Publications

Found 9155 results

Sort by: [ Author  (Desc)] Title Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is M  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L [M] N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
M
Mwenesi BM. "- Cohesion and Integration in Kenya through the teaching of French in Kenyan Schools.". In: NCIC. KCB Centre; Karen; Forthcoming.
Mwendwa R, Owino OW, Ambuko J, Wawire M, Nenguwo N. "Characterization of postharvest physiology attributes of six commercially grown tomato varieties in Kenya." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10613-10631. Abstract
n/a
Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Culture Aware M-Learning Classification Framework for African Countries." Cross-Cultural Online Learning in Higher Education and Corporate Training. 2014:98-111. AbstractFull Text

African countries are currently experiencing proliferation of mobile phone
subscriptions but no prevalence of personal computers or electricity (Parker, 2011). It is
estimated that, by the end of 2015 in Sub-Saharan Africa, the percentage of people with
mobile network access will surpass that of access to electricity in homes (Rao, 2011). This
phenomenon is also experienced in learning institutions, particularly universities, where
almost every student owns a mobile phone (Kashorda & Waema, 2009). Although there is

Mwendia SW;, Mwangi DM;, Wahome RG;, Wanyoike M. "Assessment of growth rate and yields of three Napier grass varieties in Central Highlands of Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

An evaluation of the performance of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) cultivars Kakamega-I (ILRI accession No. 16971), Kakamega-II (ILRI accession No. 16978) and Muguga Bana was carried out in the Lower Highland Zone 3 (LH3) at KARI-Muguga South, Central Kenya. Kakamega-I has been shown to be resistant to Napier grass head smut disease while Muguga Bana is susceptible but popular in Central Kenya. The varieties were planted in a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) without application of manure or fertiliser. Dry matter yields (DM), leaf to stem ratio and tiller numbers were recorded for six consecutive harvests. Growth rates were measured during the fourth, fifth and sixth ratoon (regrowths). The varieties produced similar (P > 0.05) number of tillers but differed in the tiller heights and subsequent growth rates. Kakamega-I produced significantly the tallest tillers and had the highest growth rate followed by Kakamega-II and Muguga Bana respectively. Cumulative DM yields (t/ha) for six harvests was highest for Kakamega-I (68.3 t/ha). Leaf to stem ratio was higher for Muguga Bana (4.98) than both Kakamega-I and Kakamega-II, which were similar in this aspect (2.49 and 3.32). The higher dry matter yields in Kakamega-I was attributed to the faster growth rate than the other varieties.

Mwendia SN, Wagacha PW, Oboko R. "Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education." IGI Global. 2016;4:179. AbstractFull Text

According to ITU (2012), digital divide is the difference between countries in
terms of levels of ICT development. This difference remains significant. In 2011, the ICT
Development Index (IDI) value of developed countries (6.52) was twice as high as that of
developing countries (3.24). The need to link the digital divide for universal broadband
Internet access is within the key international development goals, which include World
Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) goals and Millennium Development Goals

Mwendarani B. “Taswira ya mwanamke katika tamthilia mbili za kiswahili’’. Mbuthia DE, Musyoka DF, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Mwenda JN. "Country Report: Kenya.". In: FIG Commission 7, Annual Meeting. Krakow, Poland; 2003.
Mwenda JN. "Complying with Geo-referencing requirements.". In: ISK (Institution of Surveyors of Kenya) Conference on the Enhanced Profile of the Surveying Profession. Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Mwenda JN, Ngau PM, Mattingly M. "Training and human capacity building in the land sector in the context of implementation of new land policies and reforms in land administration systems: some reflections from Kenya.". In: XXV FIG Congress 2014: Engaging Challenges, Enhancing Relevance. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2014.
Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of endometriosis among African-American and African-indigenous women.". In: Gynecol Obstet Invest 2004: 57:1-60.; 2004. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

Mwenda JM, Machoki JM, Omollo E, Galo M, Langat DK. "The prevalence of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a selected population of Kenyan women and development of a non-human primate model.". 2004. Abstract

The mechanisms by which anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs) may induce pregnancy losses, intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension are not clearly understood. Moreover, there is a controversy regarding the possible direct effects of these antibodies on the physiology of the placenta since the target antigens of these antibodies are intracellular antigens and are potentially inaccessible to the antibody. Also, controversy exists regarding the usefulness of the treatment regimens currently available. In this study, we present preliminary data on the prevalence of aPLs in a selected population (n = 80) of Kenyan women visiting Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya for obstetrical complications including recurrent pregnancy losses. Our results showed approximately 13.8% of the patients were positive for anti-cardiolipin antibodies whereas 33.8% were positive for aPS. Additionally, we screened 72 non-human primates for presence of aPLs and our results showed that the olive baboon (Papio anubis) had the highest prevalence rate (52.2%, n = 23). Overall, our results suggest that the olive baboon may be a suitable animal model for studying the mechanism of action of the anti-phospholipid antibody and pregnancy complications associated with aPLs.

Mwenda JN. "Some ideas on Registration of Surveyors from the System in South Africa.". In: Institution of Surveyors of Kenya, Land Surveyors Chapter, Seminar on the Theme "Re-engineering the Land Surveyors Profession". Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi, Kenya; 2004.
Mwenda JN. An Assessment of the Cadastral Survey System in Kenya. Fredericton, NB, Canada: University of New Brunswick; 1986.
Mwenda E, Musundi SW, Nzimbi BM, Marani VN, Njagi L. "Distribution of spectrum in a direct sum decomposition of operators into normal and completely non-normal operators." International Journal of Modern Mathematical Sciences. 2014;11(3):118-124.
Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Degradation of aflatoxin in maize using Ferulic acid (phydroxy-3-methyl cinnamic acid) catalyzed by Hydrogen peroxide." Journal of Food Sciences. 2020;1(1):1-17.
Mwenda JN, Mulaku GC, Chika BA. "Chapter 5: Access to Land for Women in Kenya.". In: A Comparative Study on Access to Land for Women in Eastern Africa . Musanze, Rwanda: EALAN; 2020.
Mwenda JN. "Registration of Properties in Strata in Kenya.". In: International Workshop on 3D Cadastres: Registration of Properties in Strata. Delft, Netherlands; 2001.
Mwenda AM. "Personalizing Power in Uganda.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

A dozen years after the adoption of Uganda's new constitution, the democratization process has been thrown into reverse. Uganda today is sliding backward toward a system of one-man rule engineered by the recently reelected President Yoweri Museveni, who has now been in power for more than two decades. Due to Museveni's use of force and intimindation on the one hand, and his manipulation of patronage on the other, the stakeholders whom one would naturally expect to denounce the backsliding have been silent.

Mwenda JN, Wandiga SO, Kariuki DK, Madadi VO. "Occurrence and Distribution of Aflatoxin in Maize from Selected Counties, Eastern Region, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Policy. 2020;3(2).
Mwenda JN. "Country Report: Kenya.". In: FIG Commission 7, Annual Meeting. Pretoria, South Africa; 2002.
Mwenda JN. A Critical Evaluation of Checking of Fixed Boundary Surveys in Kenya. Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH; 2009.
Mwenda JN. "Academic Institutions and opportunities to implement Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Land, Fisheries and Forests.". In: FIG Working Week 2012: Territory, Environment and Cultural Heritage. Rome, Italy; 2012.
Mwenda JN. "Spatial Information in Land Tenure Reform, with Special reference to Kenya.". In: FIG International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
Mwenda M. Njozi Yapata Mtenzi.; 2018.
Mwema FM, Obiko JO, Leso T, MBUYA TO, Mose BR, Akinlabi ET. "Wear Characteristics of Recycled Cast Al-6Si-3Cu Alloys." Tribology in Induastry. 2019;41(4):613-621. AbstractDOI: 10.24874/ti.2019.41.04.13

Recycling of Al-Si alloys for high integrity structural components for the automotive industry applications has gained attention in the recent times. In this article, scrap of cylinder heads containing 6.01%Si and 2.62%Cu were recycled by casting into four alloys invariants: base alloy (no alloying elements added), 0.02%Ca, 0.38%Fe and 0.9%Fe+0.45%Mn additions. The structural properties were analysed through optical and SEM/EDS microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear characteristics of the alloys were investigated using a multi-pass ball on the flat reciprocating method under a normal load of 30 N and velocity of 4 mm/s. The results showed delamination and adhesive wear as the predominant wear mechanisms for the recycled Al-Si alloys. The base and 0.02%Ca alloys exhibited the lowest coefficients of friction and rates of wear. A comparison of the wear data to the published data on primary alloys revealed that our secondary alloys have the potential for applications in the automotive industry.

Mwema FM, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Reed PAS, Obiko JO. "Data on the effect of high-pressure torsion processing on secondary cast Al–10%Si– Cu piston alloy: Methods, microstructure and mechanical characterizations." Data in Brief. 2019;25(August):104160. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104160

The dataset presented here shows the microstructure and mechanical properties of secondary (recycled) cast aluminum-silicon (Al–Si) piston alloys processed through severe plastic deformation technique, known as high-pressure torsion (HPT). The HPT processing was undertaken for 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 10 turns of the lower anvil (rotating at constant speed of 1rpm) while the upper anvil maintained at a normal pressure of 3.0 GPa. The data on microstructural evolution obtained at the central region and edge of the circular (disk) HPT sample were obtained using optical and scanning electron microscopy and these data are presented here. The data on the analysis of the particle shape, sizes and distribution from the micrographs using ImageJ software are also presented. Data on mechanical properties characterized using Vickers microhardness measurement across the surface of HPT sample are also shown. Pictures depicting the microhardness measurement scheme, high-pressure torsion facility and sample nomenclature are presented.

Mweke AN, Kimenju JW, Seif AA, Mutitu EW, Mutua GK. "Potential of sequential cropping in the management of root-knot nematodes in okra.". 2008. Abstract

The response of different crops to a mixed population of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita and their potential as suppressants in sequential cropping systems was evaluated in greenhouse and field experiments. Crops rated as resistant were five maize cultivars, four sorghum cultivars, two millet varieties, guwar and two pigeonpea cultivars which had galling indices ranging between 1.4-3.6. cowpea cv. K80 was rated as moderately resistant with a galling index of 4 while greengram and cowpea cv. KKI were rated as susceptible with galling indices ranging from 5.6 to 7.4. Four crops namely sweetcorn, babycorn, maize cv. Pioneer (Ph3253) and guwar were selected after the greenhouse tests for field trials, based on their poor host status to root-knot nematodes as well as relative acceptability to vegetable growers. These crops were then incorporated into a rotation program with okra. Initial and final J2 numbers in the field were determined before planting and at the end of the season, respectively. Okra was then sown in the plots previously grown with the selected nematode suppressive crops and the nematode numbers determined mid and end of the season. A 44 and 21% decline in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under guwar or sweetcorn and babycorn, respectively. In contrast, a 441% increase in nematode numbers was recorded in plots under continuous crop of okra. The galling index on a crop of okra that followed sweetcorn was 3.3 compared to 8.6 in the control which was continuously under okra, resulting in an increase in yield within a range of 60-92%. This underscores the potential of rotating highly susceptible crops with poor hosts in the management of root-knot nematodes.

Mweha F, Mwangi N, Ngola S. "9. `Real Interest Rates and the Mobilization of Private Savings in Africa: The Case of Kenya'." Ile Ife Journal of Economics and Finance. 1991;1(1).
Mwega FM. "Slum and non - slum enterprises market survey: A case study of Mathare Valley in Nairobi, Kenya." A survey of 200 enterprises in Mathare Valley and 50 in the neighbouring non - slum areas undertaken for the National Christian Council of Churches (NCCK) and financed by ILO. 1990.
Mwega FM. "Kenya's Development Experience: The Economic System Approach.". In: East Asian Development Experience and Applicability.; 1997.
Mwega FM, Adepoju A, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "Kenya.". In: The Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Population of Africa.; 1993.
Mwega FM. "'Private Saving Behaviour in Less Developed Countries and Beyond: Is Sub - Sahara Africa Different'.". In: International Economic Association World Congress.; 1995.
Mwega FM. "Politiques Intérieure et nouvelles disciplines de lÓMC: Expériences de quelques pays Africains.". In: Domestic Economic Policies and the New WTO Disciplines: Selected African Country Experiences.; 2004.
Mwega F. "Manufacturing in Kenya: Africa Imperatives in the World Trade Order.". In: Case Studies on Manufacturing and Services. AERC; 2008.
Mwega FM, Mkandawire T, Soludo C. "Financial Sector Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: African Voices on Structural Adjustment in Sub - Saharan Africa. Third World Press; 2003.
Mwega F. "The Debt Experiences of Uganda, Kenya and Bolivia.". In: Compendium on Debt Sustainability and Development.; 2009.
Mwega FM. "Kenya.". In: Africa Competitiveness Report, 2000/1.; 2000.
Mwega F, Mwangi N, Ochilo O. "`Macroeconomic Constraints and Medium-Term growth. A Three Gap Analysis of the Kenyan Economy'." African Journal of Economic Policy. 1994;1(1).
Mwega FM. "Slum and non - slum enterprises market survey: A case study of slum areas of Nairobi, Kenya." A surv ey of 400 enterprises located in seven major slum areas of Nairobi and 250 enterprises located in the neighbouring non - slum areas financed by ILO. 1990.
Mwega FM. "Real Interest Rates and the Mobilization of Private Savings: A Case Study of Kenya.". In: Interim Report in an AERC seminar.; 1989.
Mwega FM, Ibrahim A. "Regional Integration, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment.". In: Trade Reform and Reg ional Integration.; 1998.
Mwega FM. Recent Economic Shocks, their Impacts and Policy Responses in Kenya.. London.: International Development Institute (ODI),; 2012.
Mwega FM, Ndulu BJ, Barkan J. "'Beyond Capitalism and Socialism' A Comparative Analysis of Economic Adjustment Processes in Kenya and Tan zania.". In: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism: A Comparative Analysis of Kenya and Tanzania.; 1994.
Mwega F. "7. `The Short-run Shifting of the Manufacturers' Sales Taxes in Kenya: Revisited'." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1988;4(5).
Mwega BW, Mati BM, Mulwa JK, Kituu GM. "Application of electrical resistivity method to investigate groundwater potential in Lake Chala watershed." International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary. 2015;3(7):396-403. Abstract

A geo-electrical investigation was carried out in Lake Chala Watershed in Kenya to determine the roundwater potential of the area. The Vertical Electrical Sounding using schlumberger configuration with a maximum current electrode spread varying from 250 320m and potential electrode spread of 25m was utilized to provide information of the aquifers and subsurface lithology. A total number of 50 VES were carried out. The data obtained were interpreted by computer iteration process. Interpreted results revealed four to six distinct subsurface layers which comprised of top soil (clay, sandy clay soil intercalated with silt, sand and gravel)
, highly weathered ryholite, and moderately weathered basalt volcanic ash, highly weathered fractured basalt, weathered basalt, slightly fractured dry and fresh basalt and basalt basement rock layers. The results showed that the auriferous layer was composed of highly weathered fractured basalt, moderately weathered basalt & volcanic ash and weathered basalt geological material. The layer had a resistivity range of 40 to 200 and a thickness range of 1.38 to 91m. The results showed that lake chala watershed have high groundwater potential which can be exploited as an alternative source of water in the area.

Mwega F, Ajayi I. "FDI in Africa: A Case Study of Kenya.". In: FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa. AERC; 2007.
Mwega FM, Seck D, Chhibber A, Fischer S. "Comments on Financial Sector Policy.". In: Economic Re form in Sub - Saharan Africa .; 1991.
Mwega FM, Kaul I, Conceicao P. "International Cooperation Behind National Borders: Country Case Study on Kenya.". In: The Ne w Public Finance: Responding to Global Challenges.; 2005.
Mwega F. "`The Incidence of Taxes and Transfers in Kenya: A General Equilibrium analysis'." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1985;Vol 2(No 1).
Mwega F. "Aid Effectiveness to Infrastructure: A Comparative Study of East Asia And Sub-Saharan: Kenya Case Study." Japanese Bank for International Development (JBIC); 2008.
Mwega FM. "Gender Inequalities, Economic Growth and Pove rty in Kenya.". In: GRE Consult.; 2003.
Mwega FM. "The real Exchange Rate and impact of its real misalignment on macroeconomic performance in Kenya. .". In: The real Exchange Rate and impact of its real misalignment on macroeconomic performance in Kenya. ; 1992.
Mwega FM, Rwegasira D. "Public Debt and Macroeconomic Management in Sub - Saharan Africa.". In: UNCTAD, Management of Capital Flows: Comparative Experiences and Implications for Africa, UNCTAD/GDS/MDPB/2003/1, 2003 .; 2003.
Mwega F, Fengler W, Kharas H. "Kenya.". In: Delivering Aid Differently. Brookings Institution Press; 2010.
Mwega FM. "Study into the Tax Incidence within the EAC.". In: Imani Development Ltd.; 2001.
Mwega FM. "Macroeconomic Constraints and Medium - Term growth: A Three Gap Analysis of the Kenyan Economy.". In: Macroeconomic Constraints and Medium - Term growth: A Three Gap Analysis of the Kenyan Economy. Abidjan, Cote d' Ivoire; 1991.
Mwega FM, Ndung'u NS. "'Kenya's Recent Exchange - Rate Policy and Manufactured Exports Performance .". In: Policies to Promote Competitiveness in Manufacturing in Sub - Saharan Africa , IMF/AERC/OECD.; 2001.
Mwega F. "‘Saving in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Analysis’." Journal of African Economies, Supplement. 1997;6(3).
Mwega FM. "Monetary policy in Kenya'.". In: AERC Seminar in Harare, December 1989 and ODI seminar in London,.; 1989.
Mwega FM, Ndung'u NS. "Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange rate Management in Kenya.". In: Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange rate Management.; 1999.
Mwega BW, Mati B, Mulwa JK, Kituu GM. "Identification of groundwater potential zones using remote sensing and GIS in Lake Chala watershed, Kenya.". In: Mechanical Engineering Annual Conference on sustainable research and innovation. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Thika, Kenya; 2013. Abstract

Groundwater is a natural resource of the earth that sustains and supports domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. It is distributed fairly and evenly throughout the world and over half of the world’s population depends on groundwater for drinking water supplies. Its usage is increasing due to rapid population growth, high rate of urbanization, industrial growth and agricultural utilizations. This has resulted to rapid depletion of groundwater which leads to water stress and degradation of these resources. The situation is further worsened by inadequate information on groundwater resource which has been and is still a big obstacle to the proper management of these resources. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have emerged as very effective and reliable tools in the assessment, monitoring and conservation of groundwater resources. This paper has made an attempt to identify and delineate groundwater potential zones in Lake Chala Basin in Kenya using Remote sensing and GIS. In the process of groundwater delineation in the area, different thematic maps on lithology, land use/land cover, drainage density, slope and rainfall were prepared, assigned with different weighting values as per their importance on groundwater occurrence and overlaid using spatial analyst tool in ArcGis 10 to generate groundwater potential map. The generated groundwater potential zone map was classified into four groundwater potential zones namely, very high, high, moderate and low. The study revealed that the area has very high groundwater potential. The generated groundwater potential map will be used for further groundwater exploration, proper planning, sustainable utilization and management of groundwater resources in the Lake Chala Watershed.

Mwega FM. "A quantitative analysis of th e balance of payments in Kenya." Prepared for the Long - range Planning Unit, Ministry of Planning and National Development. 1987.
Mwega FM. "Towards the Convertibility of the Kenya Shilling.". In: ADB, African Development Report, 1995 - 6.; 1995.
Mwega F, Due J, Osoro N. "8. `Evolving Sales Taxation in Kenya and Tanzania'." Bureau of International Fiscal Documentation. 1990:233-239.
Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
Mwega FM, Weil D, Mbiti I. The Implications of Innovations in the Financial Sector on th e Conduct of Monetary Policy in East Africa.. International Growth Ce ntre Tanzania Country Programme; 2012.
Mwega FM. "Monetary Policy in Kenya 1967 - 88.". In: Monetary Policy in Developing Countries. Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol 6 No 2; 1990.
Mwega F. "Explaining Africa's Economic Growth Performance: the Case of Kenya.". In: The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000: Volume 2, Country Case Studies. Cambridge University Press; 2008.
Mwega FM. enya’s Market Access Constraints On Non - Agricultural Products In The European Union. Paper prepared for the Ministry of Trade and Industry through the Trade Negotiations Support Under Kenya - EU Post Lome Trade Programme (KEPLOTRADE); 2005.
Mwega FM. "Public Debt Constraints to Financing Pro - Poor Growth.". In: Financing Pro - Poor Growth in Afri ca, AERC Senior Policy Seminar VI.; 2004.
Mwega FM. "Study to Explore the Opportunities for Fostering Pro - Growth in Kenya.". In: Oxford Policy Management Ltd.; 2001.
Mwega FM, Helleiner GK. "Promoting Non - traditional Exports from Kenya.". In: Non - Traditional Export and Development in Sub - Saharan Africa: Issues and Experience.; 2002.
Mwega F. "‘The Competitiveness of the Financial Services in Africa: A Case Study of Kenya’." African Development Review. 2011;23(1):44-59.
Mwega F, Murinde V. "Regulatory Reforms and their Impact on the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the Banking Sector: A Case Study of Kenya.". In: Bank Regulatory Reforms in Africa. Palgrave MacMillan; 2012.
Mwega FM. "`Monetary Policy Issues in an African Contex.". In: African Centre for Monetary Studies Semina.; 1990.
Mwega FM, Oyejide A, Ndulu B, Gunning J. "Trade Libe ralization, Credibility and Impacts: A Case Study of Kenya, 1972 - 94.". In: Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in Sub - Sahara Africa: Country Case Studies.; 1999.
Mwea SK. "The way forward in civil engineering training.". 2008. Abstract

The civil engineering teaching involves provision of sound professional education so that upon graduation the student is able to fit into the various disciplines of civil engineering. These disciplines can be broadly described as transportation, structural, water and waste water engineering. This paper suggests that besides instilling the core engineering knowledge, the teaching of civil engineering should include other subjects which have a big impact in the work of civil engineers. These areas include entrepreneurship, environmental, and social studies. Additionally a study abroad is recommended for those students who are likely to work outside their counties of birth.

Mwea, Sixtus K;, Gichaga FP(S). Studies of flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya .; 2001.
Mwea SK, Gichaga FJ. "Engineering properties of common subgrade soils below pavement structures in Kenya." Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT. 2002;7.
Mwciniki AW;, Mwang'ombe AW;, Songa W;, Olubayo F. "Constraints contributing to low bean yields in Embu district, Kenya."; 2000.
Mwciniki AW;, Mwang'ombe, A. W; Songa OW; F, Songa W;, Olubayo F. "Constraints contributing to low bean yields in Embu district, Kenya."; 2000.
Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." EIJST. 2014;3(6):61-66.
Mwazighe FM. "Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Detection of Anthracene." Int. J. of Electrochem.Sci. . 2020;15(11):11058-11069. Abstract

The electrochemical oxidation of anthracene on a bare glassy carbon electrode results in electrode fouling and reduced sensitivity in its detection. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of anthracene because of their antifouling and peak enhancement properties. The peak current for anthracene oxidation was enhanced by 73.64%, and the peak potential shifted by 53 mV to a slightly less positive value. The electrochemical process was determined to be mixed diffusion- and adsorption-controlled, and a preconcentration or accumulation time was necessary in the analysis of anthracene. Square wave voltammetry was used to analyze increasing concentrations of anthracene; a dynamic linear range of 50–146 μM (R2 = 0.98452) and a limit of detection of 42 μM were established. The sensor platform was used to detect anthracene in a spiked sample of tap water, albeit at lower than expected concentrations because of its low solubility in water.

Mwazighe FM, Kamau GN, Mwaniki JM. "Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Wastewaters with Sludge and Rumen Fluid." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;Vol 3(6):61-66. Abstract

Anaerobic digestion was conducted at mesophilic (37oC) and thermophilic (55oC) conditions using sewage
wastewaters as the substrate and sludge and/or rumen fluid as the inoculum, with a view to optimize biogas
production. The substrate and inoculum were mixed in the ratios 1:1, 1:3, and 3:1 (volume by weight (where
sludge was used) or volume by volume (where rumen fluid was used).At mesophilic conditions for both
inocula, the 3:1 substrate/inoculum mixture produced the most biogas in a 24 hour period, with the rumen
mixture producing the highest yield (20 ml). At thermophilic conditions the 3:1 wastewater/sludge mixture
had the highest biogas yield (58 ml), whereas when rumen fluid was used as inoculum, the 1:3 mixture
produced the most biogas (66 ml). The thermophilic experiments using rumen as the inoculum were
repeated for a 10 day period and the 3:1 mixture achieved the maximum yield (140 ml) faster than the other
two (1:1 and 1:3 mixtures) indicating that the 3:1 substrate/inoculum ratio is the best.

Mwazighe FM. "Active Components in the Essential Oil from Matricaria recutita L. Grown in Selected Areas in Kenya.". In: 5th SEANAC Conference . Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Mwavua SM, Ndungu EK, Mutai KK, Joshi MD. "A comparative study of the quality of care and glycemic control among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, at a Tertiary Referral Hospital and a Regional Hospital in Central Kenya." BMC research notes. 2016;9(1):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Background

Peripheral public health facilities remain the most frequented by the majority of the population in Kenya; yet remain sub-optimally equipped and not optimized for non-communicable diseases care.
Design and methodology

We undertook a descriptive, cross sectional study among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, attending Kenyatta National Referral Hospital (KNH), and Thika District Hospital (TDH) in Central Kenya. Systematic random sampling was used. HbA1c was assessed for glycemic control and the following, as markers of quality of care: direct client costs, clinic appointment interval and frequency of self monitoring test, affordability and satisfaction with care.
Results

We enrolled 200 clients, (Kenyatta National Hospital 120; Thika District Hospital 80); Majority of the patients 66.5 % were females, the mean age was 57.8 years; and 58 % of the patients had basic primary education. 67.5 % had diabetes for less than 10 years and 40 % were on insulin therapy. The proportion (95 % CI) with good glycemic was 17 % (12.0–22.5 respectively) in the two facilities [Kenyatta National Hospital 18.3 % (11.5–25.6); Thika District Hospital 15 % (CI 7.4–23.7); P = 0.539]. However, in Thika District Hospital clients were more likely to have a clinic driven routine urinalysis and weight, they were also accorded shorter clinic appointment intervals; incurred half to three quarter lower direct costs, and reported greater affordability and satisfactions with care.
Conclusion

In conclusion, we demonstrate that in Thika district hospital, glycemic control and diabetic care is suboptimal; but comparable to that of Kenyatta National Referral hospital. Opportunities for improvement of care abound at peripheral health facilities.
Keywords
Diabetes mellitus Glycemic control Africa Quality care

Mwaura. F, and Moore TR. "Forest and Woodland Depletion in the Lake Elementaita Basin, Kenya." Geoforum . 1991;22[1] :17-26.
Mwaura. F, and Ogendo RB. "Some Aspects of Vegetation Structure in a High Altitude Tropical Lake Elementaita Drainage Basin, Kenya." Eastern & Southern Africa Geographical Journal. 1993;4[1]:73-89.
Mwaura F. "Catchment Based Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Rift Valley, Kenya - The Small Reservoir Approach. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of the Eastern Africa Environmenal Network (EAEN) May 28-29 ." J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2000. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura F, and Zech B. "Small man-made reservoirs and the future of integrated watershed management in Kenya." Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2003;(2(1):67-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
n/a
Mwaura L. "Sexual Violence Against Girls' in Schools: Strategic and Challenges Towards Safer Schools.". In: Centre for Rights Education and Awareness (CREAW).; 2011.
Mwaura FM, Tungani JO, Sikuku D, Woomer PL. "Acceptability of cereal banks as a marketing intervention among smallholders in western Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

A new impetus is emerging with regard to the potential role that agricultural producer associations might play in improving rural economies. For this study, the use of cereal banking to improve accessibility to premium markets was assessed and the factors influencing farmers' decisions to join them were evaluated. The methodology involved a baseline survey of 213 smallholder maize producers in Bungoma district, western Kenya, plus a logit model analysis to predict the probabilities of farmers joining a cereal bank. Membership of other local community-based organizations and the actual harvests achieved strongly influence farmers' decisions to join a cereal bank.

Mwaura SM, Rajula RE, Chepchirchir A. "Determinants Of Adherence Levels To Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Seronegative Partners In HIV Discordant Heterosexual Relationships." International Journal Of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science . 2019:115-123 .
Mwaura F. "A Spatio-chemical Survey of Hydrogeothermal Springs in Lake Elementaita, Kenya." Discovery and Innovation . 1999;12(1):73-79. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura F. Small Reservoirs and Rural Water Supply in Kenya: Balancing Landuse, Catchment Structure and Water Quality. Proceedings of the 12th International Stockhold Water Symposium, August 15. Stockholm City; 2002. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura JK. "The Status of CSR in Kenya.". In: in Wayne Visser and Nick Tolhurst (eds), The World Guide to CSR: A Country-by-Country Analysis of Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility. London: Greenleaf Publishing; 2010.
mwaura F, Kimani M, Nyandega IA. State of Kenya Population 2009: Population Dynamics and Population Change: Implications for the Realization of the MDGs and the Goals of Vision 2030. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2010.
MWAURA MRARTHURMUNYUA. "Review of Policy for Zones 3,4 & 5, Nairobi, Kenya, Nairobi: Unpublished Report submitted to the City Council of Nairobi by a Planning team of Experts (where I was a principal coordinator).". In: Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 5/2, (1993), at p. 191. Departmental seminar; 2006. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Mwaura F. "Some aspects of water quality characteristics in small shallow tropical man-made reservoirs in Kenya." African Journal of Science & Technology (AJST) . 2006;7(1):82-96.
Mwaura F. "An audit of environmental impact assessments for mining projects in Kenya." Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy . 2019;119(5) :484-493.
Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
n/a
Mwaura MW, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YAM, Ngugi RK. Economic contribution of the camel milk trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya. London: IIED; 2015.
Mwaura L. "The Psychology of Gender and Human Sexuality." Intimacy and Sanctity of Sexuality. Forthcoming.
MWAURA MRMBUGUAJOHN. "Financial Accounting DBM 105 module for post graduate Diploma in Project Planning and Management.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Mwaura MW, Wasonga OV, Elhadi YAM, Ngugi RK. "Economic contribution of the camel milk trade in Isiolo Town, Kenya." London: IIED. 2015. Abstract
n/a
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Mwaura F. Towards Total Ecosystems Management in Kenyan Watersheds. Some Opportunities in the small man-made reservoir approach. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Conservation and Management of Lakes, November 11-16.; 2001. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura F. "The spatio-temporal characteristics of water transparency and temperature in shallow reservoirs, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management . 2003;8:259-268. AbstractWebsite

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

Mwaura J, Mawia AM, Chepchirchir A. "Alcoholism and intimate partner violence." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2008;2:194-201. Abstract
n/a
MWAURA MRMBUGUAJOHN. "An assessment of job satisfaction and motivational patterns of secondary schools business studies teachers in Nairobi province.". In: East African Medical Journal 69(10):583 . University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Mwaura FM, Mwangi JK. "Preparation and Use of Gum Arabic and Its Products."; 2003. Abstract

Gum arabic is a natural gum that is obtained from Acacia senegal and A. seyal, two
leguminous trees originating from Africa. Acacias are one of the most common trees in
Africa's semi-arid savannas and A. senegal occurs throughout the Sahel and Sudanese
woodlands, in the Great Rift Valley and into Southern Africa (White, 1983). These trees have
compound leaves with small leaflets, small white to cream colored flowers and form thin
woody pods. Sudan is the dominant producer of gum arabic, accounting for over 80% of …

Mwau M, Adungo F, Kadima S, Njagi E, Kirwaye C, Abubakr NS, Okubi LA, Waihenya M, Lusike J, Hungu J. "Evaluation of PIMA™® point of care technology for CD4 T cell enumeration in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6):e67612. Abstract

CD4+ T cell enumeration is used to determine eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to monitor the immune status of HIV-positive patients; however, many patients do not have access to this essential diagnostic test. Introducing point of care (POC) testing may improve access. We have evaluated Alere's PIMA™, one such POC device, against conventional CD4+ testing platforms to determine its performance and validity for use in Kenya. In our hands, Alere PIMA™ had a coefficient of variability of 10.3% and of repeatability of 175.6 cells/µl. It differed from both the BD FACSCalibur™ (r(2) = 0.762, mean bias -64.8 cells/µl), and the BD FACSCount™ (r(2) = 0.874, mean bias 7.8 cells/µl). When compared to the FACSCalibur™ at a cutoff of 350 cells/µl, it had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 86.7% in those aged 5 years and over (Kw = 0.7566). With the BD FACSCount™, it had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 83.4% in those aged 5 years and over (Kw = 0.7790). The device also differed from PARTEC Cyflow™ (r(2) = 0.781, mean bias -24.2 cells/µl) and GUAVA™ (r(2) = 0.658, mean bias -0.3 cells/µl) platforms, which are used in some facilities in Kenya. We conclude that with refinement, Alere PIMA™ technology has potential benefits for HIV-positive patients. This study highlights the difficulty in selecting the most appropriate reference technology for technical evaluations.

Mwathi ZM, Muiru WM, Kimenju JW, Wachira P. "Evaluation of bio-wastes for multiplication of Paecilomyces lilacinus." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10 (6): 1-5.
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora JM, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface Passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of Spray Pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2 thin films." Advances in Materials. 2014;3(5):38-44.paper_patrick_musembi_2014__advances_in_materials_10.10.2014.pdf
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Nyongesa F, Odari B, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Effect of Annealing and Surface Passivation on doped SnO2 thin filmsPrepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique." Elservier. 2015. Abstract

In this study doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters was done so as to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optoelectronic properties of F: SnO2 thin films was studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was obtained using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. Electrical characterization of the thin films was done using the four point probe method at room temperature. Post-deposition treatment of the thin films by annealing in air then passivating in nitrogen gas environment was done in a tube furnace at 4500C. Sheet resistivity for the as-prepared F: SnO2 was found to be 0.4599 Ωcm and 0.00075 Ωcm being the highest and lowest sheet resistivity respectively (vague. Needs rephrasing for clarity). The low sheet resistivity of F: SnO2 thin films was attributed to substitutional incorporation of F ions instead of oxygen ions into the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin films, a process which increases free carrier concentration. The effect of annealing generally was found to improve the electrical conductivity of the thin films which is due to increase in carrier mobility and density. Passivation on the other hand had a slight opposite effect. Effects of annealing and passivation on the doped SnO2 thin films’ band gap energy and their transparency was insignificant, rendering the doped SnO2 thin films good choice for making a transparent thin film gas sensors.

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Nguu J, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Influence of surface passivation on optical properties of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F:SnO2." International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. 2014;2014; 3(5):137-142. Abstract

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution
consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H20), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters has been done in order to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optical properties of Pd-F:SnO2 thin films were studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was measured using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. The calculated optical band gap of the as prepared thin films has been found to range from 3.8eV to 4.11eV. Fluorine incorporation for Pd-F:SnO2 has been found to have a narrowing effect on the band gap, but at its higher concentration the band gap has been seen to increase. The
band gap narrowing is due to the incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice therefore giving rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap which is an essential characteristic for the gas sensor applications. Both annealing and passivation have been found to have very insignificant change in optical band gap of Pd-F:SnO2.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine Doping, Palladium Doping, Co-Doping, Palladium and Fluorine Co-Doping, Annealing, Passivation, Pd and F Co-Doped SnO2 (Pd-F:SnO2)

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Munguti L, Ntilakigwa AA, Mwabora J, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Surface passivation effect on CO2 sensitivity of spray pyrolysis deposited Pd-F: SnO2 thin film gas sensor.". 2014;2014; 3(5):38-44. Abstract

Abstract: Different thin films samples made of SnO2, F:SnO2, Pd: SnO2 and and co-doped Pd-F: SnO2 were deposited at a substrate temperature of 450oC using optimized doping concentrations of F and Pd, thereafter the samples were annealed and passivated in a tube furnace at 450oC. Optical and electrical methods were used in characterizing the thin film samples: The band gap energy for all samples was extracted from optical data using a proprietary software, Scout™ 98. The calculated band gap energy were found to be 4.1135eV for Pd:SnO2 and 3.8014eV for F:SnO2 being the highest and the lowest calculated band gap energies, respectively. The wide band gap energy has been attributed to the incorporation of Pd ions in crystal lattice of SnO2 thin film for Pd:SnO2 while for F:SnO2 has been due to incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 which gives rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap. This causes the conduction band to lengthen resulting to a reduction in the band gap energy value. The electrical resistivity was done by measuring the sheet resistance of the SnO2, Pd:SnO2, F:SnO2 and Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. The undoped SnO2 thin film had the highest sheet resistivity of 0.5992 Ωcm while F:SnO2 had the lowest sheet resistivity of 0.0075 Ωcm. The low resistivity of F:SnO2 results from substitution incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin
films, instead of O- ions which lead to an increase in free carrier concentration. The Pd-F:SnO2 gas sensor device was tested for CO2 gas sensing ability using a lab assembled gas sensing unit. The performance of the gas sensor device was observed that: the as prepared device was more sensitive to CO2 gas than those subjected to annealing and passivation. The decrease in the sensitivity of the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor is attributed to decrease in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth. This causes a decrement in adsorption properties of CO- and O- species by the annealed Pd-F: SnO2 thin film. The sensitivity of passivated Pd-F: SnO2 gas sensor was found to be the lowest. The low sensitivity is due to the effects of nitration and decrement in grain boundary potential resulting from grain growth, nevertheless, the sensitivity of the passivated Pd-F: SnO2 thin film was found to be within the range for gas sensing applications.

Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine doping, Palladium doping, co-doping, Palladium and Fluorine co-doping, Annealing, Passivation, F -co- doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F: SnO2)

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Nyongesa F, Odari B, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Effect of Annealing and Surface Passivation on Doped SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique." Advances in Materials. 2015;4(3):51-58. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters was done so as to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the Fluorine content on the optoelectronic properties of F: SnO2 thin films was studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was obtained using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. Electrical characterization of the thin films was done using the four point probe method at room temperature. Post deposition treatment of the thin films by annealing in air then passivating in nitrogen gas environment was done in a tube furnace at 4500C. Sheet resistivity for the as prepared F: SnO2 was found to be 0.4599 Ωcm and 0.00075 Ωcm being the highest and lowest sheet resistivity at 22.74 at% F and 16.41 at% F doping in SnO2 respectively. Low sheet resistivity of F: SnO2 thin films is due substitutional incorporation of F ions instead of oxygen ions into the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin films which increases free carrier concentration. The effect of annealing generally was found to improve on the electrical conductivity of the thin films which is due to increase in carrier mobility and density. Passivation on the other hand had a slight opposite effect. Effects of annealing and passivation on doped SnO2 thin films band gap energy and their transparency was insignificant, rendering the doped SnO2 thin films good choice for making a transparent thin film gas sensors.
Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine Doping, Palladium Doping, Annealing and Passivation

Mwatha AK;, Nduati RN;, Reilly M;, John G;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Bwayo JJ;, Kreiss J. "The cost of supplying formula feed to HIV-1 infected women as an intervention against vertical transmission. Journal of Clinical.". 1999.
and Mwashigadi, L.J. WMGPD. "Institutional Factors Influencing Teachers’ Job Commitment in Public Primary Schools in Mwatate Sub- County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(4).
Mwashando AH. Preverlence of mycobacterium tuberculosis at Mewa Hospital. Mombasa: Mombasa Poly University College; 2009.athumani-_h._diploma_project-2.pdf
Mwashando AH. Occurance of Anemia in Msambweni Division. Mombassa: Mombasa Poly University College; 1998.athumani-_diploma_project.pdf
Mwasambo LM, Moturi CA. "Experience in Social Engineering by eCommerce Platforms in Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2016;18(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

eCommerce systems have been targeted by cyber criminals as they receive and use the money, rely on technology, outsourced services and use of payment technologies like mobile money and online banking channels to carry out their day-to-day transactions. Thisstudy sought to investigate social engineering and its mitigation in eCommerce platforms in Kenya. An existing Social Engineering Defensive Framework was adopted and its dimensions were used to create questionnaires and interview guides. The study used 30 out of the 34 pure-play eCommerce firms operating in Nairobi, Kenya. The results indicate that phishing/spear phishing as the leading threat followed by baiting/Trojan Horse, social media/fraudulent websites, search engine poisoning among others. Mitigation measures indicate organizations need to regularly check their website listing in hacking sites (such as pastebin.com and ghostbin.com) and periodically document and update new policies regarding social engineering and information security. This paper proposes social engineering mitigation best practices, emphasizing the need for organizations using the derived best practices and incorporating security culture.

Mwanzia D. Kyule, Munyiri S, Mbae BN. Report on rescue excavations at Hyrax Hill. Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya; 1993.
Mwanzi H. "The Imagination and the Images of an Indigenous Luhya Wife in the 21stCentury." Indian Journal of World Literature and Culture. 2012;8(January- June 2012):54-68.
Mwanzi HOA. "Gender Relations in Marginalized Communities: A Case Study of Women in Maasai Oral Literature.". In: Narrating Nomadism: Tales of Recovery and Resistance. New Delhi and London: Routledge; 2013.
Mwanzi HOA. "Kalisanga and Kalimonje.". 1989.Website
Mwanza J-C, Oakley JD, Budenz DL, Chang RT, Knight O'RJ, Feuer WJ. "Macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer: automated detection and thickness reproducibility with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography in glaucoma." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2011;52:8323-8329. Abstract

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the capability of SD-OCT to measure macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness and to assess its reproducibility in glaucomatous eyes. METHODS: Fifty-one glaucomatous eyes (26 mild, 11 moderate, 14 severe) of 51 patients underwent macular scanning using the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) macula 200×200 acquisition protocol. Five scans were obtained on 5 days within 2 months. The ganglion cell analysis (GCA) algorithm was used to detect the macular GCIPL and to measure the thickness of the overall average, minimum, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal GCIPL. The reproducibility of the measurements was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of variation (COVs), and test-retest standard deviations (TRTSDs). RESULTS: Segmentation and measurement of GCIPL thickness were successful in 50 of 51 subjects. All ICCs ranged between 0.94 and 0.98, but ICCs for average and superior GCIPL parameters (0.97-0.98) were slightly higher than for inferior GCIPL parameters (0.94-0.97). All COVs were {\textless}5%, with 1.8% for average GCIPL and COVs for superior GCIPL parameters (2.2%-3.0%) slightly lower than those for inferior GCIPL parameters (2.5%-3.6%). The TRTSD was lowest for average GCIPL (1.16 μm) and varied from 1.43 to 2.15 μm for sectoral GCIPL CONCLUSIONS: The Cirrus HD-OCT GCA algorithm can successfully segment macular GCIPL and measure GCIPL thickness with excellent intervisit reproducibility. Longitudinal monitoring of GCIPL thickness may be possible with Cirrus HD-OCT for assessing glaucoma progression.

Mwanza EJM, Waithaka SK, Mibey RK, Kariuki G, Simons SA. "First Report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as a Foliar and Die-back Pathogen of Prunus africana in Kenya.". 1999. AbstractWebsite

During tree disease surveys between February 1996 and March 1998 in highland forests of Kenya, leaves of Prunus africana (Hook f.) Kalkman collected from regeneration wildings in natural forests and seedlings raised in nurseries were found to be consistently heavily infected with a leaf spot and shot-hole disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz., anamorph of Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk. The pathogen was identified by sectioning sub-epidermal acervuli on the leaf and also by plating infected tissue segments on 2% malt extract agar. The cultural and conidial morphologies were characteristic of C. gloeosporioides. The isolate is maintained at Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) culture collection (No. 069-63) and identity ascertained by the International Mycological Institute (IMI) (ref. W5794). To confirm pathogenicity, leaves of 3-month-old seedlings of P. africana were sprayed to run-off with a conidial suspension adjusted to 105 conidia per ml or sterile water as a control. Following inoculation, the seedlings were covered with transparent plastic bags for 48 h and kept in a glasshouse at 23 ± 3°C under natural light conditions and relative humidity of 80%. Leafspot symptoms similar to those found on leaves of wildings in natural forests and nursery seedlings were evident on the inoculated leaves within 3 weeks. Five weeks later the necrotic spots on the leaves measured 2 to 6 mm in diameter. The spots were circular or irregular usually surrounded by a zone paler than the healthy tissue. Later the centers of the spots fell, leaving clean shotholes. C. gloeosporioides was consistently reisolated from all inoculated plants. When infection was severe, the pathogen caused premature leaf fall and die-back of the leader shoot. P. africana, formerly known as Pygeum africanum, is a widespread tree species in moist tropical Africa and produces durable timber; extracts from its bark are used for the treatment of prostrate gland disorders. This is the first report of which we are aware of C. gloeosporioides emerging as an important pathogen of P. africana.

Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "A dynamic study of smallholders mixed farms in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya: Activities, performance and interactions." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;23.
Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "An anaylsis of factors affecting smallholder mixed farming activities, performance and interactions in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
Mwanyumba PM, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS, Wahome RG, Wakhungu JW. "Participatory anaylsis of the farming system and resources in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya: A Livestock perspective." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
Mwanthi MA, Kinoti MK, Wama AW, Ndonga M. "Prevalence of intestinal worm infections among primary school children in Nairobi city, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Ndonga, Maryann

Mwanthi MA, Mseh BS, Kimani VN. "Patterns of Agrochemical Handling and Community Response in Central Kenya.". 1993. Abstract

During the last decade, importation and use of pesticides and fertilizers in Kenya has more than tripled. Improper handling of these chemicals by the small scale farmers continues to pose untold health risks. In an effort to assess the magnitude of the problems emanating from improper handling of these agrochemicals, a study was conducted in a rural agricultural community in Kenya between 1987 and 1990. The study investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals by farmers, the level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals, and attitudes toward agricultural chemicals. The study population consisted of all 1,797 households in 10 villages randomly selected by cluster sampling in the Githunguri location of Kiambu District. Despite their limited knowledge of safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals or of the antidote for accidental poisoning, 100 percent of the farmers used pesticides extensively. Various health complaints related to agrochemicals were reported. By and large the community's or the individuals' lack of awareness of the risks associated with use of agrochemicals is believed to have contributed to some of the agrochemical poisonings. An intervention program has been initiated with the community as a key participant. The main emphasis is on safe procedures for handling agrochemicals.

Mwanthi MA. "International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2,84-88 (1992).". 1992. Abstract

Like other developing areas of the world, Africa is undergoing social, political, and economic changes. These developmental changes have provided important benefits, but have also produced significant impacts on the environment. Industrialization and agricultural mechanization have introduced new environmental hazards to the African environment. Rapid population growth and development have produced significant impact on the environment and health. This paper reviews -the literature on the impact of development on the African environment and health and suggests feasible solutions that can be initiated to decrease degradation and pollution of the environment to minimize resulting risks to health.

UoN Websites Search