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AKUKU DROKOTHPATRICK. "Changing pattern of intracranial lesions.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;77(1):1-3. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
O. KG. Changing patterns in water resource tenure in Kenya and mechanisms for resolving emerging conflicts. East African Regional Seminar for Journalists, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), March; 1999. Abstract

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OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "Changing Phases Of Development Theory As Illustrated By Three Developing Countries In Three Different Continents.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 2006. Abstract

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Kariuki, P.W. Kimamo GCONP. "The Changing Phases of Entry into and Exit from Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2012;1(2).
Kariuki, P.W. Kimamo GCONP 20. "The Changing Phases of Entry into and Exit from Adolescence in Kenya.". 2012;(2).
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Changing roles in the Bukusu family. In African families and the crisis of social change, pp. 332-340. T.S. Weisner, C. Bradley and P.L. Kilbride (Eds.).". In: Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. Taylor & Francis; 1997. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Changing Rural Development Perceptions and Social Science Research contribution,, in A. C. Ackello-Ogutu, ed., Kenya's Rural Research Priorities, IDS Occasional Paper No.,53,.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1999. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Nyang’au TN, Ng’ethe, N. and Omosa M(eds.). Changing Social Structure. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.; 2009.
Barretta-Herman, A., Leung, P., Littlechild, B., Parada, H., Wairire GG. "The changing status and growth of social work education worldwide: Process, findings and implications of the IASSW 2010 Census." International Social Work. 2014.
Mortimore M, Ba M, Mahamane A, Rostom RS, del Pozo PS, Turner B. "Changing systems and changing landscapes: Measuring and interpreting land use transformation in African drylands.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The linkages between global and policy drivers of land use on the one hand, and land cover data on the other are explored in four dryland areas (Machakos/Makueni Districts in Kenya; Maradi Department in Niger; Diourbel Region in Senegal; the Kano Close- Settled Zone in Nigeria). The findings are that (1) land cover change data are insensitive to short term changes in economic circumstances, mainly because a subsistence priority constrains the impact of market forces; (2) land use or cover variables are poor indicators of deepening agricultural intensification, decapitalisation, or significant transitions hidden in apparently degradational narratives; (3) land use adaptations are embedded in broader changes to livelihood strategies, whose understanding is necessary before constructing land cover scenarios for wider areas. For this reason it is unwise to speculate about supporting capacities or limits to adaptation; (4) representative analyses of process at micro-scale need to be linked in a systematic way to regional land cover scenarios based on remotely sensed data.

Kabira WM. "Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.". In: Changing the Mainstream Celebrating Women’s Resilience.; 2018.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. "Changing Ways. In The Nature of Kenya International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Chapter 8: Industry and Development, 1989.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Channel and Power Allocation for mm-wave Device-to-Device Enabled Vehicular Network." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(9):294-300.
BIRIR JK, GATARI MJ, RAJAGOPAL P. Channel structured metamaterials for super resolution imaging. Portland, OR, USA: ASME; 2019.
D MN, Ogutu O. "Chap.3 Integrating: Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) into Maternal Child Health Services: .". In: 16. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Training Curriculum. Population Council Publication; 2002.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Chapter 10: Africa. Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (IPCC), Working Group II.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
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GITURO WAINAINA. "Chapter 17 in the Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1996.
Wachira-Towey IN. "Chapter 2: Informal skilling in the construction sector of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: USHEPiA CROSSING BOUNDARIES: KNOWLEDGE FROM THE CONTINENT .; 2015.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Chapter 4. Global ozone: Past and Future.". In: In UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, pp. 4.1-4.9, 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
Mwenda JN, Mulaku GC, Chika BA. "Chapter 5: Access to Land for Women in Kenya.". In: A Comparative Study on Access to Land for Women in Eastern Africa . Musanze, Rwanda: EALAN; 2020.
Ebrahim YH. "Chapter 6: Conclusion and recommendation.". In: The effects of urban built form on micro-temperature change. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2017.
Agwanda A. Chapter 6: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey: Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003 Report. Calverton, Maryland: . Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Ministry of Health (MOH) and ORC MACRO ; 2004.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "A Chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006. Abstract

The chapter provides an overview of Kenya's key foreign policy dimensions both in African and globally. It emphasizes Kenya's role as a regional peacemaker and Kenya's contribution to several key regional integration blocs in Africa such as COMESA and the East African Community and also in various institutions of the African Union. The evolution in Kenya's foreign policy and future directions are also considered.

Magutu PO. "CHAPTER ONE: OPERATIONIRISING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Integrated Waste Management - Volume II Edited by Sunil Kumar ISBN 978-953-307-447-4 472 pages, August 2011, 23 chapters.". In: Integrated Waste Management - Volume II. InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia; Submitted. Abstract

This book reports mostly on institutional arrangements under policy and legal issues, composting and vermicomposting of solid waste under processing aspects, electrical and electronic waste under industrial waste category, application of GIS and LCA in waste management, and there are also several research papers relating to GHG emission from dumpsites.

Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 1 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 10 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 11 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 13 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 2 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 3 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo OET, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing.". In: Distributed Computing Systems Research and Applications with focus on resource sharing. Nairobi; 2012.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 6 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 7 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Okello-Odongo W, Omulo EOT, Ayienga E. "Chapters: 8 in Trends in distributed computing applications.". In: Trends in distributed computing applications. Nairobi; 2014.
Stephen AO, Joyce KGN, Hellen N, Alex WN, Jared N’auO. "CHARACTERISATION AND ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS IN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT FROM PAINT AND COATING INDUSTRIES IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology. 2019;4(5):41-46. AbstractInternational Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology

Description
A study was conducted to estimate current status of physico-chemical characteristics of effluents emanating from three paint factories within the main industrial area of Nairobi County. The effluents were analysed for temperature, pH, oil and grease, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total sulphur and heavy metal ions and compared to Kenyan effluent discharge standards. The results were as follows: pH 6.48-6.89, temperature 28.07-28.30 oC, COD 916.77-1881.20 mg/L, total phosphorus 145.00-149.32 mg/L, TSS 6382.33-7395.33 mg/L, oil and grease 3525.00-6374.33 mg/L, total sulphur 72.62-73.41 mg/L, total nitrogen 1586.67-4442.67 mg/L. Heavy metal concentrations were 3.03-4.18 mg/L, 2.07-3.04 mg/L and 5.38-17.21 mg/L respectively for cadmium, chromium and lead. Adsorbent was made from waste rubber tyres and tested for its suitability in removing three heavy metal ions namely cadmium, lead and chromium from the effluent samples by varying adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Characterisation and inheritance of dwarfing gene in pigeonpea. Crop Sci. 29 : 1199 - 1202.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Characterisation and inheritance of dwarfing gene in pigeonpea. Crop Sci. 29 : 1199 - 1202.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
NYAMBURA DRKARIUKI. "Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi, Nyambura Kariuki, John Kiiru, Joyce Mwituria, and Charles A Hart.". In: BMC Microbiol. 2006 Dec 15;6:101. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. skariuki@kemri.org BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa community-acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of high morbidity and death among children under 5 years of age especially from resource poor settings. The emergence of multidrug resistance is a major challenge in treatment of life threatening invasive NTS infections in these settings. RESULTS: Overall 170 (51.2%) of children presented with bacteraemia alone, 28 (8.4%) with gastroenteritis and bacteraemia and 134 (40.4%) with gastroenteritis alone. NTS serotypes obtained from all the cases included S. Typhimurium (196; 59%), S. Enteritidis (94; 28.3%) and other serotypes in smaller numbers (42; 12.7%); distribution of these serotypes among cases with bacteremia or gastroenteritis was not significantly different. A significantly higher proportion of younger children (< 3 years of age) and those from the slums presented with invasive NTS compared to older children and those from upper socio-economic groups (p < 0.001). One hundred and forty-seven (44.3%) NTS were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, and out of these 59% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics tested to which all the NTS were fully susceptible. Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) there were 3 main patterns of S. Typhimurium and 2 main patterns of S. Enteritidis among cases of bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns of NTS causing bacteraemia and gastroenteritis did not differ significantly. The high prevalence of NTS strains resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobials is of major public health concern.
Njoroge K, Wafula B, Ransom JK. "Characterisation of drought in the major maize production zones in Kenya." Symposium on developing drought and low nitrogen tolerant maize, El-Batan, Mexico. CIMMYT. 1996:35-38.
Chepkwony. E, Gitao. CG, Muchemi. GM. "Characterisation of foot and mouth disease isolates from the Somali Eco-system in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(5).chepkwony_fmd_ses.pdf
E.C. C, C.G. Gitao, Muchemi GM. "Characterisation of foot and mouth disease virus isolates from the Somali ecosystem in Kenya ." American Journal of Research Communication. Submitted;www.usa-journals.com Vol 2(5) .
E.C. C, C.G. Gitao, Muchemi GM. "Characterisation of foot and mouth disease virus isolates from the Somali ecosystem in Kenya ." American Journal of Research Communication. Submitted;www.usa-journals.com Vol 2(5) .
Mwangi, M.W. MKWM & JW. "Characterisation of Fusarium species infecting tomato in Mwea West Sub-county, Kirinyaga County, Kenya." Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2020;. https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2020.1788645.
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Mutala TM, Tole NM, Kimani NM. "Characterisation of hepatobiliary lesions in an African referral hospital: initial MDCT dose challenges." Cancer Imaging 2015. 2015;15(Suppl 1):7.
Mutala TM, Tole NM, Kimani NM. "Characterisation of hepatobiliary lesions in an African referral hospital: initial MDCT dose challenges." Cancer Imaging . 2015;2015(15):7.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Characterisation of Kenyan isolates of Fusarium udum from pigeonpea by cultural characteristics, aggressiveness and AFLP analysis. Phytopathology 150: 517-525.". In: Paper presented in workshop on . EAMJ; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kiama TN, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2011.
Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2009.
Teresa N. Kiama, Rita Verhelst, Paul M. Mbugua, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, and Temmerman M. "Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(9):1075-1085.
"Characterisation of Theileria parva isolates from Kiambu district, Kenya." Veterinary Parasitolology. 2004;121(3):247-53.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "CHARACTERISATION OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS ISOLATED FROM FISH IN KENYA.". In: journal. FARA; 2001. Abstract
Background:  Acute gastroenteritis associated with fish has been reported since 1951 but is gaining importance with increase in fish consumption in   The causative agent is Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  The importance of this organisms is increasing due to the rise in the incidence of outbreaks of food poisoning related to it. Objective:  To isolate an characterize local strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from sea and fresh-water fish. Design:  A prospective study Setting:  Three lakes, a river, a dam and the Kenyan coastline Subjects:  Water and fish samples collected from the study sites Main outcomes measures:  Isolation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on glucose-salt-teepol broth (GTSB), and triphenyltetrazolium chloride soya tryptone (TSAT) and several biochemical media, testing the pathogenecity for the isolates by Kanagawa phenomenon and testing the plasmids profiles, coagglutination sensitivity to antimicrobial substance using standard methods.  Results:  Twenty nine isolates (4%) were obtained from a total of 666 samples screened twenty seven of which were isolated from 62 coastal samples.  They were Kanagawa negative although their plasmid profiles and sensitivity to antimicrobials varied. Conclusion:  There is need to recognize V. parahaemolyticus as a potential problem due to the increase in consumption of fish as an alternative source of protein.
Dulo. "Characterising of Leachate Pollution with Time." Journal of Application, or Innovation in Engineering & Management. 2019;7(10):031-039.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Willis N Ochilo, Gideon N Nyamasyo, Dora Kilalo WOMOFCTKELK. "Characteristics and production constraints of smallholder tomato production in Kenya." Scientific African. 2019;2:e00014.
Nakanwagi-Mukwaya A, Reid AJ, Fujiwara PI, Mugabe F, Kosgei RJ, Tayler-Smith K. "Characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis retreatment cases in three regional hospitals, Uganda." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):149-155.characteristics_and_treatment_outcomes_of_tuberculosis_3_regions_uganda.pdf
B.N N, Ogula PO. "Characteristics examples of indigenous Government systems in Africa." In S. Nyanchoga, P.O Ogula and Muchoki F.M (eds). Government in Africa: Historical and contemporary perspectives Nairobi: catholic University press. 2010.
KAAYA, G.P. BOMANFLYGANDOTIENOHGCL. "Characteristics of acquired humoral immunity in tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International colloquium of Invertebrate pathology. Veldhoven, The Netherlands; 1986.
Were F, Ayieko P, English M, Githanga D. "Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network ." Archives of Diseases of Childhood. 2016;101:223-229. Abstractarch_dis_child-2016-ayieko-223-9.pdf

Background Lack of detailed information about hospital activities, processes and outcomes hampers planning, performance monitoring and improvement in low-income countries (LIC). Clinical networks offer one means to advance methods for data collection and use, informing wider health system development in time, but are rare in LIC. We report baseline data from a new Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya seeking to promote data-informed improvement and learning. Methods Data from 13 hospitals engaged in the Kenyan CIN between April 2014 and March 2015 were captured from medical and laboratory records. We use these data to characterise clinical care and outcomes of hospital admission. Results Data were available for a total of 30 042 children aged between 2 months and 15 years. Malaria (in five hospitals), pneumonia and diarrhoea/dehydration (all hospitals) accounted for the majority of diagnoses and comorbidity was found in 17 710 (59%) patients. Overall, 1808 deaths (6%) occurred (range per hospital 2.5%–11.1%) with 1037 deaths (57.4%) occurring by day 2 of admission (range 41%–67.8%). While malaria investigations are commonly done, clinical health workers rarely investigate for other possible causes of fever, test for blood glucose in severe illness or ascertain HIV status of admissions. Adherence to clinical guideline-recommended treatment for malaria, pneumonia, meningitis and acute severe malnutrition varied widely across hospitals. Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites.

Johannsson, et al. "Characteristics of Air Breathing in Lake Magadi Tilapia: is there a relationship with Diel Patterns in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Lake?". In: The Canadian Society of Zoologists meeting. Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB Canada.; 2012.
B.MUTSOTSO, E.M. MUYA. "CHARACTERISTICS OF BELOW -GROUND BIODIVERSITY SITES IN KENYA:THEIR CONSTRANTS ,INTERVENTIONS AND EMERGING ISSUES." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2008:991-1003.
MBOYA DROLEWETOM. "Characteristics of clients seeking voluntary counseling and testing VCT services in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2008.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "The characteristics of cold air outbreaks over the Eastern Highlands of Kenya.". In: Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 73, 177-187. Kenya Met Soc; 2000. Abstract
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Obae R. Characteristics of dropouts among upper primary pupils. Beau Bassin, Mauritius: VDM Publishing House Ltd.; 2011.
Rose D. CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPOUTS AMONG UPPER PRIMARY PUPILS - TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG; 2004.
H. JH, R.H. G. "Characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes into roadside safety barriers in Australia and New Zealand." Accident Analysis and Prevention, Volum. 2011;43(3):652-660.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of agriculture to achieving MDGs. Nairobi: IeCAB2010-eBook; 2010.fresh_potato_traders_characteristics.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of fresh (ware) potato traders in Nairobi and Nakuru towns, Kenya.". In: Contribution of Agricultural Sciences towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Nairobi: FaCT Publishing, Kenya.; 2010.2010_-_potato_traders_e-book_publication.pdf
"Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study."; 2009. Abstract

Background: The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily
acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to
their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the
baseline characteristics of this cohort.
Methods: HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partner was HSV-2 seropositive, had a CD4
count $250 cells/mcL and was not on antiretroviral therapy, were enrolled at 14 sites in East and Southern Africa.
Demographic, behavioral, clinical and laboratory characteristics were assessed.
Results: Of the 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled, 67% of the HIV-1 infected partners were women. Couples had
cohabitated for a median of 5 years (range 2–9) with 28% reporting unprotected sex in the month prior to enrollment.
Among HIV-1 susceptible participants, 86% of women and 59% of men were HSV-2 seropositive. Other laboratory-
diagnosed sexually transmitted infections were uncommon (,5%), except for Trichomonas vaginalis in 14% of HIV-1
infected women. Median baseline CD4 count for HIV-1 infected participants was 462cells/mcL and median HIV-1 plasma
RNA was 4.2 log10 copies/mL. After adjusting for age and African region, correlates of HIV-1 RNA level included male gender
(+0.24 log10 copies/mL; p,0.001) and CD4 count (20.25 and 20.55 log10 copies/mL for CD4 350–499 and .500 relative to
,350, respectively, p,0.001).
Conclusions: The Partners Study successfully enrolled a cohort of 3408 heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa
at high risk for HIV-1 transmission. Follow-up of this cohort will evaluate the efficacy of acyclovir for HSV-2 suppression in
preventing HIV-1 transmission and provide insights into biological and behavioral factors determining heterosexual HIV-1
transmission.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519

Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25828. Abstract

Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.

Okoya, Mumenya, Abuodha, Dulo. "Characteristics of Kenyan Rice Husk Ash Produced Under Controlled Burning." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(11):549-554.
Marete" "AG, Mosi" "RO, Amimo" "JO, Jung'a" "JO. "Characteristics of lactation curves of the Kenya alphine dairy goats in smallholder farms." Open Journal of Animal Science. 2014;4:92-102.
Marete A, Mosi R, Amimo J, Junga J. "Characteristics of Lactation Curves of the Kenya Alpine Dairy Goats in Smallholder Farms." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2014;4:92-102.
Kimani GN. "Characteristics of PI in-service student teachers in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, . 2005;2(ISSN 2079 3383).
Kagira J.M., Maingi, N., Kanyari. P.W.N., Githigia, S.M., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." The Tropical Veterinarian . 2009;27:27-35.2010_charateristics_of_pig_trade_in_low_income_settings_in_busia_district.pdf
John Maina Kagira, N. Maingi GSM. "Characteristics of Pig trade in Low Income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2010;27(1):27-35. Abstract

The characteristics of markets for free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya were determined using retrospective analysis of veterinary records, key informant interviews and questionnaire survey. A total of 8,377 pigs were slaughtered between 2001 and 2005, which accounted for 27% of all the livestock slaughtered and inspected by the government officers. Loss of fetuses was recorded for 13% of slaughtered pigs and the loss was attributed to ignorance on pregnancy diagnosis. Although most of the money (82%) generated by the veterinary department arose from meat inspection fees, constraints including limited personnel and lack of enough vehicles were observed. The marketing system comprised of farmers, middlemen, slaughter-slab owners and butchers, while the government played the role of meat inspection. Majority of the butchers were males (94%) with a mean age of 39 (range: 21-74) years. The majority (63%) had a primary school level of education. The average net income per annum for each butcher was 887 USD and the profit earned per pig was 3.8 USD. The major constraints which affected the butchery business included conflicts with regulatory authorities, high government levies, erratic number of slaughter pigs mainly due to African Swine Fever (ASF) and poor mode of transportation. There is a need to address these constraints especially the control of ASF, reduction in levies and provision of incentives to improve pig trade in Busia District.

Kagira JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Gachohi JM. "Characteristics of pig trade in low income settings in Busia District, Kenya." Tanzanian Veterinary Journal. 2010;27:27-36.10_kagira_et_al_2010_3.pdf
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "The characteristics of rainfall in Ethiopia and its relationship to El-Nino Southern Oscillation.". In: Proceeding of the First Technical Conference on Meteorological research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
Ethiopia is one of the countries on the eastern side of Africa which has high spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. The trade winds are the major source of moisture in this region. The chatacteristics of the trade winds are controlled by the location, intensity and orientation of the majorbquasi-permanent anticyclones of Africa together with other general circulation parameters such as sea surface temperatures, jet streams, easterly waves and extratropical weather systems. The study showed that years of strong El-Nino are characterized by severe droughts over Ethiopia.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Characteristics of Real Property," paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Characteristics of relief in connection with the study of Engonenic Ore deposits.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1985. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Characteristics of relief in connection with the study of Engonenic Ore deposits International Geomorphology.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Elijah Njuguna, Gathara M, Nadir S, Mwalusepo S, Williamson D, Mathé P-E, Kimani J, Landmann T, Juma G, Ong’amo G, Gatebe E, Ru BL, Calatayud P-A, Calatayud P-A. "Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands." Data in brief. 2015:138-144.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "The characteristics of Successful Principals in AA High Schools of Texas.". In: ERIC: Resources in Education,. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
"
Ilovi CS, Oyoo GO. Characteristics of Systemic Sclerosis Patients in Nairobi . Algiers, Algeria: AFLAR; 2011.
Tan AW, Nuttall FQ. "Characteristics of the dephosphorylated form of phosphorylase purified from rat liver and measurement of its activity in crude liver preparations." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):45-60. Abstract

The phosphorylated form of liver glycogen phosphorylase (alpha-1,4-glucan : orthophosphate alpha-glucosyl-transferase, EC 2.4.1.1) (phosphorylase a) is active and easily measured while the dephosphorylated form (phosphorylase b), in contrast to the muscle enzyme, has been reported to be essentially inactive even in the presence of AMP. We have purified both forms of phosphorylase from rat liver and studied the characteristics of each. Phosphorylase b activity can be measured with our assay conditions. The phosphorylase b we obtained was stimulated by high concentrations of sulfate, and was a substrate for muscle phosphorylase kinase whereas phosphorylase a was inhibited by sulfate, and was a substrate for liver phosphorylase phosphatase. Substrate binding to phosphorylase b was poor (KM glycogen = 2.5 mM, glucose-1-P = 250 mM) compared to phosphorylase a (KM glycogen = 1.8 mM, KM glucose-1-P = 0.7 mM). Liver phosphorylase b was active in the absence of AMP. However, AMP lowered the KM for glucose-1-P to 80 mM for purified phosphorylase b and to 60 mM for the enzyme in crude extract (Ka = 0.5 mM). Using appropriate substrate, buffer and AMP concentrations, assay conditions have been developed which allow determination of phosphorylase a and 90% of the phosphorylase b activity in liver extracts. Interconversion of the two forms can be demonstrated in vivo (under acute stimulation) and in vitro with little change in total activity. A decrease in total phosphorylase activity has been observed after prolonged starvation and in diabetes.

ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943. AbstractWebsite

There has been an increase in the number of potato crisps processors in Kenya in the last few decades. However, the characteristics of these firms are not clearly known. This study was designed to characterize the potato crisps processing industry in Kenya in terms of varieties used, pre-processing handling practices and constraints encountered. The potato crisps industry was surveyed between December 2009 and February 2010 using a structured questionnaire. Using labels of a total of 24 brands of potato crisps found selling in 80 supermarkets and kiosks in Nairobi, the processors were identified, contacted, visited and interviewed. Together 23 processors were identified and these had processing plants in Nairobi and Nakuru. The information collected included size of firm, range of products, constraints in processing crisps, marketing of the product and the variety of potatoes processed. The number of employees in the processing industries ranged from 2 to 250; 61 % of the processing firms had 5 or less employees, 22 % had 6-10 employees and only 4 % had 100 or more employees. In addition to potato crisps, 60 % of the firms also processed peanuts, 30 % processed chevda and potato sticks, 26 % processed pop-corns, 13 % processed banana crisps, 9 % processed cassava crisps and 4 % also processed arrow root crisps, spices, peas and herbs. About 4 % identified the main constraints as lack of proper equipment and market, 64 % complained of lack of potatoes and their poor quality while 43 % indicated lack of finances to increase volume of production. As pertains to produce sales, 83 % of the processors sell their products directly to supermarkets, 4 % through wholesalers and 13 % directly to individuals and shops. Dutch Robyjn was the potato cultivar of choice for many processors and other cultivars were used in processing during periods of scarcity of   cv. Dutch Robyjn. A large number of processors (70 %) stored their raw potatoes for relatively short periods of time ranging from 2 days to 3 weeks. A few (30 %) processing firms, stored potatoes for a month or longer. The potato crisps processing industry in Kenya is largely dominated by small scale processors who process crisps only as one of a diversity of other products. The industry is faced with several constraints including raw potato price fluctuations, scarcity and poor quality of potatoes, lack of facilities, skills and information on raw potato storage. The industry relies heavily on one variety that is not always available for all the processors. This information is important for potato breeders and postharvest technologists to avail sufficient suitable potato cultivars for crisping

Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Characteristics of the industry, constraints in processing, and marketing of potato crisps in Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2010;8(1):936-943.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Characteristics of the ITCZ over equatorial Eastern Africa based on station rainfall records.". In: J. Afric. Meteorol. Soc.,3, 61-101. Kenya Met Soc; 1998. Abstract
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Kagira J.M., Kanyari P.W.N., Maingi N., Githigia S.M., Ng’ang’a J.C., J.W. K. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2009;42(5):865-873.2009_charateristics_of_smallholder_free-range_pig_production_system_in_western_kenya4-pdf.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PWN, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Nganga JC, Karuga JW. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2010;42:865-873.9_kagira_et_al_2010_2.pdf
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Characteristics of the smallholder free-range pig production system in western Kenya John M. Kagira & Paul W. N. Kanyari & Ndicho Maingi & Samuel M. Githigia & J. C. Ng." Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:865. 2010;42:865-873. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Free-range pig farming is common amongst the small-scale farmers in western Kenya. In order to determine the characteristics of this type of production system, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on farm characteristics and management was collected from 182 farmers in Busia District. The mean farm size was one acre, while the mean number of pigs per farm was 3.6. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income (98%) and majority were of cross breed variety (64%). The production systems included farrow to weaner (12%), porker to finisher (36%), and mixed (46%). Sixty five percent (65%) of the pigs were tethered and housing was not provided in 61% of the farms. Most of the feeds were sourced locally. Lack of castration and delayed weaning of pigs was observed on 49% and 30% of the farms, respectively. The main production constraints included pig diseases (81%) and high cost or lack of feed (81%). Haematopinus suis infestations and worm infections were considered to be the most important diseases by 71% and 55% of the farmers, respectively. Farmers had moderate knowledge on parasitic disease diagnosis with 31% and 62% not having a history of either deworming or spraying pigs with acaricides, respectively. Marketing constraints were common amongst the farmers and included poor prices and inadequate market information. In conclusion, the production system was characterized as low-input with an income objective. Future research and development approaches should focus on the integration of free-range farmers into the country's market chains through access to extension services.

MR GITAU WILSON. Characteristics of the wet and dry spells during the wet seasons over Kenya. PROF OGALLO LABAN, DR MUTEMI JOSEPH, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Ogallo LJ, et al. "The Characteristics of wet spells in Tanzania." E.Afr.agric.For.J. 1982;47(4):87-95.
Stanek EJ, Wafula EM, Onyango FE, Musia J. "Characteristics related to the incidence and prevalence of acute respiratory tract infection in young children in Kenya." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 1994;18(4):639-47. Abstract

Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children is a prevalent condition that results in substantial morbidity and consumes large portions of health care resources in developing countries. We examined factors associated with the reported incidence and prevalence of ARI in a 3-year longitudinal study of 485 children < 5 years of age in rural Kenya. A large number of environmental factors, household and family characteristics, and child-specific factors were examined with use of multivariable methods. Few variables that may play a role in the incidence and prevalence of ARI (e.g., household tobacco use and weight z-score) were found to be related to such rates. Several factors related to ARI incidence and prevalence (e.g., mother's age, number of children, and community) were found to be associated with only mild ARI episodes. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that these factors are related to differential reporting of mild ARI episodes. The impact of such differential reporting on health care utilization and health education is discussed.

MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Characteristics related to the incidence and prevalence of acute respiratory tract infection in young children in Kenya. Clin Infect Dis . 1994 Apr; 18 ( 4 ): 639-47 . PMID: 8038325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Stanek EJ 3rd, Wafula EM, Onyango FE, Musi.". In: Clin Infect Dis . 1994 Apr; 18 ( 4 ): 639-47 . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya Medical Research Institute.

Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children is a prevalent condition that results in substantial morbidity and consumes large portions of health care resources in developing countries. We examined factors associated with the reported incidence and prevalence of ARI in a 3-year longitudinal study of 485 children < 5 years of age in rural Kenya. A large number of environmental factors, household and family characteristics, and child-specific factors were examined with use of multivariable methods. Few variables that may play a role in the incidence and prevalence of ARI (e.g., household tobacco use and weight z-score) were found to be related to such rates. Several factors related to ARI incidence and prevalence (e.g., mother's age, number of children, and community) were found to be associated with only mild ARI episodes. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that these factors are related to differential reporting of mild ARI episodes. The impact of such differential reporting on health care utilization and health education is discussed.

PMID: 8038325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

L Z, ME E, G K, S R, P M, B C, K M, S I, A J, R D, V F, S O, B G, C M, E O, P L, MM A-K, C H-H, SS S, A H, W D, DY G, SG A, AG D, BA S, DM B, A ES, AS I, J M, F B-T, BN O, O I, C S, R M, A AF, N K, A D, M S, OS O, T O, HH E, AO M, AM A, P M, D O, J M, S Y, BM M. "Characteristics, complications, and gaps in evidence-based interventions in rheumatic heart disease: the Global Rheumatic Heart Disease Registry (the REMEDY study)." Eur Heart J. . 2014.
Buard V, den Berg VR, Tayler-Smith K, Godhia P, Sorby A, Kosgei RJ, Szumilin E, Harries AD, Pujades-Rodriguez M. "Characteristics, medical management and outcomes of survivors of sexual gender-based violence, Nairobi, Kenya." Public Health Action . 2013;3(2):109-112.characteristics_medical_management_and_outcomes_of_survivors_of_gender_based_violence.pdf
Ogonda LA, Saumonneau A, Dion M, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization and engineering of two new GH9 and GH48 cellulases from a Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lake Bogoria." Biotechnology Letters. 2021;43:691-700. Abstract
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Wasonga O. Carolyne, Sang Rosemary MLOJ. "Characterization and Isolation of Chikungunya Viral antigen for development of ELISA diagnostics.". In:  Virology Africa Conference . Cape Town , South Africa; 2011.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
Ngugi CN, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth S, Haukeland S, Thuranira EG. "Characterization and Pathogenicity Test of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Species-Kalro ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2021;13(3):93-101.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Characterization and Technological Properties of predominant Lactic acid bacterial from fermentation cassava for selection as starter cultures. Submitted to the International Journal of Food Microbiology.". In: Current Microbiology vol 56: (4), 315 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Amiri S, Timamy R. "Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(9):1-181.
McKinnon LR, Nyanga B CIKHGBKECAAOAKDPMS, R K. "Characterization of a human cervical CD4+ T cell subset coexpressing multiple markers of HIV susceptibility." J Immunol. . 2011;187(11):6032-42.
Achilla. R, Bulimo. W, Schnabel. D, Wurapa. E. Characterization of Adenoviruses Circulating in Kenya.. Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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GATARI MJ, Boman J, Wagner A. "Characterization of aerosol particles at an industrial background site in Nairobi, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2009. AbstractWebsite

Air pollutants from industrial and urban sources contain harmful elements and chemical compounds. This work presents a study on background industrial and urban aerosol particles in the city of Nairobi. Its main focus was the understanding of elemental, black …

Abubakar LU, Mutie AM, Kenya EU, Muhoho A. "Characterization of algae oil (oilgae) and its potential as biofuel in Kenya." Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in Environmental Sanitation . 2012;1 (4):147-153.abstract-apes.pdf
DOSSA, S. C., ESSUMAN S, KAAYA GP. "Characterization of Amblyomma variegatum tick saliva and salivary gland antigens inducing anti-tick immunity in Boran cattle. ." International Journal of Acarology. 1998;24:149-157.
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Characterization of antibiotic metabolites from actinomycete isolates.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2007. Abstract
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M. MW, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. Characterization of antibiotic metabolites from actinomycete isolates..; 2007.
Habimana V, Bett RC, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githae DK, Jung'a JO, IshagAJour HZA. "Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected from Dairy Cow Feces and Rumen Fluid bacterial pathogens." Africa Journal of Microbial Research. 2019.
"Characterization of Babesia gibsoni pyruvate kinase as a novel drug target.". In: Japanese Society for Parasitology . Hyogo Medical School, Kobe, Japan; 2012.
Kiringe, J.W., Mwaura F, Warinwa F&. "Characterization of Chyulu Hills Watershed Ecosystem Services in South-Eastern Kenya." Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3):65-76.
Ogonda LA, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization of Crude Cellulases From a Bacillus Sp. Isolated From Lake Bogoria, Kenya.". 2020. Abstract
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Edith Wairimu, Mburu J, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Ndambi A. "Characterization of dairy innovations in selected milksheds in Kenya using a categorical principal component analysis." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(2):1-12.
Njoroge K;, Wafula B;, Ransom JK. "Characterization of drought stress in the major maize production zones of Kenya."; 1997. Abstract

Maize, the most important cereal crop in Kenya, is grown from sea level to more than 2300 m elevation. With the use of geographic information system (GIS) techniques, six distinct maize agro- climatic zones have been defined for the main rainy season in Kenya. The objective of this study was to characterize each of these zones for the degree and timing of drought stress. For each of the six maize zones, two representative sites with extensive weather records were used. Long term means for rainfall for 10 d periods were compared to the potential evapotranspiration of the same period at each site. Maize phenological development was superimposed on these data. In the highland and moist transitional zones, which comprise 75 Per cent of the maize area, drought occurrences were limited. The moist midaltitude zone had the greatest variability in moisture stress between sites, and late season drought is consistently a problem. The dry midaltitude and dry transitional zones experience the most severe drought, especially during grain filling and early in the season. In the lowland tropics, significant moisture stress occurs during the first 20 d of the season and during the last 40 d of growth. These data suggest that drought tolerance is needed for germplasm being developed for four of the six zones.

N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Characterization of East African Clays.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
John Ndung, Stephen Mwangi Mureithi OVW, Nyberg G. "Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya." Pastoralism: Research Policy and Practice. 2015;5. Abstract
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John Ndung’u Wairore, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2015.
J M, HM M, VT Tsuma ERM. "characterization of follicular dynamics in the Kenyan Boran Cow." Inter J Vet Sci. 2015;4(4):206-210.mutembei-muraya_2015-_dynamics.pdf
W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Characterization of Fusarium culmorum isolates by mycotoxin production and aggressiveness to winter wheat. Journal of plant diseases and protection 107 (2), 113-123.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2000. Abstract
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Oluoch KR, Okanya PW, HATTI-KAUL RAJNI, MATTIASSON BO, Mulaa FJ. "Characterization of Industrially Important Pectinase-producing Alkaliphilic Bacteria Isolated from Lake Bogoria, a Kenyan Soda Lake.". In: Extremophiles. Kyoto, Japan; 2016.
Oluka MN, Matimba A, Okalebo FA, Osanjo GO, Guantai AN, Masimirembwa CM. "Characterization of inter-ethnic genetic variability of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, NAT2 and GSTs in the Bantu and Nilotic populations of Kenya and implications for the chemotherapy of infectious diseases." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(2):38-46. Abstractoluka_et_al_2014.pdf

Background: Drug metabolism genes are variable in populations. African populations are highly genetically
differentiated. Analysis of drug metabolism genes offers opportunities to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity.
Objectives: We characterized SNPs of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, NAT2 and GST genes in Kenyans.
Methodology: Genotyping of CYP2C19 (*2, *3); CYP2B6 (*6); CYP2D6 (*2,*4, *17, *29); NAT2 (*5, *6, *7, *14); GSTM1 and GSTT1 by PCR-RFLP.
Results: CYP2D6*4 was higher in Eastern Nilotes (9%) compared to Western Nilotes (2.5%) and Bantus (1.7%) (P = 0.002). CYP2D6*17 was higher in Bantus (34%) compared to Nilotes (18 – 23%) (P = 0.003). GSTM1del was higher in Western Nilotes and Bantus (29% -31%) compared to Eastern Nilotes (16%) (P = 0.009). GSTT1del was higher in Eastern Nilotes (41%) compared to Bantus and Western Nilotes (22 - 26%) (P = 0.005). CYP2C19*3 was undetected in Bantus but was >1.0% in Nilotes ((P <0.01). CYP2C19*2 (10 – 18%), CYP2B6*6 (35 – 37%), NAT2*5 (30 – 42%), NAT2*6 (20 – 27%), NAT2*7 (2 – 6%), NAT2*14 (8-14%) were similar in Kenyans. Kenyan frequencies were comparable to other Africans but different from Caucasians and Asians.
Discussion: Variability was evident for CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*17, GSTM1del and GSTT1del. Findings provide a
framework for Pharmacogenomic optimization of therapeutic outcomes.
Key Words: Pharmacogenomics, Drug metabolism, inter-ethnic variability, Kenyans

Oluka MN, Matimba A, Okalebo FA, Osanjo GO, Guantai AN, Masimirembwa CM. "Characterization of inter-ethnic genetic variability of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, NAT2 and GSTs in the Bantu and Nilotic populations of Kenya and implications for the chemotherapy of infectious diseases." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2):38-46. Abstract2014_-_characterisation_of_interethnic_genetic_variability_of_cyp2d6cyp2c19--.pdf

Background: Drug metabolism genes are variable in populations. African populations are highly genetically
differentiated. Analysis of drug metabolism genes offers opportunities to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Objectives: We characterized SNPs of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, NAT2 and GST genes in Kenyans.

Methodology: Genotyping of CYP2C19 (*2, *3); CYP2B6 (*6); CYP2D6 (*2,*4, *17, *29); NAT2 (*5, *6, *7, *14); GSTM1 and GSTT1 by PCR-RFLP.

Results: CYP2D6*4 was higher in Eastern Nilotes (9%) compared to Western Nilotes (2.5%) and Bantus (1.7%) (P = 0.002). CYP2D6*17 was higher in Bantus (34%) compared to Nilotes (18 – 23%) (P = 0.003). GSTM1del was higher in Western Nilotes and Bantus (29% -31%) compared to Eastern Nilotes (16%) (P = 0.009). GSTT1del was higher in Eastern Nilotes (41%) compared to Bantus and Western Nilotes (22 - 26%) (P = 0.005). CYP2C19*3 was undetected in Bantus but was >1.0% in Nilotes ((P <0.01). CYP2C19*2 (10 – 18%), CYP2B6*6 (35 – 37%), NAT2*5 (30 – 42%), NAT2*6 (20 – 27%), NAT2*7 (2 – 6%), NAT2*14 (8-14%) were similar in Kenyans. Kenyan frequencies were comparable to other Africans but different from caucasians and Asians.

Discussion: Variability was evident for CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*17, GSTM1del and GSTT1del. Findings provide a
framework for Pharmacogenomic optimization of therapeutic outcomes.

Key Words: Pharmacogenomics, Drug metabolism, inter-ethnic variability, Kenyans

O. J. Olwendo., P. Baki, Mito. C, and Doherty P. "Characterization of ionospheric GPS Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) in low latitude zone over the Kenyan region during a very low solar activity phase." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics. 2012;84(85C):52-61.
M.W. W, Hansted L, Gikungu M, G K, AS B. "Characterization of Kenyan Honeys Based on Their Physicochemical Properties, Botanical and Geographical Origin." International Journal of Food Science . 2019;2019(2932509):10.
Mary Wanjiru Warui 1, Lise Hansted 2, Mary Gikungu 3, John Mburu 4, Geoffrey Kironchi 1, Bosselmann5 AS. "Characterization of Kenyan honeys based on their physicochemical properties, botanical and geographical origin." International journal of food science. 2019.
"Characterization of Kenyan Isolates of Fusarium udum from Pigeonpea ." J. Phytopathology. 2002;150(2002):517-525 .
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Ouko A, Okoth S, Amugune N, J V. "Characterization of Mating Type Genes in Aspergillus flavus Populations from Two Locations in Kenya." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018.
Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Mukunzi S, Majanja J, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Ocholla S, Wurapa E. "Characterization of neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility of influenza A isolates obtained in Kenya, 2008-2011.". In: Options for the Control of Influenza VII. Cape Town, South Africa; 2013:. Abstract

Background: Vaccines and antivirals are the mainstay for mitigation and clinical management of influenza infections. However, due to the ever-changing antigenic profile, vaccine formulations are revised every year to make them efficacious. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, mainly oseltamivir and zanamivir, function both as prophylactic and as treatment agents. In NA inhibition by antivirals, inhibitor molecules mimic NA’s natural substrate and bind to the active site, preventing NA from cleaving host cell receptors and releasing new virus. Currently, there exist no data on antiviral susceptibility profiles of influenza A isolates circulating within the Eastern African region. Here we characterised the antiviral susceptibility of the 2008-2011 influenza A viruses circulating in Kenya by combining both the genotypic data involving known molecular markers in NA protein responsible for drug resistance and IC50 data generated from NA inhibition assays. Materials and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens from consenting outpatients aged ≥ 2 months were obtained and transported to the National Influenza Centre and screened by real-time RT-PCR using primers targeted at the matrix and haemagglutinin genes of influenza A subtypes. Positive specimens were inoculated onto MDCK monolayers to isolate virus. RNA was extracted from virus isolates followed by PCR amplification of NA gene segments. Nucleotide sequencing was performed using the BigDye chemistry prior to analyses using a suite of bioinformatics tools. Drug susceptibility was determined by enzyme inhibition assay using fluorescent substrate with known NA inhibitor–resistant and –sensitive viruses as controls. IC50 values were determined using curve-fitting software (Grafit 7.0), which is based on 50% of fitted upper asymptote. Results: Of 836 influenza A virus isolates obtained (2008- 2011), 108 (13%) were analysed for markers of resistance to NA inhibitors: 64% (7/11) of the 2008 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates analysed showed oseltamivir-resistant marker H275Y, while all 33 (100%) influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained showed sensitivity to oseltamivir. Genetic analyses of the A (H1N1) pdm09 isolates obtained in 2009-2010 showed that all were sensitive to oseltamivir. All 14 influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained in 2011 were also shown to be sensitive to oseltamivir. A total of 28 isolates were further subjected to phenotypic susceptibility assay. The mean zanamivir IC50 values were 1.75, 2.53 and 1.84 nM for the subtypes H1N1, pH1N1 and H3N2, respectively. Two of the 2008 sH1N1 and one of the sH1N1 obtained in 2009 showed normal sensitivity to oseltamivir in the NA inhibitor susceptibility assay (mean IC50 of 1.28 nM). The rest of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 analysed (n = 8) showed highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. The IC50 values in the fluorescent assay ranged from 73 to 984 nM. Pandemic A/H1N1 strains obtained between 2009 and 2011 indicated oseltamivir IC50 values of 1.60 to 6.32 nM—categorised as normal sensitivity. All 8 candidate influenza A/H3N2 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 were sensitive to oseltamivir, with IC50 values ranging from 0.16 to 0.94 nM. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 0.4 to 10 nM and 0.5 nM, 0.1 to 5 nM and 0.2 nM, and 0.2 to 10 nM and 0.6 nM for wild-type sH1N1, sH3N2 and pH1N1, respectively. The 2011 WHO ranges and median IC50 values for oseltamivir carboxylate were 257 to 3455 nM and 458.2 nM and 132 to 2179 nM and 191.3 nM for mutant types sH1N1 and pH1N1, respectively. The WHO IC50 values for zanamivir, both for mutant and wild-type strains, ranged from 0.2 to 3 nM for all subtypes, with no significant differences between the mutant and wild-type strains for each subtype. Conclusion: Overall, our genotypic data demonstrate that there was oseltamivir resistance in seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated in Kenya in 2008-2009. Most of the 2008-2009 sH1N1 isolates depicted highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir. This was due to the presence of the H275Y mutation in the NA protein sequence. H275Y mutation increased the IC50 value by 50- to 100-fold. Resistance to NA inhibitors was found to be specific to both drug and virus subtype. The drug susceptibility profile will be best informed using both elevated IC50 vales and known molecular markers of resistance.

Odelola HA, Koza J. "Characterization of Nigerian strains of West Nile virus by plaque formation." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):489-92. Abstract

Seven strains of West nile virus isolated in Nigeria were investigated for their ability to form plaques in monkey kidney cell monolayers. Five strains antigenically related to one another produced plaques of about the same size 3 to 4 days after the addition of the overlay medium. The two other strains closely related to each other produced no plaques. Their inability to produce plaques was regarded as a significant characteristic of the intratypic group to which the two strains belong.

Mile J.K. WJH. "Characterization of Operators of Class , Spectral ,Class loc- & Spectral loc- in a Hilbert Space." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics & Mathematical Sciences. 2012;2012.
Muthamia, EK; Mukunzu MJ; BJM. "characterization Of Plutella Xylostella Granulovirus (PLXYGV) isolates for The Management Of Diamondback Moth In Kenya .". 2011. Abstractcharacterization_of_plutella_xylostella_granulovirus_plxygv_isolates_for_the_management_of_diamondback_moth_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Baculoviruses (Family Baculoviridae) have been used to control Lepidopteran pests in China, Japan and India. Several studies on baculoviruses have been done in Kenya but there has been no commercial use. Collection of local isolates and characterization is recommended to identify and select the most potent isolate for use in mass production. Two Kenyan isolates of Plutella xylostella granulovirus, from field-collected and insectary larvae respectively, were characterized by electron microscopy and bioassays. The isolates were found to show the typical morphological features of Baculovirus in the genus granulovirus. The results of surface contamination bioassays for both isolates exhibited the characteristic dose-mortality response curve, with LD50 values that were not significantly different from each other. The median survival time of 2nd instar larvae at an average temperature of 25°C ranged from 5.5 to 7.5 days depending on the virus concentration to which the larvae were exposed. Further investigation is recommended.

Mwendwa R, Owino OW, Ambuko J, Wawire M, Nenguwo N. "Characterization of postharvest physiology attributes of six commercially grown tomato varieties in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10613-10631. Abstract
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J. K. Serem., M.M. Wanyoike. GMGMKBCKSK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications.. 2011:155-159. Abstract

Rabbit production systems in Kenya were studied; challenges to production were identified and recommendations to boost rabbit productivity were suggested in this research. Four regions of Kenya with significant rabbit farming were selected: Rift valley (Nakuru county), Central (Kiambu and Nyeri counties), Eastern (Meru county) and Coastal (Taita Taveta county) regions. Data were obtained through a field survey, questionnaires and personal observations between August and September 2011. The study covered the key areas of rabbit production including: general farm details, number of rabbits, breeds and breeding practices, housing, feeds and feeding practices, Constraints to production and recommendations appertaining to the key production challenges. Results showed that rabbit production in Kenya were mainly small scale (84.8%) principally for income generation and home consumption (89.6%). The majority (75%) of the rabbit farms were owned by either the household heads or by the spouses. Farmers of higher education levels kept more rabbits compared to those of lower education. The main breeds kept were New Zealand white (29%), Crossbreeds (24%), Californian white (12%), Chinchilla (11.5%), Dutch (8%), Flemish Giant (5.5%) and French Lop (4%). The main breeding stocks were selected from own stocks or from the neighboring farms (90%). Exchange of males (bucks) for breeding was observed among some rabbit farmers, either for free or at an agreed fee. The four most important challenges to rabbit farming were rabbit diseases (71%), lack of market for rabbits (51%), inadequate husbandry (28%) and lack of quality breeding stock (15.5%), insufficient funds (11%) and lack of rabbit feeds (8.7%). To address these challenges, sensitization of the Kenyan population on the benefits of rabbit meat consumption should be promoted, farmers should be trained on proper husbandry practices, better breeding stocks must be introduced to the farmers to avoid inbreeding, research on rabbit feeding and disease management must be improved to provide information on proper husbandry practices so as to boost rabbit productivity.

Serem JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. "Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications. 2013;2(3):155-159.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya. Nyeri, Kenya: APSK; 2012.
Gaita SM, Boman J, GATARI MJ, Wagner A,... "Characterization of size-fractionated particulate matter and deposition fractions in human respiratory system in a typical African city: Nairobi, Kenya." Aerosol Air Qual …. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Information from elemental and mass composition of size-fractionated airborne particle matter (PM) provides insightful knowledge about their impact on human health, meteorology and climate. To attain insight into the nature of sizefractionated PM from a typical African city …

Muriithi1 DI, Wambua2 BN, Omoke2 KJ. "Characterization of Small Scale Farmers’ Low Levels of Adoption to Crop Insurance as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Variability in Nyandarua County of Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2020;Volume 8(Issue 4, August 2020).

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