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MASU DRSYLVESTER. "CASLE / IQSK7 ISK Eastern African Regional Seminar July 23 - 26, 1996. Theme Vision of Surveying Profession in the third millenium Easter Africa Context.". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1996. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
O. ABOKE, G.A. OOKO, M.W. O. "Cassava chips quality as influenced by cultivar, blanching time and slice thickness." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development . 2016;16(4):11457-11476.
Kimani S, Sinei K BT-KMFD. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part I. Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium. NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
2. Kimani S, Moterroso V MWKBMT-KPJSF. "Cassava cyanogenesis and neurotoxicity: experimental modeling. Part II. Cross species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.". In: Brain Disorders in the Developing World Tenth Anniversary Symposium . NIH, Bethsda, Maryland USA ; 2014.
Korir BK, Wanyoike MMM, KURIA JOSEPHKN, Mwangi DM, Muge EE. "Cassava leaves and azolla as crude protein supplement feed to east african short horned Zebu Heifers." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16:1457-1462. Abstract
n/a
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Cast Away Fear, A Joint Contribution to the African Synod, Nairobi: ew People.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Haenssgen K, Makanya AN, Djonov V. "Casting materials and their application in research and teaching." Microsc. Microanal.. 2014;20(2):493-513. Abstract

From a biological point of view, casting refers to filling of anatomical and/or pathological spaces with extraneous material that reproduces a three-dimensional replica of the space. Casting may be accompanied by additional procedures such as corrosion, in which the soft tissue is digested out, leaving a clean cast, or the material may be mixed with radiopaque substances to allow x-ray photography or micro computed topography (µCT) scanning. Alternatively, clearing of the surrounding soft tissue increases transparency and allows visualization of the casted cavities. Combination of casting with tissue fixation allows anatomical dissection and didactic surgical procedures on the tissue. Casting materials fall into three categories namely, aqueous substances (India ink, Prussian blue ink), pliable materials (gelatins, latex, and silicone rubber), or hard materials (methyl methacrylates, polyurethanes, polyesters, and epoxy resins). Casting has proved invaluable in both teaching and research and many phenomenal biological processes have been discovered through casting. The choice of a particular material depends inter alia on the targeted use and the intended subsequent investigative procedures, such as dissection, microscopy, or µCT. The casting material needs to be pliable where anatomical and surgical manipulations are intended, and capillary-passable for ultrastructural investigations.

Olabu B, Gichangi P, Saidi H, Ogeng'o J. "Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the Rabbit penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):412-416.olabu_and_gichangi.pdf
B O, P G, H S, J O’o. "Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):412-416.
Olabu B, Gichangi P SO’oHJ. "Castration causes progressive reduction of penile length of rabbit penis." Anat J Afr . 2014;3 (3):3 (3): 412-416.
Olembo NK, Obungu VH, Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Catabolism of proline by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

The effect of various metabolic inhibitors on the rate of oxygen consumption by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense utilizing proline as substrate was investigated. Cyanide inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 81.0 +/- 6.7%, malonate inhibited the rate by 51.6 +/- 1.6% and Antimycin A by 73.1 +/- 5.9%. A combination of cyanide and malonate inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 84.9 +/- 6.7% while a combination of antimycin A and malonate inhibited the rate by 81.6 +/- 7.6%. Rotenone had no effect on the rate of respiration except when the intact cells were first permeabilized by digitonin after which rotenone decreased the rate of respiration by 20-30%. Salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) did not have any effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. Enzymes involved in the catabolism of proline with high activities were: proline dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, alanine aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase. Activities of 1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and NAD-linked malic enzyme were detectable but lower. The end products of proline catabolism were alanine and glutamate. Unlike the case in Trypanosoma brucei brucei aspartate was not detected. Possible pathways of proline catabolism in procyclic culture forms of T. congolense and of electron transfer are proposed

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Catalogue without Cards: Kenyan Literary Texts on the World Wide Web.". In: Journal of the Korean Association of African Studies 23 (June 2006): 117-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

M S, K K, M C. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya." East African journal of ophthalmology. 2008;14(1). AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgeryand barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services.
Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project.
Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method.
Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand five hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%)
were examined.
Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had
undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery.
Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery
having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness.
Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services. Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project. Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method. Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand fi ve hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined. Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness. Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

EK G, GO O. "Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: management challenges and lessons learnt in the third world set-up: Case report." Afr J Rheumatol . 2015;2(3):67-72. Abstractcatastrophic_antiphospholipid.pdf

Background: Antiphospholipid
Syndrome (APS) is a disorder that
manifests clinically as recurrent venous
or arterial thrombosis and/or foetal loss.
Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome
(CAPS) is a very severe variant of the
classic APS. It is characterized by clinical
evidence of multiple organ involvement
developing over a very short period
of time, histopathological evidence of
multiple small vessel occlusions and
laboratory confirmation of the presence
of antiphospholipid antibodies, usually
in high titre. Although patients with
catastrophic APS represent less than 1%
of all patients with APS, this is usually a
life-threatening condition. The majority
of patients with catastrophic APS end
up in intensive care units with multiorgan
failure. Making the diagnosis is
challenging and can be missed. Unless the
condition is considered in the differential
diagnosis by attending physicians, it
may be completely missed, resulting in
a disastrous outcome. Catastrophic APS
develops rapidly and can result in death of
up to 30-50% of cases.
Case presentation: A nineteen year old
nulliparous lady diagnosed with Systemic
Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) four months
prior to admission with no prior history of
thrombo-embolic events presented at the
accident and emergency department with
one day history of fevers and convulsions.
This was associated with history of
progressively worsening memory loss and
confusion associated with incoordination
of hands. She also reported to have had
a productive cough of 3 months which
was episodic. The patient was admitted
and developed multiple organ failure
from lungs, heart and the kidney during
treatment in hospital attributed to this
disease. She succumbed during treatment

Mwai D, MK M. "Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: A Case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya." Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2016;12(8):170-180.
Kimani D, Maina T. "Catastrophic Health Expenditures in Kenya.". In: Futures Group.; 2014.
Mwaura F. "Catchment Based Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Rift Valley, Kenya - The Small Reservoir Approach. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of the Eastern Africa Environmenal Network (EAEN) May 28-29 ." J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2000. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Catchment Conservation and Rehabilitation Programme, in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex XXL pp 90.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
Crossland JIM, Morcom N. The catchment to coast continuum.; 2005.Website
Osiro O.A, Kisumbi SBKOH. "Categories of Direct Restorative materials and their selection by dentists in Kenya.". In: 33rd Kenya Dental Association Annual Scientific Conference & Exhibition. Boma Inn, Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
Osiro OA, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO. "Categories of direct restorative materials and their selection by dentists in Kenya.". In: IADR ESAD. Eldoret Kenya; 2015.
O K V, A C J, G W F, B T G, E D. "Catha edulis (khat) induces cell death by apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Khat is the Celastraceus edulis plant, a flowering evergreen tree or large shrub, which grows in the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. Khat use has been associated with development of oral cancer, but its molecular effects remain controversial. This study describes a novel cytotoxic effect of whole khat extract on three leukemia cell lines. Cells were exposed to khat extract and harvested for analysis by fluorescent and electron microscopy, trypan blue exclusion, as well as immunoblotting to characterize the mode of cell death. In a separate series, cells were pretreated with a panel of caspase inhibitors for possible inhibitory effects. Khat induced a rapid cell death effect in HL-60, Jurkat, and NB4 cells that occurred within 2 h of exposure. The treated cells retained their ability to exclude trypan blue dye, a key feature in the apoptotic process. Exposed cells consistently developed morphological features of manifest apoptosis. Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, completely inhibited toxic activity for up to 8 h, with partial inhibition by other caspase-specific agents. Western blot analysis showed specific cleavage of caspase-3 in khat-exposed cells. This study shows that khat induces cell death by apoptosis in a process sensitive to inhibition by caspase inhibitors, suggesting that subcellular interactions could be of particular relevance for the biological effects of khat in the cell death process and possibly carcinogenesis

Kilekwang L, Patel NB. "Catha edulis Forsk (khat) induces conditioned place preference in mice.". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa.; 2017.cpp_poster.pdf
C.K. M. "Catha edulis. Epiemiologial studies on chewing patterns and habits." International Council in Alcohol and Addition. 1983;1(1):178-180.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "The Catharsis (A collection of poems in English) Shinhan.". In: Publishing Media Co. Ltd., Seoul, 1992, 90pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "The Catholic Family Published by the Kenya Episcopal Conference.". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "The Catholic Family: A source Book(Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Confrence).". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Catley A, Okoth S, Osman J, Fison T, Njiru Z, Mwangi J, Jones BA, Leyland TJ. Participatory diagnosis of a chronic wasting disease in cattle in southern Sudan.". In: Prev Vet Med. 2001 Oct 11;51(3-4):161-81. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2004. Abstract

Participatory Approaches to Veterinary Epidemiology Project, Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Livelihoods Programme, International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK. andy.catley@oau-ibar.org In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both single and mixed infections).A standardised PA method called matrix scoring had good reproducibility when investigating local perceptions of disease-signs and disease causes. Comparison of matrix-scoring results showed much overlap with modern veterinary descriptions of cattle diseases and the results of conventional veterinary investigation. Applications of PA methods in remote areas with very limited veterinary infrastructure are discussed. The validation of data derived from PA is discussed by reference to the low sensitivity of 'field-friendly' diagnostic tests for important cattle diseases.

PATRICK MRIRUNGU. "Catley, A., Irungu, P., Simiyu, K., Dadye, J., Kiragu, J., Mwakio, W. and Nyamwaro S.O. (2002). Participatory investigations on bovine trypanosomiasis in Tana River district, Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 16(1):55-66.". In: African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2006, 23(2): 99. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomiasis was conducted with Orma pastoralists in Tana River District, Kenya. The use of participatory methods to understand local perceptions of disease signs, disease causes, disease incidence by cattle age group, seasonal patterns of disease and preferences for indigenous and modern control methods are described. Results indicated that local characterization of diseases called gandi and buku by Orma pastoralists was similar to modern veterinary knowledge on chronic trypanosomiasis and haemorrhagic trypanosomiasis (due to Trypanosoma vivax), respectively. The mean incidence of gandi varied from 10.2% in calves to 28.6% in adult cattle. The mean incidence of buku varied from 3.1% in calves to 9.6% in adults. Pearson correlation coefficients for disease incidence by age group were 0.498 (P < 0.01) and 0.396 (P < 0.05) for gandi and buku, respectively. Informants observed cases of trypanosomiasis in 24.1% of cattle (all age groups); these cases accounted for 41.8% of all sick cattle during the preceding 12-month period. Eight indigenous and three modern trypanosomiasis control methods were identified. Results indicated that an integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control based on private, individual action was well established in the assessment area. When presented with four different trypanosomiasis control methods, community representatives selected 'better use of trypanocides' as the most preferred intervention and 'community-based tsetse control' as the least preferred intervention. This finding prompted researchers to modify the original project activities. Constraints facing the sustainability of community-based tsetse control are discussed.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Cattle and Small Ruminant Breeds Utilization and Assessment of the Impact of Breeding schemes on livestock productivity in East and Central Africa (2005 -2007) CURRENT RESEARCH sponsored by ASARECA AARNET.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
Ayuya, J.M., Mangi, N., Gichanga J. "Cattle gastrointestinal helminths on some farms in Njabini area of Kinangop Division, Nyandarua District, Kenya.". In: 24th Inter Norden Sheep Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 1993.
Irungu P. Cattle Keeping Practices Of The Orma People A Household Survey In Tana River District, Kenya.; 2000. Abstractirungu1.pdf

Trypanosomosis, a disease mainly transmitted by tsetse flies, is widespread throughout the humid and sub-humid areas of Africa. For centuries the disease has taken its toll on cattle and people living in tsetse-infested areas. In Kenya, 25% of the country’s total landmass is tsetse infested. This land supports over half of the country’s national cattle herd. The Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (KETRI) has conducted a series of studies over the last 20 years on the Orma Boran, an indigenous cattle breed kept by the Orma tribe in Tana River district in the Coast province of Kenya. Field studies on Galana Ranch, Coast province, Nguruman, Kajiado district, and some laboratory based studies at their Nairobi headquarters have shown this breed to be less susceptible to trypanosomosis than other Kenyan cattle. The current study aimed to provide information on the Orma pastoralists and their cattle in their own environment of the Tana River district. A household survey was conducted in 12 locations of Tana River district. A total of 48 household heads were interviewed and data collected on body weight for 407 cattle and milk yield for 164 cows. The household heads interviewed, despite having minimal formal education, were very knowledgeable cattle keepers. They selected their cattle for breeding or commercial purposes primarily on the basis of their milk yield and body size. There was a marked degree of sedentarisation amongst the Orma people in the areas studied. On average, the household heads had resided in their current villages for 25 years. The average herd size of these pastoralists was 156 head of cattle, some of which remained close to the villages. The larger proportion of the cattle was herded by young men away from the villages in fora herds and living in temporary manyattas. The mean live weight of mature cows was 250kg, mean calf weight at eight months was 78kg. The average daily milk off-take was 1.6 litres per cow. The mean yearly expenditure per household on trypanocidal drugs was Kshs 15,575, but this varied greatly depending on the tsetse challenge in any particular area. The Tana delta area, which is heavily infested by four species of tsetse fly, was used by the majority of the households as dry season grazing for their catt

PAUL PROFBAKI, OMULO DRMITOCOLLINS. "Cauchy Analysis of the Linearized Anti-symmetric Sector of the Massive Non-symmetric Gravitational Theory.". In: J. Math. Phys. Vol7, No.40, 3439 (1999). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999.
NZOMO PROFMARIA. "Caught Between a Rock and a Hard Place’ ."; 2003.
KISAKA ES, MWASARU A. "The Causal Relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices in Kenya." Research of Finance and Accounting, Vol 3, N0. 7, 2012. 2012;3(7):121-130. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the causal relationship between foreign exchange rates and stock prices in Kenya from November 1993 to May 1999. The data set consisted of monthly observations of the NSE stock price index and the nominal Kenya shillings per US dollar exchange rates. The objective was to establish the causal linkages between leading prices in the foreign exchange market and the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The empirical results show that foreign exchange rates and stock prices are non-stationary both in first differences and level forms, and the two variables are integrated of order one, in Kenya. Secondly, we tested for co-integration between exchange rates and stock prices. The results show that the two variables are co-integrated. Thirdly, we used error-correction models instead of the classical Granger-causality tests since the two variables are co-integrated. The empirical results indicate that exchange rates Granger-causes stock prices in Kenya.

Kaimenyi JT. "Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of Dentistry is to make the mouth healthy and preserve teeth in good function for what they are worth, namely a beautiful smile, better phonetics, a youthful look and ease of chewing all sorts of food without having to make uncalled for choices.(3) In the past, most people didn't value teeth at all. Loss of teeth was considered as an inevitable consequence 01 old age. The contemporary society however values teeth in a big way. Many people today will go along way to preserve their teeth notwithstanding the high expense to be incurred and the many man hours spent in attending dental clinic. Demand to preserve teeth by a patient whatever the cost doesn't necessarily have to be met by the dental surgeon. The decision to preserve teeth or not must be considered in the light of the pathology of dental disease in question regarding its onset, course, termination and the like hood of its response to treatment. Any attempt to preserve teeth with very poor prognosis is not only heroic but eventuates into frustrating the patient and the dental surgeon when the desired results are not met.

Njeru A, Ombati V, Ngesu L. "Causes and effects of drugs and substance abuse among secondary school students in Dagoreti division, Nairobi West district." Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Deduction, . 2014;6(1):1992-2744.
DR DAVIDNYIKA. "Causes and Management of Errors in Surveying measurements and Computations. ." The Kenya Surveyor Journal. 2013;March 2013.
Kaisha WO, Khainga S. "Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(3):123-8. Abstract

To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya ;." East and Central African Journal of Surgery.. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

Wekesa V, Mwang'ombe NJM, Musau CK, Kiboi JG. "Causes and Risk Factors of Non-traumatic Sub-arachnoid Haemorrhage among Patients at Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Kenya Wekesa, V.; Mwang'ombe, N.J.M.; Musau, C.K. & Kiboi, J.G." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011;16(3):75-79. Abstract

Background: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) has been shown to have a global incidence of 2-49 cases per 100 000 population, and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. There is a scarcity of data regarding this condition in Kenya. This paper presents the causes and risk factors for this condition in patients presenting to our hospital.
Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. All patients admitted between December 2010 and March 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH, were included in the study. A total of 55 patients with SAH were recruited in the study.
Results: Slightly more females suffered from SAH than men, with a male: female ratio of 1: 1.1. The mean age was 47.6 years with a modal age group being 41-50 years. Intracranial aneurysms were seen in 29% of patients, the commonest location being in the anterior communicating artery (31%). Arterio-venous malformations were seen in 4% of patients. 51% of the patients had poorly controlled hypertension. Other risk factors included alcohol intake (31%), cigarette smoking (15%), and use of hormonal contraceptives was reported in 22% female study subjects.
Conclusion: In our population, the commonest cause of spontaneous SAH is aneurysmal bleeds mainly in the anterior circulation. Further, most of the risks involved in causation of SAH are modifiable therefore interventions such as proper blood pressure control should be put in place so as to reduce the burden of this disease.

MURERAMANZI S, KAMBANDA D, KAMBANDA D, RULINDA JB, MUDAHERANWA G, A. GAHONDOGO. "Causes du Desinteret des Etudiants pour les Sciences pures au Rwanda.". In: Etudes Rwandaises. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002.
Chibeu DM;, Karioki DI;, Munyua SJM;, Olaho-Mukani W. "Causes Of Abortion And Stillbirths In Doesin Arid And Semi-arid Areas In Kenya.".; 1996.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Mudemb EV, Gaklunga DK, K'Odhiambo AK. "Causes of Dropouts Among Boys and Gilrs From Secondary School: The Case of Ugenya District, Kenya." Mauritious: Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013.
Mudemb EV, Gaklunga DK, K’Odhiambo AK. "Causes of Dropouts Among Boys and Gilrs From Secondary School: The Case of Ugenya District, Kenya." Mauritious: Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013. Abstract
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and Mutitu, E.W. NOGRDHJ. "Causes of ear rot of maize with mycotoxin implication in Eastern and Central Kenya. .". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society.; 2003.
W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Causes of ear rot of maize with mycotoxin implications in Eastern and Central Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2003. Abstract
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M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS. "Causes of Film Property Reproducibility Problems in Magnetron sputtering.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology(AJST) 1(4), 87-90. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Agwata JF. "Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya." First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006; 2006. Abstract
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NW M. Causes of increased drop out in primary school in Nyandarua District, Kenya’.. F A, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
NZUVE SNM, LM.KIILU. "Causes Of Industrial Dispute: A Case Of The Garment Factories At The Athi-River Export Processing Zones In Kenya." Problems of Management in the 21st Century. 2013;6:48-59. AbstractWebsite

An industrial dispute may be defined as a conflict or difference of opinion between management and Workers on the terms of employment (Kornhauser, Dubin and Ross, 1954). In today`s business world, competition is the order of the day. Production, quality, profits and corporate social responsibility are critical areas where companies can improve competitive edge. To attain competitive edge, companies must first ensure cooperation and harmonious relationship between all stakeholders.
The general aim of the study was to investigate the causes of industrial disputes in the garment factories in the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Athi-River, Kenya. The study employed a descriptive research design to determine what caused the disputes and what the possible solutions were. The study population consisted of the shop stewards and human resource managers working at the four garment factories that were in operation at the time of the study. The research instrument used was a questionnaire administered to the respondents.
It was established that working conditions, pay rates, terms of employment and employee relations were the main causes of the disputes. Weak trade union movement, inefficient and inadequate social security, lack of employment benefits, opportunities for training, promotion, trained personnel at the health service, short contract and low pay are the main problems encountered by those working at the EPZ.
The study recommended that employee’s welfare and working conditions are important factors to be considered by any employer. Both supervisors and workers should work on their relationship and change attitude towards each other. The terms of employment should be looked into as many employees are unhappy with the terms of employment especially the short contracts and majority feel they are not recognized or awarded for their contribution to the organization.
On the other hand, employees need to understand clearly the company policies, rules, regulations and procedures in place. This can be initiated by management providing employee with manuals or handbooks. There should also be clear channels of communication in the organization to enhance smooth operation, understanding and enhance healthy industrial relationships.

Keywords:export processing zone, industrial disputes, industrial relations

BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "Causes of kidney condemnations in slaughtered cattle around Nairobi area, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 44: 189-191.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1996. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Achollah AM, Karanja DN, Ng’ang’a CJ, Bebora LC. "Causes of organ condemnations in cattle at slaughter and associated financial losses in Siaya County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2020;12:27-35.
Karioki DI;, Munyua SJM;, Chibeu DM;, Olaho-Mukani W. "Causes Of Postnatal Mortality In Goats In Arid And Semi-arid Areas In Kenya.".; 1996.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah, G.J.O; Njenga KKMN; KJ, Njenga MN;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
Munyua SJM;, Agumbah GJO;, Njenga MN;, Kuria KJ;, Kamau JA. "Causes Of Pre-Weaning Mortality In Small And Medium Scale Intensive Piggeries In Central Kenya."; 1987.
of Group GBD. "Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis." Lancet Global Health. 2013;1(6):e339-e349. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking.

METHODS:

We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year.

FINDINGS:

In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration.

INTERPRETATION:

The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care.

"Causes, Sources and Effects of Pornography among Secondary Schools Adolescents in Nyeri Municipality." Kenyan Journal of Guidance, Counselling and Psychology (ISSN 2226-0552). 2011;vol. 1 no. 1:68-74.
Caval syndrome  . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1988.
John GC, Bird T, Overbaugh J, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Rostron T, Dong T, Kostrikis L, Richardson B, Rowland-Jones SL. "CCR5 Promoter Polymorphisms in a Kenyan Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cohort: Association with Increased 2-Year Maternal Mortality.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a coreceptor with CD4 to permit infection by primary macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. The CCR5Δ32 mutation, which is associated with resistance to infection in homozygous individuals and delayed disease progression in heterozygous individuals, is rare in Africa, where the HIV-1 epidemic is growing rapidly. Several polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 have been identified, the clinical and functional relevance of which remain poorly defined. We evaluated the effect of 4 CCR5 promoter mutations on systemic and mucosal HIV-1 replication, disease progression, and perinatal transmission in a cohort of 276 HIV-1–seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya. Mutations at positions 59353, 59402, and 59029 were not associated with effects on mortality, virus load, genital shedding, or transmission in this cohort. However, women with the 59356 C/T genotype had a 3.1-fold increased risk of death during the 2-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–9.5) and a significant increase in vaginal shedding of HIV-1–infected cells (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0–4.3), compared with women with the 59356 C/C genotype.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "CCR5 promoter polymorphisms in a Kenyan perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cohort: association with increased 2-year maternal mortality. John GC, Bird T, Overbaugh J, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, Rostron T, Dong T, Kostrikis L, Richardson B, Rowla.". In: J Infect Dis.2001 Jul 1;184(1):89-92. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract
The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a coreceptor with CD4 to permit infection by primary macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. The CCR5Delta32 mutation, which is associated with resistance to infection in homozygous individuals and delayed disease progression in heterozygous individuals, is rare in Africa, where the HIV-1 epidemic is growing rapidly. Several polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 have been identified, the clinical and functional relevance of which remain poorly defined. We evaluated the effect of 4 CCR5 promoter mutations on systemic and mucosal HIV-1 replication, disease progression, and perinatal transmission in a cohort of 276 HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya. Mutations at positions 59353, 59402, and 59029 were not associated with effects on mortality, virus load, genital shedding, or transmission in this cohort. However, women with the 59356 C/T genotype had a 3.1-fold increased risk of death during the 2-year follow-up period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-9.5) and a significant increase in vaginal shedding of HIV-1-infected cells (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3), compared with women with the 59356 C/C genotype.
Anzala O, Bashir MF OOBJJJWGMGOMF. "CD4 and CD8 T - Lymphocyte distribution among healthy Kenyans enrolling in an HIV vaccine trial.". In: International Conference AIDS. Bangkok, Thailand; 2004.
Gichangi P, LGATHECE, B ESTAMBALE TEMMERMANM. "CD4 T LYMPHOCYTES SUBSET IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA." eamj. 2013;90(10):310-316. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and HIV are common in sub-Sahara Africa.
Both ICC and HIV are immunosuppressive, and are associated with decreased CD4
and CD8 profiles. In a group of women with ICC starting radiotherapy, we determined
their CD4 profiles.
Design: This was a cross-sectional study design.
Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, radiotherapy unit.
Subjects: Women with invasive cervical cancer (344) seeking radiotherapy treatment
for the first time between January 2000 and March 2003, had blood samples analyzed
for CD4 and CD8 cell counts by flow cytometry. Haemoglobin, white cell count,
lymphocyte and platelet counts were determined using coulter machine. All patients
had received pre- and post HIV counseling.
Results: The mean age was 49+13 years. About 13.1% of the women with ICC were
HIV positive. Overall, mean and median CD4 cell count was 829+355 cells/mm3 and
792 cells/mm3. Among HIV+ patients, mean and median CD4 cell counts were 451+288
cells/mm3 and 405 cells/mm3 respectively. The mean CD4 cell count for the HIV+women was 886+329 cells/mm3 with median of 833 cells/mm3, range 147-2065 cells/mm3.
Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women
had lower CD4 percentage and cell count and higher CD8 percentage and cell count
as compared to HIV negative women, p < 0.001. HIV infection was significantly and
independently associated with high proportion of women who had CD4 cell count of
less than 200 cells/mm3 or less than 350 cells/mm3, p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Women with ICC and concurrent HIV infection have decreased CD4 cell
subset. These results suggest HIV infection may be associated with more severe CD4
depletion in women with ICC.

P. GICHANGI. "CD4 T-LYMPHOCYTES SUBSETS IN WOMEN WITH INVASIVE CERVICAL CANCER IN KENYA.". In: East African Medical Journal . Vol. Vol. 90 .; 2013:.
Gichangi P, Gathece L, Estambale B, Temmerman M. "CD4 T-Lymphocytrs subsets in Women with invasive cervical cancer in Kenya." East Africa Medical Journal. 2013;90:310-316.cd4_t-lymphocytes_subsets_in_women_with_invasive_cervical.pdf
Otieno CF, Otedo AEO, Othero D, Otiende MY, Okoth P, Omonge EO, Oyoo GO. "CD4+ Cell Response to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ARTS) in Routine Clinical Care over One Year Period in a Cohort of HAART Naïve, HIV Positive Kenyan Patients." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):15-24.
Alimonti JB, Koesters SA, Kimani J, Matu L, Wachihi C, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. "Cd4+ T Cell Responses In Hiv-exposed Seronegative Women Are Qualitatively Distinct From Those In Hiv-infected Women.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

The immune response of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed seronegative (ESN) women may be qualitatively different from that in those infected with HIV (HIV(+)). In a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, we found significantly lower (P< or =.01) levels of CD4(+)-specific immune activation and apoptosis in the ESN women compared with those in the HIV(+) women. Compared with the HIV(+) women, a lower proportion of the ESN women showed p24 peptide pool responses by the short-term, CD4(+)-specific, interferon (IFN)- gamma intracellular cytokine staining assay, whereas the proportion showing responses by the long-term, CD8(+)-depleted T cell proliferation assay was similar. Interestingly, the ESN responders had a 4.5-fold stronger proliferation response (P=.002) than the HIV(+) group. These data suggest that, compared with those in HIV(+) women, CD4(+) T cells in ESN women have a much greater ability to proliferate in response to p24 peptides.

Tang J, Li X, Price MA, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Karita E, Kamali A, Lakhi S, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J. "CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort with prospective data." Front Microbiol. 2015;6:670. Abstract

In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of native Africans and then to examine its association with viral and host factors, including: (i) length of infection, (ii) demographics, (iii) HIV-1 viral load (VL), (iv) change in CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 slope), (v) HIV-1 subtype, and (vi) host genetics, especially human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. Data from 499 HIV-1 seroconverters with frequent (monthly to quarterly) follow-up revealed that CD4:CD8 ratio was stable in the first 3 years of infection, with a modest correlation with VL and CD4 slope. A relatively normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1.0) in early infection was associated with a substantial delay in disease progression to severe immunodeficiency (<350 CD4 cells/μl), regardless of other correlates of HIV-1 pathogenesis (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.63, P < 0.0001). Low VL (<10,000 copies/ml) and HLA-A*74:01 were the main predictors of CD4:CD8 ratio >1.0, but HLA variants (e.g., HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*81) previously associated with VL and/or CD4 trajectories in eastern and southern Africans had no obvious impact on CD4:CD8 ratio. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD4:CD8 ratio is a robust measure of immunologic health with both clinical and epidemiological implications.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "CD8(+) lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects. Kaul R, Dong T, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Rostron T, Kiama P, Njagi E, Irungu E, Farah B, Oyugi J, Chakraborty R, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, McMichael A, Rowland-Jones SL.". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 May;107(10):1303-10. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses have been detected at a low frequency in many HIV-1-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects. However, it is unclear how CTLs could protect against HIV acquisition in HEPS subjects, when high levels of circulating CTL fail to prevent disease progression in most seropositive subjects. To address this issue we studied CD8(+) lymphocyte responses to a panel of HIV-1 CTL epitopes in 91 HEPS and 87 HIV-1-infected Nairobi sex workers. HIV-specific responses in seropositive women focused strongly on epitopes rarely or never recognized in HEPS subjects, who targeted epitopes that were subdominant or unrecognized in infected women. These differences in epitope specificity were restricted by only those HLA class I alleles that are associated with a reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in this cohort. Late seroconversion in HEPS donors was associated with a switch in epitope specificity and/or immunodominance to those epitopes preferentially recognized by HIV-1-infected women. The likelihood of detecting HIV-1-specific responses in HEPS women increased with the duration of viral exposure, suggesting that HIV-1-specific CD8(+) responses are acquired over time. The association between differential recognition of distinct CTL epitopes and protection from HIV-1 infection may have significant implications for vaccine design.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Cecilia M. Onyango1 and Jasper K. Imungi. 2008. Post harvest handling and characteristics of fresh-cut traditional vegetables sold in Nairobi .". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2008. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Tyndall M, Malisa M, Plummer FA, Ombetti J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. "Ceftriaxone no longer predictably cures chancroid in Kenya.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

Ceftriaxone in a dose of 250 mg given intramuscularly is currently recommended for the treatment of chancroid. Among 133 men in Nairobi, Kenya, with culture-proven chancroid, who were treated with ceftriaxone, treatment failed in 35%. Poor outcome was associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositivity. Thus, treatment recommendations for chancroid should be reevaluated.

M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Celebrating Womens Resistance: Kabira W. and Akinyi Nzioki: New Earth Publications.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Masland R. "Cell {Populations} of the {Retina}: {The} {Proctor} {Lecture}." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2011;52:4581-4591. AbstractWebsite
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Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. "Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk." J Infect Dis. Jan;177. 1998;(1)::34-9.Website
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9. Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan;177(1):34-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1998. Abstract
In sub-Saharan Africa, where the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been most devastating, there are multiple subtypes of this virus. The distribution of different subtypes within African populations is generally not linked to particular risk behaviors. Thus, Africa is an ideal setting in which to examine the diversity and mixing of viruses from different subtypes on a population basis. In this setting, it is also possible to address whether infection with a particular subtype is associated with differences in disease stage. To address these questions, we analyzed the HIV-1 subtype, plasma viral loads, and CD4 lymphocyte levels in 320 women from Nairobi, Kenya. Subtype was determined by a combination of heteroduplex mobility assays and sequence analyses of envelope genes, using geographically diverse subtype reference sequences as well as envelope sequences of known subtype from Kenya. The distribution of subtypes in this population was as follows: subtype A, 225 (70.3%); subtype D, 65 (20.5%); subtype C, 22 (6.9%); and subtype G, 1 (0.3%). Intersubtype recombinant envelope genes were detected in 2.2% of the sequences analyzed. Given that the sequences analyzed represented only a small fraction of the proviral genome, this suggests that intersubtype recombinant viral genomes may be very common in Kenya and in other parts of Africa where there are multiple subtypes. The plasma viral RNA levels were highest in women infected with subtype C virus, and women infected with subtype C virus had significantly lower CD4 lymphocyte levels than women infected with the other subtypes. Together, these data suggest that women in Kenya who are infected with subtype C viruses are at more advanced stages of immunosuppression than women infected with subtype A or D. There are at least two models to explain the data from this cross-sectional study; one is that infection with subtype C is associated with a more rapid disease progression, and the second is that subtype C represents an older epidemic in Kenya. Discriminating between these possibilities in a longitudinal study will be important for increasing our understanding of the role of specific subtypes in the transmission and pathogenesis of HIV-1.
Kurtzhals JA, Hey AS, Theander TG, Odera E, Christensen CB, Githure JI, Koech DK, Schaefer KU, Handman E, Kharazmi A. "Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan.". 1992.Website
KAAYA, G.P. OTIENOANDDARJILHN. "Cellular and humoral immunity in Glossina.". In: Proceedings of ISDCI invertebrate immunology conference. Montpellier, France; 1985.
Blish CA, Dogan OC, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Odem-Davis KS, Richardsonb BA, Overbaugh J. "Cellular Immune Responses And Susceptibility To HIV-1 Superinfection: A Case-control Study.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A case-control study was performed to determine the effects of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses on the odds of acquiring a second HIV-1 infection (superinfection). Changes in the frequency of cytokine-producing or cytolytic CD8+ or CD4+ T cells were not associated with significant alterations in the odds of superinfection, suggesting that HIV-1 specific cellular immune responses at the level induced by chronic infection do not appear to significantly contribute to protection from HIV-1 superinfection.

ABINYA NO, D.A.SPINA, LLEONCINII, MEGHA T, A NYONG'0, GALLORINII M. "CELLULAR KINETIC AND PHENOTYPIC HETEROGENEITY IN AND AMONG BURKITT'S AND BURKITT-LIKE LYMPHOMAS.". 1997.
Cohen-Cory S, Escandón E, Fraser SE. "The cellular patterns of {BDNF} and {trkB} expression suggest multiple roles for {BDNF} during {Xenopus} visual system development." Developmental biology. 1996;179:102-115. Abstract

The temporal patterns of BDNF and trkB expression in the developing Xenopus laevis tadpole, and the responsiveness of retinal ganglion cells to BDNF, both in culture and in vivo, suggest significant roles for this neurotrophin during visual system development (Cohen-Cory and Fraser, Neuron 12, 747-761, 1994; Nature 378, 192-196, 1995). To examine the potential roles of this neurotrophin within the developing retina and in its target tissue, the optic tectum, we studied the cellular sites of BDNF expression by in situ hybridization. In the developing optic tectum, discrete groups of cells juxtaposed to the tectal neuropil where retinal axons arborize expressed BDNF, supporting the target-derived role commonly proposed for this neurotrophin. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells, ciliary margin cells, and a subset of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressed the BDNF gene. The expression of BDNF coincided with specific trkB expression by both retinal ganglion cells and amacrine cells, as well as with the localization of functional BDNF binding sites within the developing retina, as shown by in situ hybridization and BDNF cross-linking studies. To test for a possible role of endogenous retinal BDNF during development, we studied the effects of neutralizing antibodies to BDNF on the survival of retinal ganglion cells in culture. Exogenously administered BDNF increased survival, whereas neutralizing antibodies to BDNF significantly reduced baseline retinal ganglion cell survival and differentiation. This suggests the presence of an endogenous retinal source of neurotrophic support and that this is most likely BDNF itself. The retinal cellular patterns of BDNF and trkB expression as well as the effects of neutralizing antibodies to this neurotrophin suggest that, in addition to a target-derived role, BDNF plays both autocrine and/or paracrine roles during visual system development.

Fisher SK, Lewis GP, Linberg KA, Verardo MR. "Cellular remodeling in mammalian retina: results from studies of experimental retinal detachment." Progress in retinal and eye research. 2005;24:395-431. Abstract

Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to significantly effect the return of vision after successful reattachment. Using animal models of detachment and reattachment we have identified many cellular changes that result in significant remodeling of the retinal tissue. These changes range from the retraction of axons by rod photoreceptors to the growth of neurites into the subretinal space and vitreous by horizontal and ganglion cells. Some neurite outgrowths, as in the case of rod bipolar cells, appear to be directed towards their normal presynaptic target. Horizontal cells may produce some directed neurites as well as extensive outgrowths that have no apparent target. A subset of reactive ganglion cells all fall into the latter category. Muller cells, the radial glia of the retina, undergo numerous changes ranging from proliferation to a wholesale structural reorganization as they grow into the subretinal space (after detachment) or vitreous after reattachment. In a few cases have we been able to identify molecular changes that correlate with the structural remodeling. Similar changes to those observed in the animal models have now been observed in human tissue samples, leading us to conclude that this research may help us understand the imperfect return of vision occurring after successful reattachment surgery. The mammalian retina clearly has a vast repertoire of cellular responses to injury, understanding these may help us improve upon current therapies or devise new therapies for blinding conditions.

L Mutombo, VH Monterroso KKMDDT-KSKM. "Cellular Targete of Linamarin and Cyanate: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Cassava-Associated Motor System Degeneration." Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2011;50(5):739.
Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
n/a
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Cellulosic Renewable Resources as Sources of Energy and Chemicals", in Energy Resources in East Africa.". In: Kenya. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1979. Abstract
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Censorship and its effects in libraries in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1993.
Nyambok IO, Konoti HW, Nzioki NM. "Center For Urban Research Print Series Presents.". 1991.Website
Morrison SF, Nakamura K. "Central neural pathways for thermoregulation." Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library. 2011;16:74-104. AbstractWebsite

Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction.

Oranga JO. "The Centrality of the Media in Maintenance of Road Safety.". In: the International Association of Road Safety Conference. Fairview, Nairobi; 2011.
"Centralized Revenue Redistribution as a Potential Cause of Internal Conflict in Kenya." Modern Africa: Politics, History and Society. 2016;4(1).
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Centre-Periphery Linkages in the Development Process: An Assessment of the Kenyan Experience," in F. Kiros, (ed.), Challenging Rural Poverty: Experiences in Institution-Building and Popular Participation for Rural Development in Eastern Africa (Trenton, .". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Wahome EW. "Ceramic Style and History: An Inter-regional Assessment.". In: Mizizi: A collection of Essays on Kenya's History. Nairobi : University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstract

Ceramic Style and History: An interregional Assessment
In this Chapter, an attempt is made to correlate ceramic change with historical transformation through an analysis of ceramics from selected sites in Central Kenya, North Cameroon and Southern Pacific where Recent Ceramics have shown a sudden stylistic discontinuity from the pre-existing ceramic traditions. The term Recent Ceramics is used here to denote those potteries which seem to appear in all the areas under investigation when the core traditions came to their demise in one way or another. They also encompass potteries that have been described as ethnographic, a term which I consider inappropriate for ceramic technology. These potteries appear around 400 years ago in some areas like Northeastern Nigeria when the core Iron Age ceramic traditions reached their sudden demise and as late as the 18th/19th century in areas like Central Kenya where exotic products seem to have taken roots and progressively replaced the Iron Age ceramic technology.
The objective of this paper is to show that there exists a direct relationship between ceramics and history on an interregional scale. Such a relationship is effectively used to support evidence of historical change like the one cited from Muriuki above.
This assessment is based on the ceramics from three regions which are widely separated in space though they share a similar characteristic on the relationship between ceramic style and history.
This paper will cover three areas as part of the interregional assessment. The areas are:
• Central Kenya comprising materials from Gatung’ang’a, Mweiga and Recent Ceramics.
• North Cameroon covering the site of Mehe and a border site (Daima) on the Chad plains on the Northeastern Nigeria side as a comparative assemblage
• The South Pacific with emphasis on the Melanesian sites of Manus and adjoining Islands which I have already clustered into the Lapita (CPTS 4), the earliest known ceramic style in the region, followed by Early Post-Lapita (CPTS 3), Late post-Lapita (CPTS 2) and Late Prehistoric/Recent Ceramics (CPTS 1).

The sites are important in that they cover a fairly similar span from about 3000BP to present. I am particularly interested in the later phases like the Post-Lapita, Late Prehistoric/Recent Ceramics of Melanesia and the Iron Age and Recent Ceramics of Africa which are comparable and suitable in advancing a theory on ceramic change and history in their respective areas.

Wahome E. "Ceramics and History in the Iron Age of North Cameroon." Nyame Akuma (Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists).. 1989;32:8.
T.K. M, J.K.Muraya. "Ceratitid fruitflies infesting agricultural crops in Kenya." Insect Sci.Applic.. 1994;15:155-159.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Cerda C., J. Diafas, J. Barkmann, J. Mburu and R. Marggraf (2007). WTP or WTA, or Both? Experiences from Two Choice Experiments for Early Planning Stages. In: Meyerhoff J., N.Lienhoop and P. Elsasser, eds. State Preference Methods for Environmental Valuat.". In: Applications from Germany and Austria, Ecology and Economic Research Vol. 76, Metroplisverlag,Marburg, Germany (ISBN: 978-3-89518-642-4). Ogutu J.O; 2007. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Cereals Chain in Kenya: Actors, Reforms and Politics, Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya.". In: Nordiska Afrikainstitute, Uppsala. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Rhoton AL. "The cerebellar arteries." Neurosurgery. 2000;47:S29-68. Abstract
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Ogeng'o JA, Cohen DL, Sayi JG, Matuja WB, Chande HM, Kitinya JN, Kimani JK, Friedland RP, Mori H, Kalaria RN. "Cerebral amyloid beta protein deposits and other Alzheimer lesions in non-demented elderly east Africans." Brain Pathol.. 1996;6(2):101-7. Abstract

There is little knowledge of the existence of Alzheimer disease (AD) or Alzheimer type of dementia in indigenous populations of developing countries. In an effort to evaluate this, we assessed the deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) protein and other lesions associated with AD in brains of elderly East Africans. Brain tissues were examined from 32 subjects, aged 45 to 83 years with no apparent neurological disease, who came to autopsy at two medical Institutions in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. An age-matched sample from subjects who had died from similar causes in Cleveland was assessed in parallel. Of the 20 samples from Nairobi, 3 (15%) brains exhibited neocortical A beta deposits that varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized compact or neuritic plaques, many of which were also thioflavin S positive. Two of the cases had profound A beta deposition in the prefrontal and temporal cortices and one of these also exhibited moderate to severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Similarly, 2 of the 12 samples from Dar es Salaam exhibited diffuse and compact A beta deposits that were also predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species compared to A beta 40. We also noted that A beta plaques were variably immunoreactive for amyloid associated proteins, apolipoprotein E, serum amyloid P and complement C3. Tau protein reactive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) were also evident in the hippocampus of 4 subjects. By comparison, 4 (20%) of the 20 samples from randomly selected autopsies performed in Cleveland showed A beta deposits within diffuse and compact parenchymal plaques and the vasculature. These observations suggest A beta deposition and some NFT in brains of non-demented East Africans are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in age-matched elderly controls from Cleveland. While our small scale study does not document similar prevalence rates of preclinical AD, it suggests that elderly East Africans are unlikely to escape AD as it is known in developed countries.

"CEREBRAL ARTERY IN ADULT BRAINS VARIANTES ANATOMIQUES DE L'ARTÈRE.". 2008. Abstractanatomy.pdfWebsite

Background
Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their
microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating
arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the
pattern of arterial blood supply.
Results
The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA)
in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal
(PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%),
infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the
ACoA, ’bihemispheric pericallosal arteries’, intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and
crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including
fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%).
Conclusions
The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for
exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the
incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting
the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most
common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to
aneurysm formation

Bahemuka M, al-Nozha M, Shamena AR, Qaraqish AR, Lambourne A. "Cerebral infarction and left ventricular mass: a clinical and echocardiographic study.". 1988. Abstractcerebral_infarction_and_left_ventricular_mass-a_clinical_and_echocardiographic_study.pdfWebsite

One hundred and two stroke patients were studied. Thirty-three (32 per cent) were hypertensive by the WHO criteria. Eighty-three (83 per cent) had cerebral infarction and three patients suffered from spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. The mean left ventricular mass was calculated from echocardiographic measurements and compared with that of controls. Neither cases nor controls had valvular or congenital heart disease, or disease processes that may be associated with myocardial infiltration. Mean left ventricular mass of all cases was significantly greater than that of controls (p less than 0.025) and that of the cases over the age of 50 years was also significantly greater than that of controls of the same age (p less than 0.02). The clinically normotensive cases had greater left ventricular mass than the normotensive controls (p less than 0.02). Meanwhile left ventricular mass in patients aged 50 and under was not significantly different from the appropriate control group (p greater than 0.2). These data indicate that the frequency of arterial hypertension among victims of cerebral infarction is greater than may be ascertained clinically particularly in those over 50.

García JL, Fernandez N, Garcia-Villalon AL, Monge L, Gomez B, Dieguez G. "Cerebral reactive hyperaemia and arterial pressure in anaesthetized goats." Acta physiologica Scandinavica. 1995;153:355-363. Abstract

{The effects of arterial pressure on cerebral reactive hyperaemia were studied in anaesthetized goats measuring electromagnetically middle cerebral artery flow and performing arterial occlusions of 5-30 s. Under normotension (mean arterial pressure

Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. "Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases." EAMJ. 2010;87(5):220-224. AbstractWebsite

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.

P.L. P, G. M, M. W, J. O’ech, P. M. "The Cerebro-Placental ratio as a prognostic factor of foetal outcome in patients with third trimester hypertension." East and Central African Journal of Surgery . 2014;19(1):41-51.Website
PL P, G M, M W, J O’ech, P. M. "The Cerebro-placental Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Foetal Outcome in Patients with Third Trimester Hypertension." East Cent. Afr. J. Surg. . 2014;19(1):41-51.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cervical and vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells throughout the menstrual cycle. Mostad SB; Jackson S; Overbaugh J; Reilly M Chohan B; Mandaliya K; Nyange P; Ndinya-Achola J; Bwayo JJ Kreiss JK. Infect Dis. 1998 Oct;178(.". In: Infect Dis. 1998 Oct;178(4):983-91. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment.
Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer in pregnancy." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
Gichangi P. "Cervical cancer prevention." Nairobi Hospital Proceedings. 2006.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cervical Shedding of cytomegalovirus in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected women.Mostad SB, Kreiss JK, Ryncarz AJ,Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Corey LJ, Med virol 1999 Dec; 59(4): 469-73.". In: Med virol 1999 Dec; 59(4): 469-73. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cervical shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women: Effects of Hormonal Contraception, Pregnancy, and vitamin A Deficiency. Mostad SB, Kreiss JK, Rycarz AJ, Mandaliya K, chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Corey L. J.". In: J Infect Diseases 2000 Jan; 181(1): 58-63. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: effects of hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and vitamin A efficiency. Mostad SB, Kreiss JK, Ryncarz AJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Corey L. .". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):58-63. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Bosire R, Payne BL, Choi, RY; Levinson GBL; L-PBLAY; HKOJ-SP; B; R. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships. METHODS: HIV-1-serodiscordant couples in Nairobi were enrolled and followed quarterly up to 2 years, and women in concordant HIV-1-negative relationships were enrolled as controls. Cervicovaginal, seminal, and blood samples were collected at enrollment and follow-up. Cervicovaginal IgA was assessed for HIV-1-neutralizing activity by a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based assay using an HIV-1 clade A primary isolate. RESULTS: HESN women in discordant relationships had significantly more HIV-1-neutralizing IgA detected in genital secretions compared with control women [36 of 155 (23%) vs. four of 70 (6%), respectively; odds ratio (OR) 5.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70-14.64; P = 0.003]. These responses persisted over time in all available follow-up cervicovaginal samples from women with detectable HIV-1-neutralizing IgA at baseline. Partner median HIV-1 plasma viral load was lower among women who had HIV-1-neutralizing IgA compared with women without detectable activity (4.3 vs. 4.8 log(10) copies/ml, respectively; OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51-0.94; P = 0.02). A similar trend was found with partner seminal viral load (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.32-1.02; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: HESN women were five times more likely to have neutralizing IgA in cervicovaginal secretions than low-risk control women, and these responses were inversely associated with partner viral load. These observations support the existence of antiviral activity in the mucosal IgA fraction following sexual HIV-1 exposure.

Choi RY, Levinson P, Guthrie BL, Lohman-Payne B, Bosire R, Liu AY, Hirbod T, Kiarie J, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart G, Broliden K, Farquhar C. "Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A detected among HIV-1-exposed seronegative female partners in HIV-1-discordant couples." AIDS. 2012;26(17):2155-63. Abstract

Cervicovaginal HIV-1-neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) was associated with reduced HIV-1 acquisition in a cohort of commercial sex workers. We aimed to define the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1-neutralizing IgA from HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) women in HIV-1-serodiscordant relationships.

Wanjala C. "Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet." Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. 1974;1(1):59-72.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Cesaire's Responsibilities as a Poet", in Thought and Practice: The Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya 1, 1, 59-72.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
CF Otieno CSIGOO, Genga EK, Otieno FO, Ilovi CS, Ilovi CS. "CF Otieno CF Otieno Clinical profiles of patients with osteoporosis in Nairobi."; 2015. Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis, a chronic, progressive disease of multifactorial aetiology and one of the most common metabolic bone diseases worldwide. Despite ample sunshine, the Middle East and Africa register the highest rates of rickets worldwide. Low levels of vitamin D are prevalent throughout the region. There is a paucity of data on osteoporosis in Africa as it’s generally thought not to affect the non Caucasian population. We sought to describe the population with osteoporosis in a Nairobi rheumatology clinic. Objective : This study sets out to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with osteoporosis seen at a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi. Methods : This was a cross-sectional study done on patients with the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of osteoporosis of a T-score of –2.5 on bone mineral density scan. The study site was a rheumatology clinic in Nairobi. The study variables were age, sex, clinical presentation and selected comorbidities. Results : Fifty six patients with a WHO definition of osteoporosis were recruited. The age distribution was 31- 95 years with a mean age of 63.95 years with the most affected being above the age of 60 years at 71.5%. Majority were female (89.3%), with the main presenting complaints as polyarthralgia (30.4%) followed by lower back pain (19.6%) and pathological fractures (12.5%). The most common comorbidity being rheumatoid arthritis (39.3%) followed by steroids therapy (25%). Others included osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, systemic lupus erythromatosus and diabetes. Seven study participants had history of fracture with lumbar leading at 42.8%. None of the study participants were smokers. The number of patients on calcium supplements was at 71.4% and bisphosphonates was low at 21.4%. Conclusion: The findings of this study from age to comorbidities on osteoporosis are in keeping with literature. The presence of fibromyalgia as a comorbidity was an interesting finding. The number of patients on bisphosphonates was low which differed from Western literature. Stratification of patients at risk should be done so that active screening and prompt early management for osteoporosis can be instituted. Attempts should be to offer cheaper bisphosphonates so that the affected can benefit from the drugs

Mugo F, Abaru M. CF-Risks and Mitigation measures.; 2007.
Oluoko-Odingo AA. "CGP 103: Practical Geography."; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP 327: Geography of Recreation and Tourism; Course materials for teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP 327: Geography of Recreation and Tourism; Course materials for teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 106: The East African Environment - Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 106: The East African Environment - Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 426- Demography : Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "CGP/SGP 426- Demography : Course Materials for Teaching Distance Learners, University of Nairobi.". In: MSC Thesis, New York University, 1970,34 pp. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Chabari, F.N., A. C. Ackello-Ogutu and M.O. Odhiambo (1988). Factors Determining Market Prices of Small Ruminants from a Pastoral Production System in Kenya. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, Vol 52, No.4.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Chacha, R. Njeri; Factors determining the development of NSE, 1998, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Chai D.C., Bebora L.C. and Karaba W.W. (1990): Yersinia enterocolitica infection in vervet monkey.". In: Paper presented at 2nd Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1990.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Chairperson: Session on Urban Economic Development,.". In: 50th Annual Conference of Western Economic Association, June 25, 26, 27, 29, 1975. University of Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "Chairperson: Session on Urban Economics: Municipal Issues W.E.A.". In: 52nd Annual Western Economic Association Conference, June 20-23, 1977, Anaheim, California. University of Nairobi.; 1977. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Wairire GG,(Eds) SR. "The Challenge for Social Work in the Kenyan Context of Political Conflict.". In: Social Work facing Political Conflict. London: Venture Press; 2008.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Challenge from the encouner of christianity and African Religion to the traditional christian idea of Revelation "Collection: African theology, Vol. I, reports of the Yaounde meeting, Ecumenical Association of African Theologians, Yaounder.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1980. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
WAMBUA MUSILI. "The challenge of controlling African maritime zones: command, control and co-operation; how do we do it?" Law Society of Kenya journal. 2006;Vol.3 2006 No.1 (ISBN 91966-7121-7-8).
Jumba A, Grace IGR, O’Keefe(Eds.) J. "The Challenge of curriculum in Kenya’s Primary and secondary education: The response Catholic of the Catholic Church.". In: International Handbook of Catholic Education: Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century Volume II. Amsterdam: Springer Science. (PP.615-632); 2007.
Odingo RS. "Challenge of Global Warming and climate Change Adaptation in ACP Countries." Paper Prepared for CTA Workshop, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O. "Challenge of Global Warming and climate Change Adaptation in ACP Countries.". Paper Prepared for CTA Workshop, Ouagadougou; 2008. Abstract
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IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Challenge of Health Care Provision in the City of Nairobi.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal, Vol. 7. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
MBALUKA DRMUNYAOTITUS. "The challenge of limiting the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus by controlling other sexually transmitted diseases Archives of Dermatology 1991 127 237-242.". In: Journal. Archives of Dermatology; 1991. Abstract
The chapter discusses common both infectious and non infectious skin diseases in the tropical environment in a medicine text book: Medicine: Non-communicable Diseases in Adults; which widely explores common medical diseases in the tropical setting. The chapter begins with the outline, glossary of terms and introduction to the structure and function of the skin. Skin infections are discussed under bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infestations at the end of the section.The section on Allergic or immunological disorders discusses eczema in its diversity, urticaria and adverse cutaneous drug reactions.The last section discusses acne vulgaris and the papulosquamous disorders.
wa Mungai N, Wairire GG, Rush E. "The challenge of maintaining Social Work Ethics in Kenya." Journal of Ethics and Social Welfare. 2014;8(2):170-186.
Patrick M, Majok MA. "The challenge of reconciliation in post-conflict Sudan." Journal of Science Technology Education and Management (J-STEM. 2012;3(No.1):195-197.
Grifiths PA, Ogana W. "The challenge of strengthening mathematics in Africa." Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc. 2003;Vol 50(No.9):pp. 1061.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "The Challenges and Future Prospects of Female Entrepreneurial Activities in Kenya.". In: University of Dar-es- Salaam from 23 rd to 24 th October, 1997. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1997. Abstract
  
Scholtz MM;, McManus C;, Mwai O;A, Seixas L;, Louvandini H. "Challenges and opportunities for beef production in developing countries of the southern hemisphere.".; 2010. Abstract

Livestock production faces specific challenges due to a rise in population numbers, urbanization and economic development in the developing world. A substantial increase in demand for meat in these countries will offer larger market opportunities for livestock producers. Developing countries from the southern hemisphere are characterized by a highly dualistic beef cattle sector with communal, subsistence or small scale farmers and large commercial farmers co-existing. Whereas the off-take from the commercial sector is high, the off-take from the other sectors is still low in certain regions. Global warming is expected to have a negative effect on the beef production environments of these countries. By describing production environments it will be possible to identify genotypes that are adapted to the environment. Tools are needed to overlay geo-referenced data sets onto the different environments in order to quantify them. Gene or marker assisted selection may play an important role in selection for disease and parasite resistance or tolerance, since it is difficult to measure these traits directly. Strategies that utilize EBVs derived from genomic analyses (genomic EBVs), together with conventional mixed model methodology, may speed up the process of breeding animals with higher and more efficient production. Research into methane production will also have to be stimulated. Up to 27 more results found for "MWAI O"

"Challenges and Opportunities for Influencing the Media Agenda.". In: Regional Media Experts Meeting. Naivasha, Kenya; 2012.
Gichuki NN, Dennis AU. "Challenges and possibilities of developing ecologically conscious technologies in Africa ." Hekima Review. 2013;(46):148-157.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Challenges and Prospects of Female Entrepreneurship in Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya" in African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development edited by Lettice Kinunda - Rutashoby and Donath Raphael Olemi. Dar.". In: UNE SCO/UNESCO/UNIT WIN CHAIR Workshop , 26 th - 28 th July,2000. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.

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