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Kimani JM, Kiama SG, Philemon K. Towett, Seifert AW. Cutaneous Wound healing in a Long-Living rodent (Heterocephalus Glaber)..; 2015.
ODINDO, M., TURNER, D.A., OTIENO WA, KAAYA GP. "Cuticular lesions: Non-infectious integumental disease of Glossina spp." Insect Science and Its Application . 1981;2:213-217.
Gacheru PK, ABONG' GO, Okoth MW, Lamuka PO, Shibairo SA, Katama CM. "Cyanogenic Content, Aflatoxin Level and Quality of Dried Cassava Chips and Flour Sold in Nairobi and Coastal Regions of Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;3(3):197-206.gacheru_2015_cyanogenic_content_cassava_chips__flour.pdf
Ndolo IJ. "Cyclones: Causes, Risks And Where They Occur." Daily Nation, July 4, 2020.
Li W, Kiulia NM, Mwenda JM, Nyachieo A, Taylor MB, Zhang X, Xiao L. Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and human-pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive baboons in Kenya.. Vol. 49.; 2011. J. Clin. Microbiol. 49(12). Abstract

Cyclospora papionis, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi were detected in 42 (17.9%), 6 (2.6%), and 29 (12.3%) of 235 newly captured baboons in Kenya, respectively. Most C. hominis subtypes and E. bieneusi genotypes found have been detected in humans in the area, suggesting that cross-species transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis is possible.

Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Cyclosporin monitoring in Kenya: External Quality Assurance Performance." Proc XVI ICC. 1996:506.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "Cyrus G. Wagate, James M. Mbaria, Daniel W. Gakuya, Mark O. Nanyingi, P. G. Kareru Anne Njuguna, Nduhiu Gitahi, James K. Macharia, Francis K. Njonge (2009). Screening of some Kenyan Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity. Phytotherapy research: 24:15.". In: Phytothereapy research. E; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACT:  Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G−) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G− and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation.
Acevedo JL, Shah RK, Neville HL, Poole MD. "Cystic hygroma." Medscape Reference [actualizado 22 Jul 2011]. Disponível em: http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/994055-overview. 2009. Abstract
n/a
Githigia, S.M., Willingham AL, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya.". In: I0th International Conference of Associations of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine. Copenhagen, Denmark ; 2001.
Githigia S, A W, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya." The Association of Institutions for Tropical Veterinary Medicine. 2001;(10):92-93. Abstract

There has been a decrease in the prevalence of cysticercosis (T. saginata and T solium) in Kenya since independence in the early 1960s. this has been due to improvement of hygiene, strict meat inspection procedures, public educational nd a ban on free range pig keeping.

The prevalence of C. bovis decreased from 25% in the 1960s to 8.8% in the 1970s and to 1.1% in the early 1990s. the decline has been attributed in addition to the above to the take over of control of meat inspection in the country by the department of veterinary services from the ministry of health in 19;74. The training of meat inspectors was also centralized. Among the provinces , the prevalence has been highest in the Rift Valley which is a net exporter of animals to other provinces and this is where the pastoral communities are found. The infection seems to spread from this province.

Outbreaks of porcine cysticercosis (T.solium) were recorded in the early 1960s mainly among the free range pig farmers in the north western Rift Valley (Tranzoia) Kakamega and Busia. A government ban on free range pig raising in the country after independence and proper hygience led to a sharp devreas in cases of T> Solium.

Githigia SM;, Willingham AL;, Maingi N. "Cysticercosis in Kenya."; 2001.
Oluka MN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Graham SM. "Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;12(10):DOI 10.1186/s12981-015-0052-0. Abstractoluka_et_al_2015.pdf

Background: Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) affect the steady state plasma concentration of nevirapine. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C are common in African populations, but data on their influence on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical response in African women are limited. We investigated the impact of CYP 516G>T and 983T>C on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected Kenyan women.
Methods: Study subjects were 66 HIV-1-seropositive women taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Plasma collected at week 12 was analyzed for nevirapine concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Baseline samples were genotyped for CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load, and genotypic drug resistance in plasma and genital secretions were assessed at baseline and during follow up. We evaluated the effect of each genotype on plasma nevirapine concentration at week 12 and on change in CD4 cell count at months 3, 6 and 12. Associations between plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes were analyzed by logistic or linear regression.
Results: Women with CYP2B6 516TT genotype (n=9) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (14.33 μg/mL) compared to those with heterozygous 516GT (9.18 μg/mL; n=25) and wild- type 516GG (7.95 μg/mL; n=32) genotypes (P=0.01). Women heterozygous for the CYP2B6 983TC genotype (n=13) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (12.94 μg/mL), compared to women with the homozygous 983TT (8.35 μg/mL; n=53) genotype (P=0.007). In Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, plasma nevirapine levels predicted greater change in CD4 cell count after ART initiation (adjusted beta 119.4 cells/μL, 95% CI, 27.3–211.5 cells/μL, P=0.01). The CYP2B6 983TT genotype also predicted greater change in CD4 cell count (adjusted beta 68.6 cells/μL, 95% CI, 3.9–133.4 cells/μL, P=0.04). We found no associations between CYP2B6 genotypes and virologic response or toxicity.
Conclusions: CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients.
Keywords: CYP2B6, Pharmacogenetics, Nevirapine, HIV infection, Antiretroviral therapy, Women

Oluka MN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, McClelland S, Graham SM. "Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;12(10):DOI 10.1186/s12981-015-0052-0. Abstract2015_-_cytochrome_p450_genetic_variants_nevirapine.pdfWebsite

Background: Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) affect the steady state plasma concentration of nevirapine. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C are common in African populations, but data on their influence on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical response in African women are limited. We investigated the impact of CYP 516G>T and 983T>C on plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected Kenyan women.
Methods: Study subjects were 66 HIV-1-seropositive women taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Plasma collected at week 12 was analyzed for nevirapine concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. Baseline samples were genotyped for CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load, and genotypic drug resistance in plasma and genital secretions were assessed at baseline and during follow up. We evaluated the effect of each genotype on plasma nevirapine concentration at week 12 and on change in CD4 cell count at months 3, 6 and 12. Associations between plasma nevirapine concentration and clinical outcomes were analyzed by logistic or linear regression.
Results: Women with CYP2B6 516TT genotype (n=9) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (14.33 μg/mL) compared to those with heterozygous 516GT (9.18 μg/mL; n=25) and wild- type 516GG (7.95 μg/mL; n=32) genotypes (P=0.01). Women heterozygous for the CYP2B6 983TC genotype (n=13) had higher mean nevirapine plasma levels (12.94 μg/mL), compared to women with the homozygous 983TT (8.35 μg/mL; n=53) genotype (P=0.007). In Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, plasma nevirapine levels predicted greater change in CD4 cell count after ART initiation (adjusted beta 119.4 cells/μL, 95% CI, 27.3–211.5 cells/μL, P=0.01). The CYP2B6 983TT genotype also predicted greater change in CD4 cell count (adjusted beta 68.6 cells/μL, 95% CI, 3.9–133.4 cells/μL, P=0.04). We found no associations between CYP2B6 genotypes and virologic response or toxicity.
Conclusions: CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients.
Keywords: CYP2B6, Pharmacogenetics, Nevirapine, HIV infection, Antiretroviral therapy, Women

Waruk JLM, Machuki Z, Mesa C, Juno JA, Anzala O, Sharma M, Ball BT, Julius Oyugi, Kiazyk S. "Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis." Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2015;95(5):555-61. Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infects nearly 2 million people annually and is the most common cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics cater to HIV-uninfected individuals in non-endemic countries, are expensive, slow, and lack sensitivity for those most affected. Patterns of soluble immune markers from Mtb-stimulated immune cells are not well defined in HIV co-infection. We assessed immune differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with active TB utilizing IFNγ-based QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in Nairobi, Kenya. Excess QFT supernatants were used to measure cytokine and chemokine responses by a 17-plex bead array. Mtb/HIV co-infected participants were significantly less likely to be QFT+ (47.2% versus 84.2% in the HIV-uninfected group), and demonstrated lower expression of all cytokines except for IFNα2. Receiver operator characteristic analyses identified IL-1α as a potential marker of co-infection. Among HIV-infected individuals, CD4+ T cell count correlated weakly with the expression of several analytes. Co-expression analysis highlighted differences in immune profiles between the groups. These data suggest that there is a unique and detectable Mtb-specific immune response in co-infection. A better understanding of Mtb immunology can translate into much needed immunodiagnostics with enhanced sensitivity in HIV-infected individuals, facilitating their opportunity to obtain live-saving treatment.

MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA. CYTOKININ-TO-GIBBERELLIN RATIO REGULATES WATER STATUS, ETHYLENE EVOLUTION AND SENESCENCE IN LISIANTHUS FLOWERS VIA NOVEL SIGNALING PATHWAY. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation; 2013.
Maitima M.K.. Ndaguatha P.L.W. MLW. "Cytologic findings in adult patients presenting with haematuria in urology clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Journal of Pathology. 2014;vol.1(1):14-18.
Munene Nkonge K, Rogena EA, Owino Walong E, Karani Nkonge D. "Cytological evaluation of breast lesions in symptomatic patients presenting to Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya: a retrospective study." BMC Women's Health. . 2015;15:1-6. AbstractWebsite

Background: Palpable breast lump, breast pain, and nipple discharge are common symptoms of breast disease. Breast cytology (fine-needle aspiration, nipple discharge smear, and touch preparation) accurately identifies benign, atypical, and malignant pathological changes in breast specimens. This study aims to determine the types of breast lesions diagnosed by breast cytology and assess the clinical adequacy of narrative reporting of breast cytology results.Methods: Medical records of 390 patients presenting to breast or general surgery clinics in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between January 2010 and March 2014 were evaluated retrospectively.Results: Of the 390 diagnosed breast lesions, 89.7% (n = 350) occurred in females, while 10.3% (n = 40) occurred in males, giving rise to a female-to-male ratio of 8.8:1. Neoplastic breast lesions (n = 296) comprised 75.9%, while non-neoplastic breast lesions (n = 94) comprised 24.1% of all diagnosed breast lesions. The neoplastic lesions were classified as 72.3% (n = 214) benign and 27.7% (n = 82) malignant, resulting in a benign-to-malignant ratio of 2.6:1. Fibroadenoma (n = 136) and gynecomastia (n = 33) were the most frequently diagnosed breast lesions for women and men, respectively.Conclusions: Breast cytology effectively diagnosed neoplastic and non-neoplastic breast lesions. Neoplastic breast lesions occurred more frequently in women whereas non-neoplastic lesions occurred more frequently in men. To address the limitations associated with narrative reporting of breast cytology results, a synoptic reporting format incorporating the United Kingdom's National Health Service Breast Screening Programme's diagnostic categories (C1 to C5) is recommended for adoption by this hospital

Ochwang’i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plants of the Kakamega County (Kenya) against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018;215:233-240.
Ochwang'i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plants of the Kakamega County (Kenya) against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018;215:233-240. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.01.004:233-240.
Yenesew A, Gumula I, Erdélyi M, Patrick. A, J Isaiah Omolo Ndiege PS, Omolo, N, Sunnerhagen P. "Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Flemingins G-P from the Leaves of Flemingia grahamiana." Journal of Natural Products . 2014. Abstractpaper_76_ivan_et_al_jnp_2014_77_2060_2067.pdf

The known flemingins A-C (1-3) and nine new chalcones, named flemingins G-O (4-12), along with deoxyhomoflemingin (13) and emodin (14) were isolated from a leaf extract of Flemingia grahamiana. The isolated chalcones were found to have a geranyl substituent modified into a chromene ring possessing a residual chain, as shown by spectroscopic methods. The leaf extract showed an IC50 value of 5.9 μg/mL in a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. The chalcones flemingins A, B, C, G, and H were active in the DPPH radical scavenging assay (ED50 4.4-8.9 μM), while flemingins A and C showed cytotoxicity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (IC50 8.9 and 7.6 μM, respectively).

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. Abstract

Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Efferth T, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxic benzylbenzofuran derivatives from Dorstenia kameruniana." Fitoterapia. 2018;128:26-30. AbstractFitoterapia

Description
Chromatographic separation of the extract of the roots of Dorstenia kameruniana (family Moraceae) led to the isolation of three new benzylbenzofuran derivatives, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)benzofuran-6-ol (1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol (2) and 2-(p-hydroxy)-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzyl)benzofuran-6-ol(3) (named dorsmerunin A, B and C, respectively), along with the known furanocoumarin, bergapten (4). The twigs of Dorstenia kameruniana also produced compounds 1–4 as well as the known chalcone licoagrochalcone A (5). The structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds displayed cytotoxicity against the sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cells, where compounds 4 and 5 had the highest activities (IC50 values of 7.17 μM and 5.16 μM, respectively) against CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Compound 5 …

Fozia AA, Victor K, Armelle MT, Matthias H, Andreas K, Albert N, Beatrice I, Abiy Y, Thomas E. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural Product Research. 2019;33(18): 2609-2617 .
Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Theodor JL, Senelar R. "Cytotoxic interaction between gorgonian explants: mode of action." Cell. Immunol.. 1975;19(2):194-200.
Yenesew A, Sunnerhagen, P., Erdelyi M, Abdissa N, Induli, M., Fitzpatrick P, Alao JP, Landberg G. "Cytotoxic Quinones from the Roots of Aloe dawei." Molecules. 2014;19,:3264-3273. Abstractpaper_69_abdissa_et_al_molecules_2014.pdf

Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells.

16. Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T FKRKKNBAONBMDJPHT. "Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi." J Clin Invest. 1998. Abstract

Abstract
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi [see comments] Rowland-Jones SL; Dong T; Fowke KR; Kimani J; Krausa P; Newell H; Blanchard T; Ariyoshi K; Oyugi J; Ngugi E; Bwayo JJ; MacDonald KS; McMic.". In: J Clin Invest 1998 Nov 1;102(9):1643-4 . Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment.
E.N. PN. "Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.". 1998. Abstract

Cytotoxic T cell responses to multiple conserved HIV epitopes in HIV-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.
S L Rowland-Jones, T Dong, K R Fowke, J Kimani, P Krausa, H Newell, T Blanchard, K Ariyoshi, J Oyugi, E Ngugi, J Bwayo, K S MacDonald, A J McMichael, and F A Plummer
Author information ► Copyright and License information ►
See commentary "What immunity can protect against HIV infection." on page 1643.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract
Many people who remain persistently seronegative despite frequent HIV exposure have HIV-specific immune responses. The study of these may provide information about mechanisms of natural protective immunity to HIV-1. We describe the specificity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HIV in seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi who are apparently resistant to HIV infection. These women have had frequent exposure to a range of African HIV-1 variants, primarily clades A, C, and D, for up to 12 yr without becoming infected. Nearly half of them have CTL directed towards epitopes previously defined for B clade virus, which are largely conserved in the A and D clade sequences. Stronger responses are frequently elicited using the A or D clade version of an epitope to stimulate CTL, suggesting that they were originally primed by exposure to these virus strains. CTL responses have been defined to novel epitopes presented by HLA class I molecules associated with resistance to infection in the cohort, HLA-A*6802 and HLA-B18. Estimates using a modified interferon-gamma Elispot assay indicate a circulating frequency of CTL to individual epitopes of between 1:3,200 and 1:50,000. Thus, HIV-specific immune responses-particularly cross-clade CTL activity- may be responsible for protection against persistent HIV infection in these African women.

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 Naturally occurring Phenolics and Terpenoids from Kenyan Flora towards Human Carcinoma Cells." Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2018;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2018.04.001.kuete_et_al_2018 pdfkuete_et_al_2018 pdf
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of 11 naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …

LK O, O MJ, VM M, R M, V K, T E. "Cytotoxicity of 91 Kenyan indigenous medicinal plants towards human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;179:177-196.omosa_et_al_ethnopharmacology.pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Midiwo MHJO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of Fagaramide Derivative and Canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Species against Multidrug Resistant Leukemia Cells." Natural Products Research. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1587424:1-8.omosa_et_al_2019 pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractView Website

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2021;35(4):579-586. AbstractNatural product research

Description
In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Derese S. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747.
Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Nyaboke HO, Moraa M, Omosa LK, Mbaveng AT, Vaderament-Alexe N-N, Masila V, Okemwa E, Heydenreich M, Efferth T, Kuete V. "Cytotoxicity of Lupeol from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum gilletii against Multi-factorial Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines ." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology . 2018;1(1):10.
Kuete V, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2019;10(3):178-184. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background
Cancer constitutes a major hurdle worldwide and its treatment mainly relies on chemotherapy.
Objectives
The present study was designed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eleven naturally occurring compounds including six phenolics amongst them were 4 chalcones and 2 flavanones as well as 5 terpenoids (3 clerodane and 2 trachylobane diterpenoids) against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts.
Materials and methods
The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspase activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by spectrophotometry.
Results
Chalcones: 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6′-methoxychalcone (1); 4′,6′-dihydroxy-2′,5′-dimethoxychalcone (2); 2′,4 …
Scholar articles
Cytotoxicity of naturally occurring phenolics and terpenoids from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells
V Kuete, LK Omosa, JO Midiwo, O Karaosmanoğlu… - Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2019
Related articles All 3 versions

Kuete V, Omosa LK, Tala VSR, Midiwo JO, Mbaveng AT, Swaleh S, Karaosmanoğlu O, Sivas H. "Cytotoxicity of plumbagin, rapanone and 12 other naturally occurring quinones from Kenyan flora towards human carcinoma cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17(1):60. AbstractFull text link

Background
Cancer is a major public health concern globally and chemotherapy remains the principal mode of the treatment of various malignant diseases.

Methods
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of 14 naturally occurring quinones including; 3 anthraquinones, 1 naphthoquinone and 10 benzoquinones against 6 human carcinoma cell lines and normal CRL2120 fibroblasts. The neutral red uptake (NR) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the compounds, whilst caspase-Glo assay was used to detect caspases activation. Cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were all analyzed via flow cytometry meanwhile levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by spectrophotometry.

Results
Anthraquinone: emodin (2), naphthoquinone: plumbagin (4), and benzoquinones: rapanone (9), 2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentadecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (10), 5-O-methylembelin (11), 1,2,4,5-tetraacetate-3-methyl-6-(14-nonadecenyl)-cyclohexadi-2,5-diene (13), as well as doxorubicin displayed interesting activities with IC50 values below 100 μM in the six tested cancer cell lines. The IC50 values ranged from 37.57 μM (towards breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells) to 99.31 μM (towards small cell lung cancer A549 cells) for 2, from 0.06 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 1.14 μM (A549 cells) for 4, from 2.27 μM (mesothelioma SPC212 cells) to 46.62 μM (colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD-1 cells) for 9, from 8.39 μM (SPC212 cells) to 48.35 μM (hepatocarinoma HepG2 cells) for 10, from 22.57 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 61.28 μM (HepG2 cells) for 11, from 9.25 μM (MCF-7 cells) to 47.53 μM (A549 cells) for 13, and from 0.07 μM (SPC212 cells) to 1.01 μM (A549 cells) for doxorubicin. Compounds 4 and 9 induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells mediated by increased ROS production and MMP loss, respectively.

Conclusion
The tested natural products and mostly 2, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13 are potential cytotoxic compounds that deserve more investigations towards developing novel antiproliferative drugs against human carcinoma.

Keywords

Carcinoma cytotoxicity Mode of action Plumbagin Quinones Rapanone

Victor, L.K O, V.R.S T, J.O M, A.T M, O K, H S, S S. "Cytotoxicity of Plumbagin, Rapanone and 12 other Naturally occurring Quinones towards Human Carcinoma Cells." BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016;17:60.kuete_and_omosa_et_al._2016.pdf
R M, L.K O, J.O M, V M. "Cytotoxicity of principles from Bridelia micrantha.". Forthcoming.

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