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Hoang NT, Manh TD, Nguyen VT, Thy Nga NT, Mwazighe FM, Nhi BD, Hoang HY, Chang S, Chung W, Nguyen DD. "Kinetic study on methylene blue removal from aqueous solution using UV/chlorine process and its combination with other advanced oxidation processes." Chemosphere. 2022;308(3):136457.Website
Kyalo" "WM, Onono" "JO, Ombui" "JN, Gathura" "PB. "Knowledge of subsistence maize farmers on aflatoxin contamination and determinants for adoption of artisanal control technologies in Kitui, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2022;14(41):98-209.
Matei A, Mwamburi, Kikechi, Musembi, IRIBEMWANGI PI, N. A. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwalimu. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Matei A, Mwamburi J, Kikechi K, Musembi L, IRIBEMWANGI PI, Afandi N. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwanafunzi, . Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises.; 2022.
J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO. "Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Bambusa Vulgaris)." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment . 2022;8-no1.
Bebora LC, Deng TA, Odongo MO. "Meta-analytical review of some studies on antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from animals and environment in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2022;99(11):5329-5339.
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W. "Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. ." American Journal of Environment and Climate. 2022;1(1):34-41.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Kariuki MI, Mwangi JM, Muturi PG. "Moderating effect of age in the relationship between debt literacy and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2022;12(7):532-44.
Ongore D, Onyango F. "A Morbidity And Malariometric Survey In A Rural Community In Western Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2022;Vol. 99 (No. 8 ).
R. T, M. K. "Mtazamo wa Kijumla kuhusu Ushairi wa Kiswahili Nchini Kenya: Mifano kutoka Pwani na Bara." Mwanga wa Lugha-Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika. . 2022;7(1):19-28.
C.M O, J W, Gubbels P, P. MO, N. T. My Food is African: Healthy soil, safe foods and diverse diets.. Barefoot Guide Agroecology Series; 2022.
Chepkirui C, Bourgard C, Gilissen PJ, Ndakala A, Derese S, Gütlin Y, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "A new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from Tephrosia uniflora, and the revision of three β-hydroxydihydrochalcones to flavanones." Fitoterapia. 2022;158:105166.
Kimani DE, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi EK. "Nutritional and sensory quality of a sorghum snack supplemented with sesame and baobab fruit powder." African Journal of Food Science. 2022;16(3):81-91.
de Vila-Real CPM, Pimenta-Martins AS, Kunyanga CN, Mbugua SK, Katina K. "Nutritional intake and food sources in an adult urban Kenyan population." Nutrition Bulletin. 2022;2022:1-15.vila_real_et_al._2022.pdf
F.J C, Mbuthia PG, Bebora L.C, J.M N. "Occurrence of potential pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria in farmed fish in Machakos and Nyandarua Counties, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciemces. 2022;10(6):112-118.
Obonyo FO, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):1-11.
Obonyo  FO, Maingi N, Githigia  SM, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):77.
Obonyo FO, Ndichu M, Githigia S, Kimeli P, Nyaega EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2022;2022(54).
Nguta JM, M K, Arruda AG, Yimer G, O’Mathúna D. "One Health’ Research Ethics in Emergency, Disaster and Zoonotic Disease Outbreaks: A Case Study from Ethiopia.". In: Ethics, Integrity and Policymaking, Research Ethics. Springer Nature; 2022.
Mwinzi JM. "Ontological and Epistemological Relevance: the Cause for Philosophical Coherence and Excellence in Education." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):103-116.
NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Pathological Lesions Associated with Cordylobia anthropophaga infestations of Dogs in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International.. 2022.
Ondieki DK, Omia DO, Gichuhi W, Otieno CMA. "Perceptions of self as influencers of sexual debut among Secondary School Students in South Western Kenya.". In: New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research. BP International; 2022.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga. CN. "Performance of a Continuous Solar Water Disinfection System in Isiolo County, Kenya." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2022;8(1):73-85.
N ONURAC, J JAMESG, W MUTHUMBIA, W WANG’ONDUV, A SIGANAD. "Performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae fed on formulated diets containing Spirulina platensis and Eisenia fetida ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;3(2).
Magwilu KD, Nguta JM, Mapenay I, Matara DN. "Phylogeny, Phytomedicines, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Properties, and Toxicity of Croton gratissimus Burch (Euphorbiaceae)." Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022;2022:13.
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwangombe AW. "Physicochemical and Processing Qualities of Guava Varieties in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2022;22(1):329-345.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Mukavi J, Omosa LK, Kuete. "Phytochemistry and antibacterial potential of the genus Garcinia.". In: . Advances in Botanical Research . Elsevier; 2022.nchiozem_et_al_2022.pdf
Omulo S, Oluka M, Loice Achieng, Osoro E, Kinuthia R, Guantai A, Opanga S. "Point-prevalence survey of antibiotic use at three public referral hospitals in Kenya." PLoS One. 2022;17(6):0270048.
Mbaveng AT, Omosa LK, Omosa LK, Kuete JR, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Kuete V. "Potential antibacterial pharmaceuticals from the flora of Africa.". In: Advances in Botanical Research . Elsevier; 2022.armelle_et_al_2022_book_chapter.pdf
Apunda EO, Ndunda BE, Mwazighe FM, Kimilu R, Ochola P. "Potential of processing bagasse and bagasse pellets from Western Kenya into clean sustainable transport fuel." E. Afri. Agri. For. J . 2022;86(3):132-151.Website
Bulinda DM, Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Pre-service bachelor of education (technology) degree teachers’ perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 3(2), 47-54. (ISSN: 2708-261X). Online available: 2022;3(2):47-54.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Maloba KN, Nderitu JG. "Preclinical efficacy testing of three antivenoms against Naja ashei venom-induced lethality." Toxicon: X 14 (2022) 100124. . 2022.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Maloba KN, Nderitu JG. "Preclinical efficacy testing of three antivenoms against Naja ashei venominduced lethality." Toxicon: X14 . 2022;2022(100124.).
Samuel mwituria maina PhD, IDR OGW. A Prehistoric People THE CENTRAL KIKUYU Before 1970. Nairobi: Frajpa Publishers & Printers Mall; 2022. Abstract

The Central Gĩkũyũ occupy Mũrang’a County, which is in the central part of Kenya. At various times in history, the Central Gĩkũyũ territory has been known as Ithanga, Mũkũrwe-inĩ, Gĩkuyu, Kĩrĩnyaga, Metumi, Fort Hall and finally Mũrang’a. They are the original Gĩkũyũ and direct descendants of Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi. The country of the Central Gĩkũyũ,' whose system of tribal organisation will be described in this book, lies between the southern Gĩkũyũ of Kĩambu (Kabete) and the northern Gĩkũyũ of nyĩrĩ (Gaki) all three lying in the central part of Kenya. Mũrang’a is divided into six administrative sub-counties: Kandara, Gatanga, Kĩharũ, kangĩma, Kĩgumo and Maragwa. The population, according to the 2019 census is (1,056,640) one million, fifty-six hundred, six hundred and forty. The Central Gĩkũyũ people are agriculturists, today keeping a few flocks of sheep and goats and cattle. They are also ardent businessmen.
The cultural and historical traditions of the Central Gĩkũyũ people have been verbally handed down from generation to generation. These traditions are quite distinct from the other two of the north and south. In writing this book, I sought to bring out this distinction to establish the difference with the southern Gĩkũyũ as was aptly captured by Louis Leakey in his treatise titled “southern Kikuyu before 1903”. Probably the only and most comprehensive book on Gĩkũyũ culture, Leakey candidly dwelt on the southern Gĩkŭyŭ and confesses to not having had much contact with what he wrongly summed up as northern Gĩkŭyŭ.
In that said north, there exists two distinct Gĩkŭyŭ cultural groupings that have never been studied to establish this glaring distinction between the Nyĩrĩ and Mũrang’a groupings.
From inception, the Central Gĩkũyũ carried forth their information and history through memory. In the book “a prehistoric people: the Central Gĩkũyũ before 1970”, effort was made to collect relevant information from sometimes very meagre sources to try to correct the misconception that the Gĩkŭyŭ are a homogenous people practicing a common culture. As a Central Gĩkũyũ myself, having been born and grown up there, it is clear after interaction with the other two, that the original Gĩkũyũ still exists in Mũrang’a (fig 15) as close to as it was during Gĩkũyũ and Mũmbi era. It is from these original Gĩkũyũ that the other two, the southern and northern, developed after dispersal from Mũrang’a.
My objective was not to enter into controversy with those who have endeavoured, or are attempting, to describe the same things from outside observation. Instead, I sought to let the truth speak for itself. I also hoped that the reader will utilize the contents to solve real social problems by using the described efficacious methods and ideas.
I am a mũthuri wa kĩama (elder) of the second grade (Kĩama kĩa mbũri igĩrĩ) having fulfilled all the requirements of the same group. While the kĩama ‘died’ in the advent of colonialism and subsequent quasi-colonial African governments in Kĩambu and Nyĩrĩ, the kĩama in Mũrang’a never ceased its processes and functions. It has therefore been continuous since the first mwaki was established in Gĩkũyũ country. From my interaction with this mĩaki, I have for example come to establish why Leakey refused to publish an abridged copy of his thesis. Leakey must have been in a big dilemma. Having joined solemnly the Gĩkũyũ kĩama, Leaky was bound by his oath which I also went through and which I cannot explain here. His family may not have understood why he couldn’t publish despite the promise of incessant income and wealth.
In the course of research for this book, I came across the same dilemma despite, being a scholar, in fact a university lecturer at the University of Nairobi, as Leakey did, that I could not divulge all that I know due to the same oath Leakey took. From this you can imagine that I was not able in this book to write all and everything or detail that I know and found due to this predicament.
However, I made every effort to describe the daily activities and life of the Central Gĩkũyũ people from inception at mũkũrwe wa nyagathanga including, harvesting, care of animals, farming, trading, marriage, tribal raiding, song and dancing, law and law giving, customs related to sex, clothing and food, religion, death and disposal of the dead up to the colonial invasion, Mau Mau war and the aftermath up to 1970.
In this endeavour, I found out that within the Central Gĩkũyũ, everyone was provided for. Rules and regulations governed every aspect of life. Those rules had to be obeyed without question. Good among the people are those who kept the rules. The bad ones brought to themselves and family bad omen and uncleanliness, thus requiring debilitating amounts of expenses both human and material for cleansing ceremonies.
The Central Gĩkũyũ did not lack anything. Their land is fertile. Their security is guaranteed by the four holy mountains, kĩanjahi, kĩambirũirũ, Kĩrĩnyaga and nyandarũa. They had a system of government that covered every aspect of life. Before the coming of the colonialist, they lived in a kind of ‘garden of Eden’ which literally flowed with milk and honey, honey provided by their mwanĩki and milk by mũrĩithi.
In their territory, before the corrupt and evil colonial enterprise, the Central Gĩkũyũ had devised ways to solve all their social problems. And this is how the Central Gĩkũyũ in eight methods, solved almost all social cultural problems that the west, in all their self-proclaimed wisdom have never been able to fathom;
1. Prostitution: There was no prostitution! Sexual desires were serviced among the process of communal accessibility for every riika (age group). One man’s wife in the age group was wife to all the men in the group and vice versa for women. This of course happened within the rules defined elsewhere in this book. Today, prostitution is a big problem in Kenya due to acquisition of broken western cultures.
2. Orphans: There were no orphans in Central Gĩkũyũ! Any child who may have lost her mother was simply mothered by the other wives belonging to the baby’s father. It was therefore not possible that a bay would have to be adopted. In fact, the Central Gĩkũyũ did not even have a word for adoption. It was just a matter of continuity of life with the other mother. The child, if orphaned while very young, sometimes never even came to discover s/he is orphaned.
3. Widows: There were no widows in Central Gĩkũyũ. If a woman lost her husband, the husband’s brother jumped into the role of husband (gŭthambio) and father of his brothers’ children in a very seamless fashion (it was not automatic that he also becomes a sexual husband). The woman continued her life as normal and in fact continued to increase her husband’s family and wealth. This was also within parameters described elsewhere in this book.
4. Widowers: There were no widowers in Central Gĩkũyũ! Since almost every man had several wives, the man was never left alone. He just shifted responsibility for himself and children (fig 35) to the other wives and life continued as normal.
5. Bachelors or spinsters: There were no bachelors or spinsters! Every young man or woman had to get attached to the opposite sex immediately they attain marriageable age. It was the duty of their mothers, genadmothers, sisters and aunties to connect them to sitable partners by all means. This is because it was inconceivable that anyone should endure a life of suffering, lack of intimacy and social security while living in a progressive society as the central Gĩkŭyŭ was. This ensured that no one should engage in prostitution or any kid should be born a bastard.
6. Divorce: There was no divorce in Central Gĩkũyũ! Even if I have described the divorce process elsewhere in this book, in reality, there was no real divorce in Central Gĩkũyũ in the manner envisaged by western culture and the church. Even if a couple went through the divorce process, the woman never left the homestead, especially if she had children (fig 24).
A man would construct a hut for her in the far-flung corner of his land and a private access to her own compound. In that arrangement, the woman’s children (fig 35) continued to mingle with the rest of the family and their father. Her sexual desires were satisfied by the riika living around or visitors and travellers of the man’s riika needing bed and lodge. They would get a wife in good measure of the man’s riika relations just as they would do for him while in the same situation. In fact, she most times enjoyed her sex life more than the active wives.
7. Broken families: There were no broken families in Central Gĩkũyũ! In the absence of prostitution, orphans, widows, widowers and divorce, it was inconceivable that a family would appear broken in a discernible manner. The social setting was such that belonging to a gĩthaku, Nyŭmba, mŭhĩrĩga and rŭgongo was a social safety net to cover all shortcomings of any section of the family. Matters were handled in a community wide family setting so that you couldn’t realise even when one is broke. That common approach dispersed the honour and integrity of the whole family among a wider safety net.
8. Poverty: There was no debilitating poverty among the individual Central Gĩkũyũ man or family! The setup was such that the whole clan formed a safety net covering the individual on issues of enormous and not subsistence need. Fines, dowry and fixed property acquisition were clan universal.
The culture of Kŭhithia mahiŭ (hiding away of animals) meant that in time of natural calamity, should a man lose all his wealth, he could eventually replenish it from his own away stock. The process of dowry (fig 28) exchange itself was a huge safety net for families with girls of marriageable age (fig 32). A seemingly poor man had the chance to wake up to huge wealth from this process with cows and goats donning his pen to the amazement of his peers and therefore the popular saying “mŭkabi atongaga na ŭtukũ’ (a lucky man may get rich instantly). Raiding could also change a man’s fortunes in a flash especially when his sons come of age, therefore attaining military status by raiding after initiation. Poverty was never permanent.
Close to the end of the nineteenth century when the British established their evil scheme in Mũrang’a, many of Central Gĩkũyũ customs were criminalized and banned and therefore became untenable. They could not hold cultural meetings, they could not brew their cultural beer round which all spiritual ceremonies were tied, they could not move freely in their territory. They were enslaved reciprocal to their inherent generosity to foreigners. But they were in no way foolish. They rose against the oppressor who had taken all their land and dignity. The Mau Mau war was very intense in Central Gĩkũyũ as you will find in this book, but the people were not to relent.
With their traditional war tactics, their arm making technology and believe in their God and soil, they gave it their all and won.
The Central Gĩkũyũ life however, from the encounter, had changed forever. They have a saying that “Ndĩngĩingĩra irima nandĩmunyũo njoya” (it cannot enter a barrow and not leave some hairs on the walls. Today, almost all Central Gĩkũyũ people are Christians; they are educated and have immersed themselves into western style business. Inherently, a Central Gĩkũyũ is one who doesn’t forget. Despite this inculturation into western traditions, s/he remains inherently a true Gĩkũyũ, following his culture and believes imbued with only what is good and necessary for personal and family survival.
In this book therefore, the reader will find explained the story of the origin of the original Gĩkũyũ, how they consolidated themselves and expanded into a formidable ethnicity, their land tenure, how they practiced their agriculture, industry, art and architecture. Where it came to their increase and expansion, their kinship and family life was central to a cultural way that integrated children from birth through growing up till the initiation of their boys and girls (fig 32) through life milestones. They sang and choreographed their life through songs and dances (fig 40) especially concerning initiation and war.
On further indulgence, you will find that the Central Gĩkũyũ had an elaborate law and justice system which was imposed through taboos and uncleanliness including fines. Such uncleanliness could lead or emanate from activities like warfare and raiding or even death whose solution was as elaborated as it was debilitating. While explaining these in the book, it was not lost to me the need for clarity of purpose. Therefore, as much as possible, the sections are arranged in a chronological manner.
Law and justice were very elaborate in Central Gĩkũyũ culture and in this order, they seem to sit well before warfare and raiding as presented. The accruing taboos (Mĩgiro) and uncleanliness (Thahu) governed the tenets of those laws as sanctions against tyranny with agreed limits. At the end of life for the Central Gĩkũyũ, the process was also not a walk in the park. They revered their dead and through established steps disposed very honourably to the spirit world all their dead as prescribed.
I have made the account of Central Gĩkũyũ life as distinct from the others as full and as complete as my time and opportunities would allow. This book is not an anthropological analysis of events. Neither is it a historical anthology of events. Rather, it is a record of an attempt to salvage the little information about the Central Gĩkũyũ that stand the danger of getting lost.
Thaaaai-to the members of the Central Gĩkũyũ kĩama, mwaki wa rũgongo rũa kĩranga, in which I stand as mũthuri wa mbũri igĩrĩ, my comrades-in-arms of the past, present, and future. In this work as in all my other activities, their co-operation, courage, and sacrifice in the service of the Central Gĩkũyũ people have been the inspiration and the sustaining power.
Finally, I extend my warmest thanks to all those elders and scholars as well as people of all walks of life who gave me much of their time to help collect, critic and record the facts correctly. Of particular note is the seminal writings of Joseph W. Kamenjũ, Mũkaru Ng’ang’a, Louis Leakey, Geofrey Mũriũki, Maina wa Kĩnyati and Kĩnyatta Jonestone kamau (Jomo). Again, thank you very much.

Samuel Mwitũria Maina PhD OGW
Nairobi, 2023

Orengo KO, Maitho T, Mbaria JM, Maingi N, Kitaa JM. "Preliminary Phytochemical Composition and In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Olea africana against Mixed Gastrointestinal Worms in Dogs." Hindawi Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022(
Barre A, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Gitao CG. "Prevalence of Brucellosis in Camel Slaughter Population in Garissa County, Kenya. ." OSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2022;15(1):39-46.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, etiology and risk factors associated with occurrence of canine cutaneous myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;Vol. 2022(ID 5699060):9 pages .
NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;2022(5699060):9 pages
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, etiology, and risk factors associated with occurrence of canine cutaneous myiasis in Kitui county, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine Internationa. 2022;2022(Article ID 5699060).
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;2022(Article ID 5699060
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine . 2022;2022 (
Tangus CJ, Chege JN, Karanja DN, Gachuiri CK. "The prevalence,intensity and spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites in selected sheep farms in Kasarani sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya." to Hindawi Journal of veterinary medicine international. 2022.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
Kuria1* AN, Gathura1 PB, Kanja LW, Onyuka2 AS, 3 KC, Mugambi1 PG. "QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIAL BATING ENZYMES IN SELECTED KENYAN TANNERIES FOR USE IN DIFFERENT PRETANNING PROCESSES." The evoii journal. 2022;13(3):1-2.iioabj_13.3_1-61.pdf
Kuria AN, Gathura PB, Kanja LW, Onyuka AS, Cheruiyot K, Mugambi PG. "Quality assessment of commercial bating enzymes in selected kenyan tanneries for use in different pre-tanning processes." IIOABJ. 2022;13(3):1-6.
Kuria AN, Gathura PB, Kanja LW, Onyuka AS, Mugambi PG, Cheruiyot K. "Quality assessment of commercial bating enzymes in selected kenyan tanneries for use in different pre-tanning processes." IIOABJ. 2022;13(3):1-6.
Abuga KO, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Amugune BK, Okaru AO, Ndwigah SN, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2016-2020." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2022;25(1):3-8. Abstract

During the five-year period covering 2016-2020, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) received and processed 326 drug samples. Of these samples, 32.5% were locally manufactured, 65.7% imported and 1.8% of undeclared origin. Samples were analyzed according to compendial and/or in-house specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 1.8% (0.6% locally manufactured, 0.9% imported and 0.3% drugs of undeclared origin). Full analytical compliance was recorded with anti-emetics. spasmolytics, antihypertensives, ophthalmics, anti-infectives, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-epileptics, nootropics, anaesthetics, respiratory drugs, genitourinary drugs, anticancers, dermatologicals, immunomodulatory drugs, vaccines and excipients. However, one sample each of anti-ulcers, hypoglycemics, opioids and herbals as well as two samples of antiseptics did not comply with specifications. This represents the lowest failure rate of samples analyzed in DARU and presented as pentad reports since the year 1991.

Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract

Background: The oral cavity harbors many microbes that may cause diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. Progressive inflammation from periodontal diseases may lead to gum detachment from the teeth. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses and gargles are broad-spectrum antimicrobial products that effectively manage dental caries and periodontal diseases and eliminate plaques. This study was conducted in Nairobi County, Kenya to establish the quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine oral care products by determining the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and compliance with labeling requirements.
Methods: A total of 34 samples (from 15 brands) of povidone-iodine and 15 samples (from nine brands) of chlorhexidine were collected from retail pharmacies using convenience sampling. All samples were subjected to labeling analysis, identity, and assay tests. Potentiometric titration was used to assay povidone-iodine in the samples, while chlorhexidine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to British Pharmacopeia 2017 specifications.
Results: All samples complied with identification tests. Moreover, 47.1% of povidone-iodine and 66.7% of chlorhexidine products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. Five povidone-iodine (14.7%) and four chlorhexidine (26.7%) samples had missing label information on the storage conditions and the address of the manufacturer.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) by manufacturers of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouthwashes/gargles is necessary to guarantee quality assured products in the market. Regular post-market surveillance and regulatory enforcement of standards are instrumental in minimizing the circulation of poor-quality products.

D O, J.N O, A.S O. "Quantification and Characterization of Tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Water Extracts in Nyamira County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. . 2022;Articles in Press.
Mwinzi JM. "A Radical Shift in Education Practice and the Question of Ethical Reflection in Pandemic Era. ." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(3):98-108.
M. MM, I RK. "Redesigning university Education in Kenya: The what, Why and How?" IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2022;27(8):40-56 .redesigning_university__education.pdf
Wango GM. "Rejection: What Happens and Why Rejection Hurts so Deeply - and What to do About it." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):25-30.
Diana O, Suzanne P. "Religion and contraceptive use among sexually active adolescent girls in Kenya.". In: New Horizons in Medicine and Medical Research. BP International; 2022.
Mwinzi JM. "Religion, Rationality and Justice – A Cause for Critical Reflection in the Contemporary Society." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):85-102.
Murphy M, Kinanda J, O'Sullivan D, Blasi ZD, Tatay MCM. "A Report on the Translation into Kiswahili and Subsequent Validation, of Three Positive Psychology Scales." East African Scholars Journal of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences. 2022;4(5):124-133.a_report_on_the_translation_into_kiswahili_and_subsequent_validation_of_three_positive_psychology_scales.pdf
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Aboge GO, Bebora LC. "Seasonal Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Thermophilic Campylobacter from Chicken, Cattle, and Respective Drinking Water in Kajiado County, Kenya." Hindawi, International Journal of Microbiology . 2022;2022, Article ID 1526641( ).
Barre AD, Karanja DN, Bebora LC. "Sero-Prevalence of Brucellosis in Camel Slaughter-Population in Garissa County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 2022;15(1).
Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
Okello, J.J., Otieno, R.O, Nzuma, M.J., Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Smallholder Farmers Willingness to Pay for Commercial Insect Based Chicken Feed in Kenya. Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." International Food and Agribusiness Management Association Review. 2022;26(1):67-87.
Wangechi S MHM. "Socio-economic Factors Affecting Water Usage in the Lower Thiba sub-catchment." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;(3):4.
Mbayaki CW, Karuku GN. "Soil hydraulic properties of a chromic Luvisol in Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
Ochieng’ P, Nyandega IA, Wambua B. "Spatial-temporal analysis of historical and projected drought events over Isiolo County. Kenya." Journal of Theor Appl Climatol, Austria, part of Springer Nature . 2022.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Nicholas N, Lian T, Githigia S, Nancy J, Wahome R, Kristina R. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Front. Vet. Sci. 2022;
K G, T M, J N, MO O. "Studies on the ethnopharmacology, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity of Catha edulis (Vahl.) Endl., in Sprague Dawley rats.". 2022;([version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000 Research 2022, 11:286):
Joseph SK, Ralwala AO. "Sustainable construction assessment: A Kenyan interior design market segment perspective." Africa Habitat Review. 2022;16(1). AbstractWebsite

The centrality of the construction industry in the sustainability agenda is undoubted. This is in context of its known economic, environmental and social impacts and numerous forward and backward linkages with other industries. This drove the quest to assess: (1) the extent of sustainability assessment (SA)/evaluation; (2) SA standards and methods/tools familiarity levels; (3) effectiveness of sustainability assessment (SA); and, (4) SC assessment framework(s) familiarity levels. These research objectives were explored, with specific reference to the interior design market segment of the Kenyan construction industry. A mixed-methods approach was adopted for this study. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect sample attributes from actively practicing key project professionals. These professionals, for this study, were identified as: architects/interior designers; electrical engineers; mechanical engineers; quantity surveyors; and, contractors. They constituted the sample in the ratio 12:12:12:12:12 respectively – drawn from Nairobi City County. The valid responses received were in the ratio 10:9:8:9:10 respectively. Data analysis employed the descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, mean item scores (MIS’s) and standard deviations (SD’s). A majority of the respondents reported not assessing/evaluating sustainability in interior design projects, and gave a number of reasons thereof. They also reported a below average familiarity level on SA standards and methods/tools. On effectiveness of SA, the respondents registered an average score. Lastly, a majority of the respondents reported being unaware of any SA framework assessing the three dimensions of sustainability. From the findings, there is the implied need to train Kenyan construction industry practitioners on sustainability assessment. This study recommends improved training for construction industry practitioners to improve their familiarity with SC assessment standards and tools/methods/frameworks, in a bid to foster improved SC assessment levels. This will foster improved sustainability assessment, which will in turn contribute to improved sustainability compliance

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi:
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2022;36(9):2321-2328.
Godman B, Egwuenu A, Wesangula E, Schellack N, Kalungia AC, Tiroyakgosi C, Kgatlwane J. "Tackling antimicrobial resistance across sub-Saharan Africa: current challenges and implications for the future." Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2022;21(8):1089-1111.
John Josephat Gitonga, Zaja Omboga JM. "To Translate or Not Translate Interjections as Hedges: A Case Study of Kenya's Political Speeches." Mwanga wa Lugha--Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika. 2022;7(1):141-150.
Owang S, Ngatia L. "Token, Taken or Toxin: Stop the ride, Taking a Break from Social Media." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(2):22-24 .
Ondicho TG. Tourism, Power and Politics among the Maasai. Chisinau: Scholars Press; 2022.
Mambo SR, Moturi CA. "Towards Better Detection of Fraud in Health Insurance Claims in Kenya: Use of Naïve Bayes Classification Algorithm." East African Journal of Information Technology. 2022;5(1):244-255. AbstractWebsite

The extent, possibility, and complexity of the healthcare industry have attracted widespread fraud that has contributed to rising healthcare costs hence affecting patients’ health and negatively impacting the economy of many countries. Despite putting up various technologies and strategies to fight fraud such as planned, targeted audits, random audits, whistle-blowing, and biometric systems, fraud in claims has continued to be a challenge in most of the health insurance providers in Kenya. This paper explored the application of data mining in detecting fraud in health insurance claims in Kenya. Classification algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree and K-Nearest Neighbour) were used to build predictive models for the knowledge discovery process. After conducting several experiments, the resulting models showed that the Naïve Bayes works well in detecting fraud in claims with 91.790% classification accuracy and 74.12% testing hit rate. A prototype was developed based on the rules extracted from the Naïve Bayes model, which, if adopted, will save costs by detecting fraud as it is committed. Fraud detection in health insurance claims is much needed in many countries so as to help reduce loss of money and in return improve service delivery to patients.

Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Cancer Investigation. 2022.
Zaja JO. "Ukiukaji wa Makusudi kama Mkakati wa Ufasiri, Uelekezi na Ubunifu Mpya katika Tafsiri: Kifani cha Tafsiri ya Mabepari wa Venisi (Julius Nyerere 1969).". In: Kiswahili katika Anga ya Kimataifa. Dar es Salaam: TUKI University of Dar es Salaam; 2022.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Mwinzi JM. "Universality and Particularity: the Cause for Inconsistency in Acquisition of Knowledge." Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal (SHE Journal). 2022;3(2):294-305.
Muasya JN. "University Students Perceptions and Experiences of Quid Pro Quo Transactions in Kenya." Journal of Studies in Education . 2022;12(2):49-64.
J O’o, BN B, V M, I C. "The Unusual High Origin Radial Artery in a Black Kenyan Population; a Cadaveric Study." Ethiop J Health SCI. 2022;32(2):445-452. Abstract223352-article_text-545874-1-10-20220328.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the radial artery draws great interests among anatomists for its frequent involvement in variations. Equally, these variations have gained significant attention from clinicians because of the preference to use the radial artery for catheterization. The commonest of radial artery variations involve its site of origin. In published literature, data on this variations exist, but the prevalence of such variations in a Kenyan population has hitherto been unknown.
METHODS: Sixty-two upper limbs from 50 formalin-fixed cadavers were studied during dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
RESULTS: Fifty-four (87.1%) radial arteries arose within the cubital fossa, while eight (12.9%) had a high origin. Out of the eight high arteries, two (3.2%) branched off from the axillary artery, another two (3.2%) were branches of the proximal third of the brachial artery and four (6.5%) arose from the middle third of the brachial artery. The high origin radial arteries were more common on the right upper limbs (5 out of the 8 cases). Both axillary and brachial origins were seen bilaterally.
CONCLUSION: The present study details important variations in the anatomy of the radial artery in a Kenyan population. With the radial artery being utilized during clinical, surgical and radiological interventions so frequently, an increased understanding and anticipation of such topographic variances is paramount.

Onyango CM. "Use in Africa: Increasingly Vulnerable. In Pesticide Atlas: Facts and figures about toxic chemicals in agriculture.". In: Pesticide Atlas. Germany: Publication of the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Foundation; 2022.
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Elkanah O, Jonathan Y, Shanthi M, Campbell Z€A, Thumbi SM, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Vaccination of household chickens results in a shift in young children’s diet and improves child growth in rural Kenya." PNAS. Economic Sciences Agricultural Sciences. 2022;Volume 119(No. 24).
Acsa I, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of 2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria." Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;vol. 2022(Article ID 5437171):8 pages.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
Akunga O'Nyangeri, Jphn Habwe ZO. "Witness or Interpreter? Converting a Litigant into a Court Interpreter in a self-Interpreted Testimony Presentation ." International Journal of Translation, Interpretation and Applied Linguistics. 2022;4(1).
Kaaria SK, Ondicho TG. "Women's Working Conditions in Kenya's Flower Farms: Policy Options and Recommendations." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2022;1(1):18-21.
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Odhiambo T, J K. "The ‘Perplexing African in China’: A Reading of Black Ghosts by Ken Kamoche." Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa . 2022;13(1):63-74.
Mbuthia E, Matei A. "“Thamani ya Ukoo”.". In: In: Sauti ya Matarajio na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Githaka NW, Kanduma EG, Wieland B, Darghouth MA, Bishop RP. "Acaricide resistance in livestock ticks infesting cattle in Africa: Current status and potential mitigation strategies." Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases. 2022:100090. Abstract
Kuboka M, Njue L, Mutua F, Grace D, Johanna Lindahl. "AFM1 Secretion and Efficacy of NovasilTM Clay in Kenyan Dairy Cows." Dairy. 2022;3:220-232. Abstract
Syano NM, Nyangito MM, Wasonga OV, Kironchi G. "Agroforestry practices and factors influencing their adoption by communities in the drylands of Eastern Kenya." Agroforestry Systems. 2022;96:1225-1235. Abstract
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong S-W, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral Electronic Excitations in a Quasi-2D Rashba System BiTeI." arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.03569. 2022. Abstract
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong SW, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral electronic excitations in the quasi-two-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI." Physical Review B. 2022;105:L161105. Abstract
Nabulindo NW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Kipyegon AN'eno, Ogugo M, Muteti C, Christian T, Oatley MJ, Oatley JM, Kemp S. "Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9. Abstract
Deng Y, Liu L, Li MY, Jiang M, Peng B, Yang Y. "A data-driven wheel wear prediction model for rail train based on LM-OMP-NARXNN." Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering. 2022:1-11. Abstract
Collins M, Ngetich C, Owido M, Getange D, Harris R, Bargul JL, Bodha B, Njoroge D, Muloi D, Martins DJ, others. "Detection of Antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in Dromedary Camels and Co-Grazing Sheep in Northern Kenya Using an Ehrlichia ruminantium Polyclonal Competitive ELISA." Microorganisms. 2022;10:916. Abstract
Dimba EAO, Newa F, Macharia J, Nyanumba MD. "Determinants of acceptance of eHealth technology by Health Care Practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2022;99:4450-4460. Abstract
Lutta A, Robinson LW, Wasonga OV, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya.". In: JOURNAL OF PLANNING LITERATURE. Vol. 37. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2455 TELLER RD, THOUSAND OAKS, CA 91320 USA; 2022:. Abstract
Marufu C, Kisumbi BK, Osiro OA, Otieno FO. "Effect of finishing protocols and staining solutions on color stability of dental resin composites." Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2022;8:561-570. Abstract
Wafula WM, Wasonga OV, Koech OK, Kibet S. "Factors influencing migration and settlement of pastoralists in Nairobi City, Kenya." Pastoralism. 2022;12:1-14. Abstract
Niu Y-T, Qing F-Z, Li X-S, Peng B. "Inhomogeneous strain and doping of transferred CVD-grown graphene." Rare Metals. 2022;41:1727-1734. Abstract
Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
Lepore CM, Kamau L, Kanduma E. "Molecular Prevalence of Entamoeba Species among Diarrheal Patients in Eastern Kenya." European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 2022;3:39-46. Abstract
Githaka NW, Bishop RP, Šlapeta J, Emery D, Nguu EK, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of Babesia parasites in Kenya: first detailed report on occurrence of Babesia bovis in cattle." Parasites & vectors. 2022;15:1-11. Abstract
Meng T, Shi M, Guo Y, Wang H, Fu N, Liu Z, Huang B, Lei C, Su X, Peng B, others. "Multifunctional Ag-coated CuO microbowl arrays for highly efficient, ultrasensitive, and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;354:131097. Abstract
Peng B, Bouhon A, Slager R-J, Monserrat B. "Multigap topology and non-Abelian braiding of phonons from first principles." Physical Review B. 2022;105:085115. Abstract
Peng B, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Liang D, Deng L. "Multiwavelength magnetic coding of helical luminescence in ferromagnetic 2D layered CrI3." Iscience. 2022;25:103623. Abstract
Su G, Gao A, Peng B, Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhang H, Zhan P, Wu W. "Observation of in-plane exciton–polaritons in monolayer WSe2 driven by plasmonic nanofingers." Nanophotonics. 2022. Abstract
Liu Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Gong T, Li Y, Niu Y, Cheng Y, Lu H, Deng L, Peng B. "Observation of intrinsic crystal phase in bare CrI3 ferromagnetism." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.13312. 2022. Abstract
Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
Peng B, Zhou H, Liu Z, Li Y, Shang Q, Xie J, Deng L, Zhang Q, Liang D. "Pattern-Selective Molecular Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Arrays toward Ultrasensitive and Ultrafast Photodetector." Nano Letters. 2022;22:2948-2955. Abstract
Peng B, Bouhon A, Monserrat B, Slager R-J. "Phonons as a platform for non-Abelian braiding and its manifestation in layered silicates." Nature Communications. 2022;13:1-15. Abstract
Kambabazi M-R, Okoth MW, Ngala S, Njue L, Vasanthakaalam H. "Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of a bean-based composite soup flour." Legume Science. 2022;4:e139. Abstract
Mwakumanya M, Ng’ong’a FA, Mutinda C K, Maina EN. "Phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol roots extract of Erythrina sacleuxii hua in Wistar albino rats." Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2022;16:126-140. Abstract
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Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract
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Arasio RL, Kaufmann B, Wasonga OV, Otieno DJ. "Socio-cultural and governance foundations of successful income-generating groups in pastoral societies: Evidence from northern Kenya.". In: JOURNAL OF PLANNING LITERATURE. Vol. 37. SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC 2455 TELLER RD, THOUSAND OAKS, CA 91320 USA; 2022:. Abstract
Lutta AI, Nyangito MM, Wasonga OV. "Willingness to Pay for Sustainable Grazing Management Practices Under Pastoral Regime in Tana River County, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2022;86:9. Abstract
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
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