud JD, Flechaire A, Gontier C. Subacute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumopathy with favorable outcome without corticotherapy. Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8.". In: Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12(1):25-8. uon press; 1995. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors report a case of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia, a recently described entity of unknown etiology. The patients develop a rapidly progressive respiratory failure which is reversible following steroid therapy. The key to the diagnosis is an eosinophilia in the broncho-alveolar lavage or in the lung biopsy. Our observation of a favourable outcome in this case without steroid therapy is evidence perhaps of a less aggressive form of the disease.

M DRMUNYUASJ. "Chibeu D. M., Karioki D. I., Munyua S. J. M., and Olaho-Mukani, W. (1996). Causes of abortion and stillbirths in doesin arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya. Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference, held at Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa, 24-26/.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual scientific conference, held at Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa, 24-26/04/96. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron J.O., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J. (1997). The effects of dieldrin on the reproductive system of the neonatal male rat.". In: 15th Tanzanian Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Arusha, 2nd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J. (1998). In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinising hormone and testosterone in male rats treated with dieldrin.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D. and Winga J.(1997). The effects of dieldrin on the reproductive system of the neonatal male rat. Tanz. Vet. J.,17, 168-175.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Oduor-Okelo D., Pereka A.E.and Winga J. (1998). Effects of dieldrin on plasma testosterone and plasma luteinising hormone in male rats. Tanz. Vet. J. 18 (2), 127-135.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Chibunda R.T., Wango E.O., Miaron O.J., Winga J., Pereka A. and Oduor-Okello D. (2002). The effect of dieldrin on in vivo and in vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinising hormone in male rats. Tanz. Vet J. 21 (2), 121-127.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
Bebora LC. "Chick Morbidity And Mortality.".; 1987.
Kemboi. DC, Bebora. LC, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chege. HW, Njagi. LW, J.Githinji. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;vol 26(1).
H.W. Chege, D.C.Kemboi, L.C. Bebora, Maingi N, P.N. Nyaga, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Livestock for Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).chege_et_al._2014-_chicken_parasites_and_treatment_-lrrd.pdf
Chege. HW, Kemboi. DC, C.Bebora. L, Maingi. N, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Njagi. LW, Githinji. J. "Chicken parasites and local treatments used against them in Mbeere District, Kenya." Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;26(1).
B PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Chien-Hsiun Chen, Toshiki Mizuno, Robert Elston, Monica M Kariuki, Kathleen Hall, Fred Unverzagt, Hugh Hendrie, Samuel Gatere, Paul Kioy, Nilesh B Patel, Robert P Friedland, Raj N Kalaria. (2008) A comparative study to screen dementia and APOE genotypes i.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2008. Abstract

Laboratory of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previous studies have established cross-cultural methods to screen for ageing- related dementia and susceptibility genes, in particular Alzheimer's disease (AD) among the Canadian Cree, African Americans and Yoruba in Nigeria. We determined whether the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID), translated into Kikuyu, a major language of Kenya, could be used to evaluate dementia of the Alzheimer type. Using two sets of coefficients of cognitive and informant scores, two discriminant function (DF) scores were calculated for each of 100 elderly (>65 years) Nyeri Kenyans. When the cut-off points were selected for 100% sensitivities, the specificities of the DF scores were remarkably similar (93.75%) in the Kenyan sample. We propose the adapted CSID can be utilised to detect dementia among East Africans. We also show that apolipoprotein E varepsilon4 allele frequencies were high ( approximately 30%) and not different between normal subjects and those with probable AD. There was no evidence to suggest years of education or vascular factors were associated with dementia status.

PMID: 18703255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Kemoli AM MM, M. M. "Child Abuse: A classic case report with literature review." Child Abuse. 2014;5(2)(Contemp Clin Dent 2014):76-79.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Child battering in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sumba RO, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1993 Nov; 70 ( 11 ): 688-92 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

A survey of battered children was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between 1st May 1989 and 30th April 1990. Twenty eight cases were identified and compared with twenty six controls, matched for age and sex. The battered children were likely to be aged between three and four years, with slight male predominance. The abusing parents tended to live in crowded environments, were younger in age, less educated and were less likely to be practising contraception. They were relatively new migrants to Nairobi and were socially isolated. The socio-economic and cultural issues are discussed.

PMID: 8033769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Child care practices and nutritional status of children 0 -2 years old in Makongeni Estate, Thika, Kenya. East African Medical Journal, 79:524 .". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Maureene Auma Ondayo, Gelas Muse Simiyu, Phillip Okoth Raburu, Were FH. "Child Exposure to Lead in the Vicinities of Informal Used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling Operations in Nairobi Slums, Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2016;6(12):15-25. Abstractwebsite to access full text

Background. Child exposure to lead from informal used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recycling operations is a serious environmental health problem, particularly in developing countries.

Objectives. We investigated child exposure to lead in the vicinities of ULAB recycling operations in the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums in Nairobi between January and August 2015.

Methods. Top soil (n = 232) and floor dust (n = 322) samples were collected from dwelling units (n = 120) and preparatory schools (n = 44) and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer at the Mines and Geological Department Laboratory in the Ministry of Mining, Nairobi. From the obtained lead levels in soil and house dust, child blood lead levels were subsequently predicted using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK), Windows version.

Results. Lead loadings in all the floor dust samples from the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance value for lead on floors with a range of 65.2 – 58,194 μg/ft2. Control floor dust samples recorded lower lead loadings compared to the Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru slums. Lead concentration in 70.7% of the soil samples collected from waste dumps, industrial sites, residential areas, playgrounds and preparatory schools in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru exceeded the respective USEPA guidance values for lead in soils. Lead concentration in 100% of control soil samples were below the respective USEPA limits. The IEUBK model predicted that nearly 99.9% of children ≤ 7 years old living near informal ULAB recycling operations in Dandora, Kariobangi and Mukuru were at risk of being lead poisoned, with predicted blood lead levels (BLL) above the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reference value for blood lead. A total of 99.9% of exposed children living in the Mukuru slums are likely to have BLL above 34 μg/dL.

Conclusions. There is a need for coordinated efforts to decrease lead emissions from informal battery recycling in Nairobi slums and to remediate existing soils, particularly around battery workplaces and dumpsites. The BLL of local children should be clinically tested and appropriate intervention measures taken.

Keywords: soil, house dust, predicted child blood lead, used lead-acid battery recycling, Nairobi slums, IEUBK

Njeru G. "Child Labour in Small and Medium Enterprises.". In: New and Enduring Forms from an African Development Policy Perspective. Nairobi: ILO/IPEC; 2009.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Child Labour Legislation in Kenya: A Review'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
KURIA KAMAU, Alila PO,(eds.) JMN. "Child Labour: A Conceptual Framework, Emergent Trends and Policy Directions." University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi. ISBN 9789789-966783-6074; 2009. Abstract
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Alila PO, Njoka JM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." Nairobi. ILO/IPEC 2009,ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2012. Abstract
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PATRICK ALILA NM. "Child Labour: New and Enduring Forms." ISBN 978-9966-786-07-4; 2009. Abstract
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H PROFS, P O, K A. "Child Maltreatment at a Violence Recovery Center in Kenya ;.". In: Tropical Doctor 2008;38: 87-89. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL, OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "Child maltreatment at a violence recovery centre in Kenya.". In: Journal of Tropical Doctor. 38: 87-89. Saidi H, Odula P and K. Awori; 2008.
Muchiri J. The Child Narrator: George Lamming’s In the Castle of My Skin. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag; 2010.
Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "Child Nutrition.". In: Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd edition). UNICEF; 2010.
Kaviti LK. Child Participation in Kenya Schools: Myth or Reality?. Ghent & Antwerp, Belgium: Proceedings of the International Interdisciplinary Course ((IIC); 2009.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Karienyeh MM, Kabubo F. "Child Survival and Policy Options in Kenya: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys." Journal of Reviews on Global Economics. 2012;1:13-26.jrgev1a2.pdf
KABUBO-MARIARA J, M.M. KARIENYE, F.M. KABUBO. "Child Survival, Poverty and Inequality in Kenya: Does Physical Environment Matter?" African Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;2(1):65-84.ajss_manuscript.pdf
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. Child Welfare in Developing countries ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC ; 2010.
Cockburn J, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Child Welfare in Developing Countries: An Introduction. Chapter 1 in Cockburn J. and J. Kabubo-Mariara (Eds.).ISBN 978-1-4419-6337-6.". In: Child Welfare in Developing countries. New York: Springer/PEP/IDRC; 2010.
Abate, Gugsa; Kogi-Makau, Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Muroki NM, Muroki NM. "Child-feeding practices as predictors of nutritional status of children in a slum area in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia."; 1999. Abstract

In a across-sectional study carried out in four purposefully selected slum kebeles of Addis Ababa, the nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 - 36 months was measured and subsequently classified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Child-feeding practices of randomly selected mothers of the two groups of children were compared with the view of identifying practices that contribute to child-nutrition insecurity in the study area. The result indicated that the majority of the mothers (i.e. 99.5% in the malnourished and 98.4% in well nourished groups) had initiated breast-feeding, and no significant difference was found either in the median or mean duration of breast-feeding between the two groups of mothers. After adjustment has been made (through logistic regression) for covariates, the study established that exclusive breast-feeding beyond four months, feeding low quality diet with a frequency of less than four times and giving porridge with feeding bottle as well as low household income are the risk factors contributing to young children’s nutrition-insecurity in the slum section of Addis Ababa. Hence, demonstrative and sustained education focusing on appropriate child-feeding is recommended together with initiation of income generating projects with a view of empowerment of those families whose monthly income is low. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 1999;13(3):229-2 Introduction About 79% of the population of Addis Ababa lives in low-grade, congested slum areas (1). Studies which address nutritional problems have found that malnutrition continues to be a serious health problem in the slums (2-5). One study in Nairobi slum (6), where 86.2% of the preschoolers were reported to have been stunted, provides a good basis for understanding that slum children are most vulnerable to malnutrition. Hofvander and Eksmyer (7), who found about 3% prevalence of severe PEM, reported that PEM is the main nutritional problem for young children in the slum of Addis Ababa. It is a well established fact that malnutrition manifests itself as a function of many and complex factors (8-10). It is directly linked to poor dietary intake and diseases, which in turn result from an interaction of various underlying factors which include crisis in household food security, inappropriate child care and feeding practices, unhealthy place of residence, and insufficient basic health services (8-11). An unfavourable health environment caused by inadequate water and sanitation can increase the probability of infectious diseases and indirectly form certain types of malnutrition (8-11). Further, poor socio-economic variables, cultural beliefs, and lack of parental education, especially that of mothers, are all cited to affect a person's nutritional status (8-13). Thus, nutrition planning and advice to a community needs to be grounded on good information and knowledge of which individual variables

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Childcare practices of commercial sex workers. Chege MN, Kabiru EW, Mbithi JN, Bwayo East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):382-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):382-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mwanda W.O, Riyat M.S. KEG. "Childhood Aplastic Anaemia in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 67, 264, 1990." East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):264-72.. 1990;(67):264-271. Abstractchildhood_anaplastic_anaemia_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

M. PROFMACHARIAW, MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Childhood asthma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Macharia WM, Mirza NM, Wafula EM, Onyango FE.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Dec;67(12):837-41. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Between January 1986 and July 1988, 356 children with bronchial asthma below 14 years of age were evaluated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. 21.3% experienced initial asthmatic attacks before the age of six months and 55.1% before 2 years. Only 8% of the study patients were below the age of 2 years at recruitment. The male:female ratio was 1:1. Physical exercise led to precipitation or worsening of attacks in 43.4% while 71.6% of the patients experienced attacks in the evening or at night. 18.5% and 42.9% had personal history of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis respectively. The study shows that a substantial number of patients experience initial asthmatic attacks before the age of 6 months contrary to what has been previously believed.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Children and accidents. Epidemiology and prevention. Trop Geogr Med . 1993; 45 ( 5 ): 223-6 . No abstract available. PMID: 8279063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Trop Geogr Med . 1993; 45 ( 5 ): 223-6 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1993. Abstract

No abstract available

Ngaruiya B. "Children and HIV / AIDS education.". 2002.
Olang'o CO, Nyamongo IK NEO. "Children as caregivers of older relatives living with HIV and AIDS in Nyang'oma division of western Kenya." African Journal of AIDS Research. 2012;11(2):135-142. Abstract

There is growing debate about the situations of children who care for a relative with HIV-related illness, especially in developing countries with high HIV prevalence. In particular, there is inadequate information on the long-term consequences of children taking on this caregiving role. The article reanalyses data collected between January and November 2006 in a rural setting in western Kenya where 19 children caring for a total of 15 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHIV) participated. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, focus group discussions and narratives. The findings show that children regularly become involved in caregiving due to lack of a responsible adult to perform the role, which may be as a result of HIV stigma and rejection of the care recipient by extended family members and neighbours or because of cultural barriers. Fulfilling the responsibilities of caregiving had profound repercussions for the children’s lives, including psychological distress, physical burden, dropping out of school, participation in wage labour, and forced early marriage. Financial needs pushed some girls into transactional sexual relations, predisposing them to the risks of unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections. Since the children providing care for PLHIV are themselves vulnerable, we recommend that they should be targeted with support.

Otieno SP. Children of the Sky . Kabura J, ed. Talent Empire; 2021.
Otieno SP, Muchiri P. Children Rise Up. Otieno SP, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Renaud Becquet, Milly Marston, Franc¸ois Dabis, Lawrence H. Moulton, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Debra Jackson, Anna Coutsoudis, Charles Kilewo, Vale´ riane Leroy, Stefan Z. Wiktor, Ruth Nduati, Philippe Msellati, Basia Zaba PGD, the survival group" Marie-Louise Newell UNAIDSC. "Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis." PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 February 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 2 | e28510. 2012. Abstractchildren_who_acquire_hiv.pdfWebsite

Abstract
Background: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be
updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant
survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed.
Methodology/Principal Findings: A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and
randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant
antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant
characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child’s HIV infection status and timing of HIV
infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000
child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of
HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected
children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0),
maternal CD4,350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3).
Conclusions/Results: These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival
estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the
prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate
antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children.

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Home Made Toys by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1985. Abstract
  
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Children's Riddles by Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1987. Abstract
  

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