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Polkovnikova-Wamoto A, M M, Vander Stoep A, Kumar M. "Haven of safety’ and ‘secure base’: a qualitative inquiry into factors affecting child attachment security in Nairobi, Kenya, ." Journal of Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care.. 2016;11(4).
Pokhariyal GP. Pokhariyal.; 2013.
POKHARIYAL P, MUTURI NE, J. M. KHALAGAI G. " SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES." International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2018;9(( 1),2018, ):65-68. Abstract SPLITTING AND ADMISSIBLE TOPOLOGIES DEFINED ON THE SET OF CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS BETWEEN BITOPOLOGICAL SPACES

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

Pokhariyal GP. "Modeling influence of business excellence parameters on sustainable high performance of organizations." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):134-139. AbstractWebsite

Organizations aspire to have sustainable high performance in order to have competitive advantage in the
market. Business excellence models provide frameworks to be applied by organizations in order to
develop thoughts, so that adequate actions be taken in a systematic and structured way to accomplish
sustainable high financial as well as non-financial performance. Various business excellence models
proposed by organizations as well as researchers are discussed. In this paper a mathematical model is
proposed in which independent variables are: top management team characteristic, mission vision and
core values, technology and innovation, and customer focus. Motivation and culture are moderating
variables. Government policies and global economy are intervening variables. The financial and nonfinancial performance, are dependent variables. The proposed model would yield corresponding
regression equations, representing stated hypotheses to be tested for the collected data from the field for
the chosen business organization. Further correlation coefficient can also be computed to check the
relationship between variables. From the estimated regression equations, through various tests, the
elasticity of the coefficients of model parameters and their statistical significance can be investigated.
Adequate recommendations can then be made to achieve the sustainable high performance for the
selected organization.

Pokhariyal GP;, Mahasi J. "Two Stage Interest Rate Pass Through In Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Interest rate volatility is a major concern for emerging economies due to its crippling effects on the economy. There is wide ranging disconsensus on the effectiveness and speed of various tools. This paper proposes timely monetary policy mediation to curb interest rate volatility through the determination of the total time taken for the effects of monetary policy instruments to transmit to via the interest rate channel to market rates. A change in the Central Bank Rate (CBR) will trigger a corresponding change in intermediate variables (Treasury bill (Tbill), Repurchase agreement (REPO) and Interbank rates) in the first stage of transmission. The second stage measures the transmission from the intermediate variables to market rates. The study uses an Auto Distributed Lag (ADL) specification parameterized as an Error Correction Model (ECM) with primary data coming from Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). The results indicate it takes 7 days for monetary policy adduced shocks to transmit from CBR to REPO, 3 months from CBR to T-bill and 12 months from CBR to interbank for the l" stage. At the second stage it takes 3 months for the adduced shocks to transmit from interbank to market rates and 10 months from T-bill to market rates. The paper proposes that CBK considers alternative monetary policy transmission channels as well as adopting a hybrid approach to monetary policy control. The study is the first to measure the complete two stage interest rate pass-through in Kenya and will contribute the scarce but steadily growing pool of literature on the subject in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa. The study will aid economists in determining the appropriateness ofthe interest rate channel based on its speed

Pokhariyal GP, Moturi CA, Hasssanali J. "Simulation Model for Dental Arch Shapes in Humans.". In: East African Medical Journal, November 2004, pp 599 . African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2004. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Pokhariya GP, Kikechi CB, Simwa RO. "On Local Linear Regression Estimation of Finite Population Totals in Model Based Surveys." American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 2018;7((3)):92-101 . Abstracthttp://thescipub.com/journals/ajas

In this paper, nonparametric regression is employed which provides an estimation of unknown finite population
totals. A robust estimator of finite population totals in model based inference is constructed using the procedure of local linear
regression. In particular, robustness properties of the proposed estimator are derived and a brief comparison between the
performances of the derived estimator and some existing estimators is made in terms of bias, MSE and relative efficiency.
Results indicate that the local linear regression estimator is more efficient and performing better than the Horvitz-Thompson
and Dorfman estimators, regardless of whether the model is specified or mispecified. The local linear regression estimator also
outperforms the linear regression estimator in all the populations except when the population is linear. The confidence
intervals generated by the model based local linear regression method are much tighter than those generated by the design
based Horvitz-Thompson method. Generally the model based approach outperforms the design based approach regardless of
whether the underlying model is correctly specified or not but that effect decreases as the model variance increases.
Keywords: Nonparametric Regression, Finite Population Totals, Local Linear Regression, Robustness Properties,
Confidence Intervals, Model Based Surveys

Pogodina VV. "Elizaveta Nilolaevna Levkovich-75th birthday." Acta Virol.. 1975;19(6):509.
PO M, J A, RB N. "Is there a Link between Supply Chain Strategies and Firm Performance? Evidence from Large-Scale Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Journal of Operations and Supply Chain Management. 2015;8(2):1-22.
PO O, Gathumbi P K, DN K, C BL, JD M, and others. "Survey of Health Status of Domestic Rabbits in Selected Organized Farms in Kenya." International Journal of veterinary Science. 2015;4(1):15-22.
PN Katiku, Gachuiri CK, Mbugua PN. "The Bio-economics Of S Tall Managed Dairy Cattle Feeding Regimes In Mbeere District Of Estern Kenya." University of Nairobi Animal Production . 2013.
PN R, GO O, O AE, L A, J K. "Assessment of Guideline Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing for Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia at The Kenyatta National Hospital Medical Wards." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2022;5(1):34-42. Abstractassessment_of_guideline_concordant_antibiotic_prescribing.pdf

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity
and mortality globally. Despite the proven benefits of
guideline concordant antibiotic prescribing, research
has shown that adherence to clinical guideline
recommendations is dismal.
Objectives: The study aims to determine utilization of
Kenyatta National Hospital antibiotic guideline titled
‘The KNH guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018’ in the management of community acquired
pneumonia in the Kenyatta National Hospital medical
wards and the perceived barriers towards the utilization
of this guideline.
Materials and methods: A check list derived from the
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) guide to empiric
antimicrobial therapy 2018 was used to assess guideline
concordance based on seven quality indicators:
empiric antibiotic, dose and route of administration,
switch to oral antibiotics, duration of antibiotics (at
least 5 days), collection of microbiological samples
before initiating antibiotics, review of antibiotics at 48
hours and once the culture results are out. Online selfadministered questionnaires were used to determine
attitude and perceived barriers towards utilization
of the KNH guideline among the Internal Medicine
registrars and medical officers.
Analysis: Descriptive statistics were applied in
the representation of each of the seven quality
indicators. These were then compared with the
guideline recommendations and adherence to the
guideline for each parameter was expressed as a
percentage of the total number of patients admitted
with community acquired pneumonia. These were
then graded into the following categories based on the
level of concordance: Good >90%, Intermediate 60-
90%, poor <60%. Questions on the attitude and the
perceived barriers towards KNH guideline utilization
were answered using a 5 point Likert scale. Perceived
barrier statements that were positively formulated
were then recorded so that a lower score meant a
lower level of the perceived barriers and vice versa.
Percentages were then calculated for the total number
of doctors that agreed or strongly agreed that the
barrier was applicable. An open ended question on the
top three barriers to the KNH guideline utilization was
also included in the questionnaire.
Results: For each of the other quality indicators,
adherence to the KNH guideline for patients with
community acquired pneumonia was as follows:
empiric antibiotic choice 48%, collection of samples
for culture prior to antibiotic administration 0%, review
of antibiotics at 48 hours 26.4%, review of antibiotics
with culture results 45.8%, total duration of antibiotics
28.8% and time to switch to oral antibiotics 3.6%. The
top three barriers towards guideline utilization among
the doctors were: unavailability of drugs (52.7%),
inaccessibility of the KNH guideline (45.1%) and lack
of or delay of investigations (34.1%).
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the level
of adherence to the seven quality indicators from the
KNH guide is poor with the overall adherence being
35.5%. The recommendation least adhered to was
collection of microbiological samples before initiation
of empiric antibiotics. The most commonly identified
barriers to utilization of the guideline were external
and guideline related barriers.
Key words: Guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018, Guideline Concordance antibiotic prescribing,
Community acquired pneumonia

PN N, LW I, SK M. "Effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. brevipalpis." Medical and veterinary entomology. 1992;6(2):127-130. AbstractPubMed link

Puparia of Glossina morsitans centralis (Machado), G.fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) and G.brevipalpis (Newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees C, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees C throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. Puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees C (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis. Adults of G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C, and those of this subspecies, G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night or 25 degrees C throughout, were infected as tenerals (27 h old) by feeding them at the same time on goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden) IL 1180 after the parasites were detected in the wet blood film. Infection rates on day 25 post-infected feed were higher in G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C and in adults of the three different tsetse species from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night, than in those from puparia incubated at 25 degrees C. However, in G.f.fuscipes the labral and hypopharyngeal infection rates were not significantly different from those of the tsetse produced by puparia kept at 25 degrees C.

PMN K, PO L, Wangoh J. "Effect of Lactoperoxidase-Thiocyanate-Hydrogen Peroxide System and Storage Temperature on Keeping Quality of Raw Camel Milk." . African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Agriculture Online. 2010;10(10).
PM N, L. RL, LW. I, C. KJ, O. AC. "Nocturnal activities of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Baringo County, Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2012;23:298-305.
Plummer F, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Nagelkerke NJ, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibodies to opacity proteins (Opa) correlate with a reduced risk of gonococcal salpingitis."; 1994. Abstract

Acute salpingitis complicating cervical gonococcal infection is a significant cause of infertility. Relatively little data are available concerning the pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease. A cohort of 243 prostitutes residing in Nairobi were followed between March 1985 and April 1988. Gonococcal cultures were performed at each visit, and acute salpingitis was diagnosed clinically. Serum at enrollment was tested by immunoblot for antibody to gonococcal outer membrane proteins. 8.6% (146/1689) of gonococcal infections were complicated by salpingitis. Increased risk of salpingitis was associated with younger age, shorter duration of prostitution, HIV infection, number of gonococcal infections, and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis. Rmp antibody increased the risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa decreased the risk of salpingitis. By logistic regression analysis, antibody to Opa was independently associated with decreased risk of gonococcal salpingitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.17-0.76); HIV infection (adjusted OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.8) and episodes of nongonococcal salpingitis (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8-6.4) were independently associated with an increased risk of salpingitis. Antibody to Opa appears to protect against ascending gonococcal infection, perhaps by interfering with Opa mediated adherence and endocytosis. The demonstration of natural immunity that protects against upper genital tract infection in women suggests that a vaccine to prevent gonococcal salpingitis is possible.

Plummer FA;, Ackers M;, Gelmon L;, Kimani J;, Thabane L;, Ball B;T, Ngugi E;, Estambale B;, Nguti R;, Barasa S;, Karanja S;, Habyarimana J;, Jack W;, Chung M;, Ritvo P;, Kariri A;, Mills EJ;, Lester RT. "The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized controlled trial protocol.". 2009. Abstract

The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS (’short message system’ or text message) slogan (the intervention) or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control). Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by ‘intention-to-treat’. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting.

Plummer, FA; Nagelkerke NJ; MN-AJO; BJJ; NES; N. "The importance of core groups in the epidemiology and control of HIV-1 infection.". 1991. Abstract

In Africa, HIV transmission occurs mainly through heterosexual intercourse. High-frequency transmitter core groups are key to the epidemiology of HIV-1 and STD on the continent. The rapid growth of the HIV-1 epidemic in Africa appears to have resulted, in part, from social and economic factors which result in individuals' frequent engagement in sexual intercourse with members of HIV-infected core groups. Understanding the importance of core groups in HIV-1 transmission is therefore key to developing more effective programs for the control of HIV-1. Sections explore the core groups concept and the sexual transmission of infection, social and economic forces creating core groups in Africa, the interaction of STD and HIV-1 in core groups, the effect of STD on HIV-1 disease progression in core groups in accelerating the HIV-1 epidemic, the role of core group interventions in control programs, balancing disease control with the potential for victimization, and research needs

Plummer FA, Tyndall MW, Ndinya-Achola JO. "Sexual transmission of HIV and the role of sexually transmitted diseases.". 1994.
Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population."; 2007.
Plummer FA, Chubb H, Simonsen JN, Bosire M, Slaney L, Maclean I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Waiyaki P, Brunham RC. "Antibody to Rmp (outer membrane protein 3) increases susceptibility to gonococcal infection.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The severe adverse effects of gonococcal infection on human fertility suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae would exert powerful selection for the development of a protective immune response in humans. N. gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and must persist in humans to survive. Since it is an ecologically successful organism, it must have evolved strategies to evade any human immune response it elicits. In a longitudinal study among 243 women working as prostitutes and experiencing frequent gonococcal infection, younger women, women with HIV infection, and women with antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp) were at increased risk of infection (adjusted odds ratio 3.4, CI95% 1.1-10.4, P < 0.05). Rmp is highly conserved in N. gonorrhoeae and the blocking of mucosal defences may be one of its functions. As similar proteins occur in many gram negative mucosal pathogens, the enhancing effect of such proteins may be a general strategy whereby bacteria evade human immune responses.

PIP:

Between March 1985 and July 1986 researchers enrolled 243 female prostitutes in Pumwani community of Nairobi, Kenya, in a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between the antibody to the gonococcal outer membrane protein 3 (Rmp Ab) and gonococcal mucosal infection. Few women used condoms. 69% were HIV-1 seropositive. Just 9.5% (23) of the women had not had any gonococcal infections, despite probable exposure to them, indicating the possibility of some acquired protective immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoea. 90.5% had had at least 1 gonococcal infection. Women with Rmp Ab faced a greater risk of gonococcal infection than those who were Rmp Ab negative (OR = 3.4;l p .05), denoting that Rmp Ab increases susceptibility to gonococcal mucosal infections. Women older than 29 years were at lower risk of gonococcal infection than those younger than 29 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3; p .03). Women who used oral contraceptives (OCs) were also likely to be infected with N. gonorrhoea (OR = 3; p = .062). Further, 31% of OC users had cervical ectopy compared to just 14% of nonusers (OR = 2.8; p .005), suggesting that the effect of OCs on the cervix make it more susceptible to gonococcal infection. Rmp Ab also exists in many other gram-negative mucosal pathogens, often playing the same role as it does in N. gonorrhoea infection. Thus, Rmp Ab may be a common scheme bacteria used to elude human immune responses. These findings provide more understanding as to why N. gonorrhoea is an ecologically successful human pathogen

Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Embree J, Fowke K, Ndinya-Achola J, MacDonald K, Ball T, Nagelkerke N, Kimani J, Ma L. "Rapid selection for HLA alleles that protect against HIV-1 infection correlates significantly to the declining incidence of HIV-1 in an East African sex worker population.". 2007.
Plummer FA, Moses S, Willbond B, Rao PJVR, Ngugi EN, Nagelkerke NJD, Jha P. "Reducing HIV Transmission in Developing Countries.". 2011. Abstract

Although the global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the developing world has, in general, been inadequate, there are key interventions which have been proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of HIV and relevant risky behaviors. We review and analyze these interventions according to three criteria: importance to HIV transmission, amenability to change, and cost-effectiveness.

Plummer FA, Luo M, Ball TB, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Tuff J, Lacap P, Price H. "A Trim5alpha Exon 2 Polymorphism is Associated with Protection from HIV-1 Infection in Pumwani Sexworker Cohort.". 2010. Abstract

The innate immune component TRIM5α has the ability to restrict retrovirus infection in a species-specific manner. TRIM5α of some primate species restricts infection by HIV-1, while huTRIM5α lacks this specificity. Previous studies have suggested that certain polymorphisms in huTRIM5 may enhance or impair the proteins affinity for HIV-1. This study investigates the role of TRIM5 polymorphisms in resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1 within the Pumwani sex worker cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. A group of women within this cohort remain HIV-1 seronegative and PCR negative despite repeated exposure to HIV-1 through active sex work. Design A 1 kb fragment of Trim5alpha gene, including exon 2, from 1032 women enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort was amplified and sequenced. SNPs and haplotypes were compared between HIV-1 positive and resistant women. Methods The TRIM5 exon 2 genomic fragment was amplified, sequenced and genotyped. Pypop32-0.6.0 was used to determine SNP and haplotype frequencies and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS-13.0 for windows. Results A TRIM5 SNP (rs10838525) resulting in the amino acid change from Arginine to Glutamine at codon 136, was enriched in HIV-1 resistant individuals (p=1.104E-05; OR:2.991; CI95%:1.806–4.953) and women with 136Q were less likely to seroconvert (p=0.002; Log Rank: 12.799). Wild type TRIM5α exon 2 was associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 (p=0.006; OR:0.279; 95%CI:0.105–0.740) and rapid seroconversion (p=0.001; Log Rank: 14.475). Conclusions Our findings suggest that a shift from arginine to glutamine at codon 136 in the coiled-coil region of TRIM5α confers protection against HIV-1 in the Pumwani sex worker cohort. Keywords: TRIM5α, Single nucleotide polymorphism, HIV-1, Sex Workers, Taxonomy-based Sequence Analysis, Disease Association, Disease Resistance

Plummer FA, Holton D, Anzala A, Wambugu P, Ngugi EN, Ndinya Achola JO. "Rapid Development Of Symptomatic Hiv-1 Related Disease In East-african Prostitutes.". 2002.
Plummer FA, Ngugi EN. "Strategies for control of AIDS in Africa.". 1988. AbstractWebsite

Stratégies générales pour le contrôle de l'infection. Prévention primaire de la transmission sexuelle du HIV, stratégies pour la réduction de l'exposition des sujets sensibles. Contrôle des transmissions périnatales et parentérales

Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
PL P, G M, M W, J O’ech, P. M. "The Cerebro-placental Ratio as a Prognostic Factor of Foetal Outcome in Patients with Third Trimester Hypertension." East Cent. Afr. J. Surg. . 2014;19(1):41-51.
PK Mbugua, CF Otieno JKKAAASOML. "Diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical presentation and precipitating factors at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi ." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12). Abstract

Objective: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH.

Subjects: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Results: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c >8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation.

Conclusion: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.

PK K, F T, G O'amo, JM N, EA O, A K. "Diversity and Abundance of Grasshopper and Locust Species in Nakuru County, Kenya." Asian J Conserv Biol. 2019;8(2):102-109.
PJ C, C S-K, W W, LW M. "Pap Smear Cytological findings in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Journal of Pathology. 2015;2(1):8-12. Abstractpap_smear_cytological_findings_in_women_with_abnormal_visual_inspection_test_results_referred_to_kenyatta_national_hospital.pdf

Background: The challenge of cost in establishing cytology and/or Human Papillomavirus (HPV) mass screening for cervical cancer in resource limited countries prompted adoption of visual inspection techniques as alternative tests despite them having low specificity.
Objectives: To determine the pattern of cervical intraepitheliallesions and infections in women with abnormal visual inspection test results referred to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at KNH where women who were referred to this facility after having abnormal visual inspection test results were recruited.
Results: Of the 232 participants recruited, 57(24.6%) had a report of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASUCS) or worse as follows; 5(2.2%) were ASCUS, 13(5.6%) were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 4(1.7%) were atypical glandular cells (AGC), 1(0.4%) was atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade (ASC-H), 20(8.6%) were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 18(7.8%) were reported as having carcinoma on cytology. Of these abnormal results 3(1.3%) were from 33 women (14.2%) more than 50 years of age who were also recruited in this study. Infections were detected in 1 (4.7%) of the study participants.
Conclusions and recommendations: Pap smear was useful as follow-up test as it reduced number of referrals for definitive diagnosis to 16.8% while sparing the rest (83.2%) from unnecessary treatment. Pap smear is therefore recommended as follow-up test in women with abnormal visual inspection test results. Increase awareness to service providers and the general public about the Government Policy on the use of visual inspection tests in women more than 50 years of age since 14.2% were inappropriately screened by the visual inspection test.

Pius Mutie KK, Muasya I. "State of Kenya Population 2010; From Conflict and Crisis to Recovery." prepared on behalf of the National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development NCAPD).; 2011. Abstract
n/a
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kiima DM, Njenga FG, Okonji MM, Kigamwa PA. Kenya mental health country profile. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53.". In: Int Rev Psychiatry. 2004 Feb-May;16(1-2):48-53. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Psychiatric morbidity and referral rate among medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.Kigamwa A.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P.Terrorist bombing at the USA Embassy in Nairobi: the media response. East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar;80(3):159-64.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Mar. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P.Psychological manifestations and heart disease East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec;81(12):609-10. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Dec. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. tobacco Use Disorder, Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990.". In: Medicus Vol. 9 No. 10, page 8,9 October 1990. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. The Concept of disease and its applicability to mental illness. Medicus Vol.11 No. 5, page 14-16, May 1992.". In: Medicus Vol.11 No. 5, page 14-16, May 1992. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Njenga FG, Nicholls PJ, Nyamai C, Kigamwa P, Davidson JR. Post-traumatic stress after terrorist attack: psychological reactions following the US embassy bombing in Nairobi: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;185:328-33.". In: Naturalistic study. Br J Psychiatry. 2004. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Kigamwa P. Perinatal death Psychiatric Aspects. Medicus Vol. 10 No. 2 Page 18-21, February 1991.". In: Medicus Vol. 10 No. 2 Page 18-21, February 1991. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Provision of management education through distance education is gaining significance in Britain and other developed countries. Although distance learning in developing countries is widely used in other aspects of education such as teacher training, it has been given scant consideration in the education of managers. This study investigated the possibility of using this method as an appropriate means of providing management education to Kenyan managers. It is felt that although much effort has been put into manpower training, affirmed in various national policies, the providing institutions are inadequate and appear not to meet the demand. In suggesting distance learning as a supplementary method, a survey of practice in the UK is used to demonstrate the relevance and the extent of application from which several lessons can be drawn by the Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi. The main critical success factors are efficient management of the various sub-systems in a distance learning institution, and the extent to which inherent limitations of distance learning are overcome.
Pittman-Waller VA, Myers JG, Stewart RM, Dent DL, Page CP, Gray GA, Pruitt, Jr BA, Root HD. "Appendicitis: why so complicated? {Analysis} of 5755 consecutive appendectomies." The American surgeon. 2000;66:548-554. Abstract

A perceived high rate of complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis, despite advances in laboratory and radiographic diagnostic modalities, prompted a review of our experience with appendicitis followed by a prospective analysis that examined the time course from presentation to definitive treatment in 218 consecutive patients. In 5755 appendectomies, our overall rate of complicated appendicitis was 32 per cent; higher in males, in the young, and in the elderly; and relatively stable over each year reviewed. Prospectively, we determined that of the various time intervals, the time from the onset of symptoms to first seeking medical attention is the only significant predictor of complicated appendicitis (39.8 vs 16.5 hours for acute appendicitis). On the other hand, the time from surgical evaluation to operative intervention was significantly shorter for complicated appendicitis (3.8 vs 4.7 hours for acute appendicitis). The high rate of complicated appendicitis with its subsequent sequelae of increased morbidity and resource expenditure is primarily the direct result of patient delay in seeking medical attention and not the result of diagnostic dilemma or surgical delay. Public education, specifically targeting those groups at risk, may provide a substantial and significant solution to the complicated appendix.

Piot PM, Kapita B, Ngugi EN, Mann JM, Colebunders R, Wabitsch R. "AIDS in Africa A Manual for Physicians, World Health Organization, Geneva.". 1994.Website
Pinney JW, Papp B, Hyland C, Wambua L, Westhead DR, McConkey GA. "Metabolic reconstruction and analysis of parasite genomes." Trends in Parasitology. 2007;23(11):548-554.pinney_trendsparasitology2007.pdf
Pimental D, Tort M, D’Anna L, Krawic A, Berger J, Rossman J, Mugo F, Doon N, Shriberg M, Howard E, Lee S, Talbot J. "Ecology of increasing disease, population growth, and environmental degradation.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade is rapidly increasing. Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Currently an estimated 40% of world deaths are due to environmental degradation. The ecology of increasing diseases has complex factors of environmental degradation, population growth, and the current malnutrition of about 3.7 billion people in the world

Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
PHOEBE DRODHIAMBOACHIENG. F. A. Odhiambo. UN-HABITAT; 1988. Abstractabstract_1.doc

Inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD), and recent studies have identified the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate a significant increase in circulating serum Hsp70 level in SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) as compared with baseline steady-state levels (P <0.05) and a significant increase in Hsp70 levels in SCD at baseline compared with normal controls (P <0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that circulating serum Hsp70 might be a marker for VOC in SCD.

PHIRI MRMARENYAPASWEL. "MSc. Thesis study entitled: The Socio Economic Factors Affecting the Adoption of Crop Management Technologies among Smallholder maize Farmers .". In: 5th African Crop Science Society International Conference in Lagos Nigeria October 21-26 2001. East African Medical Journal; 2000. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Phiri IK, Ngowi H, Githigia S. "The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk." International Action Planning Workshop. 2003;87(1):13-23. Abstract

Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based on surveys utilizing lingual palpation and post-mortem examination, however, some also used serological assays. In Tanzania, community-based studies on porcine cysticercosis indicate a prevalence of 17.4% in the northern highlands district of Mbulu and a prevalence range of 5.1 – 16.9 in the southern highlands.

In Kenya recent surveys in the southwestern part of the country where smallholder pig keeping is popular indicate that of 10 – 14% of pigs are positive for cysticercosis by lingual examination. Uganda has the most pigs in Eastern Africa, most of which are kept under stallholder conditions. Preliminary surveys in 1998 and 1999 at slaughterhouses in Kampala indicated a prevalence of porcine cysticercosis between 0.12 and 1.2%, however, a rural survey in northern Uganda in 1999 indicated 34 – 45%, of pigs slaughtered in selected villages were infected.

Phiri IA, et al. "Climate Change and Food Security: A Challenge for African Christianity.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
Phiri IA, et al. "Profile of African Christianity at Home and in the West.". In: Anthology of African Christianity. Oxford: Regnum; 2017.
PHIRI MRMARENYAPASWEL. "The factors Influencing the Adoption and Economics of Crop Management technologies .". In: 5th African Crop Science Society International Conference in Lagos Nigeria October 21-26 2001. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Phiri, I.K., Ngowi, H., Alfonso, S., Matenga, E., Boa, M., Mukaratirwa, S., Githigia, S.M., Saimo, M., Sikasunge, C., Maingi N, Lubega, G.W., Kassuku, A., Michael, L., Siziya, S., Krecek, R.C., Noormahomed, E., Vilhema, M., P. D, Willingham AL. "The emergence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern Africa as a serious agricultural problem and public health risk." Acta Tropica. 2003;87:13-23.2003.the_emergence_of_taenia_solium_cysticercosis_in_eastern_and_southern_africa_as_a_serious_agricultural_problem_and_public_health_risk.pdf
Phipps W, Saracino M SHMLJMWCMCRSSWK. "Oral HHV-8 replication among women in Mombasa, Kenya." Journal of Medical Virology. 2014;86(10):1759-65.
Philipsson J, Rege JEO, Zonabend E. Animal improvement for increased productivity and food availability.; 2011. AbstractWebsite

This module discusses important factors to consider when designing sustainable genetic improvement programmes, especially under tropical conditions. Previous attempts to launch breeding programmes in developing countries have too often failed for several reasons, although there are success stories to learn from as well. Long-term and simple strategies are necessary as is the need to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds. Increased productivity per animal or area of land used also need to be considered. However, that must be achieved while also considering the variable socio-economic and cultural values of livestock in different societies or regions. Within the module there are links [blue] to web resources and [green] to case studies and other related components of this resource that help illustrate the issues presented.

Philipsson, J; Zonabend BRC; OAME;. Global perspectives on animal genetic resources for sustainable agriculture and food production in the tropics.; 2011. Abstract

This first module provides some insight into the need for better use of animal genetic resources (AnGR) in the context of projected demand for food in developing countries until 2020. Worldwide, about a billion people do not have enough to eat; a livestock revolution is currently underway to meet the nutritional needs and improve the livelihood of poor people. However, the recent international food and financial crises have again worsened the situation for many of the world’s poor. The module provides the background, facts and reasons for increased attention to improved utilization and maintenance of AnGR for food and agriculture in developing countries. It also provides a list of some key literature. References and links are made to web resources and to other parts of this resource. Some case studies on breed resources and other relevant components of this resource (CD and web version) help illustrate the issues presented.

Philippon N, Camberlin P, Moron V, Gitau W, Ozer P. "Recent Evolution of the March-May Rainfall in East Africa: Spatial Patterns and Sub-seasonal Scenarios." Actes du 27e Colloque International de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie. 2014:687-692. AbstractORBi

Using raingauge daily rainfall data documenting the Horn of Africa and the Long Rains over the period 1961-2012, the aim of this study is three-fold:1/ confirming the drying trend detected by Lyon et DeWitt (2012) during the Long Rains using gridded rainfall, 2/ understanding how this drying is expressed at the intraannual time scale using the sub-seasonal scenario approach developed by Moron et al. (2013) and 3/ assess its impact on vegetation. A drying is actually measured using raingauge data but is less severe than the one measured using gridded data. It is the strongest at the driest stations and during the rainfall climatological peak (April). It seems to be associated with a higher frequency of the dry subseasonal scenarios i.e. characterized by negative rainfall anomalies through the whole or the core of the seasonal cycle. But we don't observe yet a diminution of the vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to the rainfall decrease. To the contrary, the Rainfall Use Efficiency (RUE) displays a slightly positive trend.

and Philip Kilbride, Collette Suda EN. Street Children in Kenya - Voices ofChildren in Search ofa Childhood. London: bergin & Garvey; 2000. Abstract

This book results from a cross-national and interdisciplinary research effort.
Although Collette Suda (C. S.), a rural sociologist, and Enos Njeru (E. N.), and
Philip Kilbride (P. K.), both anthropologists, were all academically trained in
the United States, we have benefited from an "insider" -" outsider" dialogue in
writing this book. C. S. and E. N., as Kenyans, kept our work closely grounded
in local language, cultural interpretations, and applied recommendations. P. K.
focused on ethnography as an "outsider," as non-Kenyans must do, and also
sought to coordinate our findings with comparative, cultural, and theoretical
concerns beyond the Kenyan scene. We operated, however, on some occasions
as insiders or outsiders given P. K.' s research on children and family in East
Africa since 1967 and E. N.'s and C. S.'s international travel, education, and
living experiences abroad. More details about our collaboration in research and
writing together are provided in the text.
Street children are often portrayed by the public and sometimes in
publications as a separate, socially distinct category of person. We have tried to
emphasize here social complexities that problemtize this simplistic view.
Following a holistic perspective, we have emphasized throughout the book how
street children in Kenya, in fact, live like other Kenyans, embedded, for
example, in similar institutions, informal work routines, cultural beliefs, and
family relations. Such involvements are not dissimilar in many respects from
others who make up the working poor in Nairobi. Still, street children do stand
apart as a distinct social category both in their own minds and that of the public
as well. We will consider reasons for this and which social characteristics seem
widely shared among street children. Throughout, however, while recognizing
commonalities, we attempt to emphasize the rich variation among children that
we discovered in our research.
In our book we seek to systematically provide information about street girls.
An awareness of difference and variation as our work progressed compelled us
to emphasize gender differences at every tum. We also wanted to highlight gender inasmuch as compared to boys, very little is published about street girls.
This is strikingly true in Kenya but, to a great degree, elsewhere in the world-as
well. We decided to incorporate a gendered analysis throughout the book rather
than providing separate chapters on girls. This decision was taken so as to
better put across the idea that there are commonalities among all street children
irrespective of gender differences. When all is said and done, boys and girls in
Kenya share a common label and many similar problems.
As part of our holistic perspective, we have taken special note of how the
current problem of street children in Kenya stands in sharp contrast to
indigenous derived practices and experiences associated with childhood in
Kenya. The street child is but a recent event in the culture history of Kenya.
Specifically, we have emphasized Kenyan family cultural beliefs and indigenous
practices as an interpretive framework not only because we believe this to be
relevant, but also inasmuch as family and gender issues themselves, apart from
street children, have occupied us prior to and throughout our work with street
children. For better or worse, we have tried here to relate social topics we know
the most about to the situation of street children. Only the reader can judge if
we have overstated our family-friendly interpretation and related practical
recommendations with which we conclude this book. We trust that most readers
will agree that family analysis is certainly relevant to a full understanding of
street children in Kenya. Whatever interpretive conclusions arise on this point,
we all hope that our descriptive materials about street children stand alone and
are informative in their own right.
Throughout our research and writing, we have followed research methods
that attempt to involve the voices of street children concerning events, beliefs,
experiences, and aspirations that they privilege in their own discourse about
themselves. Ethnography, focus group, and social survey converge around our
experience near research methodology. Overall, previous published materials in
Kenya have not systematically privileged children's voices in the multirnethod
sense that we have attempted here. Nevertheless, we have also set out
theoretical objectives and conceptual categories derived from our own
disciplinary, theoretical concerns and comparative understandings about street
children globally. Therefore, we will consider interplay between children's
voices and our theoretical framework as part of our discussion of methodology.
However, inclusion of street children's voices here is more than simply a
matter of epistemology. Our ultimate intention of being able to better suggest
some applied, practical recommendations to policy makers also compels us to
consider children's perspectives wherever possible. It is unlikely that many
policy recommendations concerning street children will get very far before
people first learn directly from the children about themselves. How best to
assist them is also something street children have thought about and about which
they have strong opinions. We end our book with policy recommendations that
take into account, but which are not limited to, the voices of those children
represented in our research. Weare hopeful that our recommendations, about social policy and applications of our research in Kenya will be of interest to all
of those thinking about applied solutions to what is, in fact, a global problem
concerning street children in many nations.
We use pseudonyms in this book for most individuals whom we encountered
in fieldwork. In particular, we have used real or invented nicknames for all
street children on the advice of street children who, themselves, use nicknames
to conceal their identities from the police. An exception is "Mama Ford," a
buyer of waste products from street boys who, after reading what we had written
about her with approval, requested that we give her real name, Josephine
Karanja, in publication.
We have also not published photographs so as to conceal the identities of
street children, most of whom are regularly under harassment from the police.
Moreover, most street children may want their past lives on the streets kept
private in the future. There is a rapid turnover on the streets such that as far as
the street children described here are concerned, all have left the streets or now
live in different locations in Nairobi. The wheel of field research and
publication grinds slowly; in our case, that has served our desire to protect the
identities of our informants as well as to become familiar with changes in their
lives over time.

PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls As Health Hazards Submitted to East African Medical Journal Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG; Mecha EO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Assessing Management of Medical Needs of Orphans in Orphanages in Nyanza Province (Submitted) Sahara Journal, 2005 Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: AWC/FES Research Publications. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "The Role Of Pharmacists In Providing Emergency Contraception In Kenya Submitted To The Pharmaceutical Society Of Kenya Journal Maiyo VC; Mbeo PO.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "Integration Of ICT Into The Management Of Access To Treatment And Monitoring Of ART In Rural Kenya Submitted to 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI.". In: 14th International Conference on AIDS and STI. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETRONELLA DRMBEO(MRS). "In Pursuit Of Millennium Development Goals: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya Mbeo PO; Omwandho CA; Tumbo-Oeri AG.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
The study systematically quantified media content on indicators such as independence, accuracy, fairness, diversity of opinion and open access to media institutions. The study gave the media a clean bill of health on accuracy test but faulted it on the fairness side in its coverage of the Referendum Campaigns. The study also found that the media presented diverse shades of political opinion from various stakeholders representing both sides of the Referendum Campaign.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Report on the National Accreditation Workshop, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2000.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part One, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Education,Science and Technology, 81 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi A, Matiru, B and Schlete R (eds) Teach Your Best: A Handbook for University Lecturers, Institute for Socio-Cultural Studies, University of Kassel .". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1995.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Strengthening of Livelihoods with Literacy,Institute of International Cooperation of the German Adult Education Association, Bonn, Germany.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers: English, Unit 1 Grammar,Part Two, School of Distance Studies, University of Nairobi and Ministry of EducationScience and Technology, 68 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P and Macheru N.,Project Proposal Writing, Kenya Adult Education Association.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, A., Kenya: The African Medical Research Foundation in Case Studies of Non-formal Education by Distance and Open Learning, Commonwealth of Learning Vancouver, Canada and the British Development for International Development, UK (DFID) 2000,.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
This study documents the experience of the Distance Education Project of the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF), Kenya Country Office. The African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) is an independent, non-profit organisation founded in 1957. It is one of the few international Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) based in Africa, with headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The Distance Education Project focuses on workers who have little or no access to any other form of continuing education. (Brye et al, 1990). As a result, their medical skills and capabilities often deteriorate which inevitably leads to poor service delivery. (DE Proposal to USAID, 1989/94). Some observations of the study were that: There seems to be a fairly wide geographical distribution of learners. However, a closer look reveals that learners seem to come in clusters from certain areas, especially where there is a larger health care facility. This suggests that information on availability of the AMREF courses is obtained by word of mouth rather than by an aggressive effort to advertise the project in areas with low enrolment. On the other hand, while the majority of learners stated that they find the courses relevant to their work, almost 20% indicated that the course they are taking is not directly related to their work. 30% of respondents stated that AMREF courses should be upgraded, recognised by employers and educational institutions and considered for promotions. Perhaps, if the courses offered by AMREF are aimed at a particular category of health worker and are so structured as to start from the basic training level, bringing the learner up to a higher level through a series of related courses, there would be a stronger case for recognition of the certificates. When planning an education programme, it is important to see it as a continuing programme, bringing a learner from a lower level to a higher level of learning. The respondents noted an increase in knowledge and acquired a variety of skills as a result of the completion of the AMREF DE course(s). Generally, DE learners learned about new medical conditions especially in the area of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), gained new skills in physical examination, refreshed their knowledge in areas previously studied and noted an increase in confidence in the workplace. One of the most common complaints amongst correspondence learners was that it took too long for course materials to be received after registration for a course. In addition, most active correspondence learners had not had an opportunity to meet with their tutors. Fifty five (55) learners from the sample population stated that they had never met their tutors. For distance learners who study alone, it is important to establish a system of quick response and promote a caring attitude to encourage learners to complete their course of studies. This is even more important in this case where face to face sessions have been discontinued.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Petkova-Mwangi, Oxenham, J et al, Skills and Literacy Training for Better Livelihoods:A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
PETKOVA MRSMWANGIANNA. "Mwangi, Anna P., In-service Course for Untrained Teachers, English Units 1-6,Institute of In-service Teacher Training and Ministry of Education, Mogadishu - Somalia.". In: A Review of Approaches and Experiences, The World Bank, 2002, 119 pgs. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1990.
Peterson DW, Maitai CK, Sparber SB. "Relative potencies of two phenylalkylamines found in the abused plant Catha edulis, khat." Life Sci.. 1980;27(22):2143-7.
Peterson DL, Gleisner JM, Blakley RL. "Bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase: purification and properties of the enzyme." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5261-7. Abstract

A purification procedure is reported for obtaining bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase in high yield and amounts of 100-200 mg. A key step in the procedure is the use of an affinity gel prepared by coupling pteroyl-L-lysine to Sepharose. The purified reductase has a specific activity of about 100 units/mg and is homogeneous as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and titration with methotrexate. The products of the first step of Edman degradation indicated a minimum purity of 79%. The reductase has a molecular weight of about 21500 on the basis of amino acid composition and 22100 +/- 300 from equilibrium sedimentation. It is not inhibited by antiserum to the Streptococcus faecium reductase (isoenzyme 2). Unlike the reductase of many other vertebrate tissues, the bovine enzyme is inhibited by mercurials rather than activated and it has a single pH optimum at both low and high ionic strength. However, the position of the pH optimum is shifted and the activity increased by increasing ionic strength. Automatic Edman degradation has been used to determine 34 of the amino-terminal 37 amino acid residues. Considerable homology exists between this region and the corresponding regions of the reductase from S. faecium and from Escherichia coli. This strengthens the idea that this region contributes to the structure of the binding site for dihydrofolate.

Peters PJ, Stringer J, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Ratanasuwan W, Intalapaporn P, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Zulu I, Borkowf CB, Bolu O, Brooks JT, Weidle PJ. "Nevirapine-associated hepatotoxicity was not predicted by CD4 count ≥250 cells/μL among women in Zambia, Thailand and Kenya." HIV Med.. 2010;11(10):650-60. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for developing severe hepatotoxicity (grade 3 or 4 hepatotoxicity) and rash-associated hepatotoxicity (rash with ≥ grade 2 hepatotoxicity) among women initiating nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Peters BS, Jaoko W, Vardas E, Panayotakopoulos G, Fast P, Klavinskis L, Bogoshi M, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Dally L, Klavinskis L, Farah B, Tarragona T, Bart P-A, Robinson A, Pieterse C, Stevens W, Thomas R, Barin B, McMichael AJ, McIntyre JA, Pantaleo G, Hanke T´aˇs, Bwayo JJ. "Studies of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine candidate based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) with and without DNA priming: Effects of dosage and route on safety and immunogenicity.". 2006. Abstract

Two parallel studies evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine in 192 HIV-seronegative, low-risk volunteers. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and plasmid DNA (pTHr) expressed HIV-1 clade A gag p24 and p17 fused to a string of 25 overlapping CD8+ T cell epitopes (HIVA). Methods: These studies compared intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intradermal MVA at dosage levels ranging from 5×106–2.5×108 pfu. In Study IAVI-010, DNA vaccine was given as a prime at months 0 and 1, followed by MVA as a boost at months 5 and 8. In Study IAVI-011, MVA alone was given at months 0 and 2. Regular safety monitoring was performed. Immunogenicity was measured by the interferon (IFN)- ELISPOT assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results: No serious adverse events were attributed to either vaccine; most adverse events were mild or moderate, although MVA resulted in some severe local reactions. Five vaccine recipients had at least one positive IFN- ELISPOT response, but none were sustained. Conclusion: This HIV-1 vaccine candidate was in general safe and well-tolerated. Local reactions were common, but tolerable. Detectable immune responses were infrequent.

Peters DA, Courtemanche DJ, Heran MKS, Ludemann JP, Prendiville JS. "Treatment of cystic lymphatic vascular malformations with {OK}-432 sclerotherapy." Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2006;118:1441-1446. AbstractWebsite
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Peter P.W & Gathungu J. "Performance Contracting , Psychological contracts and service Delivery ." LAP Lambert Academic Publishing . 2013:1-43.
Peter Musau Moses, Abungu DNO. "Solving The Active Distribution Network Reconfiguration (ADNR) Problem Taking Into Consideration A Stochastic Wind Scenario and Load Uncertainity." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2013;3(7).p._musau_and_dr._abungu.pdf
Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
Peter Akuon HX. "Gain of Spatial Diversity with Conjoint Signals.". In: IEEE Africon. Cape Town, South Africa; 2017.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Affirmative Action for Kenyan Women: An Analysis of the Relevant Provision of the Draft Constitution. In Maria Nzomo (edts) Perspectives on Gender Discourse. Women in Politics: Challenges on Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Henrich Boll Foundation, East and North Africa Region. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The paper examines the issues of affirmative action as currently provided for in the Draft constitution and seeks to shed insights into the impact of these provisions on the under- representation of women in major decision making state organs and the low level of political participation by women. In short the paper seeks to find out whether or not these provisions will be a panacea to the problems of under representation of women in public decision-making institutions including parliament and local authorities. The paper argues that the proposed affirmative action is major victory for Kenyan women and marks a positive step towards gender parity in Kenyan politics. However affirmative action by itself will not lead to gender parity and solve the political marginalization of women in the medium and long term. It will not result in the nomination of capable and influential women committed to the cause of women. It may in fact be counterproductive in the short and medium run. The women will have to put considerable pressure on those nominated through affirmative action to represent them to do precisely that.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1995. The State, Democracy, and Sustainable Development in Africa. In Charles Okigbo (ed) Media and Sustainable Development.". In: A Publication of the African Council for Communication Education. Printed by Kenya Litho Nairobi, Kenya PP190-223. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1995.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Traditional Products and Cultural Identity.". In: Conference Proceedings Powai, India. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC veterinary research. 2020;16:1-12. Abstract
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PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, Oyugi W, and C odhiambo- Mbai . 2003. The Politics of Transition in Kenya: FROM KANU To NARC.". In: Published by Henrich Boll Foundation Nairobi, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter et al. 1997. History and Government.". In: Longhorn, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Fat of the Land: The Problems of Design Education for Small Business Development.". In: Design Institute and South Africa Bureau of Standards, Cape Town. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. NEPAD and Security In the IGAD Region. Security In the Age of Globalization.". In: In Makumi Mwagiru (edit) African Regional Henrich Boll Foundation Regional Office for Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Human Capital Development in Kenya.". In: Ngethe and Owino (edited) From Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965. Towards Indigenising Policy Debate in Kenya. A publication of the Institute for Policy Analysis and Research. Nairobi, Kenya. PP 240-266. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Design and the African Cultural Identity.". In: Design for Development Initiative, Durban. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. The Role of the East African Legislative Assembly. In Ajulu,R. The Making of Region: The Revival of the East African Community.". In: Institute for Global Dialogue. Midrand, South Africa. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This chapter discusses the expected contribution of the East African Legislative Assembly to the revival and consolidation of the East African Community and the eventual political federation. It also discusses the challenges that the Assembly is likely to face while playing this role. In this regard, the chapter offers some suggestions on how this role can be enhanced. It ends with a brief discussion of the future of the East African Community.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. The Power of Knowledge: The Impact of Voter Education and Electoral Behaviour in a Kenyan Constituency.". In: In Ludeki Chweya (ed) Electoral Politics in Kenya. ClariPress, Nairobi PP.47-69. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Newton VE, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Ototo B, Kan SW.Evaluation of the use of a questionnaire to detect hearing loss in Kenyan pre-school children.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Mar;57(3):229-34. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2001. Abstract
In developing countries, there is a lack of trained personnel and testing equipment to facilitate the early detection of hearing impairment in children. A questionnaire offers a low cost option and the value of this for detecting hearing impairment in pre-school children was determined in several districts in Kenya. The questionnaire was completed by either teachers, parents/carers or community nurses. The children were subsequently tested using pure tone audiometry and visual examination of the ear by ENT Clinical Officers, who were not given prior access to the results of the questionnaire. A total of 757 (88%) questionnaires were completed. Of the 735 children, who could be tested using pure tone audiometry, four were found to have a unilateral hearing impairment and one was detected by the questionnaire. A total of 13 children had a bilateral hearing impairment >40 dB HL. All were detected using the questionnaire. There were eight males and five females with ages ranging from 4.2 to 6.9 years, mean age 5.7 years and median age 5.8 years. Eight had a sensorineural hearing impairment and two a mixed hearing impairment. Three of the children with a sensorineural hearing loss had a family history of hearing impairment. No question detected all children with a hearing impairment and some questions were more discerning than others. There was 100% sensitivity for the questionnaire when a hearing loss of >40 dB was considered, but specificity was lower at 75%. Negative predictive value was 100%, but the positive predictive value was low, 6.75%. It was concluded that a questionnaire of this nature could be usefully applied at Primary Health Care level for detecting hearing impairment at the pre-school stage. There would be need for services available for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation before a screening programme was introduced.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "If Laivino Dead: An Aesthetic.". In: University of Nairobi-Great Lakes Colleges Association, Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter SG, Gabriel A, Hellen WK, Esther K, Daniel WG, Ndichu M, Charles MM, Alfred OM. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri- urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research. 2020;16(1).
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2002. The Public Service and the Politics of Succession. Mute L et al. (edts). Building and Open Society, The Politics of Transition in Kenya.". In: Claripress, Nairobi, Kenya. pp 157-174. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
Peter SG, Gitau GK, Richards S, Vanleeuwen JA, Uehlinger F, Mulei CM, Kibet RR. "Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya." Vet World. 2016;9(8):811-9. Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves.

Peter O, Daniel O, William O, Shem W. "Households’ climate change adaptive capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya." Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 2017;22(3):26-32. Abstractresearchgate.net

A households’ climate change adaptive (CCA) capacity simply refers to the household head’s potential to effectively respond to climate change induced forcings. The households’ adaptive capacity hinges on several factors. This paper reports the evaluation results of the households’ CCA capacity in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya. The knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of households are said to be predictors of households’ CCA capacity. There is evidence that over the past 30 years, a number of permanent streams in the LVB, Kenya, have dried up. Across sectional survey was conducted in Gwasi and Nyando areas within the LVB, Kenya. The level of education of respondents was 44.2% (n=523) primary, 35% high school and 20.8% diploma training and above. The level of awareness of CC was 62% and 94.6% among the male respondents in Gwasi and Nyando respectively. About 57.9% (n=523) stated that both human activities and natural changes are responsible for the CC. Approximately 27.2% (n=261) and 33.5 % (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively store roof catchment water. Approximately 35.3 % (n=261) and 22.2% (n=262) in Gwasi and Nyando respectively keep donkeys for water transport. These results reveals that the CCA was positively influenced by household heads’ KAP
Keywords: Households, adaptive capacity, climate change and variability.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. Reflections on Electoral System and Practice in Kenya.". In: Hekima, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.11, N umber 1,pp 102-116. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):364. Abstract

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys, infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. Therefore, we investigated the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infecting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya using molecular methods.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1990. Themes in World History.". In: Longman. Kenya Ltd. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Graphic Design for Development: The Case of Road Safety.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Political Context of Governance. In Kenya's Democratic transition Challenges and Opportunities.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth. Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. Oginga Odinga. In: The Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara.". In: Charles Scribner's Sons. Macmillan Publishing, USA.P.357. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "The Problems of Defining African Design.". In: Design Review, U.K. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Challenging the Political Order: The Politics of Presidential Succession In Kenya. In Bahemuka and Brockington (edited) East Africa In Transition, Images, Identities and Institutions.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This paper analyses the politics of presidential succession that occupied the time resources and energy of the political class since the opening up of the political space in the late 1980s and earlyb1990s. The paper has three major arguments. First it argues that the changes that were sought constituted a major challenge to the established political order as it sought to dislodge those in power and to make the government responsive to the citizens. This was being done in a context in which political leaders consider it illegal to challenge those in authority. Secondly the paper argues that those challenging the political order by seeking the presidency faced an uphill task precisely because they were up against a well-established political machine in the name of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU). Finally the paper argues that the politics surrounding presidential succession gravitated around two major interests, namely ethnic and class interests.
Peter K. Factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching and learning . Germany: VDM/ academic publications Germany ISBN 2010 97863929183; 2010.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1999. Governance and Structural Adjustment In Kenya.". In: Hyden et al (Des) Perspectives on African Governance. Africa World Press, Inc. PP 105-122. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Personhood and Art: Social Change and Commentary Among the Acoli.". In: Indiana University Press. University of Nairobi Press; 2000. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter SG, Kariuki HW, Aboge GO, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International . 2021:DOI: 10.1155/2021/9501648 .
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Evolution of Governance Practice in Kenya. An Overview in Bujra Abdala (ed). Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth in collaboration with Development Policy Management Forum. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001.The Practice of Governance.Making Informed Choices.". In: A Hand Book for Civic Education. Jointly produced by Civic Education for Marginalized Communities (CEDMAC) Constitution and Reform Education Consortium (CRE-CO), Ecumenical Civic Education Programme (ECEP) and the Gender Consortium. Nairobi Kenya. PP. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRMUGWE. "Hatcher J, Smith A, Mackenzie I, Thompson S, Bal I, Macharia I, Mugwe P, Okoth-Olende C, Oburra H, Wanjohi Z, et al.A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):19.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Mismatch in Design Education.". In: University of Art and Design, Helsinki. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter SG, Daniel WG, Ndichu M, Charles MM. "Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Ehrlichia Infections in Smallholder Dairy Cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607.
Peter GS, Gitau GK, Mulei CM, Vanleeuwen J, Richards S, Wichtel J, Uehlinger F, Mainga O. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya." Veterinary World . 2015;8(9):1118-1125.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2002. Recent Constitutional Developments in Kenya.". In: In Saida Yahya-Othmos (edt). Politics, Governance and Cooperation in East Africa. Mkuki Ya Nyota Publications, Dar-es-Salaam. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Beyond Campaign Rhetoric; The challenges for NARC Government.". In: Wajibu. A Journal of Social and Religious Concern. Vol.18, number 1-2, May -July.pp 23-25. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

Peter SG. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "E.S. Atieno- Odhiambo and Wanyande, Peter. 1988. History and Government of Kenya.". In: Longman. Kenya Limited. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1988.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2003. The Politics of Alliance Building: The Search For Opposition Unity.". In: Oyugi, Wanyande and Mbai (Edts). The Politics of Transition In Kenya: From KANU to NARC. Book Print, Nairobi Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1997. The Mass Media as Civil Society and Their Role in Democratic transition in Kenya.". In: Africa Media Review, Vol. 10 No. 3 pp1-20. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Aesthetic Persuasion: The Role of the Military in Restructuring Acholi Art.". In: African Studies Association Annual Meeting November 6-9, Baltimore. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter, Aboge, G.O., Kariuki, D.N., Kanduma, E.G., Gakuya, F., Maingi, N., Mulei CM, Mainga, A.O. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Veterinary Research, . 2020;16(1):pp.1-12.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Decentralization and Local Goverance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Discourse.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Journal of the United Nations Center for Regional Ddevelopment (UNCRD) Vol, 25, No 1 Spring pp1-13. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande Peter. 1998. The Significance of Voter Education in the Democratization Process. In The Road to Democracy.". In: A Publication of The Eastern And Southern African Universities Research Programme. Tema Publishers, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. PP87-104. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Cultural Factors Contradicting Behavior Modification Messages.". In: 2nd National HIV/AIDS/STI Conference Ministry of Health, Mbagathi. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, w Kariuki H, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16:364.
Peter C, Alzen G, Omwandho COA, Bültmann E, Hertel H, Gruessner SE. "Antenatal and postnatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation diagnosed by ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Antenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation (CCAM) is vital for disease surveillance and postnatal care. Ultrasonography (US) has been the imaging gold standard for antenatal CCAM assessment. However, one of the limitations of US is the “vanishing phenomenon” caused by isoechogenicity of CCAM tissue and adjacent normal lung parenchyma. Methods: Antenatal serial US were concurrently used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor macro- and microcystic lesions. Results: In both pregnant women, antenatal US and MRI confirmed the presence, in the fetus, of cystic lesions and predicted disease regression/progression as well as the need for postnatal surgical intervention. Several advantages were detected by using both—serial US and MRI (over serial US alone)—including improved signal intensity, exact volume size measurements, precise CCAM location in particular for patients with adverse ultrasound conditions. Both neonates underwent surgical resection and had an uneventful post-operative course. Conclusions: Antenatal use of MRI as well as serial US improved information regarding tissue resolution and delineation of CCAM. The information from two imaging modalities was complementary. Our literature review confirmed the emerging role of prenatal MRI for postnatal monitoring and management of CCAM.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Refugees and Internally Displaces Persons Phenomenon in Africa: A Governance Perspective.". In: Journal of the Regional Development Studies, Vol. 10. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 2001. Management Politics in Kenya\.". In: Journal of African Political Science. Vol. 6, No.1 pp 106-117. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Nakedness in East African Aesthetics.". In: Action Publishers. University of Nairobi Press; 2001. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2006. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya. Africa Development. Special Issue on Electoral Politics In Africa.". In: Vol XXXI No3, 2006.pp 62-80. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. Governance, Democracy and Development in East Africa. In P. Samanta and Risen (ed).". In: Realizing African Development - A Millennial Analysis Centre for Indo-African Development Studies, Calcutta PP.1-22. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "It Takes One to Toy Toy: Oneness in East African Aesthetic Expression.". In: Network of African. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Peter K, John VL, George G, Luke H, Shawn MK, Spencer G. "Impact of calf housing improvement and farmer training on finances, management and animal welfare perceptions of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2021;13(2):119-129.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande. Peter. 2002. Joseph D, Otiende. A Biography.". In: Published under the series . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter. 1987. Women's Groups in Participatory Development: Kenya's Development Experience Through Harambee.". In: Development: Journal of the Society for International Development. Vol.2 No.3, pp. 94-102. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1987.
Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Perry J Pickhardt JS. "Appendiceal length as an independent risk factor for acute appendicitis." European radiology. 2013. Abstract
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Perry VH, Oehler R, Cowey A. "Retinal ganglion cells that project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque monkey." Neuroscience. 1984;12:1101-1123. AbstractWebsite

Horseradish peroxidase was deposited in the optic nerve to retrogradely label and reveal the dendritic form of all classes of ganglion cell, or it was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus to reveal only those classes projecting to the thalamus. The results were compared with those of the accompanying paper in which the ganglion cells projecting to the midbrain are selectively revealed. Two major classes of ganglion cells are described, the Pα and Pβ cells. For both classes dendritic field size increases with eccentricity from the fovea and there is no overlap in the two classes at any given eccentricity. Cell body size shows a similar mean difference but with a slight overlap. Both cell bodies and dendritic fields are larger along the temporal horizontal meridian than the nasal horizontal meridian, for Pα and for Pβ cells, but these differences are reduced when naso-temporal differences in ganglion cell density are taken into account, that is, size correlates closely with density. Injections restricted to the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus labelled almost exclusively Pβ cells, whereas injections confined to the magnocellular layers labelled almost exclusively Pα cells. As midbrain injections label no Pβ cells and few Pα cells it can be shown that about 80% of ganglion cells are Pβ cells projecting to parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus, and that about 10% are Pα cells projecting to magnocellular layers. The coverage factor, that is the number of cells covering each point on the retina, varied from 1.9–2.3 for Pβ cells, and from 2–7 for Pα cells. Comparing the results with those of comparable investigations on cats and rabbits shows a much clearer segregation of the terminal targets of different classes of ganglion cell in monkeys, the greatest difference being the absence in the monkey of a projection to the geniculate from gamma- and epsilon-like cells. Further, axons which branch and innervate both thalamus and midbrain are rare in monkeys but common in other mammals. Comparing the results with those from physiological investigations suggests that the Pβ cells correspond to colour-opponent cells, whereas Pα cells correspond to the achromatic broad-band magnocellular cells.

Perry BD, Kyendo TM, Mbugua SW, Price JE, Varma S. "Increasing Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Urban Dog Populations of High Human Population Density Suburbs; A Case Study in Nairobi, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1995;22:137-142. Abstract
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Perry BD, Kyendo TM, Mbugua SW, Price JE, Varma S. "Increasing Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Urban Dog Populations of High Human Population Density Suburbs; A Case Study in Nairobi, Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1995;22:137-142.
Perry VH. "The ganglion cell layer of the retina of the rat: a {Golgi} study." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a Biological character. Royal Society (Great Britain). 1979;204:363-375. Abstract

In whole-mounts of Golgi stained rat retinae four cell types are described in the ganglion cell layer. Three of these cell types are considered to be analogous to the alpha, delta and gamma cells described in the cat retina by Boycott & Wässle (1974). The fourth cell type is thoughtt to be a displaced amacrine cell. All the cell types described are present in all parts of the retina. There is no evidence for an increase in dendritic field size with increasing distance from the optic disk.

PeRRin MR. "Niche separation in African parrots.". In: Proceedings of the 12th Pan-African ornithological congress. Avian Demographic Unit RawsonvilleCape Town; 2008:. Abstract
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Perez M-TR, Caminos E. "Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of its functional receptor in neonatal and adult rat retina." Neuroscience Letters. 1995;183:96-99. AbstractWebsite

The expression of mRNA coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and for its functional receptor, the full-length tyrosine kinase receptor trkB (trkB mRNA), was examined in early postnatal and adult rat retina by in situ hybridization using digoxygenin and radioactively-labeled oligonucleotide probes. BDNF and trkB mRNAs are expressed in the ganglion cell layer at postnatal-days (PN) 1, 4, 7, 14, 60, in proximal neuroblastic layer (PN 1, 4, 7), and proximal inner nuclear layer (PN 14, 60). Subpopulations of developing and mature retinal cells are thus capable of synthesizing BDNF.

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