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Mwangi AP-. "From the Editor’s Desk." The Journal of the Department of Literature. 2015;(8):4.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Sparganosis in non-human primates. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 64:243-244.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1997. Abstract
Virology Research Division, Institute of Primate Research, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. ipr@elci.sasa.unep.no The objective of this study was to investigate the gastro-intestinal (GIT) parasites commonly occurring in captive and wild-trapped (WT) non-human primates (baboons, vervets and Sykes) in Kenya and compare their prevalence. Three hundred and fifteen faecal samples were subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests, namely, direct smear, modified formal ether sedimentation, Kato thick smear, Harada-Mori techniques for parasite detection and culture to facilitate nematode larvae identification. Of these, 203 (64.4%) harboured helminths and 54 (17.1%) had protozoa. The helminth parasites comprised Strongyloides fulleborni 141 (44.8%), Trichuris trichuira 200 (63.5,%), Oesophagostomum sp. 48 (15.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. 73 (23.2%), Enterobius vermicularis 44 (14.0%), Schistosoma mansoni 4/92 (4.3%) and Streptopharagus sp. 68 (21.6%). Protozoan parasites consisted of Entamoeba coli 204 (64.8%), Balantidium coli 127 (40.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica 78 (24.8%). Both WT and colony-borne (CB) primates had similar species of parasites, but higher prevalences of protozoan infection were observed in CB baboons while helminth infections were relatively more common in WT primates. Some of the parasites observed in this study are reported to be zoonotic in various parasitological literatures. Chemoprophylaxis and other managerial practices were believed to be responsible for the lower worm prevalence in CB primates. Similar intervention against protozoa and other agents will not only improve primate health, but also increase safety to animal handlers and colony workers. PMID: 9760061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Gathuma, J.M. and Kagiko, M.M. (1980). Veterinary Science and Human Health. The Kenya Veterinarian 4 (1), 1 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "MWANGI, I.K. The Nature of Rental Housing in Kenya. Environment and Urbanization Vol. 9. No.2 October 1997:141-159.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
wandia Mwangi MM. God in the Philosophy of George Edward Moore. Rome: Pontifical Urbaniana University ; 1972.
Mwangi JW, Mensah IA, G.Muriuki, R.Munavu, L.W L. Antimicrobial activity of lippie grandifolia and lippa javancia. Biology and chemistry of active natural substances. Bonn: Thieme George, Thieme Verlag Strutgart, New York ; 1990.
Mwangi JT. "Educational Goals, Aims and Objectives in Relation to Children’s Learning in the book.". In: Teaching Children: A Handbook for Preschool Teachers. Nairobi: Vidic Investments Limited; 2014.
Mwangi WE. "Promoting animal welfare in veterinary patients through optimal management of pain.". In: Departmental Seminar. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci . 2018;13(81):https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-018-0773-2.
Mwange C, Mulaku GC, Siriba DN. "Reviewing the status of national spatial data infrastructures in Africa." Survey Review. 2018;50(360):191-200.
Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Prevalence of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on anti-retrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, comprehensive care centre.". 2009. Abstract

There has been an increased access to anti-retrovirals in resource constrained settings. However, few studies have addressed the area of adverse drug reactions in these settings.This study indicates a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Comprehensive Care Centre.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Prevalence of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on anti-retrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, comprehensive care centre.". 2009. Abstract

There has been an increased access to anti-retrovirals in resource constrained settings. However, few studies have addressed the area of adverse drug reactions in these settings.This study indicates a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Comprehensive Care Centre.

Mwangangi FM, JM Mweu, TMA Odero, AC Kirui, Kinuthia J, Bett SC, Musee CM. "Injection safety knowledge and practices among clinical health care workers in Garissa provincial general hospital.". 2015. Abstract
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Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Mwangangi FM, JM Mweu, TMA Odero, AC Kirui, Kinuthia J, Bett SC, Musee CM. "Injection safety knowledge and practices among clinical health care workers in Garissa provincial general hospital.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

Background: The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 16 billion injections are administered in developing countries annually. Injection safety is therefore critical in preventing occupational exposure and infection from blood borne pathogens, hence prevention is a vital part of any comprehensive plan for protecting health workers, patients and maintaining a safe environment. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of injection safety among clinical healthcare workers at the Garissa Provincial General Hospital. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Garissa provincial General Hospital from September 2011 to July 2012. Results: Injection safety knowledge was high with a score of 12.65 (SD ± 2.3) out of the total of 16 items. Appropriate injection safety practices were reported by most of the respondents. The level of knowledge was not significantly associated with respondents’ demographic characteristics(p>0.05), but was significantly associated with hand washing practice(p<0.05).Inferences were made on an appropriate injection safety practices like non-recapping of needles, hand washing and proper waste management. Drug administration practice varied in the different departments (p=0.043) and recapping of needles was significantly associated with training (p=0.047), designation (p=0.02) and area of deployment (p=0.017). Conclusion: Knowledge on injection safety was high but reported and observed practices were below the set standard. Risky practices such as recapping used syringes, re-use of disposable syringes and overfilling of sharp boxes were observed. There was insufficient provision of injection safety equipment, Poor waste handling and inadequate personal protective gear. Over prescription of unnecessary injections was widespread.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on antiretrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Almost half of adverse reactions are managed by addition of a non-anti-retroviral drug alone but 41% necessitated a change of anti-retrovirals.

Mwangangi LEM, Juma R, Scott DK, Nyamu DG, Kuria KAM. "Prevalence of adverse drug reactions in adult patients on anti-retrovirals at Kenyatta National Hospital, comprehensive care centre.". 2009. Abstract

There has been an increased access to anti-retrovirals in resource constrained settings. However, few studies have addressed the area of adverse drug reactions in these settings.This study indicates a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions among HIV/AIDS patients on anti-retroviral therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Comprehensive Care Centre.

Mwang'ombe N.J, R.B O. "Brain tumours at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2000;77(8):444-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency, mode of presentation and outcome following treatment of gliomas in patients treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, between January 1984 and December 1993. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients with intracranial tumours who underwent brain surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Two hundred and fourteen histologically confirmed intracranial tumours were seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1984 and 1993. Ninety seven (45.8%) of these were gliomas of which eighty one were astrocytomas, ten ependymomas and six oligodendrogliomas. Meningiomas were the next common tumours (34.4%). Gliomas affected the young age group most, with the peak in the first decade of life. Males were most affected with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Features of increased intracranial pressure were the commonest mode of clinical presentation. The parietal region was the commonest site of intracranial gliomas (37.5%). Surgery and radiotherapy were the main forms of definitive/palliative treatment given. The two year survival rate was 25%, for patients who had undergone total tumour excision with or without radiotherapy. Tumour debulking only without post-operative radiotherapy was associated with a seven per cent two year survival rate. CONCLUSION: Gliomas were the commonest intracranial tumours (45.8%) seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a ten year period (1983-1994). Radical surgery with or without radiotherapy was associated with a 25% two year survival rate, debulking and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival, biopsy and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival and debulking only with a seven per cent two-year survival. Gliomas are less commonly seen in the Kenyan African in comparison with rates of occurrence in the Caucasian race.
East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):444-7.

Mwang'ombe N.J, J K. "Factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2001 May;. 2001;78:((5)):238-41. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1992 and December 1996. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy seven patients with severe head injuries were treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, between January 1992 and December 1996. Three hundred and eighty one patients died while undergoing treatment, 56.2% overall mortality. Age specific mortality was 35.7% in patients below 13 years, 44% in age group 14-25 years, 56% in age group 26-45 years. The admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was recorded in 637 patients. Patients with admission GCS of 3-4 had a mortality of 88%, those with GCS 5-6 had a mortality of 60% and those with admission GCS 7-8 had a mortality of 52%. Ninety per cent of the patients who had bilaterally dilated pupils not reacting to light on admission died and 66% of the patients with bilaterally constricted pupils at the time of admission died. Only 20% of patients with severe head injury who had normal pupillary reaction to light at the time of admission died. Eighty five per cent of the patients with systolic BP of less than 90 mmHg on admission died while 60% of those with systolic BP greater than 120 mmHg died. CONCLUSION: In this study, factors associated with poor outcome in severe head injury patients at Kenyatta National Hospital were age, admission GCS, admission blood pressure (systolic), presence of other associated injuries and pupillary reaction to light.

Mwang'ombe N.J, G.K K. "Craniovertebral junction anomalies seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2000;77(3):162-4. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency, mode of presentation and outcome following surgery of anomalies of the craniovertebral junction at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Thirty eight patients with craniovertebral junction anomaly who were treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Thirty eight patients were diagnosed to have craniovertebral junction anomaly at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 1988 and December 1994. Thirty of those patients underwent surgery. The ages ranged between 10 years and 49 years with a peak in the third decade. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The common mode of presentation was weakness of the extremities (90%) followed by sensory disturbances such as numbness of the extremities (30%), headache (30%) and neck pain (20%). The common clinical findings were ataxia, muscle wasting, sensory loss and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Most of the patients had computerised tomography (CT) scanning (80%) done. Other radiological investigations which were done were plain x-rays of the skull and cervical spine (50%), myelographic studies (36%) and tomographic studies (12%). Forty percent of the patients improved following surgery while further neurological deterioration was prevented in 48%. There was an immediate post-operative mortality of 8%. CONCLUSION: Craniovertebral junction anomaly is an important clinicopathological, condition common amongst certain ethnic groups found in high altitude areas of the Kenya. Surgery may cause clinical improvement in 40% of the patients, mainly those who have been symptomatic for less than three years.
East Afr Med J. 2000 Mar;77(3):162-4.

Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Wasonga VO, Mnene WN, Mongare PN, Chege SW. "Livelihoods Under Climate Variability and Change: An Analysis of Adaptive Capacity of Rural Poor to Water Scacity in Kenya's Drylands." Journal of Environmental Science. 2011;4(4):403-410.abstract.doc
Mwang'ombe AW, Wagara IN, Kimenju JW, Buruchara RA. "Occurrence and Severity of Angular Leaf Spot of Common Bean in Kenya as Influenced by Geographical Location, Altitude and Agroecological Zones."; 2007. Abstract

A survey to determine the prevalence, incidence and severity of angular leaf spot of common bean was conducted in Embu, Kakamega, Kiambu, Machakos and Taita Taveta districts of Kenya. The districts were selected based on the intensity of bean production, spatial and ecological location. Angular leaf spot was prevalent in all the districts and was recorded in 89% of the farms visited. The disease was present in all the farms surveyed in Embu, Kakamega and Machakos districts. In Taita Taveta and Kiambu districts, disease prevalence was 80 and 65%, respectively. The disease was prevalent across the lower midland, lower highland and upper midland agroecological zones and altitude ranges of 963-2322 m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Disease incidence and severity were high (mean values of 49.6 and 21.4%, respectively) and varied significantly (p≤0.05) among districts, farms, agroecological zones and different altitudes. Kakamega and Taita Taveta districts recorded the highest disease incidence and severity, respectively, whereas Embu district had the lowest incidence and severity. Bean fields in the altitude ranges of below 1200 m and 1600-2000 m.a.s.l. had the highest disease severity (33.8%) and incidence (52.9%), respectively, whereas areas above 2000 m recorded lower disease levels. Agroecological zone LM2 and UM4 had the highest levels of disease incidence and severity whereas zones LH1 and UM3 had the lowest levels, respectively. These results indicate that angular leaf spot is severe and highly prevalent in Kenya. The disease spans across all the agroecological zones and altitude ranges where beans are grown. Efforts should, therefore, be geared towards an integrated approach to manage the disease.

Mwang'ombe AW, Thiong'o G, Olubayo FM, Kiprop EK. "Occurrence of Root Rot Disease of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) In Association with Bean Stem Maggot (Ophyiomia sp.) In EMBU District, Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Two surveys were carried out in October 2001 (season 1) and April 2002 (season 2) in five divisions of Embu district during the short and long rains, respectively. Ten farms were randomly selected per division and fifteen bean plants were sampled from every farm and used to determine the occurrence and incidence of bean root rot and bean stem maggot. Each bean root was examined for the presence of bean stem maggot and root rot pathogen. The incidences of bean root rot diseases and bean stem maggot were significantly (p = 0.05) higher during the short rain than during the long rains. Wetter agro-ecological zones such as LH2 and UM1 had more incidence of root rot than UM2, UM3 and UM4. During both seasons Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina were the major root rot pathogens isolated. The species of bean stem maggot found in Embu district were Ophyiomia spencerella and O. phaseoli, with the latter being the dominant species. Agro-ecological zones had no significant effect on the incidence of bean stem maggot. Root rot disease was frequently associated with bean stem maggot. Pearson correlation (r) between bean root rot disease and bean stem maggot was 0.495. The result is important in the management of bean root rot and bean stem maggot.

Mwang'ombe AW, Kipsumba PK, Ochieng JW, Kiprop EK, Olubayo FM. "Analysis of" -Kenyan isolates' of Fusarium "safani f. sp. phaseoli from common bean using colony characteristics, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA.". 2008. Abstract

Fusarium solani (Mart) f.sp. phaseoli (Burk) Synd. and Hans., is a plant pathogeniC fungus that causes root rot in garden bean (Phaseo/us vulgaris L.). To evaluate methods used in classifying strains of this pathogen, 52 Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli isolates from infected bean plants grown on different farms in Taita hills of Coast province, Kenya, were cultured and characterized using morphology, pathogenicity and microsatellite DNA. All the isolates showed high variability in aerial mycelial growth, mycelia texture, pigmentation (mycelia colour) when cultured on potato dextrose agar medium, and conidial measurements on Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer agar medium. Colonies were grouped into luxuriant, moderately luxuriant and scanty on aerial mycelial growth; fluffy and fibrous based on mycelial texture; purple, pink and white based on mycelia colour; and long, medium and short macroconidiallength. All the isolates were pathogenic on GLP-2 (Rosecoco), a susceptible bean variety commonly grown in Kenya. DNA analysis showed that the isolates carried a high genetic diversity (gene diversity = 0.686; mean number of alleles = 9). Neighbour-Joining phylogenetic clusters reconstructed using microsatellite variation showed three major clusters. However, the microsatellite groupings were independent of the altitude, colony characteristics and virulence of the isolates.

Mwang'ombe NJM, Kiboi J. "Factors influencing the outcome of severe head injury at {Kenyatta} {National} {Hospital}." East African medical journal. 2001;78:238-241. AbstractWebsite
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Mwanda W.O, Riyat M.S. KEG. "Childhood Aplastic Anaemia in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 67, 264, 1990." East Afr Med J. 1990 Apr;67(4):264-72.. 1990;(67):264-271. Abstractchildhood_anaplastic_anaemia_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

Mwanda W O, Orem J PARSCFFK. "Dose-modified Oral Chemotherapy in the Treatment of AIDS- Related Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma." Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2009;10(7641):3480-3488.
Mwanda O.W. ANO. "Relapse of Hodgkin's lymphoma after 10 years of complete remission. Case report. East African Medical Journal 1998, 75:3, 165-167.". In: East African Medical Journal 1999;76,11;610-614. MBA; 1998. Abstractrelapse_of_hodgkins_disease_after_10_years_on_complete_remission_case_report.pdf

Prior to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, one or two cases of adult Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were seen annually at the Kenyatta National Hospital, the national referral medical center in Nairobi, Kenya. To investigate the influence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adult BL in Kenya, we conducted a national prevalence survey of all patients 16 years of age and older with BL. A systematic review of medical records of all patients diagnosed with BL between 1992 and 1996 was performed. The diagnosis of BL was based and confirmed on review of pathological material from time of original diagnosis. HIV serology was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-nine adult patients with BL were identified during the 5-year study period. Of these patients, 17 (59%) were males, 12 (41%) were females, and the median age was 26 years. Nineteen patients (66%) with BL were HIV-seropositive. The proportion of men was similar in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients (58% vs 60%). HIV-seropositive BL patients were significantly older than seronegatives (median 35 vs 19.5 years, p < 0.001). HIV-seropositive patients uniformly presented with constitutional or B symptoms and advanced BL accompanied by diffuse lymph node involvement, whereas the clinical presentation of HIV-seronegative patients during this time period was reminiscent of the "typical" endemic pattern of disease with complete sparing of peripheral lymph nodes. The overall survival of HIV-seropositive cases was significantly worse than that of the HIV-seronegative cases; median survival in the HIV-seropositive patients was 15 weeks. There is an approximate 3-fold increase in the incidence of adult BL during the time period of this study, which is attributable to the AIDS epidemic. In this setting, patients often present with disseminated disease, diffuse peripheral lymphadenopathy and fever, the latter two of which heretofore have been commonly associated with non-lymphoproliferative disorders such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. These observations warrant inclusion of AIDS-related BL in the differential diagnosis of the adult patient with unexplained fever and lymphadenopathy in Kenya. The corollary is that HIV infection is virtually excluded in an adult patient without peripheral lymphadenopathy and biopsy-proven BL. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mwanda OW, Mukuria JC, Kanduma EG. "Total Sialic acid (TSA) and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in malignant and healthy sera.". 2007. Abstract

To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

Mwanda OW. "Aflatoxicosis: health implications.". 2005. AbstractWebsite

Author:

Mwanda OW

Source:

East African Medical Journal. 2005 Jun; 273-274.

Abstract:

Aflatoxicosis remains unrecognised by medical professional experts till several people are involved yet the global scale would show that approximately 4-5 billion people living in developing countries are chronically exposed to unacceptable aflatoxin levels. There is also no comprehensive data set from which to evaluate the exact extent and severity of biological exposure and direct measurements(1). Aflatoxin is a common contaminant of food particularly the staple diets of many developing countries. The toxin is produced by a fungal action during food production, harvest, storage and processing. The most affected are grains, rice, maize/corn; others are cassava, nuts, peanuts, chilies and spices. The toxins are produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi when the temperatures are between 24°C and 35°C and the moisture content exceeds 7% to 10%. These conditions are prevalent in geographical latitudes between 40° N and 40° S of the equator.

Mwanda SO, Muriithi EM, Kioko U, Paul O, Odhiambo T. "Peer Education and Behaviour Change on Hiv/Aids Prevention in Secondary Schools in Rachuonyo District, Kenya: Prospects and Policy." Global Journal of Human Social Sciences . 2014;14(4 Version 1.0).
Mwanda, O W; Fu CWRP; R; C;. "Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, in a tertiary referral centre in Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Mwanda OW1, Fu P, Collea R, Whalen C, Remick SC.
Author information
Abstract
The clinical features of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), in patients with and without HIV infection, were investigated in a tertiary referral centre in Kenya between 1997 and 1999. Although 186 cases were identified prospectively, the data analysis was restricted to the 91 (49%) cases who had pathological confirmation of Kaposi's sarcoma and documented HIV serostatus. Among these 91 subjects (58% of whom were male), the age-group holding the largest number of KS cases was that of individuals aged 31-40 years; most of the paediatric cases were aged 6-10 years. The ratio of HIV-seropositives to HIV-seronegatives was 8.5:1 for the adult cases and 0.9:1 for the paediatric. Of the signs and symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma seen at presentation, only peripheral lympadenopathy was found to be significantly associated with underlying HIV infection (P = 0.05). The median survival was 104 days. It is apparent that, as the HIV epidemic advances in regions of the world with endemic KS, the clinical presentation and natural history of the endemic KS are blending with those of the epidemic or AIDS-associated disease, leading to a reduction in the mean age of the cases and a nearly identical incidence in men and women. In regions of the world where patients have ready access to such chemotherapy, the impact of treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs on the incidence and natural history of KS has been dramatic. It will be important to monitor the clinico-pathological features of KS in the developing world, as more active antiretroviral regimens become available in clinical practice there.

Mwamuye MM, Odongo D, Kazungu Y, Kindoro F, Gwakisa P, Bishop RP, Nijhof AM, Obara I. "Variant analysis of the sporozoite surface antigen gene reveals that asymptomatic cattle from wildlife-livestock interface areas in northern Tanzania harbour buffalo-derived T. parva." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(11):3817-3828. Abstract

Buffalo-derived Theileria parva can 'break through' the immunity induced by the infection and treatment vaccination method (ITM) in cattle. However, no such 'breakthroughs' have been reported in northern Tanzania where there has been long and widespread ITM use in pastoralist cattle, and the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also present. We studied the exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle in northern Tanzania to buffalo-derived T. parva using p67 gene polymorphisms and compared this to its distribution in vaccinated cattle exposed to buffalo-derived T. parva in central Kenya, where vaccine 'breakthroughs' have been reported. Additionally, we analysed the CD8+ T cell target antigen Tp2 for positive selection. Our results showed that 10% of the p67 sequences from Tanzanian cattle (n = 39) had a buffalo type p67 (allele 4), an allele that is rare among East African isolates studied so far. The percentage of buffalo-derived p67 alleles observed in Kenyan cattle comprised 19% of the parasites (n = 36), with two different p67 alleles (2 and 3) of presumptive buffalo origin. The Tp2 protein was generally conserved with only three Tp2 variants from Tanzania (n = 33) and five from Kenya (n = 40). Two Tanzanian Tp2 variants and two Kenyan Tp2 variants were identical to variants present in the trivalent Muguga vaccine. Tp2 evolutionary analysis did not show evidence for positive selection within previously mapped epitope coding sites. The p67 data indicates that some ITM-vaccinated cattle are protected against disease induced by a buffalo-derived T. parva challenge in northern Tanzania and suggests that the parasite genotype may represent one factor explaining this.

Mwamuye MM, Kariuki E, D O, Kabii J, Odongo D, Masiga D, Villinger J. "Novel Rickettsia and emergent tick-borne pathogens: A molecular survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya." Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2017;8(2): 208-218.
Mwamuye MM, Obara I, Elati K, Odongo D, Bakheit MA, Jongejan F, Nijhof AM. "Unique Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Demonstrate Resolution Potential to Discriminate Vaccine and Buffalo-Derived Strains." Life (Basel). 2020;10(12). Abstract

Distinct pathogenic and epidemiological features underlie different strains resulting in different clinical manifestations of East Coast Fever and Corridor Disease in susceptible cattle. Unclear delineation of these strains limits the control of these diseases in endemic areas. Hence, an accurate characterization of strains can improve the treatment and prevention approaches as well as investigate their origin. Here, we describe a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on 13 near-complete mitogenomes of strains originating from East and Southern Africa, including the live vaccine stock strains. We identified 11 SNPs that are non-preferentially distributed within the coding and non-coding regions, all of which are synonymous except for two within the gene of buffalo-derived strains. Our analysis ascertains haplotype-specific mutations that segregate the different vaccine and the buffalo-derived strains except Muguga and Serengeti-transformed strains suggesting a shared lineage between the latter two vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analyses including the mitogenomes of other species: , , and , with the latter two sequenced in this study for the first time, were congruent with nuclear-encoded genes. Importantly, we describe seven haplotypes characterized by synonymous SNPs and parsimony-informative characters with the other three transforming species mitogenomes. We anticipate that tracking mitochondrial haplotypes from this study will provide insight into the parasite's epidemiological dynamics and underpin current control efforts.

Mwamburi Samuel M., Mbatia Betty N.* RKKEM, M. NN. "Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by hydrocarbonaclastic bacteria." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2019;18:352-364. Abstract
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Mwambora SK, IJMwaniki. "Estimation of Waiting Times for the Three Transient States of HIV Infection in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Physical Sciences Research. 2017;5(1):73-76. AbstractWebsite

The methods that were employed in this project analyzed HIV data. The aim was to evaluate the evolution of HIV positive patients to bring out some significant factors associated with this pathology. Many clinical situations can be described in terms of the conditions that individuals can be in (states), how they can move among such states (transitions), and how likely such moves are (transition probabilities). State transition models were, therefore, best suited to analyze this decision problem. Transition probabilities from states 1, 2, and 3 into state 4 increased as time progressed. The estimated total length of stay in state 1 was longer than state 2 and 3 respectively.

Mwamba PM, Mwanda WO BSRMLPJRSCN. "AIDS related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in sub-Saharan Africa : current status and realities of therapeutic approach." Lymphoma. 2012. AbstractWebsite

Today AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AR-NHL) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients the world over, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While the overall incidence of AR-NHL since the emergence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era has declined, the occurrence of this disease appears to have stabilized. In regions where access to cART is challenging, the impact on disease incidence is less clear. In the resource-rich environment it is clinically recognized that it is no longer appropriate to consider AR-NHL as a single disease entity and rather treatment of AIDS lymphoma needs to be tailored to lymphoma subtype. While intensive therapeutic strategies in the resource-rich world are clearly improving outcome, in AIDS epicenters of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa there is a paucity of data on treatment and outcomes. In fact, only one prospective study of dose-modified oral chemotherapy and limited retrospective studies with sufficient details provide a window into the natural history and clinical management of this disease. The scarcities and challenges of treatment in this setting provide a backdrop to review the current status and realities of the therapeutic approach to AR-NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. More pragmatic and risk-adapted therapeutic approaches are needed.

Mwamba PM SBN. "The Nairobi Hospice--tribute to the late professor Edward George Kasili." East Afr. Med J.. 2009;86(12):s110-s111.
Mwalusepo S, Massawe ES, Affognon HD, Okuku GO, Kingori S, Mburu DM, Ong’amo GO, Muchugu E, Calatayud P-A, Landmann T, Muli E, Raina SK, Johansson T, Ru BPL. "Smallholder farmers’ perspectives on climatic variability and adaptation strategies in East Africa: The case of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Taita and Machakos Hills in Kenya." Earth Science & Climatic Change. 2015;6(10):01-09.
Mwaliwa HC. "Athari ya Kiswahili kwa Lugha Zingine za Kiafrika.". In: Kiswahili katika Elimu ya Juu. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mwaliwa HC. "8. ‘Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Kueneza Shughuli za Kidini’ .". In: Kiswahili na Maendeleo ya Jamii. Dar es salaam: TUKI; 2015.
Mwaliwa HC. "Modern Swahili: An Integration of Arabic Culture into Swahili Literature." Tydskrif vir Letterkunde . 2018;55(2):120-133.
Mwaliwa HC, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya. Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
Mwaliwa HC. "Kiswahili na Kidawida: Je, ni Lugha Moja?". In: Isimu na Fasihi za Lugha za Kiafrika. Eldoret: Moi University Press.; 2018.
Mwaliwa HC. "7. ‘Nafasi ya Kiswahili Sanifu katika Stesheni za Televisheni Nchini Kenya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili : Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali . Nairobi: Focus Publishers Limited; 2014.
Mwale C, Karimurio J, Njuguna M. "Refractive status of type II diabetic patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 2007;84:127-135. Abstract

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among African type II diabetes mellitus patients and establish the relationship between baseline refractive status and degree of glycaemic control.
Design: A hospital based cross sectional study.
Setting: Diabetic medical and eye clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Subjects: 96 type II diabetes mellitus patients.
Results: Ninety-six patients aged 28 to 76 years were examined. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and about half of the patients (52.1%) had good glycaemic control. The prevalence of myopia was 39.5% and that of hypermetropia was 19.0%. 22.6% of the study patients had mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Of the eyes with DR, 20.0% (15/75) were myopic, 19.4% (7/36) were hypermetropic and 26.6% (21/79) were emmetropic. There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline refractive status with DR (p=0.358), or HBA1C (glycosylated haemoglobin) (rho=0.130, p-value=0.249 among myopes) or FBS (fasting blood sugar) (rho=-0.089, p-value=0.438 among myopes and rho=0.158, p-value=0.350 among hyperopes). However, there was a statistically significant correlation between baseline hypermetropic refractive status and HBA1C (rho=0.401, p-value=0.014).
Conclusions: Refractive errors were seen in 58.5% of the patients with myopia being the commonest type (39.5%) followed by hypermetropia 19.0%. There was no statistically significant relationship between baseline refractive status and indicators of glycaemic control except for hypermetropic refractive status and HBA1C.
Recommendations: According to the results of this study, it is not mandatory to ask for HBA1C or FBS results before issuing spectacle prescription to adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus who are already on treatment. However, there is need to emphasize the need for good glycaemic control to minimize the other ocular complications. A similar study should be done on young people with type I diabetes mellitus.

Mwakyusa S, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Esamai F, Ogutu B, Muriithi A, Peshu N, English M. "Implementation of a structured paediatric admission record for district hospitals in Kenya--results of a pilot study." BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2006;6:9. Abstract

The structured admission form is an apparently simple measure to improve data quality. Poor motivation, lack of supervision, lack of resources and other factors are conceivably major barriers to their successful use in a Kenyan public hospital setting. Here we have examined the feasibility and acceptability of a structured paediatric admission record (PAR) for district hospitals as a means of improving documentation of illness.

Mwakumanya M, Ng’ong’a FA, Mutinda C K, Maina EN. "Phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol roots extract of Erythrina sacleuxii hua in Wistar albino rats." Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2022;16:126-140. Abstract
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Mwakondo FM, Muchemi LM, Omwenga EI. "Proposed Model for Predictive Mapping of Graduate's Skills to Industry Roles Using Machine Learnining Techniques." The International Journal Of Engineering And Science (IJES). 2016;5(4). AbstractFull Text Link

The main focus in training evaluation is not only to determine whether training objectives
were achieved but also how to improve evaluation so as to enhance both employability of
graduates and performance in the job. This is in response to challenges facing not only
graduates in choosing industry jobs that befit their skills, but also employers in selecting
graduates whose skills match to their needs. Problem solving is one of the skills acquired
during training by graduates and strongly sought for by employers during evaluation to
promote performance in the job. This paper presents a model for evaluating graduates' by
mapping their problem solving skills to industry jobs' competence requirements and the
potential of using machine learning techniques to train the model in predicting suitable

Mwakondo FM, Muchemi L, Omwenga EI. "Proposed Model for Predictive Mapping of Graduate’s Skills to Industry Roles Using Machine Learning Techniques." International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES) . 2016;5(4):15-24. Abstractjournal_c0504015024_theijes_mwakondo_eio.pdfJournal website

The main focus in training evaluation is not only to determine whether training objectives were achieved but also how to improve evaluation so as to enhance both employability of graduates and performance in the job. This is in response to challenges facing not only graduates in choosing industry jobs that befit their skills, but also employers in selecting graduates whose skills match to their needs. Problem solving is one of the skills acquired during training by graduates and strongly sought for by employers during evaluation to promote performance in the job. This paper presents a model for evaluating graduates’ by mapping their problem solving skills to industry jobs’ competence requirements and the potential of using machine learning techniques to train the model in predicting suitable industry jobs for new graduates from college. The paper outlines challenges facing both graduates and industry in selecting industry jobs and skilled graduates respectively, highlights trends, methods, and gaps in skill evaluation and prediction. A brief discussion is made of key strategies in skill evaluation and prediction that need to be undertaken and evaluation theories behind the key variables of the proposed model.

Keywords: Gap, Mapping, Problem solving skills, Training evaluation, Trends

Mwakondo FM, Muchemi L, Omwenga EI. "Trends towards Predictive Mapping of Graduate’s Skills to Industry Roles: A case Study of Software Engineering." British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science. 2016;18(1). AbstractFull Text Link

The main focus in training evaluation is not only to determine whether training objectives were achieved but also how to improve evaluation so as to enhance both employability of graduates and performance in the job. This is in response to challe nges facing not only graduates in choosing industry jobs that befit their skills, but also employers in selecting graduates whose skills match to their needs. Problem solving is one of the skills acquired during training by graduates and strongly sought fo r by employers during evaluation to promote performance in the job. This paper presents a model for evaluating graduates’ by mapping their problem solving skills to industry jobs ’ competence requirements and the potential of using machine learning techniqu es to train the model in predicting suitable industry jobs for new graduates from college . The paper outlines challenges facing both graduates and industry in selecting industry jobs and skilled graduates respectively, highlight s trends , methods , and gaps in skill evaluation and prediction. A brief discussion is made of key strategies in skill evaluation and prediction that need to be undertaken and evaluation theories behind the key variables of the proposed model.

Mwakimako H, Gona G. "IDP’s Narratives as Political Discourse of Identity." the Hague, Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation,. 2011.
Mwakaje AG, Manyasa E, Wawire N, Muchai M, Ongare D, Mugoya C, Clet Wandui Masiga, Nikundiwe A. "Community-based conservation, income governance, and poverty alleviation in Tanzania: the case of Serengeti ecosystem." The Journal of Environment & Development. 2013;22:51-73. Abstract
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Mwaita SSK, Rambo CM. "Influence of Off-Plan Purchases and Sales on Performance of Real Estate Development Projects in Kilimani, Westlands Sub County, Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research. 2020;4(10):18-27.
Mwaikenda PN, Wambua BN. "Assessment of compliance to sustainable development on mining activities in Tanzania: A case study of Kahama District." Asian Journal of Business and management. 2014;vol 1(2 no. 4 August 2014).abstract_kahama.docx
Mwai D, MK M. "Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: A Case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya." Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2016;12(8):170-180.
Mwai L, Onyatta J, Were FH. "Lead content in automotive paints purchased at formal and informal outlets in Kenya." Heliyon. 2023;9(1):e12831. AbstractHeliyon

Lead (Pb) is added to automotive paints to prevent corrosion on metallic surfaces, for decorative colours, and for reflective properties to heighten visibility, and enhanced drying time, and durability. However, there are substitutes for all of these applications and Pb is highly toxic to human health and the environment. Through concerted efforts, leaded gasoline was phased out and currently, the focus is on lead-based paints. Leaded automotive paint used for spray painting activities often conducted in close proximity to human habitation raises public health concerns over possible exposure. This study was therefore undertaken to assess Pb levels in automotive paints frequently used by informal spray painters. A total of thirty-two (n = 32) cans of automotive paints were purchased in 4 sets of red, blue, green and white colours from eight formal and informal retail shops. Lead levels in the paint samples were analyzed in triplicates using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. All the automotive paints from the informal retail shops had Pb levels that ranged from 220 to 2740 ppm, and exceeded the regulatory limit of 90 ppm. The blue paint from the informal store had the highest Pb levels which were 30 times of the set limit. On the contrary, the paints from the formal stores had significantly (p < 0.05) lower Pb levels that ranged from 80.7 to 580 ppm than those of the informal stores. Although only one paint sample from the former retail shop had Pb levels within the limit. In general, the elevated Pb levels in automotive paints that are used in an unregulated environment are potential sources of exposure and environmental contamination. The study urgently calls for enforcement of the regulatory limits and comprehensive Pb exposure assessments in this sector.

Mwai OA;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

Mwai OA, Mitaru B;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nganda B, Oyieke J, Muthami L. "Provider Time For Women Seeking Mch Care In The Kenyan Prevention Of Mother-to-child Transmission (pmct) Of Hiv Project: Baseline Findings.". 2001.
Mwai OA. "Community breeding of livestock pays off in Ethiopia."; 1993. Abstract

On 15 and 16 November 2011, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) held a workshop on Sharing Research Results on Trypanotolerance in Indigenous Cattle Breeds and Experiences of Community Based Breed Improvement of Indigenous Sheep in Ethiopia. Here Okeyo Mwai from ILRI explains the importance of community breeding programs.

Mwai OA;, Chang-Yeon; C, Dessie, T; Mamo Y. "Country Domestic Animal Genetic Resource Information system (C-DAGRIS)."; 2013.
Mwai OA. Breeding indigenous livestock at ILRI: Red Maasai sheep in Kenya.; 2011. Abstract

For the November 2011 'liveSTOCK Exchange' event at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Okeyo Mwai reflects on livestock genetics research work with the native red Maasai sheep breed in Kenya

Mwai C, Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, R W Nduati, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Nganda B, Oyieke J, Muthami L. "Provider Time For Women Seeking Mch Care In The Kenyan Prevention Of Mother-to-child Transmission (pmct) Of Hiv Project: Baseline Findings.". 2001.
Mwai D, Muriithi MK. "NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES RISK FACTORS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO NCD INCIDENCES IN KENYA." European Scientific Journal . 2015;11(30):268-281.
Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Nationalisation of Terrorism: National Responses to Terrorism through National Legislation.". In: Maria Nzomo & M. Mwagiru (eds). University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Peace and Conflict Management in Kenya (Nairobi: CCR, 2003)
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Foreign Policy and the Diplomacy of Conflict Management in Kenya:.". In: Constitutional Politics and Kenya: The Challenges of Democracy (Nairobi: SAREAT). University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

A Review and Analysis' African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.1

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Rethinking Global Security: An African Perspective.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Legal Framework for CEWARN.". In: Lawrenceville, NJ.: Red Sea Press, 2002; also in IGAD, Protocol on the Establishment of a Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism for IGAD Member States (Djibouti: IGAD, 2002). University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

This article explains the rationale of the various provisions of the Protocol establishing CEWARN (IGAD's conflict early warning and response mechanism).  It outlines the various levels of administration of the conflict early warning mechanism and analyses their legal and practical rationale.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Between a Rock and a Hard Place.". In: Africa and the Changing United Nations Paradigms Vol.8 No.2. University of Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Thinking Outside the Box: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and Issues of Governance and Reconciliation.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
This article examines some contemporary problems of the international humanitarian regime. It contextualises the ICTR and examines some of its jurisprudence, and discusses its contributions to governance and reconciliation in the region. It concludes that interpreting IHL, requires that issues to do with values and the world view they represent be engaged.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Conflict and Peace Management in the Horn of Africa: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives' IRG/APFa Regional Security.". In: The Horn of Africa Series, & Special Reports. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

This paper makes the case that there is a need for states like kenya to return to the foreign policy drawing board. It examines the development of Kenya's foreign policy from independence, and comments critically on Kenya's diplomacy of conflict management.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Who Will Bell the Cat? Article 3(2) of the OAU Charter and the Crisis of OAU Conflict Manageemnt,.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Mwagiru W, Gichaga FJ. "Transport, Communications and Energy.". In: Kenya – an Official Handbook.; 1988.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Foreign Policy, Economic Diplomacy and Multilateral Relations: Framing the Issues in Kenya's Emerging Asia-Pacific Policy'.". In: African Review of Foreign Policy. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract

This paper explores Kenya's emerging economic diplomancy. It notes that although relations with Asia have existed since independence, there is now an emerging aggressiveness by Kenya's foreign policy towards the Asia Pacific region. The main issues of this diplomancy are identified, as are its prospects.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Linkages of Conflict in East Africa: An Overview'.". In: African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.3, No.2. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
FES Papers in Conflict Management, No. 2
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Women and Children in Conflict Situaitons: The Culture of Rights as a Missing Link in Afrca.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Africa Media Review, Vol. 11, No. 3
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. Security Protocols in the Horn of Africa .; 1998.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Independent Constitutional Offices in L.M. Mute & S. Wanjala (eds) when the constitution begins to flower.". In: Paradigms for Constitutional Change in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress). University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
This paper identifies all the offices that are recognised by the constitution of Kenya. It examines the rationale for granting their independence under the constitution, and the problems precluding them from real independence. The paper ultimately suggests reforms that can restore teh independence of these constitutional offices.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Women's Land and Property Rights in Conflict SItuation (with N. Karuru).". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No. 3, (Cirino Hiteng)
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Conflict Management in Local Government: Aframework for Analysis and Management.". In: Kenya (Nairobi Konrad Adeneur). University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This paper examines analyses local governemtn from the standpoint of conflict and its management. It identifies the typess of conflict that pervade local government, classifies them, and proposes structures, processes and framework from which such conflicts can be managed.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Under Western Eyes: Western Diplomatic Practices in Africa.A.". In: Review eassy African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.2. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

A Review and Analysis' African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.1

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Towards a Regional Security Architecture in the IGAD Region in African Regional Security in the Age of Globalization.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Constitution as a Source of Crisis: A Conflict Analysis of Democracy and Presidential Powers in Kenya' in Ludeki Chweya (ed).". In: Constitutional Politics and Kenya: The Challenges of Democracy (Nairobi: SAREAT). University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

This article explains the rationale of the various provisions of the Protocol establishing CEWARN (IGAD's conflict early warning and response mechanism).  It outlines the various levels of administration of the conflict early warning mechanism and analyses their legal and practical rationale.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "The Legal Milieu of the Environmentt:An Ovwerview.". In: Paradigms, Vol. 7, No. 1. University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Diplomacy: Documents, Methods and Practice.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Conflict Management in Africa: Lessons Learnt and Future strategies.". In: CCR-FES Papers in Conflict Management No.1. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

This paper makes the case that there is a need for states like kenya to return to the foreign policy drawing board. It examines the development of Kenya's foreign policy from independence, and comments critically on Kenya's diplomacy of conflict management.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Beyond the OAU: Prospects for Conflict Management.". In: The Horn of Africa, Paradigms, Vol. 9, No. 2. University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Campaing Planning for National Security Strategy: A Pre-Theoretical Framework for Analysis'.". In: Journal of the National Defence College, Vol 6. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
This paper lays out the elements of a framework for analysing campaign planning. It is illustrates that campaign planning is not peculiar to the military, and that it exists in civil institutions also. The paper argues that campaign planning should address crisis, that it addresses developments that threaten national security strategy (grand strategy), and that it should be limited in terms of its time-frame.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Conflict, Theory, Processes and Institutions of Management.". In: (Nairobi: Watermark Publications, 2000). University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
FES Papers in Conflict Management, No. 2
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "A Return to Basics: Media Rights as Fundamental Human Rights.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
African Media Review, Vol. II, No. 3.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Issues,Problems and Prospects in Managing the Diplomatic Services in the Small States.". In: The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract

This article identifies and comments on some of the major problems attending the management of the diplomatic services in small states like Kenya. It notes some important developemnts in managing Kenya's diplomacy such as the framing of a strategic, and the existence of a written document on the foreign policy of Kenya.

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