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Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Shared Frailty Model with Application in Joint–Life Annuity Assurance." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;68( 1):23-42.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
Wairire G, Okemwa P, Akinyi M. "Society and Successful Transition: Female Genital Mutilation." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):19-24.
Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi FO, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi AM, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas ON, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh M-AW, Bernard Bett KNM. "Spatial clustering of livestock Anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957–2017." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2021;21(191).
Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
2 Joyce Eunice, Douglas Miano MEMIMWM &. "Status of maize lethal necrosis disease in seed production system in Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(11918406):Online. Abstract


Ochukut SA, Oboko RO. "Strategies for Managing Cognitive Load and Enhancing Motivation in E-Learning." 2021:17. Abstract

Cognitive load and motivation are two factors that have been established as mediators of learning. It has been established that learners who experience low cognitive loads and are highly motivated to succeed in learning. Since e-learning is becoming a very popular means of delivering learning, there needs to be established strategies to ensure that learners learn. This study sought to look at the various means that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load and enhance motivation through the analysis of literature. Use of metaphorical interfaces, hypertext, sequencing, and fading of learning content, use of transient information, and adaptation of the problem-solving support were the strategies that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load. Motivation has been enhanced through the use of motivational messages and adaptive navigational support and pedagogical agents.

Bota D, Bunyasi A, Amayo A, Wachira JW, Okello JO. "Strengthening Medical Laboratory Systems in Kenya: An Innovative Biosafety Training Model." Applied Biosafety. 2021;00(00):1-11.
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

K SARNA, M K, SW G. "Surgical Management of A Massive Congenital Haemangioma of the Tongue in an Infant: A rare Case Report." International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2021;9:e04909(9:e04909):9:e04909.
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction assessment: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15(1).
H Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Mwema FM, Michael H, Akinlabi ET. "Taguchi Optimization of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate in CNC Milling of Polypropylene + 5wt.% Quarry Dust Composites." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;1107(1):012040. Abstractdoi:10.1088/1757-899X/1107/1/012040

The Taguchi optimization technique was utilized to determine the optimal milling parameters that can be used in end face CNC milling operation of polypropylene+5wt.% quarry dust using high-speed steel (HSS) tool. Three milling input parameters i.e. the feed rate (f), the cutting speed of the spindle (N) and the depth of cut (dc) were optimized while considering the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined composite material and the material removal rate (MRR) during machining as the responses of the experimental design. From the results, the cutting speed (100 rpm) and the feed rate (120 mm/min) were the most important control parameters which greatly influence the surface roughness at 41.4% and 28.8% contribution respectively. In the case of the material removal rate, the depth of cut (0.8 mm) was the dominating factor at 98% contribution.

Muasya JN. "Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies." Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies. 2021;6(3):101-108.
"Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basin." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(1).
Trqa, gggg. "Testing.". 2021.
Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Ebrahim YH. Theoretical architecture (Aleamarat alnazania): Regional bioclimatic architecture. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Olale P. Thika Technical Training Institute Master Plan. Institute TTT, ed. Nairobi: Thika Technical Training Institute; 2021.
Siriba DN. "Towards a GNSS Data Accuracy Standard for Georeferencing." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2021;2021:5.
Moturi C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D. "Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs." International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
Aymara Llanque, Johanna Jacobi TTSMCSATLFF. "Transformations towards food sustainability using the participatory Food Sustainability Assessment Framework ." Social Innovation. 2021;695(5):2021-03-04.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
W G, M O, GO O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2021;3(1):29-34. Abstract

Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a
haematological cancer characterized by complications
of end-organ damage and subsequently high mortality.
Previously, there were few therapies available with
minimal survival benefit for most patients. Survival
was less than a year in many countries. The survival of
MM patients can range from 6 months to over 10 years,
with a median of 6 years, depending on stage of the
disease at diagnosis and prognostic factors. However,
with the advent of newer immune modulating agents
and novel therapies, there exists an opportunity to
improve the management of MM.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss
the current chemotherapy and novel agents available
for treatment of Multiple Myeloma and highlight
emerging therapies in treatment of Multiple Myeloma,
some of which are now locally available in Kenya.
Data Sources: International Guidelines on Treatment
of Multiple Myeloma; Published articles from peerreviewed
journals; ESMO, NCCN guidelines on
Multiple Myeloma
Conclusion: New MM therapies have been shown to
improve progression-free survival and overall survival
of to upto 82% at four years. Some of these therapies
are now accessible locally through government
funding. In combination with a wholesome approach
which includes appropriate supportive care, there
exists an opportunity to improve the quality and
standard of care of MM patients in Kenya to replicate
the success of that in developed countries.
Key words: Multiple myeloma, Cancer

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A Tribute to Euphrase Kezilahabi (1944–2020)." Tydskrif Vir Letterkunde. 2021;58(1):160-161.
Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
Kenfack D, Arellano G, Kibet S, Kimuyu D, Musili D. "Understanding the monodominance of Acacia drepanolobium in East African savannas: insights from demographic data." Trees. 2021;35:1439-1450.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
K SARNA, I MURITHI, F OPONDO, S G. "A unique presentation of bilateral Kissing Molars and three-rooted Maxillary Premolars: A case report and review of literature." Clinical Case Reports Journal. 2021;2021; 9:e04679(2021; 9:e04679):2021; 9:e04679.
Eric A, Elizaphan M, Rhoda G, Robert O, John K. "University Students' Perception on the Usefulness of Learning Management System Features in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2021;v17 (n1 ):45-64 . Abstract

Online learning has increasingly been adopted by most institutions of higher learning to facilitate teaching and learning as a continuum to the traditional face-to-face approach. Most of these institutions utilize Learning Management Systems which contain features that are intended to make students active participants not only by delivering learning resources to learners but also providing the environment for effective interaction in the learning process. Our examination of the literature reveals that there is limited empirical evidence that addresses how these features are being utilized by students in promoting Self-Regulated learning. To realize the usefulness of the features of Learning Management Systems in promoting Self-Regulated Learning, a structured survey was carried out among University students in Kenya. The findings reveal that the features of Learning Management Systems are underutilized by students. The qualitative results of the study illustrate that students face several challenges that obstruct them from being actively involved in online learning. There is lack of individualized feedback on students' learning habits, lack of instructor guidance, lack of interaction with course instructors, lack of peer interaction and lack of automation tools. This study provides insights for educators and researchers on the areas of focus that can be prioritized towards offering support to students in improving their Self-Regulated learning in online learning environments.

Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
"Valuation for Compensation Practices in Kenya: An Evaluation." Property Management. 2021;39(4):479-492.
Mwangi IK, Muketha SM. "Value Chain Framework for Ascertaining Planning Sectors and Competencies." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15 (No. 1):2157-2173.
Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Missiame A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P. "What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis." Heliyon . 2021;7(5). AbstractWebsite

This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
Osaaji MG, Odari M, Muchiri J. "“From Alterity to Agency: Pathways of Subversion and Resistance in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Personal Essays”. ." The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa (JOLTE). . 2021;11 no. 2(2021):1-16.
"“Reflections on the Detective Novel as an Allegory of Contemporary Kenya.”." Journal of Language, Technology& Entrepreneurship in Africa. 2021;12(1):17-35.
Alade K, Windapo A, Wachira-Towey IN. "• Rethinking leadership in the fourth industrial revolution :lessons for construction business organizations." Journal Of Leadership Studies. 2021;Volume 15(1).
Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
Ogonda LA, Saumonneau A, Dion M, Muge EK, Wamalwa BM, Mulaa FJ, Tellier C. "Characterization and engineering of two new GH9 and GH48 cellulases from a Bacillus pumilus isolated from Lake Bogoria." Biotechnology Letters. 2021;43:691-700. Abstract
Bahati V, Bulimo W, Gachara G. "Comparative Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among in-Mates and Low Risk Voluntary Blood Donors in Garissa, Kenya." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2021;09:85-95. AbstractWebsite
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Consumer awareness and willingness to pay for naturally preserved solar-dried mangoes: Evidence from Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
Biermann O, Mwoka M, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Shawky S, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Mberu B, others. "Data, Social Determinants, and Better Decision-making for Health: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:4-14. Abstract
Murage MW, Muge EK, Mbatia BN, Mwaniki MW. "Development and Sensory Evaluation of Omega-3-Rich Nile Perch Fish Oil-Fortified Yogurt." International Journal of Food Science. 2021;2021. Abstract
Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, WO O, Bitange NM. "EFFECTS OF MODE AND TIMING OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON TISSUE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF MANGO FRUITS." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2021;21:18552-18574. Abstract
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 2021;16. Abstract
Pretorius B, Ambuko J, Papargyropoulou E, Schönfeldt HC. "Guiding Nutritious Food Choices and Diets along Food Systems." Sustainability. 2021;13:9501. Abstract
Awuor OL, Edward MK. "Harnessing the Potential of Underutilized Aquatic Bioresource for Food and Nutritional Security in Kenya.". In: Food Security and Safety. Springer; 2021:. Abstract
Mwoka M, Biermann O, Ettman CK, Abdalla SM, Ambuko J, Pearson M, Rashid SF, Zeinali Z, Galea S, Valladares LM, others. "Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Evidence from Singapore, the UK, and Kenya: the 3-D Commission." Journal of Urban Health. 2021;98:15-30. Abstract
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Agro-Ecological Factors on Fruit Mineral Content and Occurrence of Jelly Seed Disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes in Kenya." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:135-145. Abstract
Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash Application on Fruit Mineral Content and Jelly Seed Disorder Incidence of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:125-134. Abstract
Mujuka E, Ambuko J, Mburu J, Ogutu A. "Investment in Postharvest Technologies: Key Strategy for Postharvest Loss Reduction." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2:47-48. Abstract
Mujuka E, Mburu J, Ogutu A, Ambuko J, Magambo G. "Journal of Agriculture and Food Research." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100188. Abstract
Mwangi HN’u, Muge EK, Wagacha PW, Ndakala A, Mulaa FJ. "Methods for Identifying Microbial Natural Product Compounds that Target Kinetoplastid RNA Structural Motifs by Homology and De Novo Modeled 18S rRNA." International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22:4493. Abstract
Kilavi PK, Kaniu MI, Patel JP, Usman IT. "Quality and human health risk assessment of uranium and other heavy metals in drinking water from Kwale County, Kenya." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2021;193:1-20. Abstract
Githaiga JI, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD, Ojuka DK. "Quantitative Raman Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer Malignancy Utilizing Higher-order Principal Components: a Preliminary Study." Scientific African. 2021:e01035. Abstract
Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
Yumbya P, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W, Juma J, Machuka E, Mutuku MJ. "Transcriptome analysis to elucidate hexanal's mode of action in preserving the post-harvest shelf life and quality of banana fruits (Musa acuminata)." Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;3:100114. Abstract
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J, Tripathi L. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants. 2021;10:613. Abstract
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Faris AA, Akuon PO. "Q-Function: Trapezoidal Rule Approximation and Application.". In: AEC 2020. Nairobi, University of Nairobi; 2020.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J, Mwea S, Kyalo G. "Academia & Practice: A Case Study of Retrofitting Reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Wrap.". In: Institution of Engineers Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2020.
Ogutu K. "Media owes everyone accurate reporting of court decisions." The Standard, May 4, 2020.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Ndolo IJ. "Cyclones: Causes, Risks And Where They Occur." Daily Nation, July 4, 2020.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste- Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: Materials Research Society Advances. Cambridge; 2020. Abstract

This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter's clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant- derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.

MWANGI IK. "Historical Trilogy of the Kenya Institute of Planners.". In: Presentation at KIP Induction Training Workshop. Organized by Kenya Institute of Planners Held at Professional Centre, Nairobi; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Effectiveness of Health and Safety Policy and Audit on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Learning for Resource Efficiency and Resourcefulness. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "The moderating influence of employees attitude on the relationship between Occupation Health and Safety Training and Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Transportation Integration: Ports, Railways, Roads; Other Types of Mega-projects and their Impacts Contiguous Societies and their Resources. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT); 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Perceived effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Ergonomics on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya. .". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Infrastructure and Property Development on Sites and in Contexts of Scarcity. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
"Diplopia.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.diplopia-__dr._njambi-_06082020.pdf
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness Trust and Risk.". In:  Americas Conference of Information Systems . USA; 2020.
"Nystagmus demystified.". In: Optometrist Webinar series, Kenya. Virtual Meeting; 2020.nystagmus_demystified-_dr._njambi_30072020.pdf
Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ, SK M, Kyalo G. "Academia & Practise: A Case Study of Retrofitting reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fiber reinforced Polymer Wrap.". In: 27th IEK Conference. Pride Inn Paradise Beach Resort Mombasa, Kenya; 2020.
M E. "​Is the building you are in safe to occupy?" Daily Nation, March 24, 2020:10.
Peter SG, Aboge GO, Kariuki HW, Kanduma EG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM, Mainga AO. "Molecular prevalence of emerging Anaplasma and Ehrlichia pathogens in apparently healthy dairy cattle in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):364. Abstract

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species are tick-borne pathogens of both veterinary and public health importance. The current status of these pathogens, including emerging species such as Ehrlichia minasensis and Anaplasma platys, infecting cattle in Kenya, remain unclear, mainly because of limitation in the diagnostic techniques. Therefore, we investigated the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infecting dairy cattle in Nairobi, Kenya using molecular methods.

Makanya AN, Kavoi BM, Kihurani DO. "Slight volume changes in the duck lung do not imply a fundamental change in the structure of the parenchyma." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 2020. Abstract

Slight changes in lung volume have previously been reported in ducks. We studied the functional structure of the lung of the domestic duck using classical anatomical techniques as well as ultrasound monitoring to unravel the causes of such changes. Later dorsal and medioventral secondary bronchi were superficially positioned and covered with a thin transparent and collapsible membrane, internally lined with a cuboidal to squamous epithelium. The lung parenchyma was rigid, with atria well supported by septa containing smooth muscles, interparabronchial septa reinforced by collagen fibres, and blood capillaries supported by epithelial plates. On ultrasound monitoring, an outward and inward movement of the lung surface during inspiration and expiration, respectively, was evident at the region where the airways were covered by the thin membranes. The movements plausibly facilitated air movement in the lung just like the air sacs. We conclude that volume changes in the duck lung occur due to a slight morphological adaptation rather than a change in the archetypical design of the avian lung parenchyma.

Mulinge E, Odongo D, Magambo J, Njenga SM, Zeyhle E, Mbae C, Kagendo D, Addy F, Ebi D, Wassermann M, Kern P, Romig T. "Diversity of Taenia and Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in domestic dogs in Kenya." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(9):2863-2875. Abstract

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.

Omwenga I, Aboge GO, Mitema ES, Obiero G, Ngaywa C, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Antimicrobial Usage and Detection of Multidrug-Resistant , Including Methicillin-Resistant Strains in Raw Milk of Livestock from Northern Kenya." Microb Drug Resist. 2020. Abstract

The association of antimicrobial usage (AMU) with prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) , including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) in livestock raw milk consumed by pastoralists in Kenya remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between AMU and emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) , including MRSA in raw milk of livestock. AMU data were obtained using sales records from veterinary pharmacies. was isolated from 603 milk samples from various livestock species, including sheep, goat, cow, and camel reared in Isiolo and Marsabit counties in Kenya. Resistant phenotypes and genotypes were determined by disc diffusion and molecular methods, respectively. Correlation between AMU and occurrence of resistance was determined by Pearson's correlation coefficient () method. The consumption of various antimicrobial classes were as follows; 4,168 kg of oxytetracycline, 70 kg of sulfonamides, 49.7 kg of aminoglycosides, 46 kg of beta-lactams, 39.4 kg of macrolides, and 0.52 kg for trimethoprim. The isolates were mainly resistant to tetracycline (79%), ampicillin (58%), and oxacillin (33%), respectively. A few isolates (5-18%) were resistant to clindamycin, cephalexin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin. Most of the MDR- isolates were MRSA (94%). The genetic determinants found in the AMR isolates included K/M (96.5%/19%) for tetracycline, (79%) for penicillin, (53%) for aminoglycosides, A (41%) for oxacillin, and A/A (24%/7%) for macrolides. Oxytetracycline usage was correlated to K/M ( = 0.62/1) detection, penicillins to A/ ( = 0.86/0.98), aminoglycoside to ( 0.76/-13), and macrolide usages for detection of A/A ( = 0.94/0.77). AMU appeared to be associated with occurrence of MDR-SA and the M detection. Consumption of raw milk contaminated with MRSA could pose a serious public health risk in pastoral communities in northern Kenya.

Dean WH, Gichuhi S, Buchan JC, Makupa W, Mukome A, Otiti-Sengeri J, Arunga S, Mukherjee S, Kim MJ, Harrison-Williams L, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Intense Simulation-Based Surgical Education for Manual Small-Incision Cataract Surgery: The Ophthalmic Learning and Improvement Initiative in Cataract Surgery Randomized Clinical Trial in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe." JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Importance: Cataracts account for 40% of cases of blindness globally, with surgery the only treatment.

Objective: To determine whether adding simulation-based cataract surgical training to conventional training results in improved acquisition of surgical skills among trainees.

Design, setting, and participants: A multicenter, investigator-masked, parallel-group, randomized clinical educational-intervention trial was conducted at 5 university hospital training institutions in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe from October 1, 2017, to September 30, 2019, with a follow-up of 15 months. Fifty-two trainee ophthalmologists were assessed for eligibility (required no prior cataract surgery as primary surgeon); 50 were recruited and randomized. Those assessing outcomes of surgical competency were masked to group assignment. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Interventions: The intervention group received a 5-day simulation-based cataract surgical training course, in addition to standard surgical training. The control group received standard training only, without a placebo intervention; however, those in the control group received the intervention training after the initial 12-month follow-up period.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was overall surgical competency at 3 months, which was assessed with a validated competency assessment rubric. Secondary outcomes included surgical competence at 1 year and quantity and outcomes (including visual acuity and posterior capsule rupture) of cataract surgical procedures performed during a 1-year period.

Results: Among the 50 participants (26 women [52.0%]; mean [SD] age, 32.3 [4.6] years), 25 were randomized to the intervention group, and 25 were randomized to the control group, with 1 dropout. Forty-nine participants were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The participants in the intervention group had higher scores at 3 months compared with the participants in the control group, after adjusting for baseline assessment rubric score. The participants in the intervention group were estimated to have scores 16.6 points (out of 40) higher (95% CI, 14.4-18.7; P < .001) at 3 months than the participants in the control group. The participants in the intervention group performed a mean of 21.5 cataract surgical procedures in the year after the training, while the participants in the control group performed a mean of 8.5 cataract surgical procedures (mean difference, 13.0; 95% CI, 3.9-22.2; P < .001). Posterior capsule rupture rates (an important complication) were 7.8% (42 of 537) for the intervention group and 26.6% (54 of 203) for the control group (difference, 18.8%; 95% CI, 12.3%-25.3%; P < .001).

Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial provides evidence that intense simulation-based cataract surgical education facilitates the rapid acquisition of surgical competence and maximizes patient safety.

Trial registration: Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, number PACTR201803002159198.

Mwamuye MM, Odongo D, Kazungu Y, Kindoro F, Gwakisa P, Bishop RP, Nijhof AM, Obara I. "Variant analysis of the sporozoite surface antigen gene reveals that asymptomatic cattle from wildlife-livestock interface areas in northern Tanzania harbour buffalo-derived T. parva." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(11):3817-3828. Abstract

Buffalo-derived Theileria parva can 'break through' the immunity induced by the infection and treatment vaccination method (ITM) in cattle. However, no such 'breakthroughs' have been reported in northern Tanzania where there has been long and widespread ITM use in pastoralist cattle, and the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also present. We studied the exposure of vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle in northern Tanzania to buffalo-derived T. parva using p67 gene polymorphisms and compared this to its distribution in vaccinated cattle exposed to buffalo-derived T. parva in central Kenya, where vaccine 'breakthroughs' have been reported. Additionally, we analysed the CD8+ T cell target antigen Tp2 for positive selection. Our results showed that 10% of the p67 sequences from Tanzanian cattle (n = 39) had a buffalo type p67 (allele 4), an allele that is rare among East African isolates studied so far. The percentage of buffalo-derived p67 alleles observed in Kenyan cattle comprised 19% of the parasites (n = 36), with two different p67 alleles (2 and 3) of presumptive buffalo origin. The Tp2 protein was generally conserved with only three Tp2 variants from Tanzania (n = 33) and five from Kenya (n = 40). Two Tanzanian Tp2 variants and two Kenyan Tp2 variants were identical to variants present in the trivalent Muguga vaccine. Tp2 evolutionary analysis did not show evidence for positive selection within previously mapped epitope coding sites. The p67 data indicates that some ITM-vaccinated cattle are protected against disease induced by a buffalo-derived T. parva challenge in northern Tanzania and suggests that the parasite genotype may represent one factor explaining this.

Bishop RP, Kappmeyer LS, Onzere CK, Odongo DO, Githaka N, Sears KP, Knowles DP, Fry LM. "Equid infective Theileria cluster in distinct 18S rRNA gene clades comprising multiple taxa with unusually broad mammalian host ranges." Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):261. Abstract

Equine theileriosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, affects equids throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a significant regulatory concern in non-endemic countries, where testing for equine theileriosis is required prior to horse import to prevent parasite entry. Within endemic areas, infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, leading to economic losses. No vaccine for equine theileriosis is available, and current drug treatment protocols are inconsistent and associated with significant side effects. Recent work has revealed substantial genetic variability among equine theileriosis organisms, and analysis of ribosomal DNA from affected animals around the world indicates that the organisms can be grouped into five distinct clades. As these diverse parasites are capable of infecting a wide range of both tick and mammalian hosts, movement of different equine Theileria species between endemic countries, and eventually into non-endemic countries, is a significant concern. Furthermore, the substantial genetic variability of these organisms will likely render currently utilized importation diagnostic tests unable to detect all equine Theileria spp. To this end, more complete characterization of these diverse parasites is critical to the continued global control of equine theileriosis. This review discusses current knowledge of equine Theileria spp. in this context, and highlights new opportunities and challenges for workers in this field.

Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Silatsa BA, Simo G, Githaka N, Kamga R, Oumarou F, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Machuka E, Domelevo J-B, Odongo D, Bishop R, Kuiate J-R, Njiokou F, Djikeng A, Pelle R. "First detection of Theileria parva in cattle from Cameroon in the absence of the main tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:68-78. Abstract

A major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and their vectors is the uncontrolled transboundary movement of live animals for trade and grazing. Such movements constrain effective control of tick-transmitted pathogens, including Theileria parva. Only limited studies have been undertaken to identify ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affecting cattle in central African countries, including Cameroon. We hereby report the collection of baseline data on the prevalence of T. parva in Cameroon through a countrywide cross-sectional survey, conducted in 2016, involving collection of blood samples from cattle from 63 sites across the five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of the country. ELISA-based surveillance of infected cattle was performed on 479 randomly selected samples and revealed specific antibodies to T. parva in 22.7% and T. mutans in 41.1% of cattle. Screening of 1,340 representative DNA samples for the presence of T. parva identified 25 (1.86%) positives using a p104 antigen gene-based nested PCR assay. The positives were distributed across agro-ecological zones I, II, III and V. None of the p104 positive cattle exhibited clinical symptoms of East Coast fever (ECF). Using reverse line blot (RLB), 58 (4.3%) and 1,139 (85%) of the samples reacted with the T. parva and T. mutans oligonucleotide probes, respectively. This represents the first report of T. parva from Cameroon. Surprisingly, no Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, the main vector of T. parva, were identified in a parallel study involving comprehensive morphological and molecular survey of tick species present in the country. Only two of the 25 p104 positive cattle were PCR-positive for the CD8+ T-cell target schizont-expressed antigen gene Tp1. Cloning and sequencing of Tp1 amplicons revealed sequence identity with the reference T. parva Muguga. This new finding raises serious concerns of a potential spread of ECF into the central African region.

Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Spooner PR, Morzaria SP, Oura CAL, Skilton RA. "Multilocus genotyping of Theileria parva isolates associated with a live vaccination trial in Kenya provides evidence for transmission of immunizing parasites into local tick and cattle populations." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:88-98. Abstract

The live infection and treatment (ITM) vaccination procedure using the trivalent Muguga cocktail is increasingly being used to control East Coast fever, with potential implications for Theileria parva population genetic structure in the field. Transmission of the Kiambu V T. parva component to unvaccinated cattle has previously been described in Uganda. We monitored the T. parva carrier state in vaccinated and control animals on a farm in West Kenya where an ITM stabilate derived from the Kenyan T. parva Marikebuni stock was evaluated for field efficacy. A nested PCR-based Marikebuni-specific marker identified a carrier state in nine of ten vaccinated animals, detectable for a period of two years. We used 22 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers to determine multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of 19 T. parva schizont-infected lymphocyte isolates derived from cattle and field ticks. Two isolates from unimmunized cattle were identical to the Marikebuni vaccination stock. Two cattle isolates were identical to a Muguga cocktail component Kiambu V. Seven isolates from ticks exhibited MLGs that were identical to the Serengeti/Muguga vaccine stocks. Six cattle and two tick-derived stocks exhibited unique MLGs. The data strongly suggest transmission of immunizing genotypes, from Marikebuni vaccine-induced carrier cattle to unimmunized cattle. It is possible that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are present in the field in Western Kenya. An alternative hypothesis is that these parasites may have originated from vaccine trial sites in Eastern Uganda. If correct, this suggests that T. parva stocks used for immunization can potentially be disseminated 125 km beyond the immediate vaccination site. Regardless of their origin, the data provide evidence that genotypes similar to those in the Muguga cocktail are circulating in the field in East Africa, alleviating concerns about dissemination of 'alien' T. parva germplasm through live vaccination.

Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Nthiwa D, Bett B, Odongo D, Kenya E, Wainaina M, Grazioli S, Foglia E, Brocchi E, Alonso S. "Seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds raised in Maasai Mara ecosystem in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2020;176:104929. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seroprevalence and identify risk factors of exposure among cattle herds raised in three zones with different types of land use and progressively distant from the Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) boundary. We selected five villages purposively; two in zone 1 (area < 20 km from the MMNR), another two in zone 2 (area between 20-40 km away from the MMNR) and one in zone 3 (area >40 km away from the MMNR). A total of 1170 cattle sera were collected from 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) using two 3ABC-based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA kits. All sera samples were also screened for serotype-specific antibodies using Solid Phase Competitive ELISA (SPCE) kits (IZSLER, Italy). We targeted FMDV serotypes A, O, South African Territory [SAT] 1 and SAT 2, known to be endemic in East Africa including Kenya. Data on putative risk factors for FMD seropositivity in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level FMD seroprevalence based on the parallel comparison of the two anti-NSPs ELISA kits was 83.8 % (95 % CI; 81.8-85.9), and differed significantly across zones. Zone 1 had a higher seroprevalence than zones 2 and 3 (χ = 116.1, df = 2, p < 0.001). In decreasing order, the overall seroprevalences of FMDV serotypes A, SAT 2, O and SAT 1 were 26.3 % (95 % CI; 23.5-29.2), 21.4 % (95 % CI; 18.8-24.0), 21.2 % (95 % CI; 18.7-23.9) and 13.1 % (95 % CI; 11.1-15.3), respectively. The distribution of these serotypes differed significantly between zones (p < 0.05) except for SAT 2 serotype (χ = 0.90, df = 2, p = 0.639). Both serotypes A and O were more prevalent in zones 1 and 2 than zone 3 while serotype SAT 1, was higher in zone 3 compared to other zones. The results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (i.e., female), raising of cattle in zones 1 and 2 (areas < 40 km away from the MMNR); mixing of cattle from multiple herds at watering points, and pastoral husbandry practices, as significant predictors of animal-level FMD seropositivity. This study established that FMD seroprevalence declined with distance from the MMNR.

Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Tripathi L. "Phytochemical Analysis and Establishment of Embryogenic Cell Suspension and -mediated Transformation for Farmer Preferred Cultivars of West African Plantain ( spp.)." Plants (Basel). 2020;9(6). Abstract

Banana and plantain are among the foremost staple food crops providing food and livelihood to over 500 million people in tropical countries. Despite the importance, their production is hampered due to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant tissue culture techniques such as somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation offer a valuable tool for genetic improvement. Identification and quantification of phytochemicals found in banana and plantain are essential in optimizing in vitro activities for crop improvement. Total antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were quantified in various explants obtained from the field, as well as in vitro plants of banana and plantain cultivars. The result showed genotypic variation in the phytochemicals of selected cultivars. The embryogenic cell suspensions were developed for three farmer-preferred plantain cultivars, Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele, using different MS and B5-based culture media. Both culture media supported the development of friable embryogenic calli (FEC), while MS culture media supported the proliferation of fine cell suspension in liquid culture media. The percentage of FEC generated for Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele were 22 ± 24%, 13 ± 28%, and 9 ± 16%, respectively. Cell suspensions produced from FECs were successfully transformed by -mediated transformation with reporter gene constructs and regenerated into whole plants.

Ong Beng Seng M, Meyer D, Gichuhi S, Tong L, Sudharshan S, Biswas J, Testi I, Agrawal R. "Ocular Surface Disorders in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection." Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.. 2020;5:1-7. AbstractWebsite

To describe ocular surface disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). : Narrative review. : Ocular surface neoplastic conditions, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, conjunctival lymphoma and ocular squamous cell carcinoma along with blepharitis, dry eye disease, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis, constitute ocular surface complications in HIV-infected individuals. : This review will provide a summary of clinical presentations and treatment options for the most common HIV-related ocular surface diseases, indicating the need for a comprehensive ocular examination including ocular surface in all HIV patients.

Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Obara I, Githaka N, Nijhof A, Krücken J, Nanteza A, Odongo D, Lubembe D, Atimnedi P, Mijele D, Njeri A, Mwaura S, Owido G, Ahmed J, Clausen PH, Bishop RP. "The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick vector of Theileria parva is absent from cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations and associated ecosystems in northern Uganda." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(7):2363-2367. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.

Koyaweda GW, Ongus JR, Machuka E, Juma J, Macharia R, Komas NP, Pelle R. "Detection of circulating hepatitis B virus immune escape and polymerase mutants among HBV-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic." Int J Infect Dis. 2020;90:138-144. Abstract

Previous studies in the Central African Republic (CAR) have reported the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recombinant genotype E/D and a suspicion of immune escape mutants (IEMs), without further investigation into their impact on prevention and diagnosis. Consequently, this study investigated HBV mutations among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients attending Institut Pasteur de Bangui in the CAR.

Mwamuye MM, Obara I, Elati K, Odongo D, Bakheit MA, Jongejan F, Nijhof AM. "Unique Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Demonstrate Resolution Potential to Discriminate Vaccine and Buffalo-Derived Strains." Life (Basel). 2020;10(12). Abstract

Distinct pathogenic and epidemiological features underlie different strains resulting in different clinical manifestations of East Coast Fever and Corridor Disease in susceptible cattle. Unclear delineation of these strains limits the control of these diseases in endemic areas. Hence, an accurate characterization of strains can improve the treatment and prevention approaches as well as investigate their origin. Here, we describe a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on 13 near-complete mitogenomes of strains originating from East and Southern Africa, including the live vaccine stock strains. We identified 11 SNPs that are non-preferentially distributed within the coding and non-coding regions, all of which are synonymous except for two within the gene of buffalo-derived strains. Our analysis ascertains haplotype-specific mutations that segregate the different vaccine and the buffalo-derived strains except Muguga and Serengeti-transformed strains suggesting a shared lineage between the latter two vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analyses including the mitogenomes of other species: , , and , with the latter two sequenced in this study for the first time, were congruent with nuclear-encoded genes. Importantly, we describe seven haplotypes characterized by synonymous SNPs and parsimony-informative characters with the other three transforming species mitogenomes. We anticipate that tracking mitochondrial haplotypes from this study will provide insight into the parasite's epidemiological dynamics and underpin current control efforts.

Yoshizaki M, Ramke J, Furtado JM, Burn H, Gichuhi S, Gordon I, Aghaji A, Marques AP, Dean WH, Congdon N, Buchan J, Burton MJ. "Interventions to improve the quality of cataract services: protocol for a global scoping review." BMJ Open. 2020;10(8):e036413. AbstractWebsite

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and a major cause of vision impairment. Cataract surgery is an efficacious intervention that usually restores vision. Although it is one of the most commonly conducted surgical interventions worldwide, good quality services (from being detected with operable cataract to undergoing surgery and receiving postoperative care) are not universally accessible. Poor quality understandably reduces the willingness of people with operable cataract to undergo surgery. Therefore, it is critical to improve the quality of care to subsequently reduce vision loss from cataract. This scoping review aims to summarise the nature and extent of the published literature on interventions to improve the quality of services for primary age-related cataract globally.

Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Salih DA, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Microsatellite and minisatellite genotyping of Theileria parva population from southern Africa reveals possible discriminatory allele profiles with parasites from eastern Africa." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020;11(6):101539. Abstract

The control of Theileria parva, a protozoan parasite that threatens almost 50% of the cattle population in Africa, is still a challenge in many affected countries. Theileria parva field parasites from eastern Africa, and parasites comprising the current live T. parva vaccine widely deployed in the same region have been reported to be genotypically diverse. However, similar reports on T. parva parasites from southern Africa are limited, especially in Corridor disease designated areas. Establishing the extent of genetic exchange in T. parva populations is necessary for effective control of the parasite infection. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite and minisatellite loci were targeted for genotypic and population genetics analysis of T. parva parasites from South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda using genomic DNA prepared from cattle and buffalo blood samples. The results revealed genotypic similarities among parasites from the two regions of Africa, with possible distinguishing allelic profiles on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) for parasites associated with Corridor disease in South Africa, and East Coast fever in eastern Africa. Individual populations were in linkage equilibrium (VL) was observed. Genetic divergence was observed to be more within (AMOVA = 74%) than between (AMOVA = 26%) populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed clustering that separated buffalo-derived from cattle-derived T. parva parasites, although parasites from cattle showed a close genetic relationship. The results also demonstrated geographic sub-structuring of T. parva parasites based on the disease syndromes caused in cattle in the two regions of Africa. These findings provide additional information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva parasites from South Africa, and reveal possible differences based on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) and similarities between buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa.

Kabaka JM, Wachira BM, Mang'era CM, Rono MK, Hassanali A, Okoth SO, Oduol VO, Macharia RW, Murilla GA, Mireji PO. "Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008341. Abstract

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Mukolwe LD, Odongo DO, Byaruhanga C, Snyman LP, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Analysis of p67 allelic sequences reveals a subtype of allele type 1 unique to buffalo-derived Theileria parva parasites from southern Africa." PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0231434. Abstract

East Coast fever (ECF) and Corridor disease (CD) caused by cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva respectively are the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in the affected African countries. The p67 gene has been evaluated as a recombinant subunit vaccine against ECF, and for discrimination of T. parva parasites causing ECF and Corridor disease. The p67 allele type 1 was first identified in cattle-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa, where parasites possessing this allele type have been associated with ECF. Subsequent characterization of buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from South Africa where ECF was eradicated, revealed the presence of a similar allele type, raising concerns as to whether or not allele type 1 from parasites from the two regions is identical. A 900 bp central fragment of the gene encoding p67 was PCR amplified from T. parva DNA extracted from blood collected from cattle and buffalo in South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Four p67 allele types previously described were identified. A subtype of p67 allele type 1 was identified in parasites from clinical cases of CD and buffalo from southern Africa. Notably, p67 allele type 1 sequences from parasites associated with ECF in East Africa and CD in Kenya were identical. Analysis of two p67 B-cell epitopes (TpM12 and AR22.7) revealed amino acid substitutions in allele type 1 from buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern Africa. However, both epitopes were conserved in allele type 1 from cattle- and buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from East Africa. These findings reveal detection of a subtype of p67 allele type 1 associated with T. parva parasites transmissible from buffalo to cattle in southern Africa.

Birech Z, Mwangi PW, Sehmi PK, Nyaga NM. "Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze-dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats." Journal of Raman SpectroscopyJournal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2020;51(3):398-405. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Obesity is a condition affecting a substantial number of people in the world. Obese people have increased risks of developing chronic metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, among others. Predicting potential development together with rapid diagnosis of the condition followed by early interventions is therefore necessary. This work investigated, first, utility of Raman spectroscopy in performing comparative antiobesity influence studies of oxytocin and a freeze-dried extract of a local herbal plant exhibiting oxytocin-like properties called Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) (UAV) on diet induced obesity in Sprague Dawley rat models. Second, we looked for obesity biomarker Raman spectral bands. The blood extracted from the rats were applied onto conductive silver paste smeared glass slides and excited using a 785-nm laser. Raman spectra of blood from oxytocin- and UAV-treated rats displayed similar profiles with low doses of UAV (100 mg/kg of body weight) being more similar to oxytocin than high doses (200 mg/kg of body weight) as revealed by cosine similarity value of 0.997. Their profiles were also different from blood of obese and nonobese (normal controls) animals. A prominent peak in spectra of treated rats centred at 401 cm?1 can be oxytocin's biomarker band in blood. Comparison of average intensity trend of fructose bands at around 638 and 812 cm?1 between prepared fructose solution and blood of treated rats revealed elevated levels of fructose in blood of rats intraperitoneally injected oxytocin and UAV extracts. The result implied upregulation of fructose in oxytocin- and UAV-treated animals. Principal component analysis confirmed that Raman spectral profiles from blood of obese rats were different from those of nonobese rats with bands ascribed to fructose (638, 812, and 1,217 cm?1) and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs; 478, 1,318, and 1,443 cm?1), being utilized in the segregation of the spectral data sets. It also showed that spectra from oxytocin-treated and UAV-treated rat's blood were similar implying identical influence of the drugs on the animals. The study showed potential of Raman spectroscopy as tool for quick obesity (or metabolic syndrome) screening with intensity of Raman bands associated with fructose and BCAAs as biomarkers. Besides, the same bands may be used in comparative efficacy studies of antiobesity drugs. The results reported here are rare in literature.

Githaiga JI, Angeyo HK, Kaduki KA, Bulimo WD. "Chemometrics-Enabled Raman Spectrometric Qualitative Determination and Assessment of Biochemical Alterations during Early Prostate Cancer Proliferation in Model Tissue." Journal of Spectroscopy. 2020;2020:8879985. AbstractWebsite

The use of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate chemometrics for disease diagnosis has attracted great attention from researchers in recent years. This is because it is a noninvasive and nondestructive detection approach with enhanced sensitivity. However, a major challenge when analyzing spectra from biological samples has been the detection of subtle biochemical alterations buried in background and fluorescence noise. This work reports a qualitative chemometrics-assisted investigation of subtle biochemical alterations associated with prostate malignancy in model biological tissue (metastatic androgen insensitive (PC3) and immortalized normal (PNT1a) prostate cell lines). Raman spectra were acquired from PC3 and PNT1a cells at various stages of growth, and their biochemical alterations were determined from difference spectra between the two cell lines (for prominent alterations) and principal component analysis (PCA) (for subtle alterations). The Raman difference spectra were computed by subtracting the normalized mean spectral intensities of PNT1a cells from the normalized mean spectral intensities of PC3 cells. These difference spectra revealed prominent biochemical alterations associated with the malignant PC3 cells at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1, 630 cm−1, 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1, and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 bands. The band intensity ratios at 566 ± 0.70 cm−1 and 630 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in relative amounts of nucleic acids and lipids, respectively, whereas those at 1370 ± 0.86 cm−1 and 1618 ± 1.73 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with a decrease in relative amounts of saccharides and tryptophan, respectively. In the analysis using PCA, intermediate-order and high-order principal components (PCs) were used to extract the subtle biochemical fingerprints associated with the cell lines. This revealed subtle biochemical differences at 1076 cm−1, (1232, 1234 cm−1), (1276, 1278 cm−1), (1330, 1333 cm−1), (1434, 1442 cm−1), and (1471, 1479 cm−1). The band intensity ratios at 1076 cm−1 and 1232 cm−1 suggested that prostate malignancy can be associated with an increase in subtle amounts of nucleic acids and amide III components, respectively. The method reported here has demonstrated that subtle biochemical alterations can be extracted from Raman spectra of normal and malignant cell lines. The identified subtle bands could play an important role in quantitative monitoring of early biomarker alterations associated with prostate cancer proliferation.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ng'ang'a M, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Gichuhi S, Kim M, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muraguri D, Gakuo E, Muthami L, Foster A. "Feasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of peer-led health education interventions to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy in Kirinyaga, Kenya: a pilot trial." Pilot Feasibility Stud. 2020;6:102. AbstractWebsite

Background: People living with diabetes can reduce their risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy by attending screening, which enables early detection and timely treatment. The aim of this pilot trial was to assess the feasibility of a full-scale cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase uptake of retinal examination in this population, as delivered within existing community-based diabetes support groups (DSGs).

Methods: All 16 DSGs in Kirinyaga county were invited to participate in the study. The first two groups recruited took part in the pilot trial. DSG members who met the eligibility criteria were recruited before the groups that were randomized to the two arms. In the intervention group, two peer educators were trained to deliver monthly DSG-based eye health education and individual telephone reminders to attend screening. The control group continued with usual DSG practice which is monthly meetings without eye health education. The recruitment team and outcome assessors were masked to the allocation. We documented the study processes to ascertain the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of the intervention. Feasibility was assessed in terms of clarity of study procedures, recruitment and retention rates, level of acceptability, and rates of uptake of eye examination. We set the target feasibility criteria for continuation to the main study to be recruitment of 50 participants in the trial, 80% monthly follow-up rates for individuals, and no attrition of clusters.

Results: Of the 122 DSG members who were assessed for eligibility, 104 were recruited and followed up: 51 (intervention) and 53 (control) arm. The study procedures were well understood and easy to apply. We learnt the DSG meeting days were the best opportunities for recruitment. The study had a high acceptance rate (100% for clusters, 95% for participants) and high follow-up and retention rate (100% of those recruited). All clusters and participants were analysed. We observed that the rate of incidence of eye exam was about 6 times higher in the intervention arm as compared to the control arm. No adverse unexpected events were reported in either arm.

Conclusions: The study is feasible and acceptable in the study population. The results support the development of a full-scale cluster RCT, as the success criteria for the pilot were met.

Gichuhi S, Arunga S. "HIV and the eye." Community Eye Health. 2020;33(108):76-78. AbstractWebsite

This article summarizes the presentation of ocular HIV in East Africa.
The main ocular effects of HIV are related to immune-suppression and impaired tumour-surveillance. HIV compromises cell-mediated immunity increasing the risk of infection with bacteria (e.g. tuberculosis and syphilis); fungi (e.g. candida and cryptococcus); parasites (e.g. toxoplasmosis); and viruses (e.g. herpes zoster, human papilloma virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus).
Patients with lower CD4 counts are more likely to have ocular manifestations1, however use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the epidemiology of ocular manifestations, and variations in the predominant subtype of HIV may also lead to geographical differences in ocular disease.

Birech Z, Ondieki AM, Opati RII, Mwangi PW. "Low cost Raman sample substrates from conductive silver paint smear for Raman spectroscopic screening of metabolic diseases in whole blood.". 2020;108:103063. AbstractWebsite

This work reports on a low cost, simple to prepare and chemically stable Raman substrates based on conductive silver paint smear. The substrates were characterized Raman spectroscopically and were found to be chemically stable within the first seven days when kept at room temperature as the spectroscopic profiles were unchanged. The substrates also suppressed the background signals emanating from glass centered around 750 cm−1 and 1370 cm−1 seen with 785 nm excitation and had negligible influence on Raman spectral profiles of rat’s blood samples applied onto them. The Raman spectral profiles of blood samples applied onto the substrates were found to be enhanced by a factor of 1.7 compared to those of thick blood smears on a clean microscope glass slide. The increased local field between the gaps formed by adjacent micron-sized silver solids in the paint smear were attributed to the observed intense signals observed from the blood samples applied onto them. The substrates were tried on Raman spectroscopic differentiation between blood from obese and normal; diabetic and normal Sprague Dawley rats. The prominent bands associated with fructose (638 and 812 cm−1), glucose (1127 cm−1) and branched chain amino acids (1033, 1217 and 1318 cm−1) were observed to vary in terms of intensity between the un-healthy (obese and diabetic) and healthy (normal) rats. The results reported here on the use of the easy to prepare, low cost Raman substrates have the potential of making surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy accessible to less resourced laboratories in developing countries. The substrates can be applied in rapid Raman spectroscopic screening of various metabolic diseases.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Kim M, Ng'ang'a M, Gichuhi S, Mutie D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Foster A. "Peer-support to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy: process evaluation of the DURE cluster randomized trial." Trop Med Health. 2020;48:1. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited evidence on how implementation of peer support interventions influences effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a peer-led health education package versus usual care to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: Our process evaluation used a mixed-method design to investigate the recruitment and retention, reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, and context of implementation, and was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We reviewed trial documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 10) and conducted four focus group discussions with participants in both arms of the trial. Three analysts undertook CFIR theory-driven content analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics relevant to the objectives of the process evaluation.

Results: The trial had positive implementation outcomes, 100% retention of clusters and 96% retention for participants, 83% adherence to delivery of content of group talks (fidelity), and 78% attendance (reach) to at least 50% (3/6) of the group talks (dose). The data revealed that intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, individual characteristics, and process (all the constructs of CFIR) influenced the implementation. There were more facilitators than barriers to the implementation. Facilitators included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics); awareness of the growing prioritization of diabetes in the national health policy framework (outer setting); tension for change due to the realization of the vulnerability to vision loss from DR (inner setting); a strong collective sense of accountability of peer supporters to implement the intervention (individual characteristics); and regular feedback on the progress with implementation (process). Potential barriers included the need to queue at the eye clinic (intervention characteristic), travel inconveniences (inner setting), and socio-political disruption (outer setting).

Conclusions: The intervention was implemented with high retention, reach, fidelity, and dose. The CFIR provided a valuable framework for evaluating contextual factors that influenced implementation and helped to understand what adaptations may be needed during scale up.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Howell KL, Hilário AHF, Haberland G, et al. "A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program." Biochem Pharmacol. 2020;7:1-25.
Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ. "Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-Slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: UoN Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi Kenya; 2020.
Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JBK, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF).". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Njiru FM, Siriba DN, Karanja FN. "Review of GIS System Audit Parameters in an Organization.". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
of Joint Report Kenya National Bureau of Statistics(KNBS) UN. Inequality trend and Diagnostics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi and KNBS; 2020.
EM N'au, WD B, V M, S O, E M. "Genetic Analysis of HA1 Domain of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Isolated in Kenya During the 2007 to 2013 Seasons Reveal Significant Divergence from WHO-Recommended Vaccine Strains." International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2020. Abstract
Joselyne NM, Waweru M, Gitau AN, Alphonse U, Patrick M. " Evaluating Anaerobic Digestion Technology in Reducing the Quantity of Solid Waste: Case of Kigali Dumpsite. ." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2020;8(ISSN: 2327-4344):204-220.
DK M, Mutegi R, Kipruto S, Muriithi M, Oleche OM, Mwabu G, YOUNGER SD. " Inequality trends and diagnostics in Kenya," Working Paper, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics."; 2020.
Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. ") New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activit." ACS Omega . 2020;XXXX(XXXX):XXXX. Abstract

: New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1. C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action.

W K, A A, A K. ". Trends and factors associated with long-acting reversible contraception in Kenya." F1000Research. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: Kenya has 12 million female adolescents and youths aged 10-34 years whose reproductive behavior will determine the growth and size of its population for the next decade. The anticipated momentum of births can be slowed by the use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods as they are more effective, need no user adherence, and hence have no risk of incorrect or inconsistent use. However, in spite of the many health and social benefits, LARC is underutilized because of myths and misconceptions. Kenya is in the ultimate decade towards Vision 2030 and investing in LARC can save costs of health care and accelerate the achievement of the development goal. The objective of this study was to establish factors associated with LARC use, with a view of establishing the potential for increasing demand.

Rege JEO, Ochieng J, Hanotte O. "1 Livestock Genetics and Breeding." The Impact of the International Livestock Research Institute. 2020:59.
O AI, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM. "3. Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach. ." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research,. 2020;8(1444).
Muia BM, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gitahi N, Okumu PO, Okumu MO. "Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the root extracts of Fagaropsis hildebrandtii in mice and evaluation of their antimicrobial effects." F1000Research . 2020;8:1444 .
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba JN. "Adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solutions using mesoporous chitosan–zinc oxide composite material." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2020;2:115-125. AbstractAbstract

Chitosan–zinc oxide composite with an average size of 33 nm was synthesized by facile chemical precipitation technique for application in the removal of water contaminants such as dyes. Malachite green (MG) was the model colorant for the sorption process. Material characterization was achieved using selected spectroscopic techniques. Elemental analysis results revealed that the material had high concentration levels of Zn (965,000 ± 53.2 mg/kg) compared to Fe (756.5 ± 45.3 mg/kg) and P (166 ± 26.6 mg/kg). Batch adsorption experiments of the dye onto chitosan–ZnO (CS–ZnO) composite was investigated with a UV–Visible photometer. The rate of dye removal was greatly influenced by pH, dye strength, amount of adsorbent and contact time. High removal capacity of 98.5% was achieved with reducing dye strength of 2.3 mg/L, dosage of 0.6 g and pH 8 within 180 min equilibration time. Langmuir model …

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