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S. N, M. V, F. K, M. K, F. B, C. O’, A. M, N. H. "Challenges and prospects of integrating livestock into smallholder organic pineapple production in Uganda. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2015;26(#113).
JAMES PROFODEK. "The Challenges and Way Forward for the Sugar Sub-Sector in Kenya by Dr. Otieno-Odek, Peter Kegode and Shem Ochola, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2003. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
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NAFUNA TERESAM, Waweru PW, Kimathi BM, Njiru LN, Osuala TM, Osiemo MR, Orucho MN, Koimur S, Mwenje SN, Njeru FM, Okoola RE, Ininda JM, Mugo RM, Ombaka EO, Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Mutai BK, Ang’u C, Opere AO, Nzioka JM, Ouma JO, Andang’o HA, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Kimani NM. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya.; 2012. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

et.al. BMK. Challenges Faced By Kenya Sugar Board In Implementing Strategy On Service Delivery To Sugar Cane Millers In Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstractchallenges_faced_by_kenya_sugar_board_in_implementing_strategy_on_service_delivery_to_sugar_cane_millers_in_kenya.pdf

A company's strategy is management's action plan for running the business and conducting its operations. Strategy on service delivery is thus an important element of this management process. For global business market acceleration, business must respond to customers faster than ever with value added products and services, while they struggle to maintain temporary competitive advantage. The study was guided by the main objective which was to identify the challenges of implementation of strategy on service delivery by Kenya Sugar Board to Sugar Millers and to determine possible solutions to these Challenges. It utilized a case study on the Kenya Sugar Board. The target population was the managerial personnel at KSB and a total of eight representatives (one from eight sugar factories). Primary data was collected by the use of interview guide.

Olang'o Abuya Joshua* GO**. "Challenges faced by small and medium enterprises in accessing public contracts in Bondo, Kenya." International Journal of Marketing and Technology. 2014;4(5):1-21.
K. MS, G. MM. "CHALLENGES FACED IN SUCCESSION PLANNING IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN KENYA." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2018;7(6):25-39.succession_planning_challenges.pdf
Cook JA. "The challenges faced in the design, conduct and analysis of surgical randomised controlled." Trials. 2009;10:9. AbstractWebsite

Randomised evaluations of surgical interventions are rare; some interventions have been widely adopted without rigorous evaluation. Unlike other medical areas, the randomised controlled trial (RCT) design has not become the default study design for the evaluation of surgical interventions. Surgical trials are difficult to successfully undertake and pose particular practical and methodological challenges. However, RCTs have played a role in the assessment of surgical innovations and there is scope and need for greater use. This article will consider the design, conduct and analysis of an RCT of a surgical intervention. The issues will be reviewed under three headings: the timing of the evaluation, defining the research question and trial design issues. Recommendations on the conduct of future surgical RCTs are made. Collaboration between research and surgical communities is needed to address the distinct issues raised by the assessment of surgical interventions and enable the conduct of appropriate and well-designed trials. PMID: 19200379

Mira GK, Kennedy O. "CHALLENGES FACING ACCESSIBILITY OF CREDIT FACILITIES AMONG WOMEN OWNED ENTERPRISES IN NAIROBI CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship . 2013;1(7):377-396.mira_and_ogollah_2013.pdf
mary g., john m., lewis n., isaac m., ambrose v. "The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;10(3):53-57.
Mulinge, PM, DM O. "Challenges Facing Amisom in its Bid to Restore Peace in Somalia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR).". 2021;10(5). Abstract

Abstract: Civil conflict in Somalia is considered one of the major and worst crisis in Africa’s recent history. Due to this, Somalia had
operated with an unstable functioning government for now over twenty years. This state of affairs has led to majority of the civilian
population acquiring arms illegally for their protection. The study sought to explore the key challenges facing AMISOM in its bid to
restore peace in Somalia. The study was based on the theory of conflict transformation. The study utilized primary data, which was
collected using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. The unit of analysis constituted a sample size of 100 respondents
drawn from the military, police, and civilian components of AMISOM and Somali civilian population working within Halane Base
Camp, with a combined target population of 24,643. Quantitative data was descriptively analyzed using the percentages and qualitative
data was analyzed using themes emerging from the data. The study found out thatclan dynamics in the conflict torn Somalia remains
the biggest hindrance to the achievement of peace and stability. This is coupled by the weak government structures that underpin
inadequacy of support to AMISOM operations. The study recommends that there isneed for AMISOM to increase involvement with
civilians as they stand important in peace building initiatives, intelligence, mediation and prevention of conflict.

Mutinda KP. "Challenges Facing Board of Managers in the Management of Public Secondary Schools in Kamwangi District; Kiambu County, Kenya." Merit Research Journal of Education and Review (ISSN: 2350-2282). 2015;3(9):285-291.
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Nyamongo GB. "Challenges facing humanity in contemporary Society.". In: International Seminar on Knowledge and Spirituality Religious Dimension of man In the Horizons of contemporary Challenges. Vatra- Dornei, Romania ; 2016.
Mogambi H. "Challenges facing Kiswahili Broadcasting in Kenya .". In: The International Language Conference. Lenana Conference Centre, Nairobi; 2009.
O. "Challenges Facing Management of Free Primary Education in Kenya; A case of Nyamira County-Kenya” ." International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow, IJBMT . 2011;Vol.1(1):65-75.
Nyaga JN, Ogollah K. "Challenges Facing Penetration of New Mobile Money Transfer Services In Nairobi ." Journal of Economics and Finance. 2015;6(3):26-32.
"challenges facing planning of education in Kenya ." at Kenya Technical Teachers college, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.
Serem 1 JK, Wanyoike MM, Gachuiri CK, Mailu SK, Gathumbi PK, Mwanza RN, Kiarie N, Borter DK. Challenges facing small holder rabbit production in Kenya. Entebbe Uganda: ACSS; 2013.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Challenges facing smallholder farmers.". In: International Journal of Economic Research. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
wandera RW, Bolo AZ, Imaita I. "Challenges Facing The Implementation of Differentiation Strategy at The Mumias Sugar Company Limited.". In: African Casebook, synergies in African Business and Management Practices . Nairobi: AJBUMA Publishing; 2012.
K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, W WR, Isaiah I. "Challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategy at the mumias sugar company limited." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 5):pp. 149-153. Abstract

Many organizations today are focusing on becoming more competitive, by launching competitive strategies that give them an edge over others. To do this, they need to craft differentiation strategies (Micheal, E. Porter 1985). However, most sugar firms have not been able to formulate these strategies required to gain competitive advantage. This calls for a strategic fit of an organization’s core competence levels, technology, leadership styles, markets, culture, people, and environmental influences, which is an emerging paradigm in the study of strategic management. This paper focuses on the challenges facing the implementation of differentiation strategies in the sugar industry in Kenya. To guide this study, two specific objectives were used: (1) To find out the differentiation strategies used by the sugar industry in Kenya, (2) To establish the challenges faced by the sugar industry in Kenya in implementing differentiation strategies. Two research questions were tested. A sample of Mumias Sugar Company limited was purposely selected, as the largest sugar manufacturing company in Kenya was used.

Awino ZB, Wamalwa RW. "Challenges Facing the Implementation of Differentiation Strategy in the Operations of the Mumias Sugar company Limited.". In: AIBUMA 2010 Conference. Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi-Kenya; 2010.
Challenges Facing the Language Issue in Implementation of The New Constitution of Kenya Mukhwana A. "Challenges Facing the Language Issue in Implementation of The New Constitution of Kenya Mukhwana, Ayub .". 2011.Website
K MRGAKERIJACOB. ""Challenges Facing the Legal Profession .Role of Young Lawyers" (1996) University of Nairobi Law Journal Page 16.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya symposium. Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Mugambi JNK. "Challenges for Theological Publishing of Scholarly books in Africa.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa.; 2013.
FN O, JP O, F W. "The challenges fraughting isoniazid prophylaxis as a child tuberculosis prevention strategy in high burden settings in Nairobi, Kenya." East and Central Africa Medical Journal. 2015;2(1):39-45. Abstractthe_challenges_fraughting_isoniazid_prophylaxis_as_a_child_tuberculosis_prevention.pdf

Background: Paediatric Tuberculosis (TB) is rapidly becoming a major public health concern among the urban poor. Though contacts' tracing and Isoniazid Prophylaxis Therapy (lPT) is an effective prevention strategy, its benefits have not been realized in many resource poor settings. Barriers to its uptake have not been fully elucidated.
Objectives: To evaluate the challenges that fraught the implementation of' contact tracing and IPT, as a TB prevention strategy in children in household contact with adults with TB from informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.
Metbodology: A prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study was done, where 366 recently diagnosed TB smear positive source cases were asked to enroll their child contacts for IPT. Consent was sought. Structured standard questionnaire was used to get information on source case TB treatment, socio-demographics, TB knowledge and perceptions. Baseline screening was done to exclude those with TB and/or other chronic illnesses. Contacts were then put on daily isoniazid for 6 months and followed up monthly for one year for new TB disease. Adherence, safety and challenges were monitored. Focused group discussions and key informant interviews were used to provide secondary data.
Results: All the 366 source cases interviewed were on first line anti- TB treatment. IPT acceptability was 87.3%. A total of 428 child contacts were screened, but 14(3.2%) had TB disease hence excluded. Compliance rates were 93% (95% CI 90.1 - 96.2%) and 85% (95% CI 80.2%- 88%) after 1'1and 6th months respectively. Challenges reported included; side effects in 22%, programmatic concerns in 86%, drug related issues in 70.1 %, and various health system challenges. The leading programmatic challenge was too many hospital visits (65.2%) and the drug related challenge was difficulty in administering tablets to children (44.3%). IPT completion rate was 368 out of 414 (88.8%). By endpoint, IPT failure was documented in 6( 1.6%), hence the relative risk of new TB disease in contacts on IPT was 0.49 (95% CI 0.21 -0.86).
Conclusion: IPTwas an effective and safe child TB prevention strategy in informal settlements, but it's implementation had been hampered by relatively low acceptability, sub-optimal adherence, programmatic challenges, and high defaulting rates and by limited benefits realized.

Kagure KA. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study elicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses suffered by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for well being and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

Kirui G, Gakuya DW, Abuom TO. "Challenges in food animal practice in the urban areas- Nairobi City and its environs.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association, Commonwealth Veterinary Association and university Nairobi, Faculty of Veterianry Medicine Joint Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
L. K, Otanga H. "Challenges in provision of free primary education in public primary schools in Mombasa County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 2015;2(5):20-30.
Angeyo KH, Kaniu MI. "Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy." Geoderma. 2015;241–242:32-40. Abstract

There is, especially in precision agriculture, an increasing demand world over for affordable sensors for in situ (field deployable) soil quality assessment (SQA) applicable at an ecological scale due to the interplay between soil quality and environmental degradation. Although spectrometric (particularly optical) techniques offer the opportunity to meet this demand due to their high analytical versatility, their utility in rapid SQA is limited by the complexity of the soil matrix, and the interpretation of the resulting spectra and (usually) multivariate quality assurance (i.e. SQA) data. In this paper, we examine the utility of spectrometric techniques for soil analysis and critique their applicability to rapid SQA; in particular, we appraise their potential for development towards intelligent portable SQA systems for in situ application. We then evaluate in this perspective the applicability of a new method we have recently developed namely chemometrics energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry (EDXRFS) for SQA, emphasizing its potential for realizing rapid intelligent sensor architecture for in situ SQA. We conclude that a point of care soil sensor that infers soil properties, and intelligently modulates precision agriculture may be realized by integrating the EDXRFS spectroscopy method to a portable XRF spectrometer.

Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Challenges in the Smallholder (zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs: A Welfare Perspective (2012). J.W. Aleri., J.M. Nguhiu., E.M. Mogoa and C.M. Mulei.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . KVA; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Challenges in the Use of Information Technology in Preserving Oral Literature in Kenya,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Guthua SW, F.G. M, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
F.G. M, S.W. G, Gathece LW. "Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya.". 2002.
FG M, SW G, LW G. "Challenges in tobacco control in Kenya." KDA News letter (2002).
Wanambisi MM. "Challenges Of Adolescence .". 1996.Website
Odada E, Olago D. "Challenges of an ecosystem approach to water monitoring and management of the African Great Lakes." Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management. 2007;Volume 9( Issue 4):pages 433-446. AbstractWebsite

The Great Lakes Belt of Africa cuts across five major drainage basins: The Nile, Congo-Zaire, Rift Valley, Coastal and Zambezi basins. The region contains the earth's largest aggregation of tropical lakes. Three of these lakes–Victoria, Tanganyika and Malawi—hold one quarter of the earth's total surface water supply, and are home to rich and diverse assemblages of fish. Apart from the diversity and endemicity of their biota, properties that distinguish the African Great Lakes from their North American counterparts include their great age, sensitivity to climate change, long residence times, persistent stratification, continuously warm temperatures at all depths, major ion composition, and propensity for nitrogen limitation. Current management problems include over-fishing, increased input of sediment and nutrients, and in the case of Lake Victoria, loss of endemic fish species and the proliferation of the introduced water hyacinth. The harmonization of research programmes and management strategies among the various riparian countries is a challenge. Among the other challenges currently facing the African Great Lakes, perhaps none is more important, nor more often overlooked, than the ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem integrity is beginning to receive acknowledgement in some quarters as a foundation upon which sound management must be built. Recent changes in the African Great Lakes have resulted in an increased realization that individual components of these systems cannot be understood in isolation, and that effective management must expand beyond conventional fisheries management to account for the interaction of physical, geological, chemical and biological processes at the ecosystem scale. Although specific processes in tropical aquatic ecosystems, such as hydrodynamics, plankton production and fisheries production have received some attention, there remains a need to integrate these processes in order to gain a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. One means of achieving this is through the development of conceptual and numerical models, which can facilitate both the theoretical understanding and applied management of these ecosystems. As management problems move from the relatively simple issue of fishery control to the more complex issues of climate change and land use, models will play an important role in decision-making processes regarding sustainable utilization of these vital natural systems.

Keywords biophysical aspects, natural and anthropogenic pressures, policy applications

E.O O, D.O O. "Challenges of an Ecosystem approach to water monitoring and management of the African Great Lakes." Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management. 2006;9(4):433-446. Abstractwww.aehms.org

Abstract

Chambo is an important fish to Malawi's economy and to the livelihoods of local people in the southern end of Lake Malawi. Overexploitation of the chambo has been a source of concern since the 1930s. The biological and economic collapse of the fishery in Lake Malombe and the Upper Shire River in the early 1990s, and growing evidence in recent years of its decline in the Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi (the major productive area for the species) have galvanised the Government of Malawi into making an attempt to restore the chambo to former levels of production.
This paper argues that while the proposed solutions for restoring the chambo might be well intentioned, they nevertheless ignore existing knowledge and scholarship about fisheries management in African freshwater lakes gathered over the last six decades. A body of knowledge on the biological and scientific basis for regulating the chambo already exists. The missing link is an understanding and appreciation of the social, economic, political and institutional drivers on exploitation patterns of the chambo. Future management solutions must be based on the collective concerns of all potential users. More specifically, such solutions should be cognisant of local knowledge, fishers' experiences and the way they view and define their problems. If these are disregarded, finding solutions to the enormous challenge of restoring chambo stocks to their former status will be as difficult as grappling in the dark.

Keywords: restoration, existing knowledge, stakeholder involvement

Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Chokwe TM, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Tw T. "Challenges of Anesthesia in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Access to Safe Obstetric Anesthesia in East Africa ." Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2017;124(1):290-299.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Journal. Journal of Camelid Science 3 (2010) 01-05; Submitted.
ORUNGO DRONONOJOSHUA. "Challenges of camel production in Samburu district, Kenya.". In: journal of camelid science. isocad; 2010. Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
Onono J.O, Ogara.W. O, Okuthe. S.O, J.G N, Mainga A.O, D. N. "Challenges of Camel production in Samburu District, Kenya." Journal of Camelid science. 2010;3:01-05.challenges_of_camel_production_in_samburu_kenya.pdf
Akaranga SI, I.O.Otieno, Kayeli EC. "The Challenges of Christian Marriage in Africa." Impact Journal of Transformation. 2021;4(1):46-55.impact_journal_of_transforrmation_vol_4_no_1_46_55.pdf
R.S. O. "The Challenges of Climate Change on the Tourist Industry in Kenya.". Paper prepared for the Ministry of Tourism-Tourism Week; 2008. Abstract
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Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5(3).
Oredo J, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Toward New Organizational Competencies.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2013.
Oredo JO, Njihia J. "Challenges of Cloud Computing in Business: Towards New Organizational Competencies." International Journal of Business and Social Science . 2014;5:150-160. Abstractchallenges_of_cloud_computing_in_business_towards_new_organizational.pdfWebsite

Cloud computing is a nascent but fast growing innovation that has attracted increasing attention from both
researchers and practitioners as a new Information Technology (IT) paradigm. Cloud computing cannot be
sufficiently understood as a standalone phenomenon in the IT market, but rather as a core ingredient of a larger
transformation of the IT industry that impacts the entire IT ecosystem. Due to the change from enterprise
computing to cloud computing, organizations and individuals need to develop new skills and competencies.
Extant literature in cloud computing has mainly focused on its affordances and challenges with scant attention
given to organizational resources that enable efficient and effective adoption. This paper addresses how
organizations can identify their own local cloud adoption challenges and how to overcome those challenges by
developing new competencies. The paper draws on resource-based theory to propose new organizational
competencies required for seamless migration from enterprise computing to cloud computing. This study was
conducted through an extensive review of academic publications on cloud computing as well as professional
literature such as industry white papers and technical reports.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Resource based theory; Cloud competencies; Service models; Delivery Models;
Cloud brokerage.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenges of controlling African maritime zones: command, control and co-operation: how do we do it?". In: Sea power for Africa symposium. Cape Town South Africa; 2005.
Odhong O;, Vaarst M;, Wahome RG. "Challenges of conversion to organic livestock production in smallholder farms in kenya."; 2000. Abstract

Certified organic livestock production in Kenya nearly does not exist despite the fact that livestock production forms an integral part of many organic farms, because of its role in nutrient recycling on the farm. The purpose of the study was to indentify and document the challenges of conversion to organic livestock production. A total of 63 semi-structured interviews of smallholder farmers in Kiambu and Kajiado counties, whose crop enterprises are certified were conducted to determine the influence of production and socioeconomic factors to conversion of their livestock enterprises. Survey data were documented and analyzed using SPSS and the ground theory method. Dairy cattle, goats and chicken constituted the main livestock kept by the farmers. None of the farmers had converted their livestock enterprises to organic and the animals were mainly kept for subsistence purposes. 60% of the dairy cattle, goat and chicken owners were female and were more involved in routine livestock management, with farming as their major source of income. 40% of the farmers have practiced crop-livestock integration for more than 7 years and have considered managing their livestock organically. Results suggest that lack of approved livestock feeds and organically approved technologies to use against pest and diseases were the most important constraints to the farmers and the major hindrance to conversion of the livestock enterprises. Farmers reported using a number of organic innovations for prevention of mastitis, de-worming and reducing inflammation but found that the innovations were not sufficient remedies forcing them to seek alternative inorganic solutions. The prospects of organic livestock production are dependent on farmers’ socioeconomic status, support to organic livestock production, research, education and extension. These factors should therefore be considered when planning strategies to develop organic livestock production in smallholder farming systems.

Osanjo L. "The Challenges of Design Business in Africa.". In: Africa Design Day. Cape Town,SA; 2008.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "The Challenges of Education in Kenya in the 21st Century. The Educator, A Journal of the School of Education, Moi University. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp xv-xxvii.". In: The Educator, A Journal of the School of Education, Moi University. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp xv-xxvii. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
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Mbatia PN, et al. "Challenges of implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya.". In: Experiences from the districts. Nairob: UNESCO; 2005.
Kiai Wambui, Kiiru Samuel MNUW. The Challenges of Media Training and Practice in East Africa.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2009.
"challenges of Moral Development of Young Adults in Kenya: selected students of University of Nairobi." Egerton Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences and Education. 2019;xii(1):125-141.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Challenges of our Times: In The Kenya Journal of Adult Education.". In: Seminar Discussion Paper CADE. Thought and Practice; 1975. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
MWANGI CM, Kiptoon D, NABULINDO S, Chokwe T. "Challenges of Parathyroidectomy in a Patient with Primary Hyperparathyroidism and End Stage Renal Disease- Case Report ." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2013;13(2):57-61.
CM M, D K, S N, T C. "Challenges of parathyroidectomy in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and end stage renal disease- Case report." African Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.. 2013;13(2):57-61.
Mburu J. "Challenges of Partnerships in Tourism Projects: The Case of Kimana and Golini-Mwaluganje Sanctuaries in Kenya."; 2013. Abstract

The partnership approach (also known as collaborative management) has increasingly become important because it seeks to create negotiated agreements between state and local communities (other stakeholder groups may also be included) and therefore offers a possibility to overcome conflicts over natural resources exploitation. However, achieving successful partnership is confronted with many challenges which include creation of monetary incentives for effective participation of landowners, improvement of the wildlife status and other types of biodiversity, changing the negative perceptions of landowners towards wildlife and conservationists, etc. Taking two wildlife sanctuaries in Kenya as an example, this paper therefore analyses the performance of the partnership approach in tourism projects in relation to achievement of conservation objectives and creation of financially viable projects, and assesses the different kinds of incentives for landowners’ and other key stakeholders’ participation. The fieldwork for the results presented in this paper was conducted in the wildlife dispersal areas of Shimba Hills National Reserve and Amboseli National Park in Kenya, where a total of 136 households, based on two stratified random samples, were interviewed. The paper demonstrates- through a benefit-cost analysis- that investing in wildlife conservation is not financially viable to the landowners mainly due to the relatively high production costs incurred in the setting up and operation activities of the tourism projects. Incentives for landowners’ participation therefore arise from the retention of their property rights to land, reduction of losses from other economic activities and provision of non-cash benefits by the state and conservation non-governmental organisations. Although there has been positive impacts on the wildlife status, the tourism projects have also resulted in a number of negative impacts. These include the failure to protect other types of biodiversity, prevention of free movement of wildlife, loss of landowners’ sites of socio-cultural values and lack of a compensation mechanism for landowners who are not members of the sanctuaries.

WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenges of Piracy and terrorism in the horn of Africa.". In: the intervening role of diplomats and protocol officers. IGAD Liaison offices in Nairobi; 2011.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Challenges of prosecuting piracy offences in Kenya.". In: international trade and challenges of piracy. Coral Key Hotel, Malindi; 2010.
J. KH. "CHALLENGES OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE INTEGRATION OF ICT IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.". In: The 2nd African Council of Distance Education. Lagos, Nigeria; 2008.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "The Challenges of reforming Kenya’s land regimes: the political economy of public land holding and historical land injustices claims and counter-claims.". In: Society for International Development(SID) Research Conceptualisation Workshop on 'Institutional, Policy and Legislative Imperatives for Kenya's Successful Transition to a New Constitutional Order'. Norfolk Hotel ; 2010.
Maleche Z. CHALLENGES OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING.. Rundu, Okavango division; 2011.
"The challenges of rehabilitating denu." Department of Plant science and crop protection. 2010.
"Challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology . 2010;4(7):430-436.
Mganga KZ, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Mwangombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Daniele Clavel4, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J. "The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science & Technology . 2010;4(7):430-466. Abstract

Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semi-arid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.

Key words: Land degradation, grass reseeding, rehabilitation failures, low rainfall.

"The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010;4(7):430-436.
MWANGI IK. "The Challenges of Sustainable Urban Development: The Case of Umoja I Residential Community in Nairobi City, Kenya. .". In: Eco-city Planning: Policies, Practices and Design. Berlin, Germany: : Springer Science + Business Media. ; 2011.
M PROFIRANDUEVARISTUS. "The Challenges of Sustaining African Aviation: The Case of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, in WORLD REVIEW OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, Vol.2., No.4:362 - 374.". In: Published in the USA. Kisipan, M.L.; 2006. Abstract
The average annual growth in African passenger traffic throughout the 1990s was 7% and in a region where only one in every twenty people have access to air travel the prospects for further growth are substantial. However, the region faces significant challenges in meeting this growth including infrastructure development, financing, safety, security, public policy, and regional liberalization. This paper explores efforts at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya to meet these challenges and position itself as an East African hub. Key Words: Airport, Kenya, infrastructure, safety
ONSERIO MRNYAMWANGESTEPHEN. "The Challenges Of Training Logistics Personnel In East Africa: Critical Lessons From Employers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Challenges of Use of Open and Distance Education in Training of Teachers in Kenya.". In: circulated at the DETA Conference held at the University of Pretoria Groenkloof Capus. Thought and Practice; 2005. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Kating'i F, Kibui AW. "Challenges that affect Academic performance of children with special Needs in inclusive setting in Umoja zone, Embakasi District, Nairobi County, Kenya. BEST." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2015;3(12):57-64.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Challenges to Course Development.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON e-Learning Material Workshop at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute in Naivasha 29th March to 2nd April 2005. Thought and Practice; 2005. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
and Zubeda Mucheke DNBS. "Challenges to electronic conveyancing in Kenya." Open University of Tanzania Law Journal. 2018.
Kameri-Mbote P. "Challenges to Sustainability in Africa.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Sustainability as defined in the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) denotes development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It has elements of equity among current generations and across successive generations (Brown Weiss,1989). The challenges to sustainability in African states are multi - faceted, cross-sectoral and multidisciplinary in nature. These challenges range from social, economic, political and environmental challenges.They cut across the different sectors in the countries with a few of them being unique to a specific sector

Sandra LD;, Ada E;, Joan S;, G.; A, Y.; J, Jr.; CC, Oduma JA, B.; F, O.; A, A.; OJ,; DRM, Muheez D;, et al. "Challenges Unique to the design of a Comprehensive Questionnaire Assessing Breast Cancer Risk factors among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. JHCPU 21:11– 16.". 2010.
Otieno SP, Cooke P, Plastow J. "Challenging the Message of the Medium: Scaling Participatory Arts Projects and the Creative Agenda in Kenya.". In: Participatory Arts in International Development . London: Routledge; 2020.
GN M, RA N, MG K. "Championing radiation safety in Africa: The AFROSAFE campaign.". In: The International Pediatric Radiology 7th Conjoint Meeting and Exhibition. Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2016.
Michira JN. "Changamoto katika Uteuzi wa Vitabu vya Kufundishia Kiswahili Nchini Kenya.". In: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali katika Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2014.
J.N. M. "Changamoto katika Uteuzi wa Vitabu vya Kufundishia Kiswahili nchini Kenya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima Na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali,. nairobi: Focus Books. ISBN 9966-01-224-1; 2014.
John HPH. "Changamoto za Kiswahili Sanifu katika Vyombo vya Habari Nchini Kenya ." The Proceedings of the IKR Jubilee Symposium; Dar es Salaam Institute of Kiswahili Research. 2006.
John Habwe RTAS&. "Changamoto za Kuueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano in Mwanga wa Lugha." Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha nyingine za Kiafrika Chuo Kikuu cha Moi Juzuu . 2017;1(1):9-20 .
Judy O. Changamoto Za Mikondo Mipya ya Utunzi wa Mashairi. Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2016.
Jerono P. "Changamoto za Wazalendo.". In: Siri ya Bwanyenye. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers (E.A) Limited; 2016.
Habwe J. "Changamptp za kueleza Msamiati wa Samaki: Mtazamo wa Kiuhusiano." Journal of Kiswahili Moi University. Forthcoming.
Onjala J. "Change Evaluation by TWAWEZA." workshop organised by University of Massachusetts in Dar-es-Salaam-Tanzania.; 2010. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: Information Technology for Development, Vol 15, 3, pp224-232. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Change Management a natural Partner of Information Technology in Power Up with Information Technology, Catherine Getao and Marcel Werner (Eds).". In: UK Development studies Association conference, Open University, Milton Keynes, 7-9 September 2006. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract
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JAMES PROFODEK. "Change of Plea in Criminal Proceedings in Kenya, Nairobi Law Monthly, 4 Nairobi Law Monthly at 4-17.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1989. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Change, Persistence and Development in smallholder Livestock Production system in western Kenya.". In: In R.A. Obudho and J.B. Ojwang (eds) Issues in Resource Management and Development in Kenya: Essays in Memory of Prof. Simeon H. Ominde Nairobi. East Africa Publishers. pp. 234-244. ISBN 9966 25 007 7. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract

Parts one and two of this paper deal with conceptual issues and focus on gender mainstreaming into investment activities for increased women's employment and poverty reduction. The central argument here is that the mainstreaming of a gender perspective into investment activities is necessarily a long-term process which involves the integration of gender issues in all national and sectoral policies and programmes. The key to gender mainstreaming is to make the process a collective responsibility. Some of the essential steps in this process are the production of gender disaggregated data, the establishment and strengthening of gender management systems, the commitment of senior management personnel to the goal of gender equality as a reflection of attitudinal and behaviour change at personal and institutional levels. The discussion in part three brings to the fore the issue of women's education and training. Available data show gender and regional disparities in education and training at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. These data indicate women's limited access to formal education and lower adult literacy rates which undermine their capacity to participate in the formal and informal labour market on an equal basis with men. Part four shows the link between women's education, employment and poverty reduction. The analysis of gender participation in different sectors of the economy revealed some important patterns and trends. These include the fact that female labour force participation in the modern sector has remained below 30% over the last several years compared to men who hold a disproportionately larger share of the modern sector jobs. The majority of women are employed in the education and informal sectors. Those who work in the agricultural sector are usually engaged as casuals. Women's overall lower level of education, limited skills, and access to productive, resources, heavy domestic workload, cultural attitudes and segregation of the labour market are some of the factors associated with their limited participation in the modern sector. Gender representation in the Kenyan civil service also shows gross under-representation of women in top management and policy-making positions. This gender disparity calls for an Affirmative and/or Positive Action to deal not only with increasing women's participation in public and private sector institutions at all levels but also address the twin issue of women's entitlements and cultural barriers which are at the root of their poverty and powerlessness. The low budgetary allocations to women's programmes also reflect lack of political will, improper targeting and non-involvement of women in priority setting.

ABDULLAH DRHASSANMOHAMMED. "Changes and Improvement in Water Management Practices in the Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, Rural and Environmental Engineering Journal.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 2003.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Changes in ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and sensory properties in sundried and stored amaranthus hybridus vegetables. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 39: 459.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "Changes in ascorbic acid, Betacarotene and sensory properties in sundried and stored Amaranthus Hybridus vegetables. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, vol. 40,53-65.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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Firszt JB, Reeder RM, Holden TA, Burton H, Chole RA. "Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss." Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 2013;7. AbstractWebsite
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G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1980. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
G. PROFSIMIYUVINCENT. "Changes in China since 1976 in Viva.". In: Special Edition on President Daniel Moi's State to the Peoples Republic of China.; 1980. Abstract

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M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Changes in Fatty Acid Levels of Young Shoots of Tea (Camellia Sinensis L.) due to Nitrogenous Fertilizers", Food Chemistry, 38, 211-219.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
Wagacha JM, Mutegi CK, Christie ME, Karanja LW, Kimani J. "Changes in Fungal Population and Aflatoxin Levels and Assessment of Major Aflatoxin Types in Stored Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus)." Journal of Food Research. 2013;2(5):10-23.
George. G, Samuel. S, John. M, James. S, Wallace B. Changes in Haemagglutinin epitopes of human influenza B viruses in Kenya, 2005-2009. . Accra, Ghana; 2011. Abstract
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2. Oyugi J., Bwayo J PNKEFASJ. "Changes in percentages of CD4 in HIV seropositive and seronegative children during a 2-year follow- up.". In: 9th International conference on AIDS, 4th STD World congress. Berlin; 1993.
K, wa Gachigi. "Changes in Phytochemical content during different growth stages in tubers of five varieties of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(1):1-11. Abstractgeoffrey_kipkoech_kirui.pdfWebsite

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) synthesizes a variety of bioactive metabolites including phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids that protects against insects and diseases, and may influence its nutritional quality. Phenolics provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas glycoalkaloid concentrations exceeding the upper safety limit of 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (Fwt) are potential neurotoxins. Therefore, efficient selection for tuber nutritional quality is dependent upon safe and reliable analytical methods. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the concentration of glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds during different growth stages in tubers of five selected potato varieties grown in Kenya. α-chaconine and α-solanine were separated and identified by HPLC. Total glycoalkaloids (TGA) and phenolics were determined by UV spectrophotometry. Recovery efficiencies for validation of analytical methods ranged from 85.9-93.5%. Significant differences in TGA and phenolic contents were detected among potato varieties. Tuber TGA content ranged from 6.80 to 10.56 mg/100g Fwt in vars. Dutch Robijn and Tigoni, respectively, and were within the upper safety limit. The corresponding values for chlorogenic acid contents in the examined varieties ranged from 46.39 to 58.04 mg/100 g Fwt. Total phenolic concentration in the examined tuber extracts varied ranged from 129.24 to 192.52 mg CGA/g Fwt. Glycoalkaloid and phenolic production were significantly reduced from time of initiation to maturity at 55 and 125 days, respectively, after planting (DAP). These results demonstrate that tuber phytochemicals were strongly influenced by variety and level of maturity. For nutritional safety and quality purposes, harvesting of mature potato tubers after 125 DAP is recommended

Kirui GK, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji, Amugune NO. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Geoffrey Kipkoech Kirui, Saifuddin Fidahussein Dossaji NOA. "Changes in Phytochemical Content During Different Growth Stages in Tubers of Five Varieties of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal. 2018;6(1):12-22.
Odoyo-June E, Rogers JH JBRCW &. "Changes in plasma viral load and penile viral shedding after circumcision among HIV-positive men in Kisumu, Kenya." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2013;64(5):511-7.
Irungu E, Chersich MF, Sanon C, Chege R, Gaillard P, Temmerman M, Read JS, Luchters S. "Changes in sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in west and east Africa in the first 24 months after delivery." AIDS. 2012;26(8):997-1007. Abstract

Describe changes in sexual behaviour and determinants of unsafe sex among HIV-infected women in the 24 months after delivery.

Graham SM, Raboud J JMMCRSBAMWK &. "Changes in sexual risk behavior in the mombasa cohort: 1993-2007." PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113543.
Omondi PAO, Awange JL, Forootan E, Ogallo LA, Barakiza R, Girmaw GB, Komutunga E. "Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Greater Horn of Africa region from 1961 to 2010.". 2013.Website
Joshi MD. Changes in the Upper Gastrointestinal track in patterns with chronic renal failure.; 1988. Abstract

Between February and July 1987, some 40 consecutive patients with established chronic renal failure, on either maintenance dialysis or conservative management, were studied to determine the nature and incidence of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosal disease. Serum assays for gastrin, bombesin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were also done.

Endoscopic gastritis was evident in 27.5%, duodenitis in 20%, bile reflux in 17.5%, distorted duodenal bulb in 17.5% oesophangitis in 5% and duodenal ulcer in 5%. In 32.5% of the patients there was no endoscopic abnormality noted. No patient had active gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were significantly elevated in all study cases when compared to the controls. None of the cases had conditions, other than chronic renal failure to account for fasting hypergastrinemia. Fasting serum gastrin levels did not correlate significantly with endoscopic diagnosis, serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. A statistically significant correlation was found between serum gastrin and bombesin levels.

The results indicate a high prevalance of inflammatory and hypertrophic mucosal changes in chronic renal failure but not peptic ulcer disease, and suggest that these changes may be a consequence of hypergastrinemia.

It is r~ded that all chronic renal failure patients with significantupper gastrointestinal symptomatology and all pre­ renal transplant patients undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopicassessement.

Roxby AC, Fredricks DN, Odem-Davis K, Ásbjörnsdóttir K, Masese L, Fiedler TL, De Rosa S, Jaoko W, Kiarie JN, Overbaugh J, McClelland SR. "Changes in Vaginal Microbiota and Immune Mediators in HIV-1-Seronegative Kenyan Women Initiating Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016;71(4):359-66. Abstractchanges_in_vaginal_microbiota_and_immune_mediators_in_hiv-1-seronegative_kenyan_women_initiating_depot_medroxyprogesterone_acetate.pdfPUBMED

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation.

S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Changes in water potential, osmotic potential, and tissue electrolyte leakage during mass loss in carrots stored under different conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 95: 13-21.". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Parnavelas JG, Globus A, Kaups P. "Changes in {Lateral} {Geniculate} {Neurones} of {Rats} as a {Result} of {Continuous} {Exposure} to {Light}." Nature. 1973;245:287-288. AbstractWebsite

THE results of several investigators demonstrate that environmental manipulations can affect the structure of the brain. Environmental conditions studied most often have been deprivation and enrichment. In the visual system different forms of light deprivation have been found to induce a decrease in spine density1–3, dendritic branching4,5 and in cell areas6. A number of studies have described changes resulting from enriched environmental conditions, including an increase in cortical weight and depth7,8, ratio of glial cells to neurones9, spine density10, and dendritic branching11. The effects of excess light stimulation in the visual system have also been studied. Continuous exposure to light has been found to cause irreversible damage to photoreceptors12,13 and an increase in spine density in the visual cortex of albino rats14. Under these conditions, investigators have reported a decrease or absence of evoked potentials in adult albino rats15. Black-white discrimination and two pattern discrimination tests did not indicate any difference between these animals and control rats16. We have been able to show significant quantitative morphological changes in the dendritic field of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate of rats reared under continuous illumination from birth to 35 d.

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Changes into the productive roles of the family: The case of Babukusu of Bungoma District.". In: Paper read at a seminar on. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Kariuki P.W. GKP & CON. "The Changing concept of Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2014;7(1):55-65.
Langat SK, Onyatta JO. "The changing conceptions and focus of health research in East Africa ." Africa J. Health. 2006;13:1-5.
Kariuki, D.N., Ginsberg P, Kimamo C. "The Changing Concepts of Adolescence in Kenya." Psychological Thought. 2014;7(9).
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Changing concepts of health and illness among children of primary school age in western Kenya. Health Edication Research 19 (3): 326-339.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2004. Abstract
Changing concepts of health and illness among children of primary school age in western Kenya. Health Edication Research 19 (3): 326-339.
Wachira N, Root D, Bowen P, Olima W. Changing Craft Skills In The Kenyan Construction Sector.; 2008.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "The Changing Development Space in Kenya: Socio-political Change and Voluntary Development Activities, in Gibbon, P., (ed)., Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1995.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "The Changing Development Space in Kenya: Socio-political Change and Voluntary Development Activities, in Gibbon, P., (ed)., Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1995.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Changing Household Composition and Food Security among the Elderly Caretakers in Rural Western Kenya. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 24:259-272.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "The changing impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi from 1988/89 through 1992 to 1997. AIDS. 2000 Jul 28;14(11):1625-31.". In: AIDS. 2000 Jul 28;14(11):1625-31. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Consequences of the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic for health services in sub-Saharan Africa remain poorly defined. Longitudinal data from the same centre are scarce. We aimed to describe the impact of a rapidly rising HIV/AIDS disease burden on an urban hospital over the last decade. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional observational study in 1997, compared to similar data from 1988/89 and 1992. The study was carried out in the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD: Consecutive adult medical patients were enrolled on admission and then followed up until death or discharge. The main outcome measures were clinical stage, HIV status, bacteraemia, length of stay, bed occupancy, final diagnosis and outcome of hospital admission. RESULTS: In 1997, 518 patients, 493 with HIV serology, were enrolled: HIV prevalence was 40.0%, bed occupancy 190%, the mean length of stay 9.5 days (SD 12) and overall mortality 18.5%. The mean number of HIV-positive admissions per day steadily rose from 4.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6] patients in 1988/89, through 9.6 (95% CI, 1.4) in 1992, to 13.1 (95% CI, 2.8) or 13.9 adjusted for those enrolled without HIV serology in 1997. In contrast the mean number admitted with clinical AIDS, 1.7 in 1988/89 and 3.3 in 1992, fell to 2.6 cases per day in 1997. With HIV-negative admissions increasing by 37% and bed occupancy nearly doubling in 1997, HIV prevalence appeared to be stabilizing (19 then 39 and 40% respectively). Over time fewer HIV-infected patients were bacteraemic (26, 24 and 14%; P < 0.01); had clinical AIDS (39, 34 and 24% respectively; P < 0.01); or died (36, 35 and 22.6%; P < 0.02). HIV-negative mortality, 14% in 1988/89, rose to 23% in 1992 but fell to 15% in 1997. The mean length of hospital stay (9.5-10 days) did not differ according to HIV status nor did it change across the decade. CONCLUSION: The HIV/AIDS disease burden in Kenyatta National Hospital medical wards has risen inexorably over the last decade. Most recently, the number of HIV-uninfected patients has also risen, leading to bed occupancy figures of 190%. Despite overcrowding and irrespective of HIV status, in-patient mortality has fallen. Time trends suggest fewer clinical AIDS patients are presenting for hospital care, implying a rising community burden of chronic HIV/AIDS disease. Although widely predicted, it is not inevitable that medical services in urban African hospitals dealing with large volumes of HIV/AIDS disease, will collapse or become overwhelmed with chronic, end-stage disease and death.
W MRSKARURIJANE. "Changing kinship and Gender relationships in Kenya: the influence of structural adjustment programes. Seminar paper presented in sociology Departmetn, Glasgow University.". In: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/10/amim18147.htm. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 1993.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Changing Morals in Africa, IN: J.N.K. Mugambi:, A. NASIMIYU-WASIKE; (Eds): Moral and Ethical Issues in African Christianity, Initiatives Publishers, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.

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