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Mutua AK, Mavuti KM, Daro N, Tackx M. "Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa Creek and Funzi Bay, Kenya.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and the influence of sewage discharge on these components of SPM. The results obtained were compared with those from Ramisi, an estuarine system. Using PCA and cluster analysis, three clear clusters of stations were obtained. The two creek systems (Mtwapa and Shirazi) were separated into two distinct clusters. The cluster comprising five stations in Mtwapa and four in Shirazi was characterised by high levels of POC: phytoplankton carbon ratio and to a lesser extent by pennate diatom stocks. All stations from Ramisi estuary were clustered together and were characterised by high concentrations of phytoplankton carbon, centric diatoms, dry weight, POC and detritus. A third cluster, comprised of two stations in Mtwapa, was characterised by high numbers of dinoflagellates. From the results obtained, detritus forms the main source of POC in the three sites; it accounts for a mean of 61% ±20 in Ramisi, 97% ±0.7 in Shirazi and 65% ±29 in Mtwapa. These high detritus levels are expected because of the allochthonous supply of particulate material by the river in Ramisi and the contribution from mangroves, which fringe the banks of the estuary and the creeks.

Mutua FM. "The Four Parameter General Extreme Value Distribution in Flood Frequency Analysis." Kenya Journal. of Appl. Sc. and Tech. 1997; Vol.12(1&2).
Mutua F, Balint Z. Analysis of the general climatic conditions to support drought monitoring in Somalia. Nairobi, Kenya: FAO and Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
Mutua E, Bukachi S, Bett B, Estambale B, Nyamongo I. "Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing." IDS Bulletin . 2017;48(3):95-108.
Mutua FK, Dewey CE, Arimi' SM, Schelling E, Ogar WO, Levy M. "Reproductive performance of sows in rural communities of Busia and Kakamega Districts, Western Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

This study provided baseline performance of breeding pigs information on local sow productivity that was previously lacking. The objective was to investigate performance of breeding pigs in rural smallholder communities of Western Kenya. A random sample of 288 smallholder farms in Busia and Kakamega districts was selected pigs. The farms were visited three times in the course of the study period, 2006 to 2008. Data on management and productivity were gathered by means of questionnaires administered to sow owners. The average number of sows owned per farm was 1.3±0.6. Sows were bred for an average of 2.18±1.08 days during one estrus. Sows were 12.1±4.S months old when they farrowed for the first time. They were bred 1.9±1.6 month after piglets were weaned. Sources of breeding boars included borrowed boars from the neighbourhood (77%), farmers' own boars (14%), group-owned boars (0.4%) and those that were free roaming (2%). The average litter size was 7.8±2.6 while the average number weaned was 6.8±3.1. Piglets were weaned at S.4±3.3 weeks of age. Piglets were reportedly cheaper in Busia (USD 6.36±0.71) than they were in Kakamega (USD 9.71±2.18) (p

Mutua, G. MMKO-MRKP-SLJWG, and G. Gray, L. G. Bekker BLSPBDCF. "Major Negative Social Impacts Are Rare in Phase 1 Hiv Vaccine Trials in Africa." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014;30 Suppl 1:A190-1.
Mutua JM, Gumbe LO, Mutuli SM. "Some Mechanical properties of sisal fibre concrete." Discovery and Innovation journal. 1997;9 ((3/4)):189-196.
Mutua PM, Gicheru MM, Makanya AN, Kiama SG. "Comparative Quantitative and Qualitative Attributes of the Surface Respiratory Macrophages in the Domestic Duck and the Rabbit." International Journal of Morphology. 2011;29(2):353-362.
Mutua HM, Migosi JA. "Perception of Teachers towards Inspection and Supervision.". In: First Annual Conference in Education. Riara University, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2013.
Mutua GK;, Kinyari P;, Githuku C;, Kironchi G;, Kang’ethe E;, Prain G;, Njenga M;, Karanja NN. "Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA) with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin. Soil, water, crops and human faecal samples from the farming and non-farming households were analysed to elucidate sources, types and level of heavy metal pollutants in the wastewater and the pathogen loads in humans and vegetable crops. Heavy metal accumulation in soils collected from Kibera and Maili Saba were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and Cd (98.7 mg kg-1), Cr (4.0 mg kg-1) and Pb (74.3 mg kg-1), respectively. This led to high phytoaccumulation of Cd, Cr and Pb in the crops that exceeded the maximum permissible limits. No parasitic eggs were detected in the vegetables but coliform count in the wastewater was 4.8 x108±2.2 x1011/100ml. Soils irrigated with this water had parasitic eggs and non-parasitic larvae counts of 54.62 and 27.5/kg respectively. Faecal coliform and parasitic eggs of common intestinal parasites increased in leafy vegetable sampled from the informal markets along the value chain.

Mutua G, Devonshire J, Kimenju J. "The Pochonia chlamydosporia Serine Protease Gene vcp1 Is Subject to Regulation by Carbon, Nitrogen and pH: Implications for Nematode Biocontrol.". 2012. Abstract

The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers) may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.

Mutua E, Olungah CO. Men as partners against gender based violence. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2012.
Mutua JM. Post Harvest Handling and Processing of Coffee in African Countries. Rome: Food Agriculture Organization ; 2000.
Mutua J, Gitao C, Bebora L, Mutua F. "Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from the Nasal Cavity of Camels in Samburu, Nakuru, and Isiolo Counties of Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2017;(doi.org/10.1155/2017/1216283):1-6.mutua_antmicrobial_resistance.pdf
Mutua F, Onono J, Bruck A. "An overview of animal health and communication constraints in smallholder farming systems of Machakos County, Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod . 2018:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1682-8.
Mutua FM, Zaki AF. "Analyses of Annual Droughts in Kenya Using an Objective Annual Rainfall Drought Index." Journal of Met and Related Sciences. 2010;4:21-23.
Mutua F, Revathi G, Machoki JM. "species distribution and antifungal sensitivity patterns of vaginal yeasts.". 2010. Abstract

To identify yeast isolates in vaginal specimens to species level and determine their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Design: Cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Setting: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Nairobi. Subjects: Yeast isolates from high vaginal swabs presented to the laboratory for culture and sensitivity were identified to species level using the API Candida system and subjected to broth microdilution susceptibility testing. Main outcome measures: Frequency tables and graphs were used to summarise the data. Susceptibility data was analysed by the non-parametric Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 101 yeasts were studied. C.albicans was the prominent species (69.3%) followed by C. glabrata (12.9%), C. famata (5.0%), C. krusei (3.0%), Trichosporon species (3.0%) and S.cerevisiae (3.0%), C.parapsilosis (1.0%). Three (3.0%) of the isolates had profiles that fell between C. glabrata and C. famata. The percentages of C. albicans susceptible to flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were 94.3, 92.9, 100 and 90 respectively; that of non-albicans isolates were 93.5, 80.6, 77.4 and 29 respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the susceptibility of C.albicans and non-albicans isolates to flucytosine and amphotericin B, however there was a significant difference (p<0.05) to fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusions: C. albicans was the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis in this study, and demonstrated good susceptibility to antifungal agents tested. A significant number of non-albicans yeasts were identified; these demonstrated reduced susceptibility to all drugs, in particular to the azoles which are commonly used for treatment of vaginal candidiasis. The isolation of non-albicans yeasts may have clinical implication given their reduced susceptibility to antifungals

Mutua J, Kimuyu P. "Household energy conservation in Kenya: estimating the drivers and possible savings." Environment for Development Discussion Paper- (15-04). Resources for the Future (RFF). 2015.
Mutua FM. A Curse or Blessing?. Mombasa, Kenya; 2011.
Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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Mutua JM, Gumbe LO, Mutuli SM. "Interfacial Bond Strength for Sisal 4 Fibre Composite.". 2000.Website
Mutua GK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Ndukhu H, Kimenju JW. The potential of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium leguminosarium in controlling plant parasitic nematodes in farmers’ fields . Kampala, Uganda: African Crop Science Society; 2011. Abstract

Assessment of the potential of dual inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strain USDA 2674 on plant parasitic nematodes in bean was carried out on farmers’ fields. Bean seeds variety Rose Coco, were treated with three B. subtilis isolates namely K158, K194 and K263 singly or in combination with Rhizobium and then planted in nematode infested fields. Plant parasitic nematodes in the genera Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Scutellonema were dominant. Nematode diversity assessed by Shannon, Simpson’s, Trophic and Maturity indices declined with increased length of cultivation. Plant
parasitic index was 63% higher in the cultivated farms compared to the natural forest. The dual innoculant enhanced nodulation variably depending on the length of cultivation and increased bean yields compared to the control. Bacillus subtilis isolates K194, K158 and K263 suppressed plant parasitic nematodes by 42, 36 and 28%, respectively. The potential of dual inoculation of Bacillus and Rhizobium in addressing nematode and soil fertility challenges was demonstrated in this study.

Key words: Diversity, Kakemega, Kenya, nodulation, Phaseolus vulgaris

Mutua JM, Gumbe LO, Mutuli SM. "Interfacial Bond Strength for Sisal Fibre Composite." Discovery and Innovation journal. 1998;10((1/2)):60-64.
Mutsotso B, Muya EM, Karanja N, Okoth PFZ, Romen H, Munga'tu J, Thuranira G. "COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF LAND USE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF BELOWGROUND BIODIVERSITY BENCHMARK SITES IN KENYA ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;11(2):263-275.
Mutsotso BM, Namai HW, Awuondo OC. "Masters of survival.". 1994.Website
Mutoru T, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent based realtime continuous auditing.". 2011. Abstract
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Mutoro JM, Imonje DR. "The role of collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in Africa."; 2013. Abstract

Abstract
This paper investigates the role of collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in Africa. Teacher education is important as it empowers the teachers with the necessary skills that are needed for bringing about development .We begin this paper by discussing types of teacher education in Africa. The paper goes on to discuss collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development and the parties that are involved in collaboration and partnership. We will also look at the consequences of collaboration and partnership in teacher education. The challenges experienced in teacher education. We will suggest solutions to these challenges.
Key words: Teacher, Teacher education, Collaboration, Partnership, Development

Mutoro HW, Wafula GK. Mizizi A Collection of Essays on Kenya's History. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2013. Abstractmizizi-the_development_of_archaelogy_in_kenya.pdf

The Development of Archaeology in Kenya Since the Early 1960's

The history of archeology in Kenya broadly parallels that of the broader East African Region. This, in part, is because the region shares a related cultural history and in part, because, socio-political and economic environments in the countries of the region are largely related. In addition, international trends in archaeology pertaining to method and theory, affected the region in a more or less similar manner. Despite this, and for purposes of this chapter, the discussion confines itself to historical developments that relate to Kenya, since the early 1960's.
Archaeological studies in Kenya, as in the East African countries, have been conducted in two major dimensions, one concerned with human origins, and the other concerned with aspects pf later prehistory (Robertshaw 1990:78). The chapter will shed light on the social, political and economic environments under which archaeology as a discipline has thrived; explain how international trends in archaeology in method and theory have influenced archaeological studies in the country were conducted and how their results were interpreted.

Mutoro JM, Imonje DR. "DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISTANCE LEARNING IN THE 21ST CENTURY."; 2013. Abstract

The debate around distance education has often been reduced to issues of access and quality. Much discussion surrounds designing instructions for distance learning. Good instructional design produces good outcomes and poor instructional designs produce poor outcomes. From a practical perspective, these are concerns that must be addressed and balanced when designing education to be delivered at a distance. This paper addresses these concerns based on designing instructions for distance learning. This paper draws data from different national and international sources. The paper begins with a review of the related literature. The study carried out in July 2010 on “critical review of instructional design process of distance learning system”. The study was carried out at Allama Iqbal University (AIOU). The study used survey design. Key findings of this study indicate that there is need to conduct need’s assessment before writing any course that need multimedia support i.e. audio and video-cassettes and computer diskettes may be provided along with study materials and finally, illustrations and self assessment. Designing of instructions for distance learning is mainly influenced by objectives, course content, experience and qualification of teachers and learners characteristics. Modern technology of e-learning is expensive and hence learners’ background will dictate on which mode at a distance will be more affordable and effective when designing instructions for distance learning. Designing of instructions for distance learning will be determined by evaluation, assessment,
44 UoN - ISO 9001:2008 Certified
and feedback procedures. Thus, this paper will further consider the following aspects: meaningful and meaningless instructions, feedback model, Dick and Carey system and Oar model. The paper will also discuss the theories of distance learning by Moore and Holmberg. In spite of its significance, designing instructions for distance learning has its challenges. These challenges include insufficient support from the stakeholders, and inadequate teaching and learning resources. We suggest that the key stakeholders to participate in transformation of educational system into distance education and training of the stakeholders in the handling of distance education materials.
Keywords; Designing instruction, distance learning and distance education, instructional models, meaningful learning meaningless learning, involvement evaluation, assessment and feedback.

Mutonyi J, Shibairo SI, Chemining’wa GN, Olubayo FM, Nyongesa HW. "Sugarcane response to liming, manuring and inorganic fertilizers on acid acrisols in western Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Scientific Research . 2014;5(9):1703-1707.
Mutono NR, Mutembei HM TM. "Spatial Accessibility of Healthcare services in Nairobi City; an ecological study." Frontiers in Health Services- Cost and Resource Allocation. In Press.
MUTONGA PENINAH. "The origin of the Swahili stone house and the dual nature of Swahili urbanism." Africa Habitat Review Journal . Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
MUTONGA PENINAH. "Adaptation of Swahili architecture and identity, a case of Lamu and Shela." Africa Habitat Review Journal. Submitted;1(1/2019):50.
and Mutitu, E.W. NOGRDHJ. "Causes of ear rot of maize with mycotoxin implication in Eastern and Central Kenya. .". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society.; 2003.
Mutitu EW, Wagacha JM, M MJ, B. MF. "Control of bean rust on snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using antibiotic metabolites produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces species." Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences. 2008;4:62-69.
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
Mutisya JM, Mobegi VA, Kinyua JK, Kivecu MN, Okoth RO, Chemwor GC, Mwakio EW, Cheruiyot AC, Yeda RA, Okello CO, Juma JA, Opot BH, Juma DW, Roth AL, Akala HM, Andagalu BM. "Characterization of sulfated polysaccharide activity against virulent Plasmodium falciparum {PHISTb/RLP1} protein." F1000Res.. 2020;9:1268. Abstract

Background: The emergence of artemisinin resistance in South East Asia calls for urgent discovery of new drug compounds that have antiplasmodial activity. Unlike the classical compound screening drug discovery methods, the rational approach involving targeted drug discovery is less cumbersome and therefore key for innovation of new antiplasmodial compounds. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) utilizes the process of host erythrocyte remodeling using Plasmodium-helical interspersed sub-telomeric domain (PHIST) containing proteins, which are amenable drug targets. The aim of this study is to identify inhibitors of PHIST from sulfated polysaccharides as new antimalarials. Methods: 251 samples from an ongoing study of epidemiology of malaria and drug resistance sensitivity patterns in Kenya were sequenced for PHISTb/RLP1 gene using Sanger sequencing. The sequenced reads were mapped to the reference Pf3D7 protein sequence of PHISTb/RLP1 using CLC Main Workbench. Homology modeling of both reference and mutant protein structures was achieved using the LOMETs tool. The models were refined using ModRefiner for energy minimization. Ramachandran plot was generated by ProCheck to assess the conformation of amino acids in the protein model. Protein binding sites predictions were assessed using FT SITE software. We searched for prospective antimalarials from PubChem. Docking experiments were achieved using AutoDock Vina and analysis results visualized in PyMOL. Results: Sanger sequencing generated 86 complete sequences. Upon mapping of the sequences to the reference, 12 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for mutant protein structure analysis. Eleven drug compounds with antiplasmodial activity were identified. Both modeled PHISTb/RLP1 reference and mutant structures had a Ramachandran score of >90% of the amino acids in the favored region. Ten of the drug compounds interacted with amino acid residues in PHISTb and RESA domains, showing potential activity against these proteins. Conclusion: This research identifies inhibitors of exported proteins that can be used in in vitro tests against the Plasmodium parasite.

Mutisya C, Ndeti N. "Role of Communication and Information Flow in the Adoption and Use of Mobile Technology by Women Entrepreneurs in Machakos County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2016;Vol. 21(Issue 9):pp 10-23.
Mutisya DL, Khamala CPM, El Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Ragwa S. "Cassava Variety Tolerance to Spider Mite Attack in Relation to Leaf Cyanide Level.". 2013.Website
undefined Mutisya DL, El-Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Khamala CP, Fiaboe KKM, undefinedKungu MM. "Effect of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus progressivus, on the development and reproduction of the introduced predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes ( Acari: Tetranychidae;Phytoseiidae )." Systematic& Applied Acarology. 2012;17:378-383.
wa Mutiso K. "Looking at each other: The Origin of Negative Ethnicity." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2017;2(2):63-80 .
Mutiso VM. "Type I (Hannis - Steinthal) Capitellar Fracture: Case Report.". 2007. Abstract

Capitellar fractures of the elbow present with pain and swelling of the elbow following a fall on an outstretched arm and are rare injuries comprising 0.5-1% of all elbow fractures (1). This is a case report of an adult female who sustained this injury following a fall on her outstretched arm. CT scans revealed a Type I capitellar fracture of the right elbow. Open reduction and internal fixation was done with a functionally good result. Because of the cartilaginous nature of the capitellum humeri these injuries are easily missed on radiography. One must have a high index of suspicion especially when elbow movement is noticeably restricted. These injuries are discussed and the literature reviewed. Although controversial, treatment is mainly operative. One should carefully review radiographs of patients who present with injuries of the elbow with pain, swelling and markedly restricted joint range of motion and whose mechanism of injury(fall on an outstretched arm) is consistent with capitellar fracture. CT scans often clinch the diagnosis. Type I fractures may be treated conservatively but Type II injuries require operative intervention.

MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "First Kiswahili- English Food and Drinks Dictionary Bookman Consultants Ltd, Nairobi, 2002 (It is the first dictionary on food and drinks, in both Swahili and English), 74 pp.". In: Bookman Consultants Ltd, Nairobi, 2002 (It is the first dictionary on food and drinks, in both Swahili and English), 74 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso PM, Kinama JM, O C. "Effect of in situ moisture conservation techniques on yield and water use efficiency of pearl millet in Makueni, Kenya ." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(6):186-196.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Utamaduni wa Mkorea, A collection of articles on Korean and Swahili culture in Swahili and Korean.". In: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, March 1987, 161pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMKYSM, et al. "QuatemaryIsoquinoline alkaloids from xylopia parviflora. ." J. Phytochemistry . 2004;65:939-944 .
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: (A Stylistic Approach to the teaching of Poetry), Ufundishaji wa Lugha, Fasihi Pamoja na Utahini katika Shule za Upili, pp. 31-40, Kenya Kiswahili Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 68/2001, Swahili VIII, pp.81-115, University of Cologne. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso SK, Obara DA, Muchunga EK, Nyangena W, Chege AM, Munene FM. "Socio - Economic and Land Use Indicators.". In: National Land Degradation Assessment and Mapping in Kenya.; 1997.
MUTISO PROFKINEENEWA. "Utenzi wa Hamziyyah (The Hamziyyah Epic. A detailed Analysis of a Swahili Islamic Epic).". In: Institute of Kiswahili Research, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar-es-Salaam, 2005; 360 + 15 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005. Abstract

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Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ". .". In: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, March 1987, 161pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso, P.B.C. NMYSG, et al. "Chemical studies on roots of Uvaria welwitschii." J. Nat. Med . 2011;65:313-321 .
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ". .". In: (A Stylistic Approach to the teaching of Poetry), Ufundishaji wa Lugha, Fasihi Pamoja na Utahini katika Shule za Upili, pp. 31-40, Kenya Kiswahili Association. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1996. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso SK, Kibett J, Obara J. "Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers toward the Integration of Mitigation Strategy Topics on Climate Change in Secondary School Agriculture Syllabus in Machakos County, Kenya." International Journal of Advanced Research (IJAR). 2014;Volume 2( Issue 8):418-429.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Mizani Yangu (A collection of poems in Swahili. It has been a Kenya Teachers.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, September 1986, 58 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
wa Mutiso K. "Mchango wa Wanawake wa Kiswahili katika Uongozi, Dini na Ushairi ." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2019;3(1):1-26.
Mutiso VM, Khainga SO, AS Muoki, Kimeu MM. "Epidemiology of Burns in Patients Aged 0-13 Years at a Paediatric Hospital in Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2015;19(3):12-21.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. ".". In: AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) Swahili Forum IX 72/2002, pp. 19-24, University of Cologne. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso VN, Musyimi CW, Tele A, Ndetei DM. "Epidemiological patterns and correlates of mental disorders among orphans and vulnerable children under institutional care." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic correlates of common mental disorders among orphan and vulnerable children (OVCs) in residential care.

Mutiso SK, Kibett K, Obara J. " Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers toward the Integration of Adaptation Strategy Topics on Climate Change in Secondary School Agriculture Syllabus in Machakos County, Kenya." International Organization of Scientific Research- Journal of Research Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;4(5):1-15.Website
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Uhakiki Wa Malenga wa Mvita (Literary criticism).". In: Hankuk University Press, March 1st, 1986, 132pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1986. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "The Catharsis (A collection of poems in English) Shinhan.". In: Publishing Media Co. Ltd., Seoul, 1992, 90pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutiso VM, Chigumbura J. "Stabilisation of Posterior Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocation using Palmaris Longus Tendon Autograft: A Case Report.". 2012. Abstract

Posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation is a rare injury. It is usually sustained acutely in activities such as contact sports eg. rugby and motorcycle accidents. Plain radiography of the chest will often miss the diagnosis and confirmation is by CT scans. However CT scans are often reported to miss epiphyseal injuries. Management is by closed reduction and if the injury is unstable, by open reduction and stabilisation. A case is reported where palmaris longus tendon was used to stabilise the joint following open reduction.

Mutiso SK, Mulwa, J.K. "Influence of the Grade Achieved in Agriculture at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination on Performance in Farming in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development (IJIRD). 2018;Vol 7(Issue 7):412-442.
MUTISO DRKINEENEWA. "Mwongozo wa Visiki (.". In: Literary Criticism), Longhorn (K) Ltd, Nairobi, September, 1997, 120 pp. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Mutinga MJ, Kaddu, J.B., Irungu LW. "Animal model for feeding Kenyan wild-caught phebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotomidae)." Insect Sc. Appl. . 1981;2:149-152.
Mutinda. WU, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Mbuthia. PG, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with Infectious Bursal Disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Journal of Tropical animal Health and Production. 2014.
and Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN MPGBLCMG. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health Production. 2013;DOI 10.1007.abstract_1.pdf
Mutinda KP. "Hindrances of Secondary School Principals to effective Management of public secondary schools; Gatundu North, Kenya." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN:. 2015;20(9, Ver. III):126-132.
Mutinda YA, Muthomi JW, Kimani JM, Cheminigw’wa GN, Olubayo FM. "Viability and Dormancy of Rice Seeds after Storage and Pre-treatment with Dry Heat and Chemical Agents." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(7):175-185.
Mutinda WU, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Kemboi, D.C., Githinji, Muriuki A. "Isolation of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Indigenous Chicken Embryos in Kenya. International Scholarly Research Notices. ." International Scholarly Research Notices.. 2015;2015.
Mutinda KP. "The Role of Parents Teachers Association in the Management of Public Secondary Schools; Gatundu North, Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2015;4(9):2102-2107.
Mutinda CM, Onyango FE, Maleche-Obimbo E, Kumar R, Wamalwa D, Were F, Osano B, Mburugu P. "ADHERENCE TO PNEUMONIA GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN 2 - 59 MONTHS AT GARRISA PROVINCIAL GENERAL HOSPITAL." East Afr Med J. 2014;91(1):13-20. Abstract

Clinical Practice Guidelines for childhood illnesses including pneumonia in Kenya are contained in the Ministry of Health Basic Paediatric Protocols. In the presence of a cough and/ or difficulty in breathing and increased respiratory rate for age, pneumonia is diagnosed. In addition to these the presence of lower chest wall indrawing denotes severe pneumonia; The presence of cyanosis, inability to drink/ breastfeed, grunting, level of consciousness using the AVPU scale less than A in addition to the aforementioned is classified as very severe pneumonia. Recommended management is intravascular Crystalline penicillin, gentamycin and oxygen for severe pneumonia, intravascular crystalline penicillin for severe pneumonia and oral amoxyl or cotrimaxole for pneumonia. These guidelines have been disseminated through the Emergency Triage And Treatment Plus (ETAT +) coursesheld since 2007. Implementation of guidelines into care has been shown to reduce case fatality from pneumonia by 36%.

Mutinda CM, Onyango FE, Maleche –Obimbo E, Kumar R, Wamalwa D, Were F, Osano BO, Mburugu P. "Adherence to Pneumonia guidelines for children 2 – 59 months at Garrisa Provincial General Hospital." East Africa Medical Journal. 2014;91:13-20.
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious bursal disease virus isolates in indigenous chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;2019.
Mutinda WU, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN. "Pathogenicity of Kenyan Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Isolates in Indigenous Chickens." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2019;18(11):523-529.
Mutinda KP. "Challenges Facing Board of Managers in the Management of Public Secondary Schools in Kamwangi District; Kiambu County, Kenya." Merit Research Journal of Education and Review (ISSN: 2350-2282). 2015;3(9):285-291.
Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G. Muchemi. "Bebora and G.Muchemi. 2014. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2014.
Mutinda JKKPM &. "Principles’ Influence on Participatory Discipline Management in Secondary schools, Kenya. ." The cradle of knowledge African Journal of Educational & Social Sciences Research. 2017;5(2):168-175.
Mutinda, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Mutiga J. VALUE ADDITION AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION: THE CASE OF KITHARAKA. Nairobi; 2014. Abstractvalue_addition_and_attitude_change.pdf

Many studies, including Anchimbe (2007), Whiteley (1974) and UNESCO (1953) have sought to establish that language loyalty or the lack of it does relate to the presence or death of linguistic identity. Further, it has been claimed that it is within the context of language contact that people become aware of the status of their language against another’s language. People may also observe a greater degree of loyalty to the language of an ethnic group to which they do not belong, because of value they may attach to it compared to their own language and the benefits they may deem to accrue by this allegiance. If this state of affairs is left unchecked, the resultant language shift may lead to the death of the less prestigious of the languages in question. A purposeful value addition and attitude change according to Paulston (1994:16-17) will regenerate and reverse the loss and “give new life to a dead language” especially if there is increased use of the language, as a result of change of attitude and increased functions for general communication, literacy and education.
In this chapter I will highlight factors that led to the marginalization of Kitharaka. Further, I will give examples of other currently or formally marginalized languages of Kenya. I will then narrow down to specifically examine and illustrate the role played by literacy and on-going mother tongue education programme in the revitalization of Kitharaka.

Mutiga ER. "Genetic conservation of livestock."; 1988.
Mutiga ER. "Genetically Modified animals."; 2000.
Mutiga ER. "Treatment of the repeat breeder cow syndrome in Kenya.". 1978. Abstract

One hundred repeat breeder dairy cows have been studied in detail. Although clinically 60 per cent of them were normal bacteria were isolated from the uteri of the majority (90 per cent). Thirty per cent of these isolates were mixed. Intra-uterine infusion of the uteri with diluted Lugol's Iodine solution, supplemented in a few cases by antibiotic therapy, resulted in a 62 per cent conception rate compared with 26 per cent in the control group. It is concluded that dilute Lugol's Iodine is a useful treatment for repeat breeder cows under conditions similar to those described.

Mutie PM, Mutsotso B. "Sociological Theory II." teaching module for Open and Distance Learning students, University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
n/a
Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

Mutie PM. "Vocational Training: Addressing Child Labour in Kenya." Child Labour, P. Alila and J. Njoka (eds), UoN and IPEC: Nairobi. pp 87-107; 2009. Abstract
n/a
Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

Mutia Jemimah LG. Internal Efficiency and Public Secondary School Financing. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.
Mutia GM, Ntiba MJ, Mavutia KM, OMONDI G. "Some observations on the spawning season of Barbus amphigramma in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

The objective of the study was to investigate some aspects of the breeding patterns of the cyprinid Barbus amphigramma in Lake Naivasha. The study was carried out from February to October, 2003. Fishing was done with the use of gillnets of mesh size 0.5 inch to 3 inch and a beach seine of mesh size 1 inch. Six gonad maturity stages have been described visually, based on morphological features, and validated by histological features of the ovary, as well as examination of the oocyte diameter. Females dominate the population at all sizes classes. Barbus amphigramma spawns all year round, but with discernible peaks in March, July and October. The peaks in March and October correspond with the beginning of the long and short rains, respectively, in Kenya.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;91(2). Abstract

Abstract
Background:Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective:To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design:The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting:The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya.
Subjects:Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results:Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion:The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were;primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ." East African Medical Journal . 2017;Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017 . Abstract

East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 2 January 2017
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
F. Muthwii, M.Chege, M.Muiva,University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya and M.Habtu, Mount Kenya University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box P.O.Box 5826 Kigali, Rwanda, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, College of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Kigali, Rwanda Request for reprints to: F. Muthwii , University of Nairobi, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing Sciences, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. fkaluu77@gmail.com
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY F. MUTHWII, M.CHEGE, M.MUIVA and M.HABTU, ABSTRACT Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012, it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28% of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards. Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards. A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors. In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission. Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8 to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67; P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64; 95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid. Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthwii F, M.Chege, M.Muiva, M.HABTU. "FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SEVERITY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS DURING ADMISSION IN KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL PAEDIATRIC WARDS, KENYA: A DESCRIPTIVE CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY." East African Medical Journal. 2017. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In the year of 2012,
it accounted for 44% of all deaths of underfive years old children globally. Statistics
indicate that 98% of the global, one million deaths as a result of neonatal sepsis occur
in Africa. Neonatal sepsis contributes to 69% of neonatal mortality in Nigeria and 28%
of neonatal mortality in Kenya.
Objective: To establish factors associated with severity of neonatal sepsis among
patients admitted in Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards.
Design: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design.
Setting: The study was carried out in paediatric wards of Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH), Kenya.
Subjects: Data was obtained from consenting mothers whose neonates had been admitted
with neonatal sepsis and healthcare workers who worked within the paediatric wards.
A total of 107 respondents were selected by systematic sampling method in which
every alternate participant was selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was used
to gather data on maternal and neonatal characteristics and environmental factors.
In addition, three focused group discussions comprising nurses, doctors and clinical
officers were conducted. Chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated
with severity of neonatal sepsis (NNS) during admission.
Results: Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors
of severe NNS. Of the 107 patients with neonatal sepsis, 37.4% had severe neonatal
sepsis during admission.After multiple logistic regression analysis, the following
factors were found to be independently associated with severe NNS: Neonates aged 8
to 28 days [AOR=2.89; 95%CI=1.07-7.99; P=0.047]compared to those neonates aged less
than 8 days; Mothers with primary level of education [AOR=4.57; 95%CI=1.18-17.67;
P=0.028]compared to those with tertiary education; primipara mothers [AOR=4.64;
95%CI=1.74-12.37; P=0.002]than multipara mothers and greenish amniotic fluid during
labor [AOR=3.11; 95%CI=1.05-9.24; P=0.041]compared to clear amniotic fluid.
Conclusion: The study found that severity of NNS was still high. The factors associated
with severe NNS were; primiparity, maternal low economic status and poor antenatal
clinic attendance. The study thus recommends that newborns at risk of developing
severe neonatal sepsis should get prophylactic treatment and mothers be included in
specialized programs geared towards reduction of the severity of NNS.

Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;Proc. IAHS, 379:37-42.
Muthuwatta L, Sood A, McCartney M, Silva NS, Opere A. "Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change in the Tana River Basin, Kenya." Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 2018;379:37-42. Abstractunderstanding_the_impacts_of_climate_change_in_the_tana_river_basin_kenya.pdfProceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

In the Tana River Basin in Kenya, six Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) simulating two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) (i.e., 4.5 and 8.5) were used as input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to determine the possible implications for the hydrology and water resources of the basin. Four hydrological characteristics – water yield, groundwater recharge, base flow and flow regulation – were determined and mapped throughout the basin for three 30-year time periods: 2020–2049, 2040–2069 and 2070–2099. Results were compared with a baseline period, 1983–2011. All four hydrological characteristics show steady increases under both RCPs for the entire basin but with considerable spatial heterogeneity and greater increases under RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The results have important implications for the way water resources in the basin are managed. It is imperative that water managers and policy makers take into account the additional challenges imposed by climate change in operating built infrastructure.

Muthuri FM, Kinyamario JI. "Nutritive value of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae), a tropical emergent macrophyte.". 1989. AbstractNutritive value of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae), a tropical emergent macrophyte

Papyrus (Cyperus papyrus, Cyperaceae) covers large areas in tropical African wetlands. Analysis of its nutritive value has revealed that crude protein is higher in umbels than culms. Ruminai dry matter digestibility of papyrus is, however, higher in culms than umbels. Both the crude protein and ruminai dry matter digestibility decrease with increasing age of the plant. Values for crude protein and ruminai dry matter digestibility are similar to those reported for the range grasses that constitute the greatest percentage of forage in East Africa. In general, papyrus has some grazing potential and could be used as fodder especially in the dry season when other forage is scarce and of low nutritive value.

MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Macharia IM.Adenotonsillectomy.East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):337.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7):337. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Omondi D, Ogol C, Otieno S, Macharia I.Parental awareness of hearing impairment in their school-going children and healthcare seeking behaviour in Kisumu district, Kenya.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Mar;71(3):415-23. Epub 2006 Dec 18.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Mar;71(3):415-23. Epub 2006 Dec 18. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hearing-impaired children who are identified early and appropriately managed have improved outcomes in speech, language, cognitive and social development. Enhanced parental awareness of their child's hearing disability, behavioral, developmental and psychosocial limitations is essential to sustaining timely detection and appropriate intervention. Additionally, availability of services for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation would improve the demand for pedaudiological care in this community. OBJECTIVE: To describe level of parental awareness of childhood HI and the pattern of access to and utilization of ambulatory care services. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three parents of lower primary school-going children who failed audiometric screening from sampled schools in Kisumu district, western Kenya. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First person to detect HI, age of child at first suspicion of HI, source of ambulatory health care and use of the health care facilities. RESULTS: The prevalence of HI was 2.48%. Most parents/guardians (69.7%) were aware of their child's hearing impairment. Of these, 63.6% were first to detect HI in the pupils, while 30.3% were detected by screen. Most children (57.2%) were first recognized with (HI) after age 2 years. The mean age at identification was 5.5 years. The median travel distance to the preferred health care facility was 2 km (IQR 1-2.5). Parents seldom sought or lacked help for their hearing-impaired children. Of 27.3% who asked for hearing assessment, 9.1% received some counsel on HI and 12.1% received medication, one (3%) was referred for audiological assessment and none used a hearing aid. Use of health facilities for maternal care was (65.7%) and immunization (62.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite adequate parental awareness of chronic childhood disability, health facilities were underutilized. This indicates the need to further stimulate and maintain a desirable level of uptake of services for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation of childhood HI, while sustaining delivery of effective and acceptable high quality paediatric care.

MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Onyango JF, Awange DO, Njiru A, Macharia IM.Pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):288-91. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Currently there is a dearth of data on the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of occurrence of head and neck cancers in a Kenyan population. DESIGN: Retrospective hospital-based descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULT: A total of 793 cases were recorded consisting of 507 male and 286 female (M: F = 2:1). Most of the lesions arose from the upper aerodigestive pathway. The larynx was the most common site for aerodigestive malignancies. This was followed in order of frequency, by the tongue, the mouth, and the nasopharynx. Outside the aerodigestive pathway the eye was the most commonly affected site followed by the thyroid. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy. Sarcomas were typically rare. Gender and age distribution showed an overall male preponderance and a wide age range. However, specific tumour sites and tumour types showed varying patterns of gender and age distribution. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the relative prominence of laryngeal, oral and nasopharyngeal cancers in the African population. It is, however, at variance with other African studies regarding the relative frequency of nasal and paranasal cancers.
MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Onyango JF, Macharia IM.Delays in diagnosis, referral and management of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Apr;83(4):85-91. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation. Early cancer has an excellent prognosis following treatment. Unfortunately most patients present with late disease that requires radical treatment with considerable morbidity and mortality. Clinical experience at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) shows that most patients present with late disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the causes of late presentation of head and neck cancer. DESIGN: A prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULTS: Forty four cases were seen among whom 34 were males and 10 were females. The age range was 20 to 90 years with a peak incidence between 50 and 60 years. Most of the patients had little or no education and the majority lived in the rural areas. Seventy one percent of the patients came from the Central and Eastern provinces. Tobacco and alcohol use were the most common risk habits. The larynx was the most common site affected followed by the tongue. In 61% of the cases the size of the tumours at presentation was unknown. In 14% the size was 1-2cm, in 7% of the cases it was 2-4 cm while in 5% of the cases it was 4-6 cm. In 14% of the cases the tumour size was over 6 cm. The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness followed by swelling. The majority of the patients attended a public health facility nearest them. For most patients the facility lay within 5 km and could be accessed by walking. However, most of the patients went through multiple referrals to get to KNH. By the time the patients reached KNH, 35 patients (77%) had been treated with unspecified medications, two (4%) had had tooth extraction, and seven (16%) had had biopsies done. The time-lapse between the first symptom and consultation ranged from zero and eight months. Forty five percent of the patients presented to a medical facility within one month of their symptom and 45% presented after three months. The time lapse between referral and attendance at KNH ranged from zero and thirteen weeks and 45% of the patients presented to KNH within two weeks of referral. The overall duration of symptoms by the time of diagnosis ranged from zero months to unspecified years. Thirty two percent of the cases had experienced symptoms for six months or less by the time of diagnosis. However, a number of patients had had their symptoms for a number of years by the time of diagnosis. The distribution of the tumours by stage at the time of final diagnosis were as follows: stage I were 2%, stage II 6%, stage III 14% and stage IV 56%. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the referral system was the main cause of delayed presentation of head and neck cancer to Kenyatta National Hospital.
MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Omoro SA, Fann JR, Weymuller EA, Macharia IM, Yueh B.Swahili translation and validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scale in the Kenyan head and neck cancer patient population.Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(3):367-81.". In: Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(3):367-81. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract

{ BACKGROUND: Depression is an important predictor of post therapy quality of life (QOL) in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. In addition, depression rates may vary among cultures. OBJECTIVE: As part of a larger cross cultural study on post therapy QOL differences in H&N cancer patients, the goal of this project was to translate a well-validated English language depression scale into Swahili, and then validate this scale in Kenyan H&N cancer patients. METHODS, SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: In Part 1 of the study, we translated the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) into Swahili, adhering to established International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) guidelines. In Part 2, we psychometrically validated the newly translated scale using a prospective study of 48 patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital ENT clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The Swahili PHQ-9 had good test retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.71) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). It also had good construct validity, as scores correlated strongly with TNM stage (Chi square = 123, p < 0.05), and with the compositeand global scores of an H&N cancer specific QOL scale (UW-QOL

MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI, VINCX MAGDA, DR. MUTHUMBI AGNESWANGUI. "Chromadoridae (Chromadorida: Nematoda) from the Indian Ocean:.". In: difficulties in morphological identification of Actinonema Cobb, 1920 and Rhips Cobb, 1920. Hydrobiologia 364: 155-167. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1998.
Muthumbi, Waweru; Veerle H; HVL; VW`. "Process Engineering Of Biological Waste Gas Purification.". 2008.
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, D'haese I, D'hooge W, Verstraete W, Comhaire F, Pieters JG, Top EM. "Assessment of the estrogenic activity of flue gases from burning processes by means of the yeast based human estrogen receptor (hER) bioassay.". 2002.Website
Muthumbi W, De Boever P, Pieters JG, Van Langenhove H, Comhaire F, Verstraete W. "Screening for the presence of estrogenic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental flue gas matrices."; 2001.
Muthuma DK, Thoithi GN, Amugune BK, Gathumbi PK. "Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity of Dichloromethane-Methanol Root Bark Extract of Teclea trichocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) in Rats." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2015;18:75-80.
Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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Muthui ZW, Musembi RJ, Mwabora JM, Skomski R, Kashyap A. "Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Heusler Alloy Mn 2 VIn: A Combined DFT and Experimental Study." IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2018;54:1-5. Abstract
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MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Models of Catechesis in the History of the Church and Their Influences in Cathechesis of Our Time.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1993. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Muthoni J, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Njiri J, Wadegu M, Mukunzi S, Mwangi J, Opot B, Osuna F, Wurapa E. "Initial spatial and temporal distribution/dynamics of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Kenya between August 2009 and December 2010." Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:E139. AbstractWebsite
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MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni. 2006. Using JAD to Bridge the Design-Reality Gaps; a Major Cause of IS Projects.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6 - 9 August 2006. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni (2008) Using an Adaptive E-Learning Environment For OOP - University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia, 7-9 May.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Muthoni KC. "Learners Mental health in a Changing World." Journal Of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2020;25(2).
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. in the proceedings of the 1st Networking Networking Women Workshop; Chicago, USA, September 20, 2010; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "The Catholic Family: A source Book(Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Confrence).". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1986. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Book One: A guide to Family Life Education for Youth(Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Espicopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Ireri, E.M. .". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda 6 - 9 August 2006. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2003. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Muthoni M, Levine T, and Asaah AH. "Who’s Afraid of Female Sexuality.". In: Empathy and Rage: Female genital Mutilation in African Literature. Ayebia Clark. UK; 2009.
MUTHONI DRKARARIEMMA. "East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):406-9. Endoscopic findings and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in chronic renal failure patients with dyspepsia.Karari EM, Lule GN, McLigeyo SO, Amayo EO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):406-9.; 2000. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.

Muthoni J, Kabira JN, Kipkoech D, Abong GO, Nderitu. JH. "Feasibility of Low-Cost Seed Potato Storage in Kenya: The Case of Diffused Light Storage in Nyandarua County." Journal of Agricutlural Sciences . 2014;6(1): 59-65.feasibility_of_low-cost_seed_potato_storage_in_kenya_.pdf
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni, 2007. Ensuring Quality in eLearning Programmes for Transnational Education in Africa - a Systems Approach, in the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training - An Annual Event for Buildi.". In: The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2007. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Muthoni KC. "Mental Health and Education in Kenya.Addressing Mental Health Problems through Schools." Journal in Humanities and Social Science. 2019;24(3).
MUTHONI MRSMUTHAMIJOSEPHINE. "Home Science Book: Revision Guide for Form III & IVS.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Journal of Dental Research.; 1999. Abstract

ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.

MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde Muthoni, Antoine Bagula and Victor Murage (2010); MobiGrid: A Middleware for Integrating Mobile Phone and Grid Computing; in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010), Niagra Falls Canada, Oc.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. in the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM 2010; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "The Catholic Family Published by the Kenya Episcopal Conference.". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1985. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow book Two (Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Why Do People Marry Published by Pauline Publications & Translated in Kiswahili 2005 by the same publishers.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "A Systems Thinking Framework for Quality Assurance in Transnational Education - The Case of Kenya.". In: The Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, May 28 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Waema T, Masinde M., Odera G., Adeya-Weya C.,Were P. and Chepken C, (2009); Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Critical Success Factors; IDRC; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
Muthoni B, GIKONYO NAOMI, Mwiti EK. "Effect of Entrepreneurial Skills in the Operation and Success of Outdoor Catering Ventures in Nairobi, Kenya." The International Journal of Business and Management. 2020;8(11):118-124.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "One in Christ.". In: Episcopal Confrence, 1986. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
One in Christ
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Masinde, Muthoni and Antoine Bagula (2010); A Framework for Predicting Droughts in Developing Countries using Mobile Phones and Wireless Sensor Networks, in the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Annual Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologist; 2010. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Recomended by KIE as teaching Material for Social Education and Ethics.". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Muthomi J.W., Mureithi B.K. C’wa GMGNJK. "Aspegillus species and Aflatoxin B1 in soil, Maize grain and flour samples from semi arid and humid regions of Kenya." international Journal of AgriScience. . 2012;2(1):22-34.
Muthomi J., Mureithi B. C’wa GMGJE. "Aspergillus species and Aflatoxin b1 in soil, maize grain and flour samples from semi-arid and humid regions of Kenya." International Journal of AgriScience . 2012;2(1):22-34. Abstractaspergilllus_species_and_aflatoxin_b1.

Recurrent outbreaks of Aflatoxin (AF) poisoning in maize continue to exacerbate the food security crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the distribution and contamination levels of Aspergillus spp. and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in soil, maize and maize-based products. Maize grain samples (n=256), semi-processed grain (n=56), flour (n=52), hammer mill dust (n=11), and soil (n=117) were collected during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. Aspergillus spp. was isolated and AFB1 was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aspergillus flavus was frequently isolated in maize samples from the semi-arid regions. The frequency of A. flavus was higher in semi-processed grain than in whole grain and packed flour samples. AFB1 was not detected in samples from the humid regions. AFB1 was detected at levels exceeding the Kenyan legal limit of 10 μg/kg in 20% of the samples, at maximum of 136 μg/kg for semi-processed maize,77 μg/kg for whole grain and 41 μg/kg for flour sold in open bags. The high temperature and periodic drought prevalent in the semi-arid regions could explain the higher levels of A. flavus and AFB1 contamination in that climate. In addition, unfavourable drying and storage practices may aggravate the problem. Therefore, it is recommended that the careful monitoring of AF be continued.

Muthomi JW;, Mutitu EW. "Occurrence of mycotoxin producing Fusarium species and other fungi on wheat kernels harvest in selected districts of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Wheat samples collected from 5 wheat growing districts of Kenya were investigated for contamination by different fungi. Kernels were plated on agar media and the fungi that grew were identified by cultural and morphological characteristics to genus level. Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and isolates of F. graminearum were tested for mycotoxin production in culture. The major genera of fungi isolated according to decreasing frequency were Epicoccum (52.8%), Alternaria (34%), Fusarium (6%), Aspergillus (2.3%) and Penicillium (1.8%). The frequently isolated Epicoccum species was identified as E. purpurascenes. Cladosporium and Rhizopus spp. were also isolated at very low frequencies. The most frequently isolated Fusarium species were F. poae (43%), F. graminearum (39%), and F. avenaceum (8%). Other Fusarium species isolated were F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. camptoceras and F. chlamydosporium. Most isolates of F. graminearum produced mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The isolated Fusarium species are known to cause head blight in wheat resulting in mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The results therefore indicated that head blight is widely distributed at low levels in the wheat growing areas investigated. This inoculum is potentially capable of producing severe infections under optimum weather conditions.

Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Chemining´wa GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of root rot pathogens and fungicide seed treatment on nodulation and biomass accumulation." Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;7:1163-1170.
Muthomi JW;, Muinde EM;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira FM. "Integrated management of aphid-transmitted viruses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)."; 2011.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.

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