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KYALO DN, Nyonje R. Capacity Development for Secondary School Principals in Kenya.. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-349368; 2011.
Muasya MK, et al. "Capacity of Kenyan Health Facilities for Decentralized Dental Training. .". In: 101st FDI Scientific conference. Turkey; 2013.
Wang'ombe JK. Capacity of Non.; 1998. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Wangombe JK, Mwanili D, Mitula P, Mugo M, Nzoya D, Muasya I, Muchunga E. "Capacity of Non-Governmental (NGoK) Providers in Delivery of Health Care in Kenya." Informing and reforming. 1998;7:2-6. Abstract
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MK Muasya, TM Dienya EGWNJNKR. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;98(2):55-59.
Muasya MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

IRAKI WN. "Capacity utilization: The Forgotten Secret in Trading Out Poverty.". In: Makerere Business School. Conference at Makerere University Busiiness School; 2009.
Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Bulimo W, JL S, MC J, RL B, KG V, MM F, IK Y, C L, M Q, DC S, G P, M M, S T, JM M, GC G, K S, LM N, S L, PJ B, PA S, RA K, KL R, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISCBW, CJ W, NN M, JC G, JA P, RV G, RG J, M S, SK S, AB O, N I, MA O, SK M, SW G, WD B, DJ W, B A, JA T, KC E, MR K, GT B, WO R, T K, VA L-T, J G, W B, N W, U T, CF D, JN F, JF A, B F, A H, CA M, WG C, VA M, T G, EA M, M G, ' O, AG L, HS H, L R, A M, E S, R S, W S, TJ P, KH J, M M, B E, D M, D B, F W-M, D S, N W, D B, G M, C K, G H, YM K, ML B, TA K, M M, RJ S, DA N, MJ C, JP M, WE R, J G. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Capillary Electrophoresis Based Methods for the Determination of Lipids A Review." Analytica Chimica Acta . 2008;624:163-174.
Samanta P, Chakravorty D. "Capital Accounts Liberalization in India’.". In: Management Institute, Calcutta.; 1997.
M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "The Capital Asset Pricing Model,.". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB, Issue No.2,. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2001. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Ngugi RW, Maana I, Amanja D, Adam CS, Collier P, Ndung’u N. "Capital market and economic growth in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
O’Connell SA, Maturu BO, Mwega FM, Ndung’u N, Ngugi RW, Adam CS, Collier P. "Capital mobility, monetary policy and exchange rate management in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.
IRAYA MWANGICYRUS, Millicent O, Samuel A. "Capital Structure Adjustment, Speed of Adjustment and Optimal Target Leverage among Firms Quoted on the Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2012;2(9):100-114. Abstract

The literature provides conflicting assessments about how firms choose their capital structures, with the trade off, pecking order and market timing hypothesis all receiving some empirical support. The study’s objectives were to determine whether firms in Kenya have an optimal target leverage, whether an adjustment towards this target takes place and finally to ascertain the speed of adjustment towards this target leverage. Secondary data was collected from the records maintained at NSE. From these records financial statements for 12 years starting from the year 1999 to 2010, were extracted. Out of the 30 firms targeted, only 23 firms met the criteria of having complete data for at least ten years. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics together with a partial regression model. Estimations from the model established that firms in Kenya do have target capital structure. On average however, a typical firm closes about 5.3% of the gap between the current and the desired leverage within one year. At this rate it takes about 10 years to close half of the gap between a typical firm’s current and the desired leverage ratios. The slow adjustment is consistent with the hypothesis that other considerations such as market timing or pecking order outweigh the costs of deviating from the optimal leverage.

Jumba A,(Ed.) IBL. "Capitalizing Art Education: Mapping International Histories – A Commentary.". In: International Handbook of Research in Arts Education. Springer International Handbooks of Education, Vol. 16. Amsterdam: Springer Science ; 2007.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Capture and Sampling of Thompson.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981.
Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Muchiri J. "Capturing Socio-Cultural Diversity and Change through Oral Literature ." The Global South. 2012;5(2 Special Issue):77-92.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Capturing Space. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 82-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mukuwa M, Njeru A, Martin Inyimili. Car Hire and Tracking Management System. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Uninersity of Agriculture and Technology; 2012. Abstract

JABULANI CAR HIRE AND TRACKING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
By Mary Mukuwa, Ambrose Njeru,Martin Inyimili

ABSTRACT
Nowadays, there are online car reservations which give much benefit to user. The existence of this online system can overcome the problem of availability and provide convenience to the user in renting, car yet users still need more convenience system such as helping them in recommending car to be rent based on car specific requirements.
The user selects their preferred car from the car catalogue. Reservation can be done through online and users have to come to the service center to make payment and pick the reserved car. This system is functioned in retrieving, creating, updating and deleting the data or information depends on the security level and allows the organization to search user information from the database based on their identification card number. Besides that, this system may produce reports such as payment receipt, renting information and statistics of car renting by year, month, or week. The finding of this project is the web-based car rental system with recommended car to be rent and the output that will produce the information by following the user requirements. In conclusion, the system may need some enhancement and improvement in the future

Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai CK, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." SpringerPlus. 2013;2:647.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Sinei K, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. "Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity." Springerplus. 2013;2:647. Abstract

We sought to elucidate the protein carbamoylation patterns associated with cyanate neuropathy relative to cyanide poisoning. We hypothesized that under a diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA), the carbamoylation pattern associated with cyanide poisoning is similar to that of cyanate neuropathy. Male rats (6-8 weeks old) were fed a diet with all amino acids (AAA) or 75%-deficiency in SAA and treated with 2.5 mg/kg/body weight (bw) NaCN, or 50 mg/kg/bw NaOCN, or 1 μl/g/bw saline, for up to 6 weeks. Albumin and spinal cord proteins were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Only NaOCN induced motor deficits with significant levels of carbamoylation. At Day 14, we found a diet-treatment interaction effect on albumin carbamoylation (p = 0.07). At Day 28, no effect was attributed to diet (p = 0.71). Mean number of NaCN-carbamoylated sites on albumin was 47.4% higher relative to vehicle (95% CI:16.7-86.4%). Only NaOCN carbamoylated spinal cord proteins, prominently, under SAA-restricted diet. Proteins targets included myelin basic and proteolipid proteins, neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and 2', 3' cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. Under SAA deficiency, chronic but not acute cyanide toxicity may share biomarkers and pathogenetic similarities with cyanate neuropathy. Prevention of carbamoylation may protect against the neuropathic effects of cyanate.

Queenan AM, Bush K. "Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases." Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2007;20:440-458, table of contents. Abstract

Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these beta-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many beta-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D beta-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-beta-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type beta-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-beta-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of beta-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.

Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Mulaa F. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference, College Of Health Sciences, University Of Nairobi.; 2011.
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Mulaa F, Okalebo FA, Oluka M. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". 2011.Website
Osanjo G, Aluvaala E, Wadegu M, Bulimo W, Guantai AN, Mulaa F, Okalebo FA, Oluka M. "Carbohydrate active enzymes (Cazymes) as drug targets and tools for synthesis of medicinal compounds.". 2011. Abstract
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Roger B. Austin, Peter Q. Craufurd, Michael A. Hall, Edmundo Acevedo, da & BSP, Ngugi ECK. "Carbon isotope discrimination as a means of evaluating drought resistance in barley, rice and cowpeas." Bull. Soc. bot. Fr.l37, Actual. bot. 1990;1:21-30.carbon_isotope_discrimination_as_a_means_of_evalua.pdf
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, MARUFU L, KITUYI E, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya." Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542.. 2001. Abstract

Emission ratios (ER) of CO and NO relative to CO2 are reported from real time emission measurements on biofuel fires in Kenya. The experiments were based on available fuels burning in local popular traditional and improved stoves. The mean dCO/dCO2 ratios were 71, 79 and 74 mmol molt-1for firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues, respectively, while the corresponding mean d/NO/d/CO2 ratios for these fuels, in the same order, were 1.8, 2 and 2.2 mmol molt-1, respectively. Whereas stove design characteristics largely influenced the dCO/dCO2 ratios, the fuel nitrogen content was the major factor determining the dCO/dCO2 ratios. The dCO/dCO2 ratio for fuel derived NO is not affected by fire temperature but linearly depend on the fuel nitrogen content. Other important fuel parameters that influenced the observed emission ratio patterns include fuel moisture content, size and volatile matter content in the case of charcoal. In comparison to savanna and forest fires, biofuel fires tend to favour formation of reduced or partially oxidised compounds. It is clear that a change in energy preference up the "energy ladder" leads to a reduction in the CO ER, an important result for emission mitigation policy design.
© 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Etd.
Keywords: Trace gases: Emission ratios; Biofuels; Stoves; Biomass burning

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Carbon Monoxide and nitric oxide from biofuel fires in Kenya.". In: Energy Conversion and Management 42, 1517-1542. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Nyunja J, M. Ntiba, J. Onyari, K. Mavuti, Bouillon S. "Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2009;83(3):265-378 .
Nyunja NJM, Onyari J, Mavuti K, SK, Bouillon S. "Carbon sources supporting a diverse fish community in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Gazi Bay, Kenya)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83 . 2009:333-341 .
McCauley DJ, Dawson TE, Power ME, Finlay JC, Ogada M, Gower DB, Caylor K, WD Nyingi, Githaiga JM, Nyunja J, Joyce FH, Lewison RL. "Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic." Issue: Ecosphere, 6 (4). 2015.
BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "Carboxamide protection of Glutamine and isoasparagine and synthesis of amino acids derivatives as intermediates in peptide synthesis'.". In: PhD Thesis. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Carcinoma of prostrate management Assoc. Of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings.". In: Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1982. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1982. Abstract
No abstract yet
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Carcinoma of the Esophagus - II. An experience in Kenya.". In: The Nairobi Journal of medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
Wasunna AE. "Carcinoma of the oesophagus: alcohol, tobacco and vitamins." East Afr Med J. 1986;63(9):569-70.
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Carcinoma of thyroid at KNH Assoc. of Surgeons of E.A. proceedings Dec. 1978.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Jan;56(1):40-1. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1978. Abstract

No abstract available yet.ABSTRACT.

This a report of thirty patients who presented at Kenyatta National Hospital( KNH),Uinversity Of Nairobi (UON) during the three year period January 1974-December 1976 with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.Fourteen had follicular, eight papiilary,four anaplastic,and four medullary types.
Eight patients had metastatic deposits in lymph nodes,lung,or bone and majority of these were anaplastic.Twenty patients received surgical treatment.Five total thyroidectomy, 12 had subtotal thyroidectomy,3 had hemithyroidectomy and 2 had radioactive iodine treatment without surgery.
Most patients received subtotal thyroidectomy with or without radiotherapy. The anaplastic cancers had the poorest prognosis, all dying within six months of diagnosis.Early diagnosis with frozen section the papillary/follicular possess good prognosis if appropriate surgical treatment of subtotal or hemithyroidectomy is done.

Mayet J, Hughes A. "Cardiac and vascular pathophysiology in hypertension." Heart. 2003;89:1104-1109. AbstractWebsite
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S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "Cardinal Temperatures and Thermal times for vernalization in carrot cv. "Nantes".". In: African Crop Science Journal. NISC Pty Ltd; 1996.
"A cardinal-direction quincunx based interpolation technique with non-uniform inter-plane weighting for bayer {CFA} demosaicking.". In: 2015 {IEEE} International Conference on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems ({SPICES}). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ({IEEE}); 2015. Abstract
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Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO. "Cardiovascular causes of death in an east African country: an autopsy study." Cardiol J. 2011;18(1):67-72. Abstract

The spectrum of cardiovascular diseases varies between countries. Data from east Africa is scarce, but important in formulating disease management strategies. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular causes of death in Kenya.

Ogeng'o JA, Gatonga P, Olabu BO. "Cardiovascular causes of death in an east African country: an autopsy study." Cardiol J. 2011;18(1):67-72. Abstract

The spectrum of cardiovascular diseases varies between countries. Data from east Africa is scarce, but important in formulating disease management strategies. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular causes of death in Kenya.

Ayuo PO, Abinya NA, JOSHI MD, Lore W. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". 1993. Abstractcardiovascular_features_in_adolescents_and_adults_with_sickle_cell_anaemia.pdfWebsite

Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular features in adolescents and adults with sickle cell anaemia.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):270-6. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1993. Abstract
Fifty five sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital were studied with a view to elucidating their cardiovascular status. Their age range was 13 to 27 years (median 18.9 years). They comprised 27 males and 28 females and their mean haemoglobin concentration was 8.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl. Haemoglobin level of 8.0-9.9 g/dl seen in 30 patients was noted to confer the lowest incidence of exertional dyspnoea and palpitation. Similarly, patients with this haemoglobin level had the lowest mean heart rate. The mean blood pressure was 114.9 +/- 9.9 mmHg systolic and 64.6 +/- 10 mmHg diastolic. Blood pressures, ejection fraction (EF) and differential fibre shortening (%D) were found to be directly related to haemoglobin level, whereas cardio-thoracic index (CTI) and left ventricular dimensions were inversely related to haemoglobin level. Mean echocardiographic measurements were within normal limits and left ventricular functions were found to be normal in 80.9% of the patients indicating that the majority of SCA patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital have good cardiac function.
Zanchetti A, Mancia G. "Cardiovascular reflexes and hypertension." Hypertension. 1991;18:III13-21. Abstract

Both arterial baroreceptor reflexes and cardiopulmonary reflexes are modified in human hypertension. The arterial baroreceptor reflex regulation of heart rate, when tested by both vasoactive drug injection and the neck chamber technique, has been shown to be reset and blunted. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of blood pressure, studied by the neck chamber technique, has been found to be reset to more effectively buffer increases in blood pressure than blood pressure falls, but without any loss of overall reflex sensitivity. Cardiopulmonary reflexes, tested by passive leg raising and by application of lower body negative pressure, are also blunted, and their dysfunction involves not only control of peripheral vasoconstriction but also that of renin release. These readjustments of arterial and cardiopulmonary reflexes make buffering of blood pressure falls or of blood volume changes less effective in hypertension. These readjustments appear to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of hypertension. In particular, the blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes is induced more by left ventricular hypertrophy than by hypertension. It is very marked in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and very significantly improves when left ventricular hypertrophy is made to regress by prolonged antihypertensive therapy; significant blunting of cardiopulmonary reflexes has also been found in young athletes with marked left ventricular hypertrophy but normal blood pressure. Whether structural changes in the carotid and aortic wall and possibly in the heart are equally important in the readjustment of arterial baroreceptor reflexes is incompletely clarified at the moment, although there are indications that functional and structural modifications may both be involved.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing coronary angiography. Kamotho C,Ogola E N,Joshi M D,Gikonyo D.". In: East Afr Med J.2004;81:82-86. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors with presence of CAD in black Africans. DESIGN: This was a dual-armed study, consisting of retrospective and prospective comparative arms. SUBJECTS: Black Africans who underwent coronary angiography. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, Cathereterization laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The conventional risk factors: age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcohol use and interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy, as a marker of LVH. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 144 in the retrospective arm and 25 in the prospective. The larger retrospective arm showed that the group with CAD, compared to the normal group, was significantly older, with a higher mean age of 54.4 years compared to 49.8 years (P=0.005); had significantly more males, with a male to female ratio of 5.5:1 compared to 2.3:1 (P=0.045); had a very significantly larger proportion of diabetics (38.5% compared to 12%
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing coronary angiography. Kamotho C,Ogola E N,Joshi M D,Gikonyo D.". In: East Afr Med J.2004;81:82-86. Institute of Health Research & Services; 2004. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the coronary angiogram (CA). OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship of conventional cardiovascular risk factors with presence of CAD in black Africans. DESIGN: This was a dual-armed study, consisting of retrospective and prospective comparative arms. SUBJECTS: Black Africans who underwent coronary angiography. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, Cathereterization laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The conventional risk factors: age, male gender, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alcohol use and interventricular septum (IVS) hypertrophy, as a marker of LVH. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 144 in the retrospective arm and 25 in the prospective. The larger retrospective arm showed that the group with CAD, compared to the normal group, was significantly older, with a higher mean age of 54.4 years compared to 49.8 years (P=0.005); had significantly more males, with a male to female ratio of 5.5:1 compared to 2.3:1 (P=0.045); had a very significantly larger proportion of diabetics (38.5% compared to 12%
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. UN-HABITAT; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in mild to moderate hypertensives seen at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):693-5. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
Jacob Kariuki, Anna Karani SKES-S. "Cardiovascular risk factors among Kenyans." Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2012;27(4):287-291.
G.O.Oyoo, E. N. Ogola, E.N.Amayo. "Cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2014;2(2)(1):1-17. Abstractcardiovascular_risk_factors-1.pdf

Background: Cardiovascular disease is
now acknowledged as a primary cause of
morbidity and mortality in patients with
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).
The risk of developing coronary artery
disease in these patients is four to eight
times higher than that in the normal
population. Prior to this study there was
no data regarding cardiovascular risk in
SLE patients in our setting.
Objective: To determine the prevalence
of selected cardiovascular risk factors
and carotid atherosclerosis in patients
with systemic lupus erythematosus at
Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional
survey carried out in patients with SLE
and age- and sex-matched controls at
the Kenyatta National Hospital. The SLE
patients underwent clinical assessment
of their blood pressure, weight, height,
waist and hip circumferences as well as
laboratory testing to determine their
fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid
pro le. In addition, measurement of
carotid Intima-Media Thickness (IMT)
and assessment for presence of carotid
plaque was done for the lupus patients.
The controls had similar clinical and
laboratory assessment done as for
patients. Carotid ultrasonography was
however not done for controls.
Results: Sixty six SLE patients and 66
healthy controls participated in this
study. Mean age of the patients was
35.9 years, with a female to male ratio
of 21:1 and median duration of illness
of two years. Hypertension prevalence
was 42.4% in the patients and 24.2%
in the controls (p=0.027), dyslipidemia
occurred in 74.2% of the patients and
62.1% of the controls (p=0.135) while
diabetes prevalence was 4.5% in patients
and 1.5% in controls (p=0.619). Obesity
by Body Mass Index (BMI) assessment
was found in 12.1% of patients and
21.2% of the controls (p=0.330) whereas
abdominal obesity (by waist: hip ratio)
occurred in 33.3% of patients and 24.2%
of controls (p=0.249). Mean carotid IMT in
SLE patients was 0.63mm (SD=0.15) with
9 (13.6%) patients having IMT readings
of 0.8mm and above. Carotid plaque was
detected in 15 (22.7%) patients. Carotid
IMT and BMI signi cantly correlated with
disease duration (p values= 0.006 and
0.021 respectively).
Conclusion: There was a high preva-
lence of atherosclerosis and selected
cardiovascular risk factors in this popu-
lation of SLE patients. Hypertension was
signi cantly more common in the lupus
patients than controls. Cardiovascular
risk assessment and appropriate treat-
ment of risk factors identi ed should be
enhanced in patients with SLE.
Key words: Systemic lupus erythemato-
sus, Cardiovascular risk factors, Carotid
intima-media thickness, Carotid

CF Otieno, V Vaghela FWMJKKENO. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):184-190. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them.

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes.

Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment.

Results: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c <7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes.

Conclusion: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S184-S190

Otieno CF, Vaghela V, Mwendwa FW, KAYIMA JK, OGOLA EN. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the outpatient diabetic clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal Vol. . 2005;82(12):S184-S190. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To determine the proportion of specific cardiovascular risk factors in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes and the levels of control achieved in them.

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study over a six month period.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Two hundred and eleven patients with type 2 diabetes.

Main outcome measures: Sociodemographic attributes, duration of diabetes, levels of glycaemia, body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and modes of treatment.

Results: A total of 211 patients were enrolled, 57.3% were females. The mean (SD) age for women was 54.45 (9.44) and that of men was 55.8 (9.02) years. About 77% of the study population were on oral glucose-lowering agents with or without insulin but less than 30% achieved HbA1c <7%; 15% were active cigarette smokers; about 50% were hypertensive with female predominance but 65% of them did not achieve desired blood pressure level inspite of treatment. Just over 50% had raised LDL-cholesterol and over 75% had raised total cholesterol but only three men were on statins without achieving desired targets. Body mass index above 30kg/m2 as a measure obesity was found in 32% of females and 16% males. Most of the study patients admitted use of Aspirin at certain times in the course of their diabetes.

Conclusion: The study showed that specific cardiovascular risk factors of hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity were prevalent although not adequately controlled to targets. Statin use was extremely low in people who already needed them. Regular Aspirin use was infrequent because many patients did not quite understand its role in their diabetes treatment. It is recommended that a more pro-active approach in multifactorial address of cardiovascular risk factors be used in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes to forestall future cardiovascular events.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Kenya: levels of control attained at the Outpatient Diabetic Clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Joshi MD, Amayo EO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jul;83(7):405-6;. East African Medical Journal.; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
Budgell B. "Cardiovascular {Reflexes}." In: Binder MD, Hirokawa N, Windhorst U, eds. Encyclopedia of {Neuroscience}. Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2009:. Abstract
n/a
Owiti E, Awiti M, Mwabu G. "The Care of Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: A Cost - Effectiveness Analysis.". In: XV International AIDS Conference. Bangkok . Medimond, Italy; 2004.
Odero T. "Care of.patients with problems affecting the eyes.". In: Nursing and Midwifery. A Practical Approach. UK: Macmillan Publishers; 2006.odero-nursing_and_midwifery_a_practical_approach.pdf
"CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: AERA Annual Meeting.; 1981.
"CAREER DEVELOPMENT FOR MINORITY AND WOMEN FACULTY.". In: AERA Annual Meeting. Los Angeles, California; 1981.
Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

Munene M, Maina SM. "Caregivers As Aids To People With Visual Mobility Disability In Interior Spaces In Kenya." Creativity and Innovation Journal / Revista Creativitate Şi Inovare. 2019;1(ISSN (print) 2537-5997 /ISSN (online) 2559-4524).
AN S, A K, Benki-Nugent S, Chebet D GL, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, G J-S, Slyker JA, John-Stewart GC. "Caregivers’ report of HIV-associated oral manifestations among HIV-unexposed, exposed, and infected Kenyan children." Int J Paediatr Dent. 2020;2021;00:1-8.(2021;00:1-8.):2021;00:1-8.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Caries experience, oral hygiene status and diet of children with hearing disability in comparision to those without hearing disability.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Njama JM, Ngatia EM, Opinya GN, Gathece LW.; 2011. Abstract

Abstract
AIM:

To evaluate the clinical features and histopathological types of orofacial malignant neoplasms in children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The study involved patients aged 15 years and below diagnosed with malignancy at two main referral hospitals in Kenya during the period from July, 2008 to December, 2008. A questionnaire and clinical examination chart were used to document data. Data analysis was done using SPSS 12.0 programme.
RESULTS:

65 children (44 males, 21 females) with ages ranging from 0.25 to 14 years were evaluated. The main complaints were swelling 61 (94%) and visual disturbance 29 (45%). The mean duration of symptoms was 0.17-36 months. The commonest signs were leucocoria (white reflection from the retina) 23 (35%), proptosis 19 (29%) and loss of vision 15 (23%). The commonest sites were orbit 30 (46%) and maxilla 11 (17%). Most neoplasms were retinoblastoma 26 (40%), followed by 14 (21%) cases of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and occurred in patients under 5 years of age (40 cases) followed by 19 cases in children aged 5-10 years.
CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, malignancies were more common in males than females with most having been diagnosed in children aged less than 10 years. Retinoblastoma and BL were the most common neoplasms.

KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Carine Dortua,b, Amenan A. Yaoa, Cristina Pintoc, Vinodh A. Edwardc, Melanie Kostinekd, Charles M.A.P. Franzd, Willhelm Holzapfeld, Moutairou Egounletye, Samuel Mbuguaf, Moses Mengug, Philippe Thonarta, b 2008; Use of Lactobacillus strains to start cassav.". In: International J of Food Microbiology vol 128: (2) 258 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2008. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
D M, A L. "Caring for children with acute, treatable and preventable medical conditions ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4 (1):33-37.
Geere JL, Gona J, Omondi FO, Kifalu MK, Newton CR, Hartley S. "Caring for children with physical disability in Kenya: potential links between caregiving and carers' physical health.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The health of a carer is a key factor which can affect the well-being of the child with disabilities for whom they care. In low-income countries, many carers of children with disabilities contend with poverty, limited public services and lack assistive devices. In these situations caregiving may require more physical work than in high-income countries and so carry greater risk of physical injury or health problems. There is some evidence that poverty and limited access to health care and equipment may affect the physical health of those who care for children with disabilities. This study seeks to understand this relationship more clearly. Methods  A mixed methods study design was used to identify the potential physical health effects of caring for a child with moderate-severe motor impairments in Kilifi, Kenya. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed and triangulated with data collected during structured physiotherapy assessment. Results  Carers commonly reported chronic spinal pain of moderate to severe intensity, which affected essential activities. However, carers differed in how they perceived their physical health to be affected by caregiving, also reporting positive benefits or denying detrimental effects. Carers focussed on support in two key areas; the provision of simple equipment and support for their children to physically access and attend school. Conclusions  Carers of children with moderate-severe motor impairments live with their own physical health challenges. While routine assessments lead to diagnosis of simple musculoskeletal pain syndromes, the overall health status and situation of carers may be more complex. As a consequence, the role of rehabilitation therapists may need to be expanded to effectively evaluate and support carers' health needs. The provision of equipment to improve their child's mobility, respite care or transport to enable school attendance is likely to be helpful to carers and children alike.

Tonya Renee Thurman, Jarabi B, Rice J. "Caring for the caregiver: evaluation of support groups for guardians of orphans and vulnerable children in Kenya, AIDS Care." Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.644229. 2012.
CHARLES DROWUOROLUNGAH. "Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.". In: Reveu de Psychosomatique, Paris 1992. European Psychiatric Journal; 2000. Abstract
Caring for the Un-born: Antenatal Care in a Socio-cultural context.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri, C.K. and Schwartz, H.J., 1988. A comparison of goat mortality in two pastoral herds in northern Kenya. In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Soci.". In: In: P. Singh, V. Shankar and A.K. Srivastava (Eds), Abstracts of the 3rd International Rangeland Congress, Range Management Society of India, Jhansi, pp. 440-. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1988. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri,C.K. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. A comparison of goat mortality of two herds at Rendille and Isiolo.". In: Proceedings of the KVA/ SR-CRSP Kenya workshop, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Carles, A.B., Gachuiri,C.K. and Schwartz, H.J. 1987. Mortality levels and causes in a herd of Small East African goats on a semi-arid thornbush savannah.". In: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on goats, Brasilia, Brazil. International Goat Association. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1987. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Carol J., D. Byarughaba, P. Mbuthia, G. Aning, S. Sourou, D.A. Bunn and P.L. Msoffe. 2010. Detection and Prevention of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Communities with High Poultry Disease Burdens. Avian Diseases 54 (S): 754 - 756.". In: Avian Diseases. Avian Diseases; 2010. Abstract
bstract Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Postmortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH, A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Carolyne G O Wasonga, Sheila A. Okoth, Joseph C Mukuria and Charles O.A. Omwandho MUSHROOM POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACTS DELAY PROGRESSION OF CARCINOGENESIS IN MICE.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS).; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting

Mibei EK, Ambuko J, Giovannoni JJ, Onyango AN, Owino WO. "Carotenoid profiling of the leaves of selected African eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress." Food Science & Nutrition. 2017;5:113-122. Abstract
n/a
Skilton MR, Sullivan TR, Ayer JG, Harmer JA, Toelle BG, Webb K, Marks GB, Celermajer DS. "Carotid extra-medial thickness in childhood: early life effects on the arterial adventitia." Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:478-482. Abstract

{OBJECTIVE: Structural modification of the arterial adventitia may be an early event in atherosclerosis. Carotid extra-medial thickness is a new measure of arterial adventitial thickness. We examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors with extra-medial thickness, in childhood. METHODS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in 389 non-diabetic children aged 8-years. A non-fasting blood sample was collected from 314 participants. Associations of gender, age, lipoproteins, blood pressure, BMI z-score, waist:height ratio and parental history of early vascular disease, with extra-medial thickness were examined. RESULTS: Carotid extra-medial thickness was lower in girls (r=-.163

Skilton MR, Boussel L, Bonnet F, Bernard S, Douek PC, Moulin P, Serusclat A. "Carotid intima–media and adventitial thickening: {Comparison} of new and established ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques." Atherosclerosis. 2011;215:405-410. AbstractWebsite

Objective Carotid intima–media thickness is a well established non-invasive surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease, however there is evidence that structural modification of the arterial adventitia also accompanies cardiovascular risk factors and might be involved causally in atherosclerosis. We sought to determine the relative contributions of the intima–media and adventitia to variation in ultrasound and magnetic resonance derived measures of carotid wall thickness. Methods Carotid ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were undertaken in 20 participants. Carotid intima–media thickness, carotid extra–media thickness (which incorporates the arterial adventitia) and total wall thickness (a combined near-wall intima–media thickness and carotid extra–media thickness) using high-resolution ultrasound, and wall thickness using magnetic resonance imaging, were obtained. Results All ultrasound-derived measures of the arterial wall thickness were highly correlated with wall thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (all P{\textless}0.001); as expected the total wall thickness by ultrasound measure was most tightly correlated (correlation coefficient=0.814, P{\textless}0.0001). In multivariable models, there was evidence that both carotid intima–media thickness and carotid extra–media thickness contributed independently to the variance in wall thickness by magnetic resonance imaging, especially for the most severe focal thickening. Measures of carotid wall thickness that incorporated all three layers of the arterial wall were more closely correlated with the number of cardiovascular risk factors than carotid intima–media thickness alone. Conclusions These results indicate that the arterial adventitia is an important contributor to the wall thickness measure derived by magnetic resonance imaging, and that carotid extra–media thickness likely provides additional information concerning arterial structure than that obtained from carotid intima–media thickness alone.

Nyangweso DO, Tabitha M. Njoroge, Siriba DN. "Cartographic Generalization in Multi-scale Environment: Case study of Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2016;5(9):804-811.
Gor SO. "The Case for a Policy Framework to Support Productivity Mainstreaming into the Kenyan Economy .". 2012. AbstractWebsite

This study investigates the probable causes of the very low levels of productivity consciousness in both the public and private sectors of the Kenyan economy. It identifies impediments to the realization of a complete and functional productivity mainstreaming into the economy including; lack of integration of productivity into the country’s education and training programmes, weak broad based productivity driven research and development, poor productivity infrastructure and weak productivity governance among others. Consequently we propose possible interventions which we argue do constitute the basic building blocks for a productivity policy framework. In conclusion we argue that success of the proposed interventions depend on the commitment of all stakeholders to effective co-ordination of actions and interventions and to implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

and Oduori F M MMDMTM. "Case for Agricultural and a Homegrown Agricultural Machinery Industry in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Biennial Conference. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute- Nairobi-Kenya; 2006.
AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "A Case for Inheritance. In More Modern African Stories. Charles R. Larson (editor). Fontana Books, Great Britain.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Moturi CA, Mburu R, Ngaruiya N. "A Case for Judicial Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Kenya." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):7-14. AbstractWebsite

This aim of this study was to demonstrate how the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process can be utilized to assist the Kenyan Judiciary address challenges of data integration in its operational systems and hence provide better mechanisms for extracting data to allow easier reporting and generating judicial intelligence. The research determined the common data sources and operational systems, demonstrated, using case returns data, how the ETL process can be used to migrate data from sources to a data warehouse, proposed a framework for an ETL environment, and developed guidelines for creating a data warehouse for the Kenya Judiciary. This is in line with the Kenya Judiciary Transformation Framework that seeks to harness Information and Communications Technology as an enabler in the justice system in order to achieve expeditious delivery of justice. The practical implication of this work is the better preparation of judiciaries with limited adoption and utilization of ICT in laying the groundwork for judicial knowledge discovery.

Ndegwa W. "Case for Pre-Trials in Criminal Procedure in Kenya.". In: Liverpool Law Society Journal .; 2009.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A Case for the Harmonization of Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere Phonology and Orthography.". In: The Harmonization and Standardization of Kenyan Languages: Orthography and Other Aspects. Cape Town: CASAS; 2012. Abstract

Kikuyu, Kiembu and Kimbeere are Bantu languages spoken in the Southern Mount Kenya region. Although they are classified as different languages, they are mutually intelligible. However, these languages have minor structural differences at the phonological and morphological levels but these do not imply the existence of different languages. This chapter will focus primarily on phonological differences and similarities and from this analysis build a case for the harmonization of the sound systems of the three codes. Kikuyu is the largest of the three codes, with at least five linguistically discernable dialects, namely Kindia, Gigichugu, Kimathira, the Southern and Northern dialects. This chapter proposes the establishment of harmonization of the codes at the sound level and a harmonized phoneme matrix for the three codes. In order to do this, it will be necessary to explore the various phonemes evident in each of them. The thesis of this chapter is that the three codes emanate from a single proto-language and that the phonological differences that are apparent are due to sound changes. Consequently, the various sounds differentiating words are not very different in terms of articulation.

Abungu NO, Munda JL, Akumu AO. "A Case for the Revision of Power Engineering Syllabi at Kenyan Universities.". In: The IASTED( International Association of Science and Technology for Development ) International Conference, ENERGY AND POWER SYSTEMS. International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED; 2005. Abstract

This paper presents a summary of the current status of Electrical Power Engineering Education at Kenyan universities, followed by a summary of the situation on the same at universities world-wide. Against a backdrop of expected changes in the Kenyan power industry, the paper discusses the industry expectations of a power systems graduate currently and in the future, making a case for the revision of the current power engineering syllabi, concluding with recommendations and strategies for making the required changes.

Prisca J. "Case marking in Tugen." Nilo-Saharan-Models & Descriptions. 2015;28:37-47.
Dechant W, Pamba HO, Awan AM. "A case of internal ophthalmomyiasis in Kenya (author's transl).". 1981. AbstractWebsite

An unusual case of ophthalmomyiasis is reported, in which two living fly larvae were observed inside the patient's eye. One larva was removed from the anterior chamber by paracentesis; the other was destroyed on the retina by photocoagulation. The mode of infestation, clinical picture and treatment are discussed in brief.

C BL, Njagi L W. "A case of Newcastle disease in parrots in Nairobi, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and production in Africa. 2007;55:292-295. Abstractabstract-_nd_in_parrots-2007.pdf

Bull.Anim.Hlth.Prod.Afr.,(2007),55,292-295

GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "A case of Newcastle disease in parrots in Nairobi, Kenya. Bebora, L.C., Thaiyah, A.G., Mbuthia, P.G., Njagi, L.W., Ngatia, T.A. and Nyaga, P.N. (2007).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 55:292-295. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr; 2007. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

Maribei JM;, Njoroge EM;, Njiro SM. "A case of ovine lymphosarcoma in Kenya.".; 1998. Abstract

Ovine lymphosarcoma was diagnosed clinically in a 5-year-old Blackhead sheep in Kenya, and confirmed on blood smear, leukocyte count and macroscopic pathology. Four progeny of the ewe were examined. They were normal haematologically but 2 revealed bilaterally enlarged lymph nodes.

Zuriel D, Fink-Puches R, Cerroni L. "A case of primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/t-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with a 22-year indolent clinical course.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare type of cytotoxic lymphoma involving mainly the upper aerodigestive tract and associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The disease has usually a poor prognosis related to several factors. The skin is the second most common affected organ, and cases may be localized to the skin only without any other extracutaneous manifestations. Although primary cutaneous cases may have a better prognosis, survival usually is still poor. We report a case of primary cutaneous extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in a 77-year-old woman with an indolent course for more than 22 years and still limited to the skin.

Nyenze E, Muchai M IBDM. "A CASE OF RETROBULBAR HAEMORRHAGE IN A NEWLY DIAGNOSED CASE OF HAEMOPHILIA." Journal of ophthalmology. 2013;17(2):77-80. Abstract

Abstract.
Haemophilia is a congenital disorder of coagulation. It presents with numerous and varied systemic manifestations depending on the severity of coagulation factor deficiency. There are also ocular manifestations ranging from simple subconjunctival haemorrhage to more debilitating complications like retinal, vitreous and retrobulbar haemorrhage which are potentially blinding.
We present this case due to the unique presentation of haemophilia for the first time to a medical institution with ocular manifestations that progressed to complicate with eventual loss of vision in the affected eye.

RUKWARO DRROBERT. "The Case of the Maasai of Kenya.". In: The Habitat International Journal: 25 (2001) pp81-97. VLIR; 2001.
"A Case of Trichoepithelioma in a Cow." Kenya Veterinarian. 2010; 34(1).
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1(4):232-234.kimeli_et_al_2014_tryps.pdf
Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, MANDE JOHNDEMESI. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1:232-234. Abstract
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Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, MANDE JOHNDEMESI. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1:232-234. Abstract
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Kimeli P, Kipyegon AN, Mwangi WE, Mande JD. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2014;1(4):232-234.
P K, AN K, WE M, JD M. "A case of Trypanosoma congolense savannah type infection and its management in a dog." J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., . 2014;1(4):232-234.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "A Case of Voice Poverty? Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight Against Poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Qureshi ZP. Case Records and Commentaries.; Submitted.
Odula CA. Case records and commmentaries in Obstetrics and Gynaecology.; 2003. Abstract

Objective of the Study: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of Osteoporosis and osteopenia in three different racial groups of women over 40 years of age, attending the Aga Khan Hospital Nairobi outpatient clinics.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional clinical study involving a sample of 170 outpatient clinic attendants. Measurements of BMD were done using 10 QCT bone densitometry in the radiology department. This was complemented by a self-administered questionnaire to capture the associated variables.
Result: The quantitative analysis in the comparative results of Bone Mineral Densitometry among the three study groups indicated a significant difference in the levels of Bone Mineral Density, osteoporosis and osteopenia. Based on three levels of measurement of Low, Medium and high the study confirmed that the mean values of the measurements of osteoporosis and osteopenia amongst the African woman were found to be the lowest, followed by the Asian woman and highest amongst the Caucasians. These findings influenced the mean values of the BMD in the sample, which were found to be highest amongst the African, followed by the Asian and Lowest in the Caucasian woman.
TIle findings indicate that the BMD in the African woman seemed to be better despite the presence of the known influencing factors. The critica I varia bles that influence BMD studied included; parity, nutrition and dietary habits, physical activity, use of alcohol or tobacco. Other variables observed and documented in the study included the commonest menopausal signs and symptoms.
Conclusion: This study brings a significant difference amongst the three racial groups studied. There exists variations in the known factors influencing bone density in women and this observation needs further in-depth research.

Genga. E. K, Otieno. C.F. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;Vol 1(2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies
HIV- human immunodeficiency virus

Genga EK, Otieno CF. "Case report of patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with gangrene and Diabetes." European International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;1 (2):74-84. Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-secreting tumour that may precipitate life-threatening hypertension. The tumour is malignant in 10% of cases but may be cured completely by surgical removal. Because of excessive catecholamine secretion, pheochromocytomas may precipitate life-threatening hypertension or cardiac arrhythmias. If the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is overlooked, the consequences can be disastrous, even fatal; the diagnosis can be established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection. The most common clinical sign of pheochromocytoma is sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, and the most common symptoms are headache, excessive truncal sweating, and palpitation. In some cases, the clinical symptoms are not clear. Roughly 70% of adrenal incidentalomas are non-functional. A small group of 5–7% of the functional ones (30%) may exist as pheochromocytoma. Ten percent of pheochromocytoma cases are diagnosed incidentally during computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screenings for other reasons.
CASE PRESENTATION: 21 year old female patient who was referred to Kenyatta National Hospital with diagnosis of gangrene in a young lady newly diagnosed with diabetes in a known hypertensive for three years. The gangrene was of a duration of two weeks. She was diagnosed with diabetes during work up for the cause of the gangrene. Investigations revealed a 24 hour-urine norepinephrine levels of 5085nmol, Normetanephrines excretion of 45213nmol over 24hoursShe tested negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C surface antigens, VDRL, ANA, C-Anca and P-Anca. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal sized kidneys with a suprarenal mass (80 *63) mm with ectopic right kidney in pelvis, ECG a sinus tachycardia, Echo cardiogram reported as normal with an LVEF of 54%. Arteriogram had a vaso- occlusive disorder at the digital femoral artery and CT abdomen showing a supra renal mass (8x6x5) cm border of head and body of pancreas displacing the right kidney inferiorly. The patient underwent an amputation of the limb and adrenelectomy. Following the surgery the blood pressure and the glucose has normalised and currently is of medication
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of hypertension in a young patient should involve looking for secondary causes of the disease. A young hypertensive patient presenting with a triad of headaches, palpitations, and sweating was then investigated for pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma can present and occur as an emergency ranging from pheochromocytoma-related multisystem failure, cardiovascular emergencies, pulmonary emergencies, abdominal emergencies, neurologic emergencies, renal emergencies, and metabolic emergencies. This presentations are associated with a high morbidity and mortality if pheochromocytoma is unsuspected. This presentation was unique because it was none of the expected emergencies but a rapidly evolving asymmetrical gangrene of the right foot.
Key words: pheochromocytoma, gangrene
Abbreviations: ANA- Antinuclear antibody
C-Anca- Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
P-Anca- Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Case report of pyogenic thyroiditis at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Jan;56(1):40-1. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1979. Abstract
No abstract available yet.
Ogutu O, J A, POR O, N N, Rogena E. "Case report of spontaneous rapture of the ceacum following ceasarean section." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
M. GM, S.A. M. "A Case Report On Glaucoma In Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis In A 4 Year Old African Girl." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. 2013. Abstract

Introduction: The phakomatosis syndromes are a group of neural crest disorders that bear many features in common. They include Sturge-Weber Syndrome, Naevus of Ota, Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome. They have numerous ocular manifestations in common, some of which are described in this case. Glaucoma is one of these manifestations and has peculiar characteristics when seen in association with phakomatosis syndromes.

Ogeng’o J, Ouko I, Wambui A, Amuti T. "A case Report on unusual elongation of the Sustentaculum tali." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2020;9(1):1678-1680.
Okemwa PM, Odhiambo M. "Case studies in Neuroradiopathological Conference Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: Case studies in Neuroradiopathological Conference. Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Onyango N. O., Achia T. RJ. "Case Study 2: Identification of Elite Ankole Cattle in a Herd Monitoring Study in Uganda.". In: Biometrics and Research Methods Teaching Resource Version 1. Nairobi: ILRI; 2007.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, and J.M. OMW. "A Case Study Analysis on the Effectiveness of Mathematical Modeling ." in Operational Research/Management Science Problems". In Kenya Mathematical Society . 1993. AbstractWebsite

Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairoi, Kenya.

and Rukwaro DROOPR. "A Case Study of Architecture, Design and Development (ADD) Building in the University of Nairobi ." LOCAL PAPERS. 2015;Volume 9,(Number 9, August 2015).
WAMBUI JANE. "A Case Study of Capital Markets Authority." Project Paper for Winrock International; 1997. Abstract
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OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "A case study of the External Degree Programme.". In: I.E.C. Seminar, 29th September to 2nd October, 1991 . Thought and Practice; 1991. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "A Case Study of the External Degree Programme of the University of Nairobi published in Manual on use and Integration of Media in Distance Education Training Toolkit by Commonwealth of Learning.". In: Manual on use and Integration of Media in Distance Education Training Toolkit by Commonwealth of Learning. Thought and Practice; 1997. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Buruchara R;, Otsyula R;, Opiyo F;, Musoni A;, Kantengwa S;, Nderitu J;, Nekesa P;, Wortman C. "A case study on developing and disseminating Integrated Pest Management technologies for bean root rots in Eastern and Central Africa.".; 2000.
"Case Study on Theological Education and Africa Inland Church.". In: Handbook of Theological Education in Africa. London: Regnum Books International; 2013.
Musyoka W. A Casebook on the Law of Succession,. Nairobi: LavvAfrica Publishing (K) Limited,; 2010.
Sobry A, Kizito W, Van den Bergh R, Tayler-Smith K, Isaakidis P, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, Vandenbulcke A, Ndegwa Z, Reid T. "Caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus in a primary health care programme in an informal setting." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(1):47-57. Abstractcaseload_management_and_treatment_outcomes_of_patients_with_hypertension_andor_diabetes_mellitus_in_a_primary_health_care_programme_in_an_informal_setting_.pdf

In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYMPHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE DOSE OF INFECTION AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
Kuria JKN, Wahome RG, Kang'ethe EK. "Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response." Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 1998;68:601-604.
Kuria JKN, Mbuthia PG, Kang'ethe EK, Wahome RG. "Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: The pathogenesis, Incubation Period and Serological Response after Experimental Infection." Veterinary Research communications. 2001;25:89-97.
Kuria JKN, Ngatia TA. "Caseous Lymphadenitis of sheep and goats in Kenya." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 1990;38:15-18.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYPMHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE PTHOGENESIS,INCUBATION PERIOD AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE AFTER EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Twenty goats in two groups of 10 were injected intradermally, with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The doses of infection were 1x105 and 5x104 colony forming units for groups 1 and 2 respectively. Thereafter, a goat from each group was killed every 2-3 days and examined for gross and microscopic caseous lesions in the draining lymph nodes. Bands or zones of macrophages and polymorphonuclear granulocytes were observed on the second day of infection in both groups. Gross caseous lesions were observed from day 8 and 9 of infection respectively. Positive bacterial agglutination test and haemolysin inhibition test titres were detected after 15-17days and 20 -25 days of infection respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis is a subacute disease with an incubation period of 8-9 days but it is not detectable serologically until after 15 days of infection.
DN K, TA N, JK W, C BL. "Cases of poisoning encountered naturally in smallholder farms in Nairobi and its environs." Kenya Veterinarian. 2011;36:55-63.
"Cases Studies.". 2002.
K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Cash management, communication and conflict resolution.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1994. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
Michelson H, Lentz EC, Mulwa, M R, Morey M, Cramer L, McGlinchy M, Barrett CB. "Cash, food, or vouchers? An application of the Market Information and Food Insecurity Response Analysis Framework (MIFIRA) in urban and rural Kenya." Food Security. 2012;4:455-469.
PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Powdery Mildew Disease epidemic in Kenya.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology Vol. 1: 8 - 13. Taylor & Francis; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

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