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Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Olubayo FM. "Improving access to postgraduate training in Crop Protection for agricultural practitioners through distance learning at the University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: 8th Pan Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning (PCF8). Open University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2016.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J, Mwea S, Kyalo G. "Academia & Practice: A Case Study of Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Wrap.". In: Institution of Engineers Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2020.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In'vitro'activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):683.
Muthomi JW;, Mutitu EW. "Occurrence of mycotoxin producing Fusarium species and other fungi on wheat kernels harvest in selected districts of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Wheat samples collected from 5 wheat growing districts of Kenya were investigated for contamination by different fungi. Kernels were plated on agar media and the fungi that grew were identified by cultural and morphological characteristics to genus level. Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and isolates of F. graminearum were tested for mycotoxin production in culture. The major genera of fungi isolated according to decreasing frequency were Epicoccum (52.8%), Alternaria (34%), Fusarium (6%), Aspergillus (2.3%) and Penicillium (1.8%). The frequently isolated Epicoccum species was identified as E. purpurascenes. Cladosporium and Rhizopus spp. were also isolated at very low frequencies. The most frequently isolated Fusarium species were F. poae (43%), F. graminearum (39%), and F. avenaceum (8%). Other Fusarium species isolated were F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. camptoceras and F. chlamydosporium. Most isolates of F. graminearum produced mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The isolated Fusarium species are known to cause head blight in wheat resulting in mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The results therefore indicated that head blight is widely distributed at low levels in the wheat growing areas investigated. This inoculum is potentially capable of producing severe infections under optimum weather conditions.

Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Chemining´wa GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of root rot pathogens and fungicide seed treatment on nodulation and biomass accumulation." Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;7:1163-1170.
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Muthomi JW, Musyimi SL, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Occurrence of Fusarium species and associated T2-toxin in Kenyan wheat." Agricultural Sciences. 2012;3(1):24-34.
Muthomi JW;, Muinde EM;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira FM. "Integrated management of aphid-transmitted viruses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)."; 2011.
and Muthomi, J. W. NGC’waLNJK. "Mycotoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin incidence in maize from Machakos, Kenya. .". In: 11th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference . Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2008.
Muthomi JW;, Nyaga JN;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Kabira JN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Wakahiu M. "Incidence Of Aphid Transmitted Viruses In Farmer Based Seed Production In Kenya."; 2009.
Muthomi JW;, Muinde EM;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira F. "Integrated management of aphid-transmitted viruses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).". In: Agro2011. Nairobi; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nderitu JH. "Effect of chemical pesticide spray on insect pests and yield of food grain legumes."; 2007.
and Muthomi, J. W. N’u GMWJKJK. "The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat." Crop Protection . 2008;27(8):1215-1219.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH. Effect Of Root Rot Pathogens And Fungicide Seed Treatment On Nodulation In Food Grain Legumes.; 2013. Abstract

Greenhouse experiments were conducted over 2 cropping cycles to investigate the effect of fungicide seed treatment and fungal root rot pathogens on nodulation and dry matter accumulation of selected food legumes. The legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), green gram (Vigna radiata L., variety M66) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). Treatments included, inoculation of legumes with pathogen alone (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli or Macrophomina phaseolina or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum or Rhizoctonia solani), or with appropriate rhizobia alone or application of fungicide (copper oxychloride) or their combinations. Results of the study indicated that fungicide seed treatment reduced disease incidence on Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia inoculated plants. However, fungicide treatment significantly (p=0.05) depressed nodulation of the legumes but its effect on nodulation was significantly suppressed when applied together with rhizobia on infected seeds. Fungicide application significantly reduced seedlings mortality (pre-emergence damping off) and number of nodules per plant but had no effect on dry matter accumulation. Combination of fungicide and rhizobia inoculation improved nodulation as well as reducing disease incidence. It is therefore concluded that this combination yields better results if the aim is to reduce root rot incidence while improving nodulation concurrently.

Muthomi JW, Kinyungu TN, Nderitu JH, Kabira JN. "Spatial Arrangement Of Maize As Border Crop To Manage Aphids And Aphid-Transmitted Viruses In Potato.". 2011. Abstractabstract4.pdfWebsite

Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effect of spatial arrangement of maize as border crop to manage aphid infestation and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Maize was planted at a distance of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m from the potato crop. Aphid infestation and incidence of virus infection was monitored over the growth period of potato. Aphids were recorded on potato leaves and in water pan traps while virus infection was determined by visual symptoms on the potato plant. At harvest, potato tubers were graded into ware, seed, and chatts and weighed. The results show that placement of maize border up to 0.5 m and 1.0 m reduced aphid population and virus disease incidence by up to 48%. The maize borders had no effect on the yield of seed potato grade but only on the ware. Placing maize border at 0.5m had the greatest reduction of ware potato yield by 48%. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.

Muthomi JW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52-63.
Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi J. "Pest diagnostics in phytosanitary systems.". In: International Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarters, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In vitro activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):83-689.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Muthomi JW, Muindi EM, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN, Chemining'wa GN. "Integrated management of aphid-transmitted viruses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Riungu GM;, Ndung'u JK;, Narla RD. "Occurrence of wheat head blight and fusarium species infecting wheat."; 2007.
Muthomi JW, Ndungú JK, Chemining´wa GN, Wagacha JM. "Reaction of some Kenyan wheat cultivars to head blight after inoculation with Fusarium graminearum." Asian Journal of Plant Sciences . 2007;6:585-591.
Muthomi JW, Wafula GO, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Integration of Seed Dressing, Bio-pesticides and Intercropping to Reduce Pesticide Use in Snap Bean Production." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018;5(1):12-20.
Muthomi JW;, Kinyungu TN;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira J. "Effect of maize border crop placement distance on aphid population and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI,. Nairobi; 2010.
Muthomi JW, Musyimi SL, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Occurrence of Fusarium species and associated T2-toxin in Kenyan wheat." Agricultural Sciences. 2012;3:24-34.
and Muthomi, J. W. HN’u GHJKJK. "Occurrence of Fusarium head blight-causing pathogens and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat. .". In: Tropentag. University of Bonn, Germany ; 2006.
Muthomi JW, Ndungú JK, Gathumbi JK, Mutitu EW, Wagacha JM. "The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat." Crop Protection. 2008;27:1215-1219.
and Muthomi, J. W. N’u GJKJJ. "Occurrence of wheat head blight-causing Fusarium species and associated trichothecene mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. Nairobi, Kenya.; 2006.
Muthomi JW;, Nyaga JN;, Olubayo FM;, Nderitu JH;, Kabira JN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Wakahiu M. "Incidence Of Aphid Transmitted Viruses In Farmer Based Seed Production In Kenya.".; 2009.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nderitu JH. "Effect of chemical pesticide spray on insect pests and yield of food grain legumes."; 2007.
and Muthomi, J. W. RN’u NGWGMJK. "Head blight of wheat in Kenya and contamination of grain with mycotoxin producing Fusarium species." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;3(1):52-60.
Muthomi JW, Ndung'u JK, Gathumbi JK, Mutitu EW, Wagacha JM. "The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat.". 2008. Abstract

presence of head blight-causing Fusarium species. Fungal contaminationwas determined by isolation on agar media, while mycotoxin analysis was by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The wheat grain samples were highly contaminated with fungi, especially Epicoccum, Alternaria and Fusarium species. The mean Fusarium infection rate varied from 13% to 18%, with the major head blight-causing species being Fusarium poae, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium avenaceum. F. graminearum isolates were found to be highly virulent (79% disease severity) and significantly reduced kernel weight. Most grain samples were contaminated with mycotoxins, with a mean incidence rate of up to 75% for deoxynivalenol (DON) and 86% for T-2 toxin. Other mycotoxins detected were zearalenone and aflatoxin B1. Co-occurrence of DON, T-2 toxin and zearalenone was found in up to 35% of the samples. The results suggested the presence of Fusarium head blight and associated mycotoxins in Kenya. The presence of several mycotoxins, even at such low levels, could pose chronic adverse health effects to human and livestock fed on the contaminated wheat products.

Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Muthomi JW, Weru RW, Chemining'wa GN, Mutitu EW. "Resistance of maize varieties to infection by Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;Accepted.
Muthomi JW, Mugambi IK, Ojiem J, Chemining’wa GN, Nderitu JH. "Effect of incorporating lablab biomass in soils on root rot disease complex and yield of beans intercropped with maize." International Journal of AgriScience . 2014;4(12):515-524.
Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira JN;, Cheminin’wa GN;, Kiretai SM;, Aura JA;, Muindi EM. "Management Of Potato Viruses In Seed Potato Production Using Border Crops."; 2013. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two croppi ng seasons to investigate the effectiveness of border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses in seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum and wheat borde rs. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included virus disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid popula tion on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids we re caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, virus disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border cr ops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of s eed grade was increased. The results indicated that use of border crops would be beneficial in the management of virus diseases in small-holder seed potato production.

Muthomi JW, Kinyungu TN, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM, Kabira JN. "Spatial Arrangement Of Maize As Border Crop To Manage Aphids And Aphid-Transmitted Viruses In Potato.". 2011. Abstract

Field experiments were conducted over two growing seasons to determine the effect of spatial arrangement of maize as border crop to manage aphid infestation and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Maize was planted at a distance of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 m from the potato crop. Aphid infestation and incidence of virus infection was monitored over the growth period of potato. Aphids were recorded on potato leaves and in water pan traps while virus infection was determined by visual symptoms on the potato plant. At harvest, potato tubers were graded into ware, seed, and chatts and weighed. The results show that placement of maize border up to 0.5 m and 1.0 m reduced aphid population and virus disease incidence by up to 48%. The maize borders had no effect on the yield of seed potato grade but only on the ware. Placing maize border at 0.5m had the greatest reduction of ware potato yield by 48%. Maize borders placed up to 1m from the potato crop would be effective in the management of potato aphids and aphid-transmitted virus diseases. This study shows that the technology would be ideal for propagation plots in small scale seed potato production.

Muthomi JW;, Riungu GM;, Ndung'u JK;, Narla RD. "Occurrence of wheat head blight and fusarium species infecting wheat."; 2007.
Muthomi J, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Management of Snap Bean Insect Pests and Diseases by Use of Antagonistic Fungi and Plant Extracts." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(3):52.
Muthomi JW, Orke EC, Dehne HW, Mutitu EW. "Susceptibility of Kenyan wheat varieties to head blight, fungal invation and Deoxynivalenol accumulation inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.". 2002. Abstract

Fifteen wheat varieties commercially grown in Kenya were tested for their susceptibility to head blight and mycotoxin accumulation after inoculation with Fusarium gramineanuu in pot experiments. The strain or the pathogen used had been isolated from wheat collected in different growing areas or Kenya. Head blight suscep¬tibility was assessed as the percentage or spikclcts bleached and area under disease progress curve: kernel colonization by fungal mycelium was determined as ergosterol content. All varieties were round to be moderately to highly susceptible. However. the varieties differed in head blight susceptibility (29-68% or spike¬lets bleached; mean 54%). fungal colonization (67- 187 I'g g ergosterol content: mean III Ilg g) and the resulting mycotoxin contamination [deoxynivalenol (DON) 5-31 JIg g: mean 13.5 I'g g], Grain weight reductions due to head blight ranged from 23 to 57% (mean 44%). The varieties could be therefore divided into partially resistant and highly susceptible genotypes. The kernels or highly susceptible varieties had higher mycotoxin and ergosterol contents. However. the ker¬nels or some varieties contained more fungal mycelium (ergosterol) without the corresponding high amounts or DON. suggesting that they possess some resistance to DON accumulation. Less susceptible varieties showed resistance LO fungal spread. as indicated by a slow disease development and lower content or fungal biomass.

Muthomi JW;, Mutitu EW. "Occurrence of mycotoxin producing Fusarium species and other fungi on wheat kernels harvest in selected districts of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Wheat samples collected from 5 wheat growing districts of Kenya were investigated for contamination by different fungi. Kernels were plated on agar media and the fungi that grew were identified by cultural and morphological characteristics to genus level. Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and isolates of F. graminearum were tested for mycotoxin production in culture. The major genera of fungi isolated according to decreasing frequency were Epicoccum (52.8%), Alternaria (34%), Fusarium (6%), Aspergillus (2.3%) and Penicillium (1.8%). The frequently isolated Epicoccum species was identified as E. purpurascenes. Cladosporium and Rhizopus spp. were also isolated at very low frequencies. The most frequently isolated Fusarium species were F. poae (43%), F. graminearum (39%), and F. avenaceum (8%). Other Fusarium species isolated were F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. camptoceras and F. chlamydosporium. Most isolates of F. graminearum produced mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The isolated Fusarium species are known to cause head blight in wheat resulting in mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The results therefore indicated that head blight is widely distributed at low levels in the wheat growing areas investigated. This inoculum is potentially capable of producing severe infections under optimum weather conditions.

Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Cheminingw’a GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of chemical spray on insect pests and yield quality of food grain legumes." Journal of Entomology. 2008;5:156-163.
Muthomi JW;, Gachu SM;, Narla RD;, Nderitu J. "Management of thrips in bulb onions using vegetable intercrops."; 2011.
Muthomi JW;, Muinde EM;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira FM. "Integrated management of aphid-transmitted viruses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)."; 2011.
Muthomi JW, Riungu GM, Ndungú JK, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK, Wagacha JM. "Head blight of wheat in Kenya and contamination of grain with mycotoxin producing Fusarium species." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;3:52-60.Website
and Muthomi, J. W. HN’u GHJKJ. "Occurrence of Fusarium head blight – causing pathogens and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat." Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 2007;114(9).
Muthoka JM, Hassanali J, Mandela P, Ogeng’o JA, Malek AA. "Position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan population." Int J Morphol . 2010;29(1):65-68.
Muthoka, M. Rego A.B., Z.K R. "Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development." Environmental Education. Essential Knowledge for Sustainable Development. 2005.
Muthoka JM, Sinkeet SR, Shahbal SH, Matakwa LC, Ogeng'o JA. "Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population." J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj. 2011;6:1. Abstract

Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce.

Muthoka JM, Kaisha WO, Gikenye G, Ogengo JA. "Morphology and morphometry of the distal articular surface of lunate bone in a Kenyan population." Int. J. Morphol. 2016;34(2):896-900. Abstractmorphology___and___morphometry___of___the___distal___articularsurface___of___lunate___bone___in___a___kenyan___population.pdf

The morphology and morphometry of the distal articular surface of the lunate exhibits inter-population variations.
They are of clinical importance to hand surgeons due to their influence on the occurrence of proximal pole arthrosis which is a cause
of ulnar-side wrist pain. The objective of the study was to determine the morphology and morphometry of the distal articular surface
of the lunate bone in an adult Kenyan population. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi. Fifty-six human hands obtained for routine dissection were used. The morphology of the distal articular surface of the
lunate was classified as either Type I or Type II depending on the absence or presence of a medial facet for articulation with the hamate
respectively. The width of the wrists and of the medial facet in Type II lunates was measured with SOMETTM CN-25 1234 vernier
calipers (accurate to 1mm). Photomacrographs of representative lunate were taken. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The
Pearson correlation test was used to check for any correlations. Type II lunate morphology was more common with a prevalence of 34
(61 %) while 19 (34 %) were Type I. The mean width of wrists with Type I lunate was 41.1±2.8 mm while those with Type II had a
mean width of 46.1±4.3 mm. The mean width of the medial facet in lunate type II was 4.4±1.4 mm. Lunotriquetral fusion was
demonstrated in 3 (5 %) wrists. Prevalence of Type II lunate was higher than Type I. Wrists with a Type II lunate were wider than those
with Type I. There was no correlation between the width of the wrist and the width of the medial facet of the lunate.

Muthoka JM, Hassanali J, Mandela P, Ogeng’o JA, Malek A. "Position and Blood Supply of the Carotid Body in a Kenyan Population." International Journal of Morphology.. 2011;29(1):65-68. AbstractWebsite

SUMMARY: Position and source of blood supply to the human carotid body displays population variations. These data areimportant during surgical procedures and diagnostic imaging in the neck but are only scarcely reported and altogether missing for theKenyan population. The aim of this study was to describe the position and blood supply of the carotid body in a Kenyan population. Adescriptive cross-sectional study at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, was designed. 136 common carotidarteries and their bifurcations were exposed by gross dissection. The carotid body was identified as a small oval structure embedded inthe blood vessel adventitia. Position and source of blood supply were photographed. Data are presented by tables and macrographs. 138carotid bodies were identified. Commonest position was carotid bifurcation (75.4%) followed by external carotid artery (10.2%), internalcarotid artery (7.2%) and ascending pharyngeal artery (7.2%). Sources of arterial blood supply included the carotid bifurcation (51.4%),ascending pharyngeal (21.0%), external carotid (17.4%) and internal carotid (10.2%) arteries. Position and blood supply of the carotidbody in the Kenyan population displays a different profile of variations from those described in other populations. Neck surgeons shouldbe aware of these to avoid inadvertent injury.KEY WORDS: Carotid body; Position; Variations; Kenyan.

Muthoka B, Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO. "Optical and Electrical Properties Dependence on Thickness of Screen-Printed TiO2 Thin Films." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2016. Abstract

Effect of film thickness on the optical and electrical properties of TiO 2 thin films were
studied. Thin films of different thicknesses were deposited by screen printing method on
fluorine doped tin oxide coated on glass substrate. The film thickness was determined by
surface profile measurement. The thicknesses were 3.2, 8.2, 13.5 and 18.9 µm.
Transmittance, reflectance and absorbance spectra were studied using UV-VIS-NIR
spectrophotometer in the photon wavelength range of 300-1500 nm for transmittance and …

Muthini D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ. "Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2017;9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Muthini DN, Nzuma JM, Nyikal RA. "Variety awareness, nutrition knowledge and adoption of nutritionally enhanced crop varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics . 2019;14(4):225-237. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates the impact of variety awareness and nutrition knowledge on the adoption of biofortified crop varieties using a sample of 661 households from Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. The study employs the average treatment effect (ATE) framework to control for information on the KK15 bean variety and knowledge of its nutritional attributes among small-scale farmers. The results show that farmers who had knowledge of the nutritional attributes of KK15 beans were more likely to adopt relative to those who were only aware of the variety. A nutrition attribute knowledge gap of 8% was estimated, which represents the potential adoption loss due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits. Adoption of biofortified crops can therefore be improved by disseminating information on the varieties and their nutritional attributes. This can be achieved by entrenching nutrition information in extension packages disseminated to farmers.

Muthini D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R. "Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya." Food Security. 2020;https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01030-1.
Muthini D, Nzuma J, Nyikal R. "Farm production diversity and its association with dietary diversity in Kenya." Food Security volume . 2020;12:1107-1120 . AbstractWebsite

Agriculture has the potential to improve dietary diversity through farm production diversity if farming households consume what they produce. However, the linkages between a household’s own agricultural production and dietary diversity are not well understood. This study uses a count of crop species, animal species, production diversity score, and the Simpson’s index as measures of farm production diversity to assess the effect of production diversity on the dietary diversity of households, women and children. A Poison model was employed on a sample of 779 farming households selected using a multistage sampling technique in a household survey representative at the County level in Kisii and Nyamira Counties, Kenya. The findings of the study indicate that farm production diversity is significantly associated with the dietary diversity of women and that of the entire household, but is not associated with the dietary diversity of children. The count of the animal species has the highest magnitude of association with dietery diversity in this study. Every additional animal species kept leads to a 0.33 and 0.13 increase in household dietery diversity and the dietery diversity of women respectively. Children’s dietary diversity is significantly associated with the education of the mother, household size and age of the child. The study highlights the need to consider individual dietary requirements when developing nutrition interventions and policy, as opposed to general dietary interventions targeting the entire household.

Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Muthini DN, Nzuma JN, Nyikal AR. "Variety Awareness, Nutrition Knowledge and Adoption of Nutritionally Enhanced Crop Varieties: Evidence from Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2019;14(4):225-237.
Muthee JK. Acute and Subacute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Mice and Calves Respectively. Nairobi; 2008. Abstractabstract.pdf

The plant Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn, commonly known as the' apple of Peru' is a member of the solaneceae family. It has been widely associated with livestock poisoning in Kenya and elsewhere. The clinical signs reportedly associated with its poisoning are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. In the current study the acute toxicity was determined by intra-peritoneal injections of the aqueous extracts from different plant parts in a total of one hundred and fifty (150) white Swiss mice aged between to and 12 weeks and divided in groups of six (3 males and 3 females) for each dosage level. The median lethal dose (LDso) was then calculated by the method of Reed and Muench (1938). The subacute toxicity was determined by feeding five groups of two male Friesian calves each, aged between 8 and 10 months, at 0 (control), 4, 8, 16 and 32% levels of dried ground whole plant material in wheat bran for 14 weeks. The physiological parameters of rectal temperature, respiration, heart rate and ruminal motility were taken from all the calves every morning for the whole period of the experiment. The blood for hematology (5ml in EDTA) and biochemistry (l5ml without anticoagulant) was collected weekly via the jugular vene-puncture after thorough disinfection of the site with surgical spirit. LDso values for the leaf, fruit and whole plant extracts were 1.82, 2.58 and 3.62 g/kg body weight respectively, therefore, classifying the plant as slightly toxic according to Loomis (1978). The clinical signs showed by the mice were starry coat, slowed movements, fast respiration, gasping for air and leaping into the air before collapsing. The treated calves transiently exhibited muzzle drying, heart beat irregularity, loose feces, staggering gaits and lower growth rate than the control group. The activity of the enzyme gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) and the mean corpuscular volume (MeV) were significantly lower (P0.05) between the treated and control groups in respect of the other assayed hematological (total protein. hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils) and biochemical (aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) parameters. There were no mortalities, no gross or histopathological lesions in all the groups. The possible reasons for the difference in behaviour between the calves in this experiment and the suspected natural cases were thought to be due to the variations in animal susceptibility or even plant toxin content. It is concluded that the plant Nicandra physaloides growing around the Kabete areas of Kenya may contain toxic phytochemicals that may cause poisoning in livestock if consumed. Nicandra physaloides is known to contain glycosides, steroids and alkaloids from earlier studies. More studies are necessary to determine the nature of these phytotoxins and their exact mode of action. Meanwhile livestock keepers are advised to control this plant in their pastures and avoid its consumption by animals.

Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Kareru PG, Mulei CM, Njonge FK. "Ethnobotanical Study of Anthelmintic and Other Medicinal Plants Traditionally used in Loitoktok District of Kenya." Journal of Ethno pharmacology. 2011;135:15-21.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity Study of Nicandra physaloides(L) Gaertn in mice and cattle." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33:1-6.
Muthee JK, D GW, Nduhiu J. "Preliminary investigations on the status of bovine mastitis in a medium scale dairy farm in Kabete area, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 29:57-59." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:57-59. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this investigation was to establish the mastitis status in the dairy herd of 110 cows (genetically heterogeneous Bos Taurus breeds). All the cows were examined by physical inspection of the udder and California Mastitis Test (CMT) carried out on milk from the quarters of the 89 cows in milk. A total of 37 milk samples were collected from affected quarters of 36 cows, which had visibly abnormal secretion or tested positive on CMT, and taken for bacteriological culture and sensitivity tests. The outcome was a prevalence of 40.4 % based on the cows in milk and 18.4% based on their quarters. From the 37 samples that were cultured, 36 had abundant bacterial growth. Of the bacteria isolated, 45 % were Corynebacteria, 30.0 % Staphylococci, 22.5% Streptococci and 2.65% Pseudomonas. Of the twelve antibacterial compounds used in the sensitivity tests, the bacteria were most sensitive to ampi-clox and cefaclor at 98% and lest sensitive to sulphamethoxazole and cotrimoxazole both at 2%. Pseudomonas was only sensitive to gentamycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline. From this investigation the prevalence of mastitis in the herd is fairly high and there is need for a comprehensive monitoring and control program for udder health in this herd

Muthee SM, Salim AM, Onditi AO, Yusuf AO. "Concentration Levels of Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Selected Nutrients in Water of Motoine River Channel, Kibera, Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal. 2018;24(1):1-8. AbstractJournal article

Abstract

The need for clean and safe consumable water is of paramount importance to any society since water is a crucial substance for the sustenance of life. Kibera slum is one of the leading slums in the world with a high population, leading to poor levels of sanitation and inadequate clean water supply. Consequently, the residents have to seek for alternative water supply. Motoine River flows through the slum, and thus acts as an alternative source of water. This study determined the concentration levels of heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Cr and Cd) and nutrients (nitrates, nitrites and phosphates) in Motoine River, Kibera in September 2014 and compared the variations downstream. The metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) while the nutrients were determined using UV/Visible spectroscopy. Concentration levels of Cu, Cd and Cr were found to be lower than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) values for maximum contaminant level (MCL) while those of Fe, Pb and the nutrients were higher than EPA’s MCL values. Cd had the lowest concentration and was below the detection limit of the instrument used. Nitrates were found to be of the highest concentration at 16.4959 ± 2.4432 parts per million (ppm). The high concentration of nutrients in the water could be due to domestic waste and effluent disposal into the river and agricultural runoffs while that of metal ions could be due to waste from informal jua kali industries and erosion of natural deposits. The efforts by the government to rehabilitate and clean rivers within Nairobi should be extended to include Motoine River.

Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Karanja DN, Gakuya DW. "Clinical, Haematological, Biochemical and Pathological Manifestations of Sub-acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Calves." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2011;59:17-24.
Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn (Solanaceae), commonly known as the ‘apple of Peru’ is widely associated with livestock poisoning. The clinical signs associated with its poisoning in ruminants appear within 6 hours of ingestion and are circling, tremors of the hind limbs, tachycardia, bloat, convulsions, coma and death. However, there is no published information on the toxicology of this plant in Kenya. This study documents Nicandra physaloides toxicity in two different zero-grazed dairy cattle herds that were inadvertently fed on Napier grass contaminated with Nicandra physaloides. In addition to the case studies, the toxicity of the aqueous extracts from the different parts of Nicandra physaloides was studied under experimental conditions in mice. The 24 hour median lethal dose (LD50) was determined after intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of the aqueous extracts of the plant into white Swiss mice and found to be 1820, 2580 and 3620 mg/kg body weight for the leaves, fruits and whole plant respectively. The clinical signs in mice appeared within 30 minutes of inoculation and included coat, decreased locomotor activity, increased respiratory rate, gasping for air and leaping into the air before collapsing into coma and death. There were similarities in the symptoms of the spontaneous poisoning in cattle and in the experimentally induced poisoning in mice.

Muthee JK, Mbaria JM, Thaiya AG, Gakuya DW. "Acute Toxicity of Nicandra physaloides (L) Gaertn in Cattle and Mice. ." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2009;33: 1-6.
Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Mulei CM, Mugambi JM, Nganga CJ. "Evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Loitoktok, Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
Muthee JK, Gakuya DW, Mbaria JM, Mulei CM. "Phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity of selected plants used as anthelmintics in Loitoktok Sub-County, Kenya." J Phytopharmacol. 2016;5:15-19.
Muthaura CN, Keriko JM MYGJWIBNNMGMDCAR. "Antiplasmodial potential of traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan coast." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2015;170:148-157. Abstract

Antiplasmodial potential of traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast.

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Nyangacha R, Mungai GM, Derese S
Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 54840, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address: cmuthaura@yahoo.com.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology [2015, 170:148-157]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Kenya, 22 million people are at risk of malaria, 70% of them are in rural areas and most of these people use traditional plant based medicines to treat malaria. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation, from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat malaria by the Digo community of Kwale County, taking cognizance of their pharmacological information by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in Kwale County at Shimba Hills Game Reserve and adjoining part of Kinango. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The plant samples collected were tested for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum using the ability of extracts, prepared from the plant species, to inhibit the incorporation of [G-3H] hypoxanthine into the malaria parasites.

RESULTS: Fifty seven (57) species in forty eight (48) genera and thirty (30) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Rubiaceae families had each about 12% of the plant species reported as antimalarial remedy and represented the species that are most commonly used. Twelve species (21.1%) showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50<5µg/ml and these were Boscia salicifolia, Cissampelos mucronata, Clerodendrum myricoides, Commiphora schimperi, Flueggea virosa, Maytenus undata, Maytenus senegalensis, Maytenus putterlickioides, Vernonia amygdalina, Warburgia stuhlmannii, Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Tabernaemontana pachysiphon.

CONCLUSIONS: These results seem to indicate that ethnopharmacological inquiry used in search for new herbal remedies as predictive and could form the basis of an ethnopharmacopoeia and search for new active principles. This is the first report on traditional use of T. pachysiphon for malaria and its antiplasmodial activity.

Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152.
Muthaura CN, Keriko JM, Mutai C, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Atilaw Y, Gathirwa JW, Irungu BN, Derese S. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya." The Natural Products Journal. 2017;7(2):144-152. AbstractJournal article

Description
Background:
In Kenya, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases including malaria. In this study, phytochemical constituents and extracts of Maytenus undata, M. putterlickioides, M. senegalensis and M. heterophylla were evaluated to determine compound/s responsible for antimalarial activity.
Objective:
To isolate antiplasmodial compounds from these plant species which could be used marker compounds in the standardization of their extracts as a phytomedicine for malaria.
Methods:
Constituents were isolated through activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH/CHCl3 (1:1) extracts and in vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using Vero cells and the compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopy.
Results:
Fractionation of the extracts resulted in the isolation of ten known compounds. Compound 1 showed …
Total citations
Cited by 1
2018
Scholar articles
Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxicity and Phytochemical Constituents of Four Maytenus Species Used in Traditional Medicine in Kenya
CN Muthaura, JM Keriko, C Mutai, A Yenesew… - The Natural Products Journal, 2017
Cited by 1 Related articles

Muthamia, EK; Mukunzu MJ; BJM. "characterization Of Plutella Xylostella Granulovirus (PLXYGV) isolates for The Management Of Diamondback Moth In Kenya .". 2011. Abstractcharacterization_of_plutella_xylostella_granulovirus_plxygv_isolates_for_the_management_of_diamondback_moth_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Baculoviruses (Family Baculoviridae) have been used to control Lepidopteran pests in China, Japan and India. Several studies on baculoviruses have been done in Kenya but there has been no commercial use. Collection of local isolates and characterization is recommended to identify and select the most potent isolate for use in mass production. Two Kenyan isolates of Plutella xylostella granulovirus, from field-collected and insectary larvae respectively, were characterized by electron microscopy and bioassays. The isolates were found to show the typical morphological features of Baculovirus in the genus granulovirus. The results of surface contamination bioassays for both isolates exhibited the characteristic dose-mortality response curve, with LD50 values that were not significantly different from each other. The median survival time of 2nd instar larvae at an average temperature of 25°C ranged from 5.5 to 7.5 days depending on the virus concentration to which the larvae were exposed. Further investigation is recommended.

Muthami J. "Psychological Contract: Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts." Psychological Contract: Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts. 2011;1(1).Psychological Contract Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts
Muthami, Gitao, C.G., others. KCSAP TIMPS Finalization Workshop. 28 Nov- 3 rd Dec, Naivasha: Kenya Climate Smart Project; 2016.kcsap_csa_timps_consolidated__collapsed_final__4th_dec-1.docx
Muthami J. "Psychotherapeutic Techniques: Approaches to Counseling Techniques and Psychotherapy. ." 4. Psychotherapeutic Techniques: Approaches to Counseling Techniques and Psychotherapy. . 2012;1(1).
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Muthami JMN, S.G S, J W. "The role of women in Socio-Economic Development: A Case Study of Women involved in small-scale business in Nairobi County." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):90-103.2.9.09_0.pdf
Muthami KM, Onyambu CK, Odhiambo AO, Muriithi IM, Byakika TK. " Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with arthroscopy in the evaluation of rotator cuff pathology." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2014;8(2):52-59.
Muthami KM, Onyambu CK, Odhiambo AO, Muriithi IM, Byakika TK. "Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with arthroscopy in the evaluation of rotator cuff pathology." EAOJ. 2014;8(2):52-59.AJOL
Muthami J. "Human Development: Effects of Human Development on the society: ." Human Development: Effects of Human Development on the society: . 2013;1(1).Effects of Human Development on the society:
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Muthami J. "Religious Formation in the Church." 2. Religious Formation in the Church. 2012;1(1).
Muthami J, Selvam SG, J W. "VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND GIRLS - Providing Therapy for Gender Based Violence Survivors." Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5((10)):153-176.827-article_text-1788-1-10-20171109.pdf
Muthama NJ, Manene MM, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of Decadal Precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time. To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10) years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information can be used in the planning and management of water resources over Nairobi. The same information can be extended to other areas.

Muthama NJ, W.B. Masieyi, R. E O, Opere AO. "Survey on the Utilization of Weather Information and Products for Selected Districts in Kenya." J Meteorol Rel Sci. 2012;6: 51-58. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi Research Archive

This study summarizes the results of a pilot survey on utilization of weather information and products for selected districts in Kenya and the response of users to Kenya Meteorological Department’s (KMD) weather products on how members of the public obtain, perceive, use, and value weather services. Questionnaires were used to conduct sample surveys on three distinct populations comprising of general public, enterprises and public officials. The survey (288 respondents were interviewed in June 2007) indicated that people use weather information for a variety of activities ranging from crop farming to road transport. Most people identified crop-farming as the activity most vulnerable to weather. Majority of people indicated that they are willing to spend money on weather information, including value added products an indication that KMD should add value to its products and services. The overall assessment of KMD’s performance in terms of provision of weather information was rated as above average. The results from this survey suggest that there is need for KMD to brand its products. The effective dissemination and awareness of the availability and use of weather information should be promoted through a partnership between KMD and local media. Most respondents feel that the government should put in place policies on monitoring, processing and dissemination of weather information with more emphasis on dissemination. Regulatory measures are also necessary and critical in the development of new weather information dissemination strategies.

and Muthama AKH, W MJ, N MUTHAMAJ. "Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform." American Research Journal of Physics. 2016;2(2):1-9.
Muthama NJ, M Moses Manene, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of decadal precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya." Journal For Science. 2017;13:43-54. AbstractWebsite

: In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic
elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time.
To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to
improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted
to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the
March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of
analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best
fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the
variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression
technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May
(MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10)
years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can
be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the
general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information

Muthama JK, Mutai BK, Ngaina JN. Towards Developing an Indicator for Indoor Air Pollution in Nairobi Using Atmospheric Stability Indices. Safari Park Hotel & Casino, Nairobi, Kenya. 10th & 11th May 2012: Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff School of Health Sciences; 2012. Abstract

The quality of indoor air inside offices, schools, other workplaces and homes is important not only for human comfort but also for their health. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been tied to symptoms like headaches, fatigue, trouble concentrating, and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Also, some specific diseases have been linked to specific air contaminants or indoor environments, like asthma with damp indoor environments. Many factors affect IAQ. These factors include poor ventilation (lack of outside air), problems controlling temperatures, high or low humidity, recent remodeling, and other activities in or near a building that can affect the fresh air coming into the building. The quantification of IAQ is therefore necessary.
Hourly data for CO and O3 and daily wind and temperature from Chiromo Environmental Monitoring station was used in this study. Stability Indices were obtained using the Hysplit Model. Time series analysis was used to obtaining the temporal variation of pollutants, meteorological variables and atmospheric stability. The relationship between pollutants, their interaction with meteorological variables and atmospheric stability was determined through correlation analysis.
Minimum concentrations are observed between 0630hrs and 0730hrs and between 2030hrs and 2130hrs when highest concentrations are observed. During the early daylight and evening hours, pollutant concentration rises mainly due to the increase in traffic and acts as catalyst in the breakdown of O3. At midday (between 1300hrs and 1400hrs) maximum ozone concentrations are observed whereas CO depicts low level concentrations .During this period the atmosphere experienced a lot of conversion due to the thermal heating. Changes in day to day weather, is seen as a factor affecting the diurnal variation of indoor CO and O3 as weather determines how quickly pollutants are dispersed away from an area.

Muthama NJ, Kaume CM, Mutai BK, Ng'ang'a JK. "Simulation of Potential Impact of Air Pollution from the Proposed Coal Mining Sites in Mui Basin, Kitui County." . Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2015;2(1):60-72.
Muthama NJ, Githaiga. J. "Towards using seasonal rainfall forecasts for the 2005 management of human wildlife conflicts in Kenya." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2004;15(1 & 2):36-45.
Muthama N. "The Influence of weather on the Insurance industry in Nairobi." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) Science and Engineering Series Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 112 . 2006. AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Ouma. GO. "A simple model for determining the potential risks of lightning strokes over the cities of Nairobi and Mombasa.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

environs. Ground based and Satellite-derived meteorological data were utilized in this study and included thunder events, total rainfall, number of rainy days, maximum rainfall in 24 hours, relative humidity, minimum and maximum temperature, wind speed and direction and Cold Cloud Duration (CCD). In the context of disaster management, the synergistic approach to risk management involves four closely related phases, one of which is the scientific analysis of specific hazard. This is the phase addressed in this study. A risk indicator based on physical and statistical characteristics of thunderstorms at the two locations was developed by examining the patterns of deviations from the mean thunderstorm events and their frequencies. Various aspects of the lightning risks at the two areas are described and discussed. Model results indicate that higher risks of lightning stroke occurred during the long rains season (March to May) as compared to the short rains (September to November) season. This was attributed to higher frequency of thunderclouds during the long rains season. The rain generating mechanisms during the long rains were observed to have higher frequencies of thunder events. The dry season (December to February and June to August) exhibits lowest lightning stroke risks. It is hoped that the results from this study may be of use to the various sectors of economy that need to take into account the dangers/risks of lightning strokes into their day to day operations so as to minimise or avert disasters from lightning strokes. Some of the sectors that may benefit from the results of this study include the Kenya Oil Refinery Depots, Kenya Power and Lighting Company, the Chemical and construction industries among others

Muthaka D, Kimani DN, Mwaura S, Manda DK. "A Review of of the regulatory Fram ework for Private Healthcare Services in Kenya." KIPPRA Discussion Paper No. 35. 2004.
Muteshi D. C., Awino Z.B., R.K. K. "Firm-Level Strategy, Capabilities and Performance of Food and Beverage Manufacturing Companies in Kenya,." International Review of Business Research Papers. 2018;19(1):19-29.
Mutero C;, Githure J;, Kabutha C;, Kimani V;, Kabuage L;, Gitau G;, Ssennyonga J;, Muthami L. "Agro-ecosystem Management for Malaria Control.".; 2001.
Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "An assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in Kenya." Environmental health perspectives. 2015;123(11):1145.
Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Mutende RA, Imonje RK. "Preservice teacher preparation for application of Discussion teaching method in secondary school science Lessons." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2019;6(5).
Mutende RA;, Akala WJ, Imonje RK. "Influence of Preservice Teacher Learning on the Application of Laboratory Experiment Teaching Method ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2019;10(18).
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Mutemi JN, Ogallo LA, Krishnamurti TN, Mishra AK, Kumar VTSV. "Multi-model based superensemble forecasts for short and medium range NWP over various regions of Africa." Meteorolo Atmos Phys. 2007;95:87-113.abstract.doc
Mutembei HM, Cook EA MMDNAKMCMJJA. "A One-Health Approach to Control the Incidence of Rabies in the Slums of Nairobi." Journal of Medical and Biological Science Research. 2015;1(9):130-133.mutembei_et_al__2015-one_health_rabies_control.pdf
Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT MBSMJ. "Manual on Technical aspects of Bovine in-vitro embryo production and embryo transfer." The Kenya Veterinarian Journal. 2015;39(1):1-16.
Mutembei HM NG. "Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Nairobi; status of governance instruments in food security and Livelihoods.". In: Drivers, challenges and Sustainability issues in food security in Africa. Nairobi: Kenya Literature BureauUnversity press; 2019.
Mutembei. "One-health concerns over Antimicrobial Resistance." One-health Conference, Kampala, Uganda; 2019.
Mutembei ML, Rugendo MCJ, Ciumwari GJ. "Influence of priests’ leadership styles on youth participation in church activities in the catholic diocese of meru, eastern province, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2013.
Mutembei PH. "Insights of Sustainable Livestock Production.". In: KCSAP 2021. Naivasha Resort; 2021.
Mutembei HM, Muasa BS, Origa R, Jimbo S, Ojango JMK, Tsuma VT, Mutiga ER, Okeyo AM. "Delivery of appropriate cattle genotypes to Eastern African smallholder farmers through in vitro embryo production technologies – the technical procedures, prospects and challenges." Royal Society Chemistry Journal. 2009;32:84-90.
Mutembei, HM; Camargo; Viana JHM;, Muasa B;, Tsuma VT;, Origa RA;, Camargo; Viana, Okeyo AM. In vitro embryo production using Boran (Bos indicus) oocytes in Kenya.; 2011.Website
Mutembei H, Tsuma V, Kios D. "Alternative Follicle Stimulating Hormone Dose Rate for Embryo Production in Dairy Cattle." Journal of Dairy & Veterinary Sciences. 2019;10(3):1-7.mutembei-kios_2019.pdf
Mutembei HM’I, Kathambi BE. "The Kenyan Perspective on Adoption of Green Concept in Biodiversity Conservation: Case of Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science. 2018;12(1):73-82.
Mutembei HM, Mulei CM, Mbithi PMF. "A Kenyan economic analysis on utilization of Ovum pick up, in vitro embryo production and embryo transfer technologies in cattle." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(2):64-68.
Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Mutekhele B; Rambo, C.M; Ongati NO; RO. "Routine Program Monitoring and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2018;5(9).
Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG. "Population Aging and the Generation Economy: A Global Perspective.". In: Eds. Elgar Edwards; 2011.
Mutegi RG. Factors Determining Demand for Secondary Education in Public Schools in Tharaka South Division. PhD GW, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005.
Mutegi C, Wagacha JM, Kimani J, Otieno G, Wanyama R, Hell K, Christie ME. "Incidence of aflatoxin in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus) from markets in Western, Nyanza and Nairobi Provinces of Kenya and related market traits." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2013;52:118-127.
Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM, Christie ME, Kimani J, Karanja L. "Effect of storage conditions on quality and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)." International Journal of AgriScience. 2013;3:746-758.
Mutegi CK;, Hendriks SL;, Jones RB;, Okello JJ;, Ngugi HK. "Role of collective action and handling practices on aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts: evidence from Kenya."; 2007. Abstract

Groundnut is a major dietary component and a relatively cheap source of proteins for many people in western Kenya. In order to commercialize groundnut production, the government of Kenya, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and Catholic Relief Services mobilized growers into producer marketing groups (PMGs). The PMGs are trained on practices that minimize groundnut contamination with aflatoxin. This paper examines the effectiveness of PMGs as avenues for promoting practices that reduce the risk of groundnut contamination with aflatoxin based on a household survey conducted in Homabay district, western Kenya. Aflatoxin content of groundnuts samples obtained during the survey was determined by indirect competitive ELISA. The results indicated a significant (P<0.01) level of awareness about aflatoxins among farmers belonging to PMGs (90.6%) than those who did not (58.1%). A significantly higher percentage of PMG farmers practiced sorting and grading. In addition, a significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage of PMG respondents (89.5%) employed cultural methods of pest control compared with the non PMG farmers (52.2%). However, levels of aflatoxins in groundnut samples taken from both categories of farmers did not differ, suggesting a lag between the time farmers receive a message and its implementation. These results indicate that PMGs have contributed substantially to increased awareness about aflatoxins and underscore the need for up-scaling training of farmers on specific measures that reduce the risk of exposure.

Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
Mutebi MC, Saidi H, Raja AJ. "Mentoring the modern African Surgeon- a call to arms!" Annals of African Surgery.. 2011;7.Website
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., Waindi EN, KAAYA GP. "Depression of ovarian function and plasma progesterone and oestradiol - 17B in female goats chronically- infected with Trypanosoma congolense." Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) . 1988;117:477-484.
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., Waindi EN, KAAYA GP. "Comparative trypanotolerance of the small East African breeds of goats, from different localities, to Trypanosoma congolense infection." Veterinary Parasitology . 1989;31:95-105.
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., KAAYA GP, Waindi EN. "Effects of chronic experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on the ovaries, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands in female goats." Research in veterinary science . 1988;44:140-146.
Mutavi T, A O, Kokonya D, L K, A M, M M. "Incidence of depressive symptoms among sexually abused children in Kenya." Child Adolesc Psychiatry Mental Health. 2018;12(40).
Mutavi T, A O, M M, Kokonya D, M D-G. "Incidence of Self-Esteem among Children Exposed to Sexual Abuse in Kenya, Global Social Welfare." Global Social Welfare. 2018;5(1):39-47.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Mutave R, Chindia ML, Guthua SW. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3. Post-operative re-construction of dentoalveolar tissue and the mandible and maxillae using prosthetic therapy. East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):311-3. East African Medical Journal; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Gakonyo M. J, Mutave R.J, Matu N.K, Gathece L.W. Knowledge, practices and attitudes of dental students at the University of Nairobi towards HIV/AIDS patients.". In: Scientific Conference of the Kenya Surgical Society. Journal of the Kenya Dental Association; 2010.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Management of Dental Waste by Practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of oral Health Volume 2 Numbers 1 & 2 2005: 24-29. Osamong LA, Gathece LW, Kisumbi BK, Mutave RJ; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Compliance to cross infection control measures among Dental students and support staff at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". In: Journal of the Kenya Dental Association vol 1 issue 2, 2009. Journal of the Kenya Dental Association; 2009.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Mutave R.J. and Kisumbi B.K: Attitude of urban Kenyan population towards replacement of teeth. Preliminary findings.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Journal of Dental Research.; 1999. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTAVE DRJAMESREGINA. "Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya M Makhanu, G Opinya, R.J Mutave.". In: East African Medical Journal vol 86 No3; 2009. East African Medical Journal; 2009.
Mutave R, Chindia ML, Guthua SW. "Post-operative re-construction of dentoalveolar tissue and the mandible and maxillae using prosthetic therapy." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82. Abstract
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Mutara LN, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG. "Oral Health seeking behaviour among the elderly in a Kenyan population." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2004;5(2).
Mutala TM, Kimatu DM MOKRJBP. "MRI Assessment of Lymphadenopathy in Patients with Cancer of the Cervix and HIV Co-morbidity." Cancer Imaging. 2018;18(Suppl 1):22.
Mutala TM, Maina PN. "Evaluating Factors Affecting Clinicians’ Knowledge on Contrast Media: Kenyan Experience." Journal of Global Radiology. 2017;3(1):Art 1.

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