Publications

Found 1392 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is P  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O [P] Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
P
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & D.L. Hawksworth. Glifford Gerald Hansford. Trop. Pl. Path. 7(2): 20-23.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & J.O. Kokwaro. Meliola icacinacearum and M. kerichoensis, spp. Nov. from Kenya. Mycol. Res. 102(11):1418-1420.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1998.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Gough, F.J.; L.L. Singleton; T.S. Lee, and R.K. Mibey. Tan spot development in wheat cultivar Triumph 64 grown under three tillage systems. Phytopathology 71: 220.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1981.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Bii, C., G.M. Siboe & R.K. Mibey. Plant essential oils with promising antifungal activity. E. Afric. Med. J. 77(6):319-322.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 2000.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. Entomosporium fruit and leaf spot disease of loquat in Kenya K. J. Sc. & Tech. (B). 9:73-78.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Karanja, T.W.; A.W. Mwang.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey,R.K. African Mycological Association. Mycologist 9: 31-32.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Harharan, G.N.; R.K Mibey & D.L. Hawksworth. A new species of Lichenopelthella on Porina in India. Lichenologist 28: 294-296.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1996.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & D.L. Hawksworth. Meliolaceae and Asterinaceae of the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Mycol. Papers 174: 1-108.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1997.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Mibey, R.K. & P.F. Cannon. Biotrophic fungi from Kenya. Ten new species and some new records of Meliolaceae. Cryptogamie, Mycol. 20(4): 249-282.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1999.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Otieno, N.C. & R.K. Mibey. Leaf blight disease of strawberries in Kenya caused by Dendrophoma obscurans. K.J. Sc. & Tech. (B). 9:111-114.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1988.
PROF. MIBEY RICHARDK. "Isanda, G.O.; A.W. Mwang.". In: Yair Ben-Dov & C.J. Hodgson. World Crop Pests, 7A. Elsevier. Amsterdam. Pp 275-20. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Volume of ligamentum capitis femoris in osteoarthritis of the hip joints of adult dogs. Journal of South African Veterinary Medical Association. 74 (1) 11-13.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "C.M. Mulei and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1998). A comparison of the clinical hematological values of healthy adult beef and dairy cattle at Kabete. The Kenya Veterinarian, Vol. 13 pp. 33-34.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

Clinical hematological values have been established for healthy cattle of several breeds in various parts of the world. However, values of some blood components differ between laboratories (Schalm 1980) creating a problem when interpreting blood profiles for any particular area if the normal blood component values for the area are not known.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.J.M. Munyua, S.M. Mbiuki and E.G. Mogoa (1991). Large animal abdominal hernias.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, E. Zeyhle, J.K. Magambo, P.M.F. Mbithi and J.M. Gathuma. (2004). Evaluation of cost of ultrasound surveys for cystic echinococcosis in goats in a nomadic pastoral community. International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 100-102.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was carried to evaluate the cots of performing ultrasound surveys I goats in a nomadic set-up. The cost of ultrasound examination was determined by calculating how much money was required to perform a scan per goat. This was based on purchase price of portable ultrasound equipment, clippers/shavers, electric cables, and electric generator. It was also based on recurrent expenditure on items that are used during ultrasound examination. A total of 472 animal were examined I ultrasound, out of which 15 were identified to have cystic echinococcosis. In 12 (80.0%) animals, the cysts were thin-walled unilocular (TCE1) while in 3 (20.0%0 animals, they appeared as thick-walled unilocular structures (TCE4). Calcification appeared as hyper echoic ring in the cyst wall in 1 (6.7%) animal. Multiple unilocular cysts (TCE3) separated by the liver parenchyma were imaged in 13 (86.7%) animals. Single miltiloculated cysts (TCE2) appeared in 1 (6.7%) animal while multiple multiloculated cysts were observed in 1 (6.7%) animal. Cost of ultrasound examination per goat was found to be US$ 0.714. The technique could determine the presence, size, nature and exact location of the Echonococcus cysts. Although the initial cost of ultrasound equipment was high, the running costs were inexpensive compared to other diagnostic tests. The cost of ultrasound examination per animal was however inversely proportional to the number of animals scanned.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W. Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi and N.K.R. Musimba (2000). Preliminary study of three medicinal plants used as antihelmintics for livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet districts, Kenya. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 81-93.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "The ability of Phenylbutazone and dexamethazone to modulate postoperative phenomena in cattle. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp. 29-32.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The ability of Phenylbutazone and Dexamethazone to modulate post operative tempetature, limping, joint pain and joint mobility after joint surgery in calves was assessed. Intramuscular injections of 4.4mg/kg Phenylbutazone or 0.2 mg/kg Dexamethazone were given to two groups of calves. Both Dexamethazone and Phenybutazone were effective in reducing pain, limping and fever with a tendency fo Dexamethazone to be more potent than Phenylbutazone. However there was no significant difference between the ability of Dexamethazone and Phenylbitazone to module these controlled use of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the immediate post-operative period in cattle in beneficial.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1995). Studies on pseudoarthrosis of the bovine metacarpophalangeal joints; Ph.D. Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1995. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1987). Alternatives in the management of limb wounds in cattle; M.V.Sc. Thesis in Veterinary Anesthesiology Radiology and Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2001). The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver. (2001) 72(2): 64-67.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, I.B.J. Buoro, S.W Mbugua and P.M.F. Mbithi, (1998). Experimental models of osteoarthritis. Kenya Veterinary Journal, 23 (4) pp. 91-94.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, Charles M. Mulei and G.M. Magoa (2003). Restraint of Domestic, Wild and Laboratory Animals: A manual for students, practitioners and animal handlers. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2003. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF, K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiyah, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua (1998). An outbreak of urticarial form of swine erysipelas in a medium-scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. J.S. Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 69 (2) 61-64.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi and J.V. Bailey (1991). Comparative healing of nitrofurazone bandage treated and untreated skin wounds of cattle. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 93-96.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

The healing of untreated and Nitrofurazone bandage treated excisional skin wounds on the metatarsal and/or metacarpal regions of cows were compared. There was no difference in the rate of wound healing and epithelization between the untreated and treated wounds healing and epithelialization between the untreated and treated wounds (P<0.05), but contraction was greater in the treated wounds (P>0.05). The untreated wounds did not produce exuberant granulation tissue and healed with thick firm scars. The treated wounds grew excessive granulation tissue and healed with thin friable scars that were very easilyt disrupted. Results suggested that skin lacerations on the distal limbs of healthy cattle do not benefit from topical antibiosis and or bandaging.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi, P.M.F. Mbithi, D.O. Kihurani, S.M. Mbiuki (1999). Prognostic indicators and economic implications of advanced bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery. The Kenya Veterinarian 14 , 23-25.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1999. Abstract

The productive life span of animals is shortened and the carcass devaluated by ocular squamous cell carcinoma. This causes remarkable economic losses in the cattle industry, particularly because the disease is most common at the peak of production (Farris and Fraunfelder 1976; cordy 1978). The carcinoma lesion initially involves the third eyelid, then spreads to the globe (Fox 1963), the eyelids (spradbrow and Hoffmann 1980), and even the orbital bones (Brier, Kleinschuster, and Corbett 1979).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D. O. Kihurani, V. M. Nantulya, S. M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P. M. F. Mbithi. Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF, M DRMUNYUASJ. "J.K. Wabacha, C.M. Mulei, M.N. Kyule, K.H. Zessin, P.M.F. Mbithi, W.K. Munyua and J.M. Maribei. (2004). Helminthosis in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 29-33.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani. (2000). Clinical and experimental evaluation of yohimbine for the reversal of xylazine anaesthesia in goats. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 69-72.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Mechanical strength of some plaster of Paris casts. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, Salvagyps, Helm, Plasrum-gyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on breaking strength. Helm plaster of Paris had a significantly higher mean maximum load compared to all the other products (p-0.050. Plasrun-gyps supported the highest mean maximum load per unit thickness. Based on this study, Helm and Plasrun-gyps are recommended as more suitable for cast application on the basis of their superior breaking strength.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Ernest Njoroge, Peter Mbithi, Timothy Wachira, Joseph Gathuma, Peter Gathura, T E Maitho, Japhet Magambo, Eberhard Zeyhle (2005) Comparative Study of Albendazole and Oxfendazole in the Treatment of Cystic Echinococcosis in Sheep and Goats. International J.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of teo drugs, albendazole and oxfendazole in treatment of cystic echinococcosis using naturally infected sheep and goats. Fifteen (15) animals were randomly selected into 3 groups of 5 animals each, with each group having 2 sheep and 3 goats respectively. Two groups were treated orally with either albendazole of oxfendaole at 30 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 4 weeks while the third group served as controls. Ultrasound and post mortem examination of the animals , and microscopic examination of protoscolices for eosin dye exclusion and flame cell motility were used to determine the efficacy of the two drugs. Ultrasound examination revealed that 4 animals in the albendazole group and 3 in oxfendazole group had decreased cyst viability (p<0.05). There were no changes in idendifiable cysts of control animals. Microscopic ecaminaiton showed that 60.9% (14/23) of the cysts from albendazole group had dead protoscolices compared to 93.3% (14/15) and 27.3% (3/11) for oxfendazole and control groups respectively. There were no significant differences between the effect of either albendazole or oxfendazole between sheep and goats. In the present study , oxfendazole has a higher efficacy (93.3%) than albendazole (60.7%) when administered at the same dosage rate (30mg/kg-body weight) and for the same period 9twice weekly for 4 weeks). Based on the findings in this study, exfendazole seems promising as an alternative drug for treatment of cystic echinococcosis.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Njoroge E.M., Maxson-Sage A., Wachira T.M., Zelye E.E., Weber E.P., Smith G., P.M.F. Mbithi and Gathuma J.M. (2000). Determination of sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in diagnosis of hydatid cysts in the liver and right lung of sheep and goa.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Ultrasound examination of the liver and right lung followed by postmortem examination was performed in 300 animals (16 sheep and 284 goats). Thirty one (10.3%) were positive for hydatid cysts on ultrasound examination and 46 (15.3%) were positive on postmortem examination. Twenty-one hydatid positives on postmortem examination were falsely identified as negatives on ultrasound examination. Of the 254 animals negative on postmortem examination 6 (2.4%) were falsely identified as positive on ultrasound examination. The Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination in detection of hydatid cysts in sheep and goats was 54.36% and 97.645 respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.64% while the negative predictive value was 92.19%.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1994). Clinical evaluation of casting bandages available in Kenya. Bull. Amim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 42, 103-107.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P. M. F. Mbithi (1985) The use of skin grafts in the treatment of wounds of the distal limbs in cattle; M.Sc.Thesis in Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1985. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani D. (2001). Alpha-2-adrenoceptor agonists in veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 22 pp. 82-90.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi (1998). An overview of postgraduate training in veterinary clinics worldwide. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 217-221.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). The breaking strength and resistance to abrasion of some plaster of Paris Casing bandages. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 143-146.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. C.M. Mulei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases of Food Animals. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.. AWC and FES; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Nduhiu and J.K. Mahia (1998). Incidence of animal skin surface infections and its correlation to environmental contamination: a clinical and experimental study. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 221-224.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi, Peter M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1991). Necrosis and sloughing of skin associated with limb cellulitis in 4 cows and a calf; predisposing causes, treatment and prognosis. Vet. Rec. 129, 129-195.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Four cows and a calf with non-suppurative limb cellulitis were observed subsequently to suffer skin necrosis and sloughing in the affected limbs, either on or distal to the metacarpus or metatarsus. In comparison with six cows with suppurative Corynebacterium pyogenes limb cellulitis, topical therapy or the cases with skin necrosis and sloughing was adequate and the prognosis was good, when compared with the rigorous systemic therapy applied to the cows with suppurative cellulitis, some of which died. The skin necrosis and sloughing resulting from limb cellulitis seemed to be encouraged by the paucity of tissue between the skin and the bone, by poor vascularity of the area and by the causative bacteria.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Mogoa E.G.M. and P.M.F. Mbithi (2004). Pain and its Management in Animals. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 27 pp.10-14.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1999). Anaesthesia in urinary tract disease. The Kenya Veterinarian 14, 28-31.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1999.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi (1991). Comparative healing of untreated and saline bandage treated skin wounds of cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 39, 191-194.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.M. Wachira, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2004). Ethyl Alcohol: Is it necessary in the P.A.I.R Technique? International Archives of the Hydatidosis Vol. 35 pp. 149-150.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in the pair technique using sheep and goat modes. A total of 6 animals (4 sheep and 2 goats) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 3 animals each (2 sheep and 1 goat). In the first group (test group), 7 cysts were punctured in vivo, cyst fluid drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol while the second group (controls) 9 cysts were only punctured and cysts fluid drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. The animals were then monitored for one month. Ultrasound showed that in both groups there was collapse of the endocysts after cyst puncture. One month later, the cysts showed decrease in size, increased echogenicity, and completed or partial detachment of the endcoyst. Post mortem examination showed that in 95% ethyl alcohol group (test group), the cysts were grossly degenerated with marked fibrosis of the surroundings liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic fluid and degenerated endocysts. On microscopic examination of the cyst fluid, the protocols were dead, with detached hooks, in the puncture only group (control group), the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of these cysts showed clear fluid with intact endcoysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protocoleces were dead with detachments of hooks. A histopathological examination of the test group showed marked host cell reaction consisting of infiltration of the adventiatl layer with neutrophils, eosinophils, and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was severely destroyed and replaced with you and disorganised fibroblasts and mesenchmal cess. In most necrotic areas, the laminate layer could not be collected together with adherent liver tissue and the adventiatil layer appeared completely degenerate and was replaced by acute inflammatory cells. In the control group, there was detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia. Additionally inflammatory cells were observed in the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less than in the test group. Inflammatory cells were identified only in small parts of the liver tissues while most of the tissues were intact with hepatocytes being predominant in an organised appearance. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscholeces, possibly due to detachment of the endocyst used; more studies need to be carried out to verify the necessity for using ethyl alcohol in PAIR techniques.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2000). Application of ultrasonography in prevalence studies of hydatid cysts in goats in Northwestern Turkana, Kenya and Toposoland, Southern Sudan. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

A study was done to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats using ultrasonogrphy. A total of 1390 goats were examined, 43.6% (606/1390) of them from northwestern Turkana, Kenya, and 56.4% (784/1390) from Toposland, Southern Sudan. Hydatid custs were visualized in 1.82% (11/606) of the goats from north-western Turkana and 4.34% (34/784) of those from Toposaland. Unlike abattoir surveys, the prevalence data obtained in this study were unbiased because entire flocks were examined. The lower prevalence rate of the disease in goats from Turkana was attributed to the hydatid disease control programme in that area, which is absent in Toposaland.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). The resistance to abrasion of Plaster of Paris casts P.M.F. Mbithi and S.M. Mbiuki (1993). Radiological evaluation of plaster cast bandages. Bull. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 41, 151-153.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Five plaster of Paris casting bandages including Nairobi Enterprises, salvagyps, helm, Plasrunpgyps and Veronese, available on the Kenyan market were evaluated based on their resistance to abrasion. The mean loss in mass per square area for Nairobi enterprises and Salvagyps was significantly lower (P<0.05) indicating that these two products were more resistance to abrasion. A new method of evaluation of resistance to abrasion is also described.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.E Maitho and N.K.R. Musimba (2004). Potential use of plant antihelmintics for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 14-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2000). Evaluation of 4-aminopyridine for the reversal of xylazine sedation in goats. Israel J. Vet. Med. 35 (1) pp. 23-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

An assessment of the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on xylazine-induced sedation in goats was done. Twelve small clinically healthy East African goats were used. The goats were randomly divided into two groups of six animals. Xylazine was administered intramuscularly (IM) at 0.44mg/kg. Group 1 goats were given 1ml water for injection intravenously (IV) and served as the controls. Group 2 goats were given 0.15 percent 40AP at 0.4 mg/kg IV and served as the test group. The heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, the standing times, total recovery times, pain sensation, pedal as well as the palpebral reflexes and the recovery phenomena were assessed. There was a faster return to near normal values of heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, sensation to pain and re-appearance of reflexes in the 4-AP treated goats compared with the controls. The mean standing times (MST) and mean total recovery times (MTRT) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). However, 4-AP produced rough recovery phenomena that were undesirable. The results indicated that 4-AP is a potent reversal agent for sedation caused by xylazine in goats.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.O. Kihurani, V.M. Nantulya, S.M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1994). Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolese and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth., Prod. 26 95-101.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, P.M.F. Mbithi, et al (2005). Some clinical features of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of adult dogs in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 28 pp.20-22.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi (1998). Occurrence of dermatomycosis (Ringworm) due to trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 213-2.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.A. Nguhiu-Mwangi and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1990). Effect of location on severity and prognosis of limb cellulitis in cows. Vet. 125, 152.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1990. Abstract

Five plasters and one fiberglass casting bandages available on the Kenyan market were evaluated for breaking strength and resistance to abrasion. Under the test conditions, scotch cast was found to be 2.6 times stronger than the strongest plaster of Paris preparation when the load per unit thickness was compared and was significantly different from the plaster casts in terms of maximum load (p=0.0001). Among the plaster products, there were significant statistical differences (p=0.029) in maximum strength with Helm and Plasrum-gyps withstanding the greatest load. Scotchcast was the most resistant to abrasion while among the plaster product, Salvaplast and POP-Nairobi Enterprises showed satisfactory resistance Heal, Plasrun-gyps and Veronese proved least resistant under the testing conditions.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "E.M. Njoroge, P.M.F. Mbithi, J.M. Gathuma, T.M. Wachira, P.B. Gachura, J.K. Magambo and E. Zeyhle (2002). A study of systic echinococcosis in slaughter animals in three selected areas of Northern Turkana. VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY. 104: 85-91.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2002. Abstract

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "J.D. Mande, I.B.J. Buoro, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.W. Mbugua (1998). Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans in the treatment of osteorthritis in animals. Kenya Veterinary Journal 23 (4) pp. 95-98.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "Peter M.F. Mbithi, S.M. Mbiuki, J.A. Nguhiu Mwangi and D.O. Kihurani (1991). Non-fracture lameness in cattle: A retrospective study. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 39, 307-309.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1991. Abstract

Out of 3,278 bovine cases seen and treated at the large animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (LAC-UON), 549 (16.74%) had non-fracture lameness (NFL). Foot lameness contributed to 65% of the NFL and the commonest cause of the foot lameness (37.34%) was septic arthritis of the distal interphalengeal joint. The data is being used to establish examination, therapeutic and preventive protocol to be followed in hospital as well as on farm herd health programs.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile Fish Species in Mtwapa Creek, Kenya.". In: Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 3, No. 2. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth and moulting of captive Panulirus homarus homarus in Kenya, western Indian Ocean.". In: New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, Vol. 39: 539-549. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kulmiye1 AJ, KM Mavuti and JC Groeneveld. 2006. Size at onset of maturity of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus homarus at Mambrui, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science. 2006, 28(1): 51-55. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Dynamics of Suspended Sediment Exchange and Transport in a Degraded Mangrove Creek in Kenya.". In: Ambio, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, pp. 580-587, 2002. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Kitheka J U, R. G. Angwenyi and K.M. Mavuti.  . .
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Heavy Metal Distribution in Surface Sediments from Mtwapa and Shirazi Creeks, Kenyan Coast.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70:1220-1227 (2003). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Ecohydrology to guide the management of a tropical protected area.". In: Lake Naivasha, Kenya: . Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology 4:255-273. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Comparing macrophyte herbivory by introduced Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) and native Dytiscid beetles (Cybister tripunctatus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Aquatic Science 30(2):. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kones, J., Soetaert, K., Van Oevelen, D., Owino, J.O., Mavuti, K. 2006. Gaining insight into aquatic food webs reconstructed by the inverse method: A factor analysis approach.". In: Journal of Marine Systems 60 (2006) 153. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high-altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Lakes and Reservoirs.". In: Research and Management 2002 7:1-12. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Occurrence of Heavy Metal Pollutants in sediments from Makupa and Port-Reitz Creek systems.". In: Kenyan Coast. Environ. Internat. Vol: 28 (2003) 639-647. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Bathymetry of Lake Bogoria, Kenya.". In: Journal of East African Natural History 92, 107-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstractbathymetry_of_lake_bogoria_kenya.pdf

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}
Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis.". In: African Journal of Aquatic Science 2005, 30(2). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera L. in Gazi Bay, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science 27(3). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Abundance and Population Structure of the Blacklip Pearl Oyster, Pinctada margaritifera L. 1758 (Bivalvia: Pteriidae).". In: Coastal Kenya Volume 1, Issue 2, 169-179. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Chemical Characteristics, with particular reference to phosphorus, of the rivers draining into Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". In: Hydrobiologia. 488:57-71. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa Creek and Funzi Bay, Kenya.". In: Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Volume 2, Issue 2, 16-26. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary; 264pp 1998 East African Educ. Publ.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa Ed. 1, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Classification of East African Crops, Nairobi,.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "The distribution and economic importance of the mangrove forests in Kenya.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1985. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal plants of East Africa. Kenya, Literature Bureau Nairobi.". In: Establishing Quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany 44(3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa Ed. 2, Nairobi.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1993. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo Biological Dictionary (Jointly authored with Prof. Timothy Johns of McGill University, Canada).". In: A well researched ethnobiological lexicon describing all the plants and animals known to and used by the Luo community in East Africa. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo-English Botanical Dictionary, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, 3rd Edition.". In: Proceedings of 5th of African Crop Science Conference. Lagos Nigeria. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal Plants of East Africa, East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi, p.223.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Rutaceae (Orange family) of East African flora, London,.". In: Journal of the East African Natural history Society 75:1-12. University of Nairobi Press; 1982. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Food plants of the Luo Siaya district, Kenya. Economic Botany 45: 103-113.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1991. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Flowering Plant Families of East Africa, Nairobi, 1994 (Special mention in the NOMA Award for best Publications in Africa).". In: A well researched ethnobiological lexicon describing all the plants and animals known to and used by the Luo community in East Africa. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Geraniaceae of East African flora, London,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1971. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Indigenous Snake Bite Remedies Of The Luo Of Western Kenya;.". In: Journal Of Ethnobiology Volume 25, Issue 1 (March 2005) Pp. 129. University of Nairobi Press; 2005. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1976. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Economic importance and local use of the Kenyan mangroves.". In: Proceedings of the Kenyan Seminar on Agroforestry. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 377-386. University of Nairobi Press; 1980. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Anacardiaceae (Mango family) of East African flora, London.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: Establishing Quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany 44(3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Flowering Plant Families of East Africa.". In: An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy; 292pp. ill. 1994 East African Educ. Publ. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya, JI Kinyamario and CN Karue. Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 15-21. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI. "J. I. Kinyamario, T. P. Wang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 127-133. EAMJ; 2008.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Occurrence of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosu s.l. Diptera: Simuliidae in nine river system in Kenya.". In: Journal of Medical Entomology, 23:111-112. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum transmission by vector populations and the incidence of severe disease at mine sites on the Kenya Coast.". In: Am. J. Trop. Med.Hyp., 52 (3): 201-206. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1995.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Resistance of cowpea varieties to the legume bud Thrip Megalurothrips sjostedti (tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Trhripidae) in Kenya.". In: Kenya J. Sci.& Tech. Series B., 2: 3-7. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1980. Abstract
n/a
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Sampling techniques for Populations of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Homoptera).". In: Kenya Sci. & Tech., 3:9-18. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
n/a
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Charasterization of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum s.l. populations from six river systems in Kenya by cellulose acetate eletate electrophoresis.". In: Trans.R. Soc.Trop. Med & Hyg. 80: 914-922. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1986.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Biochemical identification of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) pedifer and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) elegonensis.". In: Bioch system. & ecol., 16 (1/8): 655-659. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988.sf07230719.pdf
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology for Development.". In: Proceedings of Seminar, 21-24 March, Nairobi, 215pp. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
n/a
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Establishment of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (L) (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on some host trees.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Tech.3:61-68. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
n/a
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Populurothrips dynamic and seasonal incidence of the legume bud thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Thripicae) in cowpea fields in Kenya.". In: Kenya J. Sci. & Tech: 5 (1&2) 15-25, 1984. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1984.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Mermithidae (Nematoda) infection of the aquatic stages of Simulium (Edwardsellum) from the Nine river systems in Kenya.". In: Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash., 54 (1): 156-157. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1987.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Science and Technology and the Future.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium, 10-12 July, Nairobi, Kenya. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1979. Abstract
n/a
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Insecticide evaluation against the Legume bud Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Tryb.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).". In: Kenya J. Sci & Tech. 4 (1): 35-42. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1983.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Factors influencing differential larval habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a western Kenyan village.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O. Mala & Lucy W. Irungu; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background & objectives: The study was undertaken to characterize factors influencing differential productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in a rural village in western Kenya . Methods: Longitudinal larval sampling was done using an area sampler for 3 months. Emerged adults were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nutrient content was analyzed using persulphate oxidation method. Water pH was measured using an Orion pH/conductivity meter. Turbidity was measured using a Hach 2100A turbidity meter. Algal count density was estimated using a sedge-wick rafter cell.   Results: A total 3367 larvae were harvested. Out of 500 adults subjected to PCR analysis 358 (71.6%) were Anopheles gambiae s.s., 127 (25.4%) An. arabiensis while PCR amplification failed for 15 (3%) specimens.  Rainwater pools were the most productive habitat type. There was a positive association between algal density and larval density (p<0). Total nitrogen, water pH and turbidity were positively correlated with larval density (p<0.01) and pH was negatively associated with larval density.   Conclusion: Results indicate water nutrient and algal content in larval habitats of An. gambiae play crucial, dual roles in the resource ecology of these mosquitoes. Overall, the findings of this study support the notion that anti-larval source reduction measures aimed at manipulating physicochemical variables in larval habitats to eliminate larval production have a chance of succeeding in an integrated vector control program.   Key words Anopheles gambiae; larval productivity, nutrients; rainwater pools
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch) Sorok and Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Philip M. Ngumbi 1,2, Lucy W. Irungu2, Paul N. Ndegwa2 & Nguya K. Maniania3 1Kenya Medical Research; 2011.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "IN VITRO EFFECTS OF WARBURGIA UGANDENSIS, PSIADIA PUNCTULATA AND CHASMANTHERA DEPENDENS ON LEISHMANIA MAJOR PROMASTIGOTES.". In: Afr. J. Trad. CAM 7 (3): 264-275. Edward K. Githinji, Lucy W. Irungu, Willy K. Tonui, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Charles Mutai, Charles N. M; 2010. Abstract

Plant extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Family: Canellaceae), Psiadia punctulata Vatke (Family: Compositae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hoschst (Family: Menispermaceae) were tested for activity on Leishmania major promastigotes (Strain IDU/KE/83 = NLB-144) and infected macrophages in vitro. Plants were collected from Baringo district, dried, extracted, weighed and tested for antileishmanial activity. Serial dilutions of the crude extracts were assayed for their activity against Leishmania major in cell free cultures and in infected macrophages in vitro. Inhibitory concentrations and levels of cytotoxicity were determined. Warburgia ugandensis, Psiadia punctulata and Chasmanthera dependens had an IC(50) of 1.114 mg/ml, 2.216 mg/ml and 4.648 mg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the drugs on BALB/c peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant as compared to the highly toxic drug of choice Pentostam(®). The supernatants from control and Leishmania infected macrophages were analyzed for their nitrite contents by Griess reaction and nitrite absorbance measured at 540 nm. Warburgia ugandensis (stem bark water extract), Chasmanthera dependens (stem bark water extract) and Psiadia punctulata (stem bark methanol extract) produced 112.3%, 94% and 88.5% more nitric oxide than the untreated infected macrophages respectively. Plant crude extracts had significant (p<0.05) anti-leishmanial and immunomodulative effects but insignificant cytotoxic effects at 1mg/ml concentration. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of the differences between mean values obtained from the experimental group compared to the controls was done by students't test. ANOVA was used to determine the differences between the various treatment groups. The analysis program Probit was used to determine IC(50)s.

PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Nocturnal activities of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psydhodidae) in Baringo District, Kenya. Submitted to TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Ngumbi PM, Robert LL, Irungu LW, Kaburi JC, Githure JI; 2010.
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Muriu S.M., Shilulu J.I., Muturi E.J., Irungu l.W., Mwangangi J.M., Mukabana R.W., Jacob B.G., Githure J.I., and Novak R.J., (2008). Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, .". In: Malaria Journal 7:43. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Studies were conducted between April 2004 and February 2006 to determine the blood-feeding pattern of anopheles mosquitoes in Mwea Kenya. Samples were collected indoors by pyrethrum spay catch and outdoors by Centers for Disease Control light traps and processed for blood meal analysis by an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. A total of 3.333 blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes representing four Anopheles species were collected and 2.796 of the samples were assayed, with Anopheles arabiensis comprising 76.2% (n=2.542) followed in decreasing order by Anopheles coustani 8.9% (n=297), Anopheles pharoensis 8.2 % (n=272) and anopheles funestus 6.7% (n=222).  All mosquito species had a high preference for bovine (range 56.3-71.4%) over human (range 1.1-23.9%) or goat (0.1-2.2%) blood meals.  Some individuals from all the four species were found to contain mixed blood meals.  The bovine blood index (BBI) for An. arabiensis was significantly higher for populations collected indoors (71.8%), than populations collected outdoors (41.3%), but the human blood index (HBI) did not differ significantly between the two populations.  In contrast, BBI for indoor collected An. funestus (51.4%) was significantly lower than for outdoor collected populations (78.8%) and the HBI was significantly higher indoors (28.7%) than outdoors (2.4%).  Anthropophily of An. funestus was lowest within the rice scheme, moderate in unplanned rice agro-ecosystem, and highest within the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem.  Anthropophily of An. Arabiensis was significantly higher in the non-irrigated agro-ecosystem than in the other agro-ecosystems. These findings suggest that rice cultivation has an effect on host choice by Anopheles mosquitoes.  The study further indicate that zooprophylaxis may be a potential strategy for malaria control, but there is need to assess how domestic animals may influence arboviruses epidemiology before adapting the strategy.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Nyongesa, F.W. and Aduda, B.O., (`An Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Clay Refractories'.". In: AJST Series B vol.7 (2) July, P 53-57. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Spectral Analysis of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves for Defect Sizing.". In: ' NDT & International Vol. 94 No.4, PP. 237-240, August issue. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Stability of anthocyanin sensitized TiO2 photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells prepared by sol gel process.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science & Engineering Series 3(2) 2003, 56-61. Physica Status Solidi; 2003. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "A.A. Ogacho, B.O. Aduda and F.W. Nyongesa (Dec. ), Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinite Refractory Prepared Using a Natural Organic Binder,.". In: Journal of Materials Science, 41(24) 8276 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of the Effect of Porosity of a Sintered Glass System' J.". In: Mater. Sci. 29, 2297 - 2303. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. and R.D. Rawlings, `Monitoring the Effects of Inclusions in Model Glass Systems Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Techniques,.". In: British Ceramic Transactions 95 (1), 10-14. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "(13) Aduda B.O. and F.W. Nyongesa, () .". In: Ceramic Transactions, 99(5) 206 . Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2000. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "O. Aduda, Materials Science, Promotion of Science and Technology (POST).". In: .), Vol. XII No. 1, p19 . Physica Status Solidi; 2006. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O. `A Case for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Materials in Kenya',.". In: Discovery and Innovation 6(1), 40. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O., D.R. Newman and E.M. Ayiera, `Thermal Conductivity of Particulate Insulators: Effect of Particle Size Distribution, Moisture Content and Binders.". In: KJST Series A 13 (1-2), 116-129. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Aduda, B.O.,ffective thermal conductivity of loose particulate systems'.". In: Journal of Materials Science 31, pp 6441-6448. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996. Abstract
n/a
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O, M. PROFMWABORAJULIUS, JUSTUS DRSIMIYU. "Anthocyanin Sensitized Nanoporous TiO2 PEC Solar Cells Prepared by Sol Gel Process.". In: Progr Colloid Polym Sci. 125, 34-37. Physica Status Solidi; 2004. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Waita S.M.,Aduda, B.O., Mwabora, J.M., Granqvist, C.G., Lindquist, S.E.,Niklasson, G.A., Hagfeldt, A., Boaschloo G. (2007)Electron Transportand Recombination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputter Deposited and Thermally Annealed .". In: Journal of Electroanalytic Chemistry, 605, 151-156. Physica Status Solidi; 2007. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of Model Defects in Model Ceramics and Ceramic Composites',.". In: Ph.D Thesis, University of London,. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
n/a
Prof Henry Mutembei, Dr Michael Okoti DKODBKDCL’aho. Kenya Climate Smart Research for Sustainable Agriculture and Livelihoods. Naivasha Resort: Wold Bank and Kenya Government; 2021.
PROF CAMBERLIN PIERRE, DR GITAU WILSON, DR OETTLI PASCAL, PROF OGALLO LABAN, DR BOIS BENJAMIN. "Spatial interpolation of daily rainfall stochastic generation parameters over East Africa." Climate Research. 2014;59(1):39-60.Abstract weblink
Prof, Wamutiso K. "Culture shock in South Korea.". In: Korean Studies Conference. Safari Club (Lilian Towers), Nairobi, KENYA; 2014.
Prof, Wamutiso K. "Viongozi.". In: An Institute of Kiswahili Research Journal.; 2006.
Prodehl C, Jacob AWB, Thybo H, Dindi E, Stangl R. "Crustal structure on the northeastern flank of the Kenya rift." Tectonophysics. 1993;236:271-290. Abstract

The KRISP flank line E converges with the Kenya rift at an angle of about 45° and is approximately parallel to the older Anza graben to the north. The depth to the basement is almost zero along the entire onshore part of the profile with higher velocities at the southeastern end indicative of extensive Precambrian gabbroic intrusions in the upper crust. The Moho shallows steadily from about 35 km at the southeastern end of the profile to about 24 km under-Lake Turkana. Even though the Moho rises fairly steadily, there is significant heterogeneity in the crust above it. This shows that the extension is unevenly distributed between the upper and the lower crust. The Moho is laminated and variably reflective. Compared to the KRISP cross-line D further south, the crust is unexpectedly thin and shows extension increasing in a northerly direction. This extension is probably not associated with the Anza and Kenya rifting but with the profile’s position on the slope of the Kenya dome. The indications are that there is a relatively abrupt change to a 20-km Moho depth near the Lake Turkana Central shotpoint. This change to a mid-rift crustal thickness occurs not at the postulated margin at the southeastern shore of Lake Turkana but at least 50 km further to the northwest. We suggest that the position of this margin may need to be redefined. The Pn velocity is quite high at 8.1 km/s. This may indicate either a cold upper mantle or anisotropy. An upper-mantle reflector has been identified between 15 and 20 km below the Moho. It dips gently away from the rift.

Priscilla N, Karani A, Waithera M. "Reciprocal Relationship between Cancer Pain and Performance of Activities of Living." International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2014;2(1):53-57.
Prisca J. "The role of indigenous languages in understanding Kiswahili proverbs." The University of nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2016;5(2224-1655):161-173.
Prisca J. "A Comparative Account of Possession Expression in Tugen and Kiswahili." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2019;7(2):55-62.
Prisca J. "Case marking in Tugen." Nilo-Saharan-Models & Descriptions. 2015;28:37-47.
Price MA, Rida W MMMROHSBLGANSCMGKS, Amornkul PN SEJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2012;59(2):185-93.
Price B, Elliott G, Ogot M. "Experimental optimization of transverse jet injector geometries for mixing into a supersonic flow.". In: 29th AIAA, Fluid Dynamics Conference.; 1998:. Abstract

Preliminary experiments were performed in a supersonic wind tunnel at a Mach number of
3.0 in which transverse injection into a crossflow was optimized. The method is used to find
the locations of circular cross section holes which provide optimum mixing. The holes were
located on injector disks which could be fabricated on a rapid prototyping stereolithography
system. The injected gas, seeded with ethanol vapor, is illuminated at various locations
downstream using an ND: YAG pulsed laser providing spanwise images of the injected …

Price MA;, Rida W;, Mwangome M;, Mutua G;, Middelkoop K;, Roux S;, Okuku HS;, Bekker LG;, Anzala O;, Ngugi EN;, Stevens, G; Chetty P;, Amornkul PN;, Sanders EJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.". 2012. Abstract

To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2008, 3023 volunteers were screened, 2113 enrolled, and 1834 contributed data on HIV incidence. MSM had the highest HIV incidence rate of 6.8 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 9.2] followed by women in Kilifi and Cape Town (2.7 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.2). No seroconversions were observed in Nairobi women or men in Nairobi or Cape Town who were not MSM. In 327 MSM, predictors of HIV acquisition included report of genital ulcer (Hazard Ratio: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 11.6), not completing secondary school education (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.2) and reporting receptive anal intercourse (HR: 8.2, 95% CI: 2.7 to 25.0). Paying for sex was inversely associated with HIV infection (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.8). 279 (13.0%) volunteers did not return after the first visit; subsequent attrition rates ranged from 10.4 to 21.8 volunteers per 100 person-years across clinical research centers. CONCLUSIONS: Finding, enrolling, and retaining risk populations for HIV prevention trials is challenging in Africa. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Pretorius B, Ambuko J, Papargyropoulou E, Schönfeldt HC. "Guiding Nutritious Food Choices and Diets along Food Systems." Sustainability. 2021;13:9501. Abstract
n/a
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Winnie Mitullah, Risper Orero, Ommeh. M. "Paratransit Operations in Nairobi: Development of Their Routes and Termini, 30th Southern African Transport Conference,." Pretoria, South Africa; 2011.
Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Ommeh. M. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of the Potential for Their Conversion into a Hybrid Transport Mode.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2011.
PRESTON CHITERE. "The Community development movement in Africa during the Colonial Period (1945-63) with emphasis on Kenya." Colonialism and Transition to Modernity in Africa. Ibrahim Babangida University, Lapai: J. Mangut and T. Wuam Publishers. 2012.
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
PRESTON CHITERE. "Termini and Routes in Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria. SA; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Declining food security among resource limited in the Mumias Sugar Scheme in Western Kenya and potential for improvement." Working with Rural Communities, 2nd Edn., Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2011.
Preston C, Cheater F, Baker R, Hearnshaw HM. "Left in limbo: patients' views on care across the primary/secondary interface.". 1999.Website
PRESTON CHITERE. "Choice of methods of farmer contact." Agricultural Administration. 1982;11(3).
PRESTON CHITERE. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria.; 2012.
Prentice HA, Porter TR PMACHFPKKKLSEJAAPNEDA, Allen S, Hunter E KRAGTIAVIAHIVRNJJ;. "HLA-B*57 versus HLA-B*81 in HIV-1 Infection: Slow and Steady Wins the Race?" J Virol. . 2013;87(7):4043-51.
Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

Prassinos NN, Galatos AD, Raptopoulos D. "A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats." Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia. 2005;32:289-296. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To compare propofol, thiopental and ketamine as induction agents before halothane anaesthesia in goats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized cross-over study. Animals Seven healthy adult female goats with mean (+/-SD; range) body mass of 38.9 +/- 3.29 kg; 35-45 kg. METHODS: The seven animals were used on 21 occasions. Each received all three anaesthetics in a randomized cross-over design, with an interval of at least 2 weeks before re-use. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous (IV) propofol (3 mg kg(-1)), thiopental (8 mg kg(-1), IV) or ketamine (10 mg kg(-1), IV). Following tracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with halothane for 30 minutes. Indirect blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases were monitored. The quality of induction and recovery, recovery times and incidence of side-effects were recorded. RESULTS: Induction of anaesthesia was smooth and uneventful, and tracheal intubation was easily performed in all but two goats receiving ketamine. Changes in cardiopulmonary variables and acid-base status were similar with all three induction agents and were within clinically acceptable limits. Mean recovery times (time to recovery of swallowing reflex and to standing) were significantly shorter, and side-effects, e.g. apnoea, regurgitation, hypersalivation and tympany, were less common in goats receiving propofol, compared with the other treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Propofol 3 mg kg(-1) IV is superior to thiopental and ketamine as an induction agent before halothane anaesthesia in goats. It provides uneventful recovery which is more rapid than thiopental or ketamine, so reduces anaesthetic risk.

Prasad SP. "The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law.". In: The Use of the Public Trust Doctrine in Environmental Law. Hyderabad India: ICFAI Press; 2008.
Prakash V, Ambuko J, Belik W, Huang J, Timmermans A. "Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems." A Report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2014. Abstract
n/a
Prakash, Teluve Nagarajarao; Mburu J;, Chandrashekar H;, Abebaw D. Analysis of Farmers' Willingness to Conserve Traditional Rice Varieties in the Western Ghats of South India.; 2013. Abstract

Conservation of crop genetic resources is a major preoccupation of the Indian government in particular and the international community at large. Drawing on a random sample of 228 farm households from two regions in the Western Ghats of Southern India, this study reports the main factors influencing farmers' willingness to conserve traditional rice varieties of different levels of survival ability (survivability). Estimated results of a logit model indicate that factors influencing decisions to conserve the varieties on-farm depend mainly on farmers' socio-economic characteristics, and vary between the two regions and among incentive or policy scenarios assumed. The factors do not however vary so much from the perspective of the survivability of the traditional rice varieties. Therefore, the study concludes that on-farm conservation in the two study areas requires a mix of different conservation strategies and policy incentives which may not be dependent on the levels of survivability of the traditional rice varieties.

Pradeep G, Ogot MM. "A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations." Quality control and applied statistics. 2008;53:69-74. Abstract

Información del artículo A compromise experimental design method for parametric polynomial response surface approximations.

Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights." Int J Nanomedicine. 2015;10:1001-18. Abstract

Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer-lipid hybrid systems, and polymer-drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology.

PP P, Leoncini L, EA R, L T. "Virus-encoded microRNA contributes to the molecular profile of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphomas." Oncotarget . 2016;7(1):224-240. AbstractWebsite

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive neoplasm characterized by consistent morphology and phenotype, typical clinical behavior and distinctive molecular profile. The latter is mostly driven by the MYC over-expression associated with the characteristic translocation (8;14) (q24; q32) or with variant lesions. Additional genetic events can contribute to Burkitt Lymphoma pathobiology and retain clinical significance. A pathogenetic role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in Burkitt lymphomagenesis has been suggested; however, the exact function of the virus is largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the molecular profiles (genes and microRNAs) of Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative BL, to identify specific patterns relying on the differential expression and role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs.First, we found significant differences in the expression of viral microRNAs and in selected target genes. Among others, we identified LIN28B, CGNL1, GCET2, MRAS, PLCD4, SEL1L, SXX1, and the tyrosine kinases encoding STK10/STK33, all provided with potential pathogenetic significance. GCET2, also validated by immunohistochemistry, appeared to be a useful marker for distinguishing EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. Further, we provided solid evidences that the EBV-encoded microRNAs (e.g. BART6) significantly mold the transcriptional landscape of Burkitt Lymphoma clones.In conclusion, our data indicated significant differences in the transcriptional profiles of EBV-positive and EBV-negative BL and highlight the role of virus encoded miRNA.

Powner D, Snyder JV, Grenvik A. "Altered pulmonary capillary permeability complicating recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1975;68:253-256. Abstract

Self-limited noncardiogenic interstitial pulmonary edema probably reflecting altered permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane is reported in a patient being treated for severe diabetic ketoacidosis. The possible etiology, associated findings, and therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by facemask are discussed.

Powell CA, Mealey BL, Deas DE, McDonnell HT, Moritz AJ. "Post-surgical infections: prevalence associated with various periodontal surgical procedures." Journal of periodontology. 2005;76:329-333. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Porkhariyal GP, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "W2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian Manifold." Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2013;3(2):119-128.w2-_recurrent_lp_-sasakian_manifold.pdf
Popescu MR, Zugun FE, Cojocaru E, Tocan L, Folescu R, Zamfir CL. "Morphometric study of aortic wall parameters evolution in newborn and child." Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie. 2013;54:399-404. Abstract

The largest artery in the human body, intimately connected to the heart, aorta is usually regarded as the major source of oxygenated blood for the circulatory system. The three concentric layers, which surround the aortic lumen-the tunics intima, media and adventitia, transform the aorta in a large elastic duct, which is irregular calibrated according to its segments. The special aortic distensibility is facilitated by its elastic circumferential lamellar complex. Any disturbance of its structural components is able to interfere with its normal and vital activity. Our study intends to reveal that the development of elastic lamellae should be regarded not only as an indispensable step for the aortic wall configuration, but also like a process in a firm connection with the rest of aortic wall components. The transition from intrauterine life to a new stage of life, childhood, has to determine an adequate adaptation of almost all the components of aortic wall, in order to sustain a consistent pulsatile blood flow. Stereological quantitative analysis of thoracic aortic fragments prelevated from newborns and children was performed in order to estimate the dynamic of vascular wall increase. We first estimated the general configuration of the thoracic aortic wall, quantifying the principal constituents; the connective tissue profile, investigated through its main elements, collagen and elastic fibers, supports the idea that each type of fiber has a distinct evolution in different groups of ages and has to be correlated with their involvement in maintaining of the aortic wall mechanical properties. Elastic fibers percentage volume was increased in both examined groups, with a small difference reported in children aorta, while collagen fibers exhibit a slow increase in children aorta. Our morphometric quantitative assessment suggests that further studies have to draw of in a precisely manner the outline of the secretory well defined function of vascular smooth muscle cells; the elucidation of the manner in which the secretory pathway for each type of fiber becomes fully adapted to every stage of aortic development will allow a new perspective in aortic pathology.

Pope FD, Michael Gatari, Ng’ang’a D, Poynter A, Blake R. "Particulate matter air pollution monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors. ." Atmos Chem and Phys. 2018.
Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Poonamjeet L, Ongeti K, Pulei A, Ogengo J, Mandela P. "Gender Related Patterns In The Shape And Dimensions Of The Foramen Magnum In An Adult Kenyan Population." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2013;2(2):138-141. Abstract

Foramen magnum is a useful landmark in the base of the skull. Its shape and dimensions show ethnic and gender differences. This data is useful in forensic medicine and anthropology but are unknown among Kenyans. Two hundred and two dry adult skulls from the Osteology Department at the National Museums of Kenya, were studied. The shape of the foramen magnum was oval, circular and polygonal in 13%, 24% and 63% of the cases respectively. The foramen magnum does not show sexual dimorphism in shape among Africans. The shape of foramen magnum cannot be used in solitude to ascertain the gender of skulls.

Poole DC, Copp SW, Ferguson SK, Musch TI. "Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses." Experimental physiology. 2013;98:1645-1658. Abstract

The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood-myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability-surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. 'Kroghian' theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be 'recruited' (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary-mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched 'capillary recruitment' hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood-muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is 'recruited' along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood-myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood-myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less.

Polline M, Mutua JM, MBUYA TO, Kyekyere E. "Recipe Development and Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene 3D Printing Filament." Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2021;11(3):47-61. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.

UoN Websites Search