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O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Prospects And Constraints Facing Women Small-Scale Dairy Farmers In Vihiga District, Western Kenya.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
One of the major constraints to increased dairy production is lack of adequate feed. The Government of Kenya has encouraged the development of forage technology for adoption to address this constraint. The low adoption has been due to inappropriate technologies and cost of forage production. Data used in the analysis were collected from farmers in Vihiga and Sabatia division of Vihiga District, Western Kenya. Both on-farm experimental and formal survey data were utilized. A sample of 180 farmers was randomly selected using systematic sampling techniques. Cost Benefit analysis was done using Cost-Benefit Ratio (CBR) and Net Present Value (NPV) while regression analysis techniques were used to estimate optimal nutrient levels.   The results of the Cost-Benefit analysis showed most forage technologies were economically viable to adopt. Farmers also ranked highly forage technologies with high economic returns. Based on these findings, research and extension of forage use should emphasise evaluation of forage production technologies as an aid to increasing dairy production and surplus stock food for sale.   Key Words:    Forage technology, Nutrients, Maragoli People, Economic Returns, Smallholder Dairy, Zero Grazing.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1996. Studies of Geoelectric Structure Beneath Eburru Geothermal Region, Rift Valley.". In: Kenya, Research Report for National Council of Science and Technology, Project No. NCST/SEC/4400.343, 55p. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Goitre and fluorosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Jun;59(6):363-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "J. M. Kihiu, G. O. Rading and S. M. Mutuli Overstraining of Plain Cross-Bored Cylinders J. Mechanical Engineering Science Vol. 218(2) (2004) p 143-153.". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 2004. Abstract

A 3D FEM computer program was developed to establish the stress distributions and SCFs in thick walled cylinders with radiused entry flush and non-protruding cross bores under internal pressure. The displacement formulation and eight noded brick isoparametric elements were used. The Frontal solution technique was used due to the limited computing facilities. The variation of SCF with entry radius to main bore radius ratio was established for varying cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio and cross bore to main bore radius ratio. For low values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (≤2.25), the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in lower SCFs. For high values of cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio (>2.25),  the lower values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio resulted in higher SCFs. The cylinder with cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 2.25 was found to be a transition geometry. For very small values of cross bore to main bore radius ratio, the SCFs converged to a value of 2.2 for entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. The cylinder outer radius to main bore radius ratio of 1.75 to 3 cylinders had a constant SCF value of 2.3 at cross bore to main bore radius ratio of 0.05 and entry radius to main bore radius ratio of 0.2. A new categorization of cylinders earlier proposed in the study of plain cross-bored cylinders is further validated.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Immunosuppression in renal Transportation: Current Status and Application in Developing Countries. African Journal of Health Sciences. 1(4): 142-147, 1994.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences. 1(4): 142-147, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N.O, Kasili EG, Oduori ML: Childhood Leukaemia in Kenya. In: tumours in Early Life .". In: Edited by L Seven with Pwerugia Quadrennial international Conferences in Cancer Rome. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Kinoti SN, Maggwa AB, Turkish J, Wasunna A. Management of acute childhood diarrhoea with oral rehydration therapy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1985 Jan;62(1):5-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Jan;62(1):5-11. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
PIP: A study of 125 children aged 0-6 months who were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute diarrhea was conducted between 1982-1983 to determine the benefits of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in treatment of diarrheal illness. At admission, specimens of stool, blood and urine were collected and examine for bacterial, parasitic, and viral agents (including malaria), serum electrolytes, urea, white cell counts and hematocrit. Children were started on oral rehydration solution (ORS) unless severly dehydrated, in which case intravenous therapy was initiated. 84% of the children were successfully treated with ORS alone regardless of etiological agent found; 15% required IV therapy initially, then were placed on ORS. Average hospital stay was 56.2 hours. Cost of treatment by ORT is less than 20% the cost of IV therapy. When investigators surveyed other health institutions, they found that ORT was used alone in less than 10% of all children seen with diarrhea. A side benefit of ORT is the utilization of mothers in preparation and administration of solution, reducing the demand on hospital staff. Since 20% of all pediatric admissions at Kenyatta are due to acute diarrheal disease, use of ORT would reduce costs tremendously. Initiation of ORT at home may prevent development of dehydration altogether.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Muthingi PM. The experience with electroencephalography at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):259-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):259-61. uon; 1992. Abstract
Review of electroencephalography (EEG) requests at KNH over a 3 year period is presented. Majority of patients were aged between 0 and 10 years. None was older than 80 years. The epilepsies were the commonest reason for requesting EEG (58.5%). SSPE had the highest positivity rate of 91.7% followed by convulsive states of uncertain aetiology. The symptom of headache by itself was the least rewarding to study by EEG. It was more rewarding to first attempt to make a diagnosis of the headache. Hysteria had an EEG positivity rate of 40%, most of them being epilepsy. EEG picture for petit-mal, epilepsy focal seizure and generalized seizures are included in the text.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Abstract volume.". In: (Editor). IGCP Project 236 Conference of Gondwana Fragments. Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. UNESCO/IUGS. Wiley Interscience; 1989. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in African patients. East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. Review. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Aug;60(8):592-6. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Tetracycline residue levels in cattle meat from Nairobi slaughter houses in Kenya. The Korean Society of Veterinary Science. J. Vet. Sci. 2 (2), 97-101.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Olukoye, G.A. and R.O. Mosi (2002). Evidence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield among Holstein-Friesian herds in Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinarian. 25(2002):12-17. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Vere DW. Related Articles, Links Antipyrine and propranolol disposition in malnutrition. East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Jan;55(1):20-4. E Afr Med J; 1978. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima, J.K. and McLigeyo S.O.: The influence of Sodium, Pattassium, Calcium, VItamin D and Parathyroid hormone on the blood pressure in humans - A review Article. East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
In a six month period at the Kenyatta National Hospital, 46 patients (30 males) with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 22 healthy subjects have had a clinical and echocardiographic study of their cardiovascular systems. The patients with CRF were further classified as stable or in end stage renal disease (ESRD), the latter group requiring dialysis. Hypertension and circulatory congestion were the commonest clinical cardiovascular findings in patients with CRF. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine than the ones with stable CRF. Echocardiographically right ventricular size, left atrial size, aortic root diameter, left ventricular internal diameters, left ventricular end diastolic and systolic volumes, stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular posterior wall and interventricular septal thickness, ejection time and mitral and aortic peak flow rates were significantly higher in patients with CRF than in controls. In contrast, the circumferential fibre shortening and the ejection fraction were reduced in patients with CRF. Global left ventricular dysfunction was found in 47.8% of the patients. Using doppler flow studies, valvular incompetence was detected in a number of patients, mitral regurgitation being found in 84%.76% of the patients with CRF had varying degrees of pericardial effusion. The echocardiographic abnormalities and the pericardial effusions responded six weeks of haemodialysis in a variable manner.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Samuel N. Gatiti, M. Muchiri, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo(2011). A Decision Support Systems tool for Forest Biodiversity, Conservation and Climate Change: A Case Study of Grevillea robusta Tree in Kenya.". In: In International Conference on Trocpical Forest Resources, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya. June 6-9, 2011. Accepted, yet to be presented. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Optimum Density of Poly-Urethane Foam–Design of a Shear Fatigue Tester" Internal Report, Kenya Bureau of Standards (1986).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1986. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Distribution of trace elements and their petrogenetic significance in the Jombo Hill alkaline rocks, Kenya.". In: UUDMP Research Report No. 10. 14p. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Ogada T. Related Articles, Links Hyperprolactinaemic diabetes insipidus-like syndrome. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):156-62. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1998. Animals, Husbandry, Utilization and the Environment. Proceedings of Environment Litigation Workshop, Mombasa 1998: 14 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "OWINO J. N. J., MUTHAMA and MARIGI S.2002): .". In: Journal of the African Meteorological Society, Vol 5. 1999; 2002. Abstract
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O G, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, B O, M K, F N, L N, K K, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Kiarie J, I K. "Engagement of decentralized health facilities in research and training.". 2016.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S., Kinuthia, D.M.W., McLigeyo, S.O., Orinda, D.A.O. and Mwongera, F.K.: Conversation from cyclosporin A to COnventional therapy with azethioprine in renal transplant recepients. East African Medical Journal. 68(9): 720-726, 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68(9): 720-726, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Characteristics of 14 patients above 12 years of age with congenital polycystic liver disease attending liver clinic at KNH were analysed. The diagnosis was mainly based on ultrasonographic findings. The disease was found predominantly among the Kikuyu ethnic group with a female/male ratio of 6:1 and the peak age at presentation was in the 5th decade. The liver function tests were essentially normal in all cases with no complication directly relating to liver disease. Hypertension was found in 78.6% of cases and chronic renal failure in 35.7% of cases. There was an associated polycystic disease in at least one other abdominal organ in all cases.
O DROPEREALFRED. "The Role of ICPAC in the generation, application and dissemination of climate products: Expert Meeting on Climate Change and Water Resources, Geneva, Switzerland: 18-20 December 2006.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Multi-Agent systems scheduler in a dynamic environment.". In: (Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 229-243. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "A prevalence study of ear problems in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, May 1992.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995 Nov;33(3):197-205. MEDICOM; 1995. Abstract
Information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and related ear pathologies in children in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A pilot study for a clinical trial of simple treatments for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in school children in Kiambu district, Kenya, provided information on the prevalence of hearing impairment and ear pathologies. Five-thousand-three-hundred-sixty-eight children from 57 randomly chosen primary schools in Kiambu district were examined. Simple otoscopy was performed by clinical officers with specialty training in ENT, and hering testing was performed by trained nurses, using a hand held field audiometer. Microbiological specimens were obtained from those children with CSOM. Five-point-six percent of the children had a hearing impairment of > 30 dB HL in one or both ears, with 2.2% having bilateral hearing impairment. Two-point-four percent had at least one perforated tympanic membrane, and 1.1% had CSOM. Eight-point-six percent of the children had wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. There is evidence of a relationship between hearing impairment and both CSOM and wax obstructing the tympanic membrane. The most common organisms found were Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Proteus spp. (34%) and Eschericia coli (19%). These results are comparable with other studies in Africa and indicate a considerable burden of ear disease in Kiambu district, Kenya.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Flavones and phenylpropenoids in the surface exudate of Psiadia punctulata.". In: Phytochemistry, 57, 571-574.; 2001. Abstract
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O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Relativistic Sum-rules for Quantum Dielectric Tensor II; Radiation Effect; ).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE POTENTIAL AND PITFALLS OF CONSTITUTION MAKING IN A CULTURALLY DIVERSE AND DYNAMIC SOCIETY.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
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O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Munyua, S.J.M., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Ogaa, J.S. And Mwangi, W. M. (1997). Does the improved Bull have a place? Proc. Symp. Anim. Prod. Soc. Kenya, ILRAD, Nairobi (17th - 18th July).". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1997. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, S.O.: Nephrotic syndrome associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: A case report with a review of literature. Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990.". In: Nairobi Medical Journal 16(2): 28-32, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O., Awuor, V.O., Kooke, S.O. and W.O. Omoto (2002): Impact of rainfall variability on water resource management. Proceedings of the 3rd WaterNet/Warfsa Symposium, WhiteSands Hotel, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 30-31 October 2002.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "1. Environmental Law: Meeting UK & EC Requirements, McGraw Hill, London.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1995. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Nduati RW, Bhatt GJ, Osborne CM Accidents and Poisoning. In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers. Ed. Mukelebai K, Bwibo NO, Onyango FE. 2nd edition, UNICEF.". In: Book. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Jan. 29-30, 2007 .". In: Regional Conference on Capacity Building for the Fast Tracking of the East African Market, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High-Frequency Sum-Rules for classical Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; Presented at .". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and MacLaren, A.P.C. (1986): Demonstration and activity of Anodal antigens of C.fetus in the CIE system. Irish Bet. J. 40,24 -29.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1986. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Murphy SP, Gewa C, Liang LJ, Grillenberger M, Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.School snacks containing animal source foods improve dietary quality for children in rural Kenya. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3950S-3956S. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFORINDADA. "Fasting insulin levels in normal Kenyan Africans and a case report on insulinoma.E. O. Ogutu and D.A.O. Orinda,E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 66 No. 12, December 1989.". In: E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 66 No. 12, December 1989. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1989. Abstract
The mean fasting insulin level in 30 apparently normal Kenyan Africans was determined by Radio-Immuno Assay (RIA) technique based on coat A-count. The mean value was found as 16.33 microIu/ml with a standard deviation (s.d) of 10.51 microIu/ml. The mean at 95% confidence interval (CI) for the population studied was 16.33 +/- 1.92. The findings are similar to what have been reported among the caucasians. This paper also reports on a case of insulinoma in a young female patient at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Local Development in Africa," in Ayele Tirfie et al., (eds.), Regional Development Policy in Africa: Problems and Prospects (Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, UNCRD Proceedings Series No. 29, 1998), pp. 77-94.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 1998. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Between Liberation and Oppression: The Politics of Structural Adjustment in Africa, by Thandika Mkandawire and Adebayo Olukushi, eds, Dakar: Codessria.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.2, 1998, p. 130. (Book review).; 1995. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO.Low birthweight: more than a single hit malady of the first months of life. East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):61-2. No abstract available.". In: The Nairobi Hospital Proceedings vol.3:7-9.1999. University of Nairobi.; 1999. Abstract
We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. (1976): Control of infectious agents exclusively transmitted by the venereal route with particular reference to Vibrio fetus. Dissertation for Partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of D.P.V.M., Royal Veterinary and Agricultural .". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1976. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Cognitive abilities of Kenyan children in relation to nutrition, family characteristics, and education. Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Sigman M, Neumann C, Jansen AA, Bwibo N.". In: Child Dev . 1989 Dec; 60 ( 6 ): 1463-74 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1989. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry, UCLA Medical School 90024.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether nutritional factors, family characteristics, and the duration of schooling were associated with cognitive and attentional capacities in children growing up in rural Kenya. Food intake was measured by direct observation and weighment twice monthly over the course of a year. Families were characterized in terms of socioeconomic status and the literacy of the parents. Children who were better nourished had higher composite scores on a test of verbal comprehension and the Raven's matrices. Better-nourished females were more attentive during classroom observations than malnourished female schoolchildren. Family characteristics and duration of school participation were associated with cognitive abilities for both boys and girls. For the children considered as a group, cognitive scores were best predicted by a combination of factors including duration of schooling, food intake, physical stature, and SES.

PMID: 2515042 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFORINDADA. "Antitumour Activity of Polyinosinic-polycytidylic Acid in combination with some Biologically Active Compounds. D.A. O. Orinda, D. Gerricke and P. Chandra Z. Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 .". In: Fur Krebesforechung 78, 219 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1972. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation and Access to Basic Needs in Kenya," in Franklyn Lisk, (ed.), Popular Participation in Planning for Basic Needs (Aldershot: Gower Publishing Co.).". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Neotectonics and stress pattern in Africa.". In: In: Bormann, P. (Editor). Regional International Training Course Volume (1997) on Seismology and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Scientific Technical Report STR 98/05. Potsdam. 177-181. Wiley Interscience; 1998. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Kayima, J.K. and McLigeyo S.O.: The influence of Sodium, Pattassium, Calcium, VItamin D and Parathyroid hormone on the blood pressure in humans - A review Article. East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(4): 235-237, 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Were FN, Lusweti B, Wasunna A , Musoke RN.Isdelivery outside hospital a risk of development of early sepsis?". In: Journal of Obstetrics and gynaecology East and Central Africa Vol 17:1; 19-24, 2004. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA, A DRRAJABJAMILLA, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Rajab JA, Waithaka PM, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Analysis of cost and effectiveness of pre-transfusion screening of donor blood and anti-malarial prophylaxis for recipients. East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Nov;82(11):565-71. VDM Verlag; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of malaria in donor units in a low and a high endemic region in Kenya and evaluate the cost effectiveness of recipient anti-malarial prophylaxis and pre-transfusion screening (using an automated method) as options to prevent post transfusion malaria. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks, Nairobi and its environs (National Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) a low malaria endemic region and western region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu) high malaria endemic region. SUBJECTS: All the donated units were included in the study for analysis, during the duration of study, from the two study sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of malaria in donor units in low endemic area (Nairobi) and high endemic area (Kisumu). Cost per case prevented for the two options, Option I Prophylactic administration of anti-malarial (sulfadoxine pyrimethamine SP) drugs to recipients, and Option II pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. RESULTS: A malaria prevalence of 0.67% was found in Nairobi and its environments (low endemic) and 8.63% for Kisumu and its environments (high endemic area). The cost analysis showed a cost per case prevented of Ksh.105 (US$1.4) adult, Ksh.52.5 (US$0. 69) and paediatric for the option of recipient prophylaxis using an SP based drug. The cost escalated to Ksh.592 (US$7.79) adult Ksh.444 (US$5.84) paediatric if the prophylaxis was upgraded to the recommended artemisinin derivative (ACT-artemisinin based combination) and for the option of pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique the cost was Ksh.2.08 (US$0.03). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malaria in donors showed the expected regional variation in the low and high endemic areas and was comparable to data obtained elsewhere. If malaria positive donor units were to be excluded from the national blood supply, an estimated 5% (compared to 1.3% for human Immunodeficiency virus, 3.6% for hepatitis B virus and 1.3% for hepatitis C virus) would be wasted. The cost per case prevented of transfusion-associated malaria is considerably higher for recipient antimalarial prophylaxis than pre-transfusion screening using an automated technique. The cost escalates by five to seven times if the newer artemesinin based combination antimalarial drugs are adopted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Factors Influencing Adoption of Dairy Goats in Meru County, Kenya: Prospects And Constraints.". In: Journal. Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association; Submitted.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Emerging conceipts about the renin-angiotensin system - Present and future clinical applications. East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996.". In: East African Medical Journal 73(9):607-610, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Birthweights of infants of teenage mothers in Nairobi. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

Teenage pregnancies lower average birthweight. In the NBS, teenage mothers had significantly lower average birthweight of 2 920 +/- 553 g compared with 3 133 +/- 533 g among women in the general population. A high rate of LBW on the infants of the teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering the average birthweight. In both NBS and the PMHS the incidence of LBW 18% and 15% respectively as well as the rate of preterm delivery of 24% and 23% respectively were high. In PMHS although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-olds and in the 15-year-olds it was 4.8% which was much lower than that for 17- and 18-year-olds. In a large series in Nigeria the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15 years, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24 and least (18%) in the 25-29 year age group. Many unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some of the teenage mothers-particularly the very young, below 16 years-are physically immature and are still growing children themselves. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their foetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as foetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for the teenage mothers.

PIP: Teenage pregnancies lower average birth weight. In the Nairobi Birth Survey (NBS), teenage mothers had significantly lower average birth weight of 2920 +or- 553 gm compared with 3133 +or- 533 gm among women in the general population. A high rate of low birth weight (LBW) in those infants born to teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering that figure. In both the NBS and the Pumwani Maternity Hospital Study (PMHS), the incidence of LBW was 18% and 15%, respectively, and the rate of preterm delivery 24% and 23%, respectively. In the PMHS, although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-old group and it was 4.8% in the 15-year-old group; these figures were much lower than those for ages 17 and 18. In a large series in Nigeria, the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24, and least (18%) in those 25-29. Many unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some teenage mothers–particularly those under age 16–are physically immature and are themselves still growing. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their fetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as fetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for teenage mothers. author's modified

PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Fitzgerald DW, Wasunna A, Pape JW. Ten questions institutional review boards should ask when reviewing international clinical research protocols. IRB. 2003 Mar-Apr;25(2):14-8. No abstract available.". In: IRB. 2003 Mar-Apr;25(2):14-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2003. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The late Proterozoic Yatta Shear Zone: A possible lateral ramp extending across the Kenya Rift.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor): Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 69-77. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO, Minowada J, Hutchinson VA, Cummins JM. Low dose oral alpha-interferon therapy for patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5.". In: Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Thirty eight symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) were treated with a natural human interferon alpha (HuIFN alpha). Patients were given 2 IU/kg HuIFN alpha orally once daily in powdered maltose held in the mouth to promote mucosal absorption. This oral immunomodulating HuIFN alpha therapy resulted in an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes, an increase in weight, and a dramatic alleviation of clinical symptoms related to HIV-1 infection.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Hjort, A., K. O. Farah, and T. Teka. 2000. Cooperative research for local and regional exchange of experiences.". In: In: European Union Dryland series based on a regional workshop on pastoralism in the horn of Africa (this a book chapter). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000.
O OD, O WANDIGAS, A A’oD. "Synergistic Effects of Titanium (IV) Oxide Modified Clay for Disinfection and Purification of Water." European International Journal of Science and Technology . 2017;6(5):7-32.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nitric Oxide - source, Evolution and possible biological and clinical relevance. East African Medical Journal 71(2): 73-74, 1994.". In: East African Medical Journal 71(2): 73-74, 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Tuberculous meningitis–diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . No abstract available. PMID: 544261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J . 1979 Dec; 56 ( 12 ): 646-50 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1979. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A. Local treatment of the commonest diseases in developing countries. World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. No abstract available.". In: World Hosp. 1986 Jun;22(2):34-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1986. Abstract
Two major etiological agents, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxin B1, are considered to be involved in the induction of liver cancer in Africa. In order to elucidate any synergistic effect of these two agents we conducted a study in various parts of Kenya with different liver cancer incidence in order to establish the rate of exposure to aflatoxin and the prevalence of hepatitis infections. Of all tested individuals 12.6% were positive for aflatoxin exposure as indicated by the urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1-guanine. Assuming no annual and seasonal variation, a regional variation in the exposure was observed. The highest rate of aflatoxin exposure was found in the Western Highlands and Central Province. The incidence of hepatitis infection nationwide as measured by the presence of the surface antigens was 10.6%, but a wide regional variation was observed. A multiplicative and additive regression analysis to investigate if hepatitis and aflatoxin exposure had a synergetic effect in the induction of liver cancer was negative. However, a moderate degree of correlation between the exposure to aflatoxin and liver cancer was observed when the study was limited to certain ethnic groups. The study gives additional support to the hypothesis that aflatoxin is a human liver carcinogen.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Munyao TM, Bwayo JJ, Owili DM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kwasa TO, Kreiss JK. Human immunodeficiency virus- 1 in leprosy patients attending Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Aug;71(8):490-2. uon; 1994. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycobacterium leprae is an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection. Ninety six leprosy patients at Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH), Nairobi were screened for, HIV-1 antibody between January 1991 and June 1992. The patients included 15 who were diagnosed during the study period and 81 who were previously diagnosed and were on anti-leprosy treatment. Blood was screened for HIV antibody by first ELISA and double positive samples were confirmed by a second ELISA. The HIV seronegative patients were re-tested serologically every 3 months. Smears from skin slits were used to determine bacterial index and the patients were classified according to criteria described by Ridley and Jopling. The patients were re-assessed clinically monthly. The mean age of the patients was 40 years and ranged from 13 to 78 years. Forty seven percent had paucibacillary and 53% had multibacillary leprosy. The HIV seroprevalence was 8% in previously diagnosed patients and zero in the newly diagnosed patients. There were no changes in clinical spectrum in HIV seropositive patients during follow up period; neither reversal reactions nor erythema nodosum leprosum were observed. The study suggests that M. leprae may not be an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed subjects with HIV infection.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Petrology, geochemistry and evaluation of the heavy mineral deposits in Malindi and Uganga shore areas.". In: Marine Mining. Vol. 10, 337-351. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in a referral hospital in a tropical developing country. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. No abstract available.". In: Tohoku J Exp Med. 1983 Dec;141 Suppl:207-10. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN, OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Okeyo, A.M. and R.O. Mosi (1999). Performance of Dutch Friesian Cows under semi-arid conditions in Kenya: Reproductive performance and productive life.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 47:87-95. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1999. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2005. Abstract
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O MROUKOKENNEDY. "September 2003: " Family Health programmes in Kenya: an evaluation of the succeses and failures". Published by Maendeleo Ya Wanawake, 2004.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 2004. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Mosi R O, A M Okeyo, C O Ahuya, M A Okomo and W O Ogara, 2002. Herd structure and uses of small East African Zebu cattle in Lake Victoria Basin and Coastal Lowland of Kenya. (Bull. Hith. Prod. Afri.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Badamana, M.S., J.W.Wakhungu and R.O. Mosi, (2004). Enhanced productivity indexing of goats.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 52(1), 31-38. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFOBELARTHUR, O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO.Practical therapeutics current concepts in management of bronchial asthma. East Afr Med J. 1981 May;58(5):311-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jan;58(1):8-11. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Nephrotic Synrome - Symtomatic treatment. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 1-2, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Common causes of death in children at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4.". In: Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Advanced Materials Science–Some Aspects Relevant to Design and Failure Prevention" Presented at Seminar on Engineering Management, Nairobi (1986 & 1987).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1987. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Mineral resources of the Lake Victoria Basin - Proceedings of I.D.S.". In: Workshop on Lake Victoria Basin Development. Occasional Paper 34. 159-174. Wiley Interscience; 1979. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics. Anxiolytic drugs. East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Aug;58(8):551-6. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Disaster preparedness in the livestock industry in Kenya with respect to drought. In: The veterinary Profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary association/ Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFOWINOJOHN. "A. M. Achola, N. J. Muthama & J. O. Owino(2006): Influence of Weather on the Insurance Industry in Kenya:.". In: African J. of Sci. & Technol. Vol. 7, No.,pp 112-120. 1999; 2006. Abstract
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O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi P.N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., Mogere R. Vascular access for Haemodialysis. East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991.". In: East African Medical Journal, 68(6): 442-447; 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
In a fifteen month period (August 1987 to November 1988) forty patients requiring haemodialysis had 83 angioaccess procedures performed. Arteriovenous (AV) shunts and arteriovenous fistulae were the commonest procedures, comprising 56 (67%) and 20 (24%) of the patients respectively. Subclavian catheters and artificial grafts were used less frequently. Nephrologists and senior house officers attached to the Renal Unit were responsible for fashioning A-V shunts and inserting subclavian catheters while the A-V fistulae were fashioned by the urologists and vascular surgeons. The commonest complication of A-V shunts were clotting, occurring in 31 (55.4%) followed by bleeding in 14 (25%). Eight (32%) of the A-V fistulae never functioned from the beginning. It is noted that we are still very dependent on A-V shunts for vascular access in end stage renal disease (ESRF) patients and this is associated with an unacceptable level of complications. This dependency on A-V shunts in ESRD patients should be stopped or phased out. A-V fistulae should be used more frequently. Their constructions should be well thought out, executed and supervised by the few surgeons who are versed in them together with their follow-ups.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Pius Yanda, Shem Wandiga, Richard Kangalawe, Maggie Opondo, Dan Olago, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Robert Kabumbuli, Alfred Opere, Faith Githui, James Kathuri, Lydia Olaka, Eugene Apindi, Michael Marshall, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Edward Kirumira, Robin.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga and Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, and Okello-Odongo and Ann Now.". In: In the Proceedings of the first International Conference in Computer Science and Informatics, School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 5-9 February, 2007. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2007.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Galina N, Oburra H and Aluoch JR. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73:471 1996. MEDICOM; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Plasmas in a Magnetic Field; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 835 (1998).". In: Int. J. Theor. Phys. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1981 Veterinary Sanitary Characteristics of poultry meat in Stenorol (coccidiostat tests Msc. Thesis, Moscow, 1981.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Agumbah, G.J.O. and Kiere, S. M. (2000). Alternative viable sustainable forms of delivery of Artificial Insemination (AI) services room temperature semen (RTS), technical logistical scope for its use.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kayima J.K., Otieno L.S., McLigeyo S.O. and Kyobe J.: Platelet function in nephrotic syndrome patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 67(2): 109-112, 1990.". In: East African Medical Journal 67(2): 109-112, 1990. University of Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract
In 7 years (1981-1988) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made in 67 patients. In 23 of these patients lupus nephritis complicated the SLE. Lupus nephritis was diagnosed through renal biopsy, haematuria and proteinuria in urine with positive lupus erythematosus (LE) cell phenomenon. The histology found in these patients included 5 patients with minimal lesion, 7 patients with membranous, 3 with focal, 4 with diffuse, 3 with crescenteric and one with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. While patients with minimal, membranous and focal nephritis had general good outlook on low dose maintenance or intermittent high dose steroid therapy the others with diffuse, crescenteric and membranoproliferative nephritis had poor prognosis. Patients with diffuse proliferative, membranoproliferative and crescenteric nephritis tended to have septicaemia, pulmonary oedema, fluid overload and chronic renal failure with poor prognosis. These patients responded poorly to oral and parenteral steroid therapy whether high or low dose.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Opere, A.O. (2002): Lessons from the 1997/98 Elnino floods and the 2000 La nina related drought. Proceedings of the capacity building training workshop on stream flow modeling for the Great Horn of Africa (GHA), 4th .". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "Judicial Review of Administrative Action, in European Environmental Law: A Comparative Perspective, in G. Winter (ed), Tempus Series, Dartmouth (1996), at p. 129.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. PROFNDUATIRUTH, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Growth and development of abandoned babies in institutional care in Nairobi. Otieno PA, Nduati RW, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):430-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of growth and development of institutionalised infants and to compare the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Seven children's homes; Kenyatta National Hospital's New Born Unit and Well Baby Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-two abandoned babies who fulfilled the selection criteria were recruited and for each abandoned baby two mothered babies matched for age and sex were selected from the well baby clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken and the mean values and Z scores determined to demonstrate growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The Revised Denver Development Screening Test (RDDST) was used to assess the development pattern of infants. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of infants were below six months old and 73% were abandoned within the first week of life. Abandoned babies were significantly thinner with the mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm versus 12.3 cm (p = 0.02) Institutionalised babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001) and stunted (p = 0.00001). Abandoned babies were significantly delayed in development (p < 0.0001). In all the four sectors tested for, institutionalised babies showed significant delay, p < 0.0001 in each sector. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that infants under institutional care have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants. PIP: This cross-sectional study examined the pattern of growth and development of infants in some of the baby institutions in Nairobi and compared the outcome with that of infants living with their biological mothers. The participating institutions included the Kenyatta National Hospital and 7 children's homes within the city. The study recruited 82 abandoned babies aged 1-18 months who had been abandoned for at least 2 weeks. Each abandoned baby was paired with 2 mothered babies matched for age and sex. Anthropometric measures of weight, length, head circumference, and left mid arm circumference (LUMAC) were taken. The mean values and Z scores were determined to assess growth pattern and nutritional status of the babies. The results showed that abandoned babies were significantly thinner, with a mean LUMAC of 10.8 cm vs. 12.3 cm. Moreover, abandoned babies were significantly wasted (p = 0.00001), stunted (p = 0.00001), and delayed in development (p 0.0001). These findings indicate that institutionalized infants have poorer growth and development compared to mothered infants.

O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga High Frequency Sum Rules for Quasi-One-Dimensional Quantum Plasma Dielectric Tensor; International Journal of Theoretical Physics 27, 835 (1988).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1988.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Mitema, E.S. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1987). Choosing an intramammary antibiotic. Vet. Med. 87,930 - 932.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1987. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sigman M, Whaley SE, Neumann CG, Bwibo N, Guthrie D, Weiss RE, Liang LJ, Murphy SP.Diet quality affects the playground activities of Kenyan children. Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12.". In: Food Nutr Bull. 2005 Jun;26(2 Suppl 2):S202-12. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2005. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Otieno, L.S. and McLigeyo S.O.: Pulmonary Oedema between Dialysis as seen in Intermittent Haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital. East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987.". In: East African Medical Journal 64(11): 726-729, 1987. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.
O PROFORINDADA. "Ayisi RK, Mbiti MJ, Musoke RN, Orinda DA. Sodium supplementation in very low birth weight infants fed on their own mothers milk I: Effects on sodium homeostasis.East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Oct;69(10):591-5. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Sodium supplementation was done on 41 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with 25 other infants of similar weight status as controls. All the infants were fed on their own mothers milk whose sodium and potassium content was determined. Serum and urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were determined in both groups during the study period of six weeks. Determination of weight gain, length gain and head circumference gain showed that these anthropometric parameters are significantly increased by sodium supplementation while sodium and potassium concentrations were not significantly affected. There were no cases of either hypernatraemia or hyponatraemia though renal excretion of sodium was very high in the supplemented group. Conclusions drawn from the study are that very little weight gain could have been due to fluid retention and that though sodium supplementation does not affect sodium profiles in these infants it has significant effect on their growth rate which may be due to its indirect/direct association with bone and protein metabolism.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation in Africa: Trends and Prospects for the 21st Century,".". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The External Sources of Kenya's Democratization Process",.". In: Journal of Political Science, Vol.25, pp.5-35.; 1997. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-Based Medical Diagnostic Decision Assistant.". In: International ICT Workshop 2004 On Application of ICT in enhancing Higher Learning Education, pp 114-123. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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O OL, W KL, W MR, S BB. "Diet composition and nutritional contribution of food scavenged by indigenous chickens in Western Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2009;21.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid studies in patients suspected to have tuberculous meningitis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796.". In: International Journal of Tuberculosis and lung Diseases. 2003;7(8):787-796. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinico-laboratory features and precipitating factors of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Inpatient medical and surgical wards of KNH. SUBJECTS: Adult patients aged 12 years and above with known or previously unknown diabetes hospitalised with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. RESULTS: Over a nine month period, 48 patients had DKA out of 648 diabetic patients hospitalised within the period, one died before full evaluation. Mean (SD) age was 37 (18.12) years for males, 29.9 (14.3) for females, range of 12 to 77 years. Half of the patients were newly diagnosed. More than 90% had HbA1c > 8%, only three patients had HbA1c of 7-8.0%. More than 90% had altered level of consciousness, with almost quarter in coma, 36% had systolic hypotension, almost 75% had moderate to severe dehydration. Blunted level of consciousness was significantly associated with severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Over 65% patients had leucocytosis but most (55%) of them did not have overt infection. Amongst the precipitating factors, 34% had missed insulin, 23.4% had overt infection and only 6.4% had both infection and missed insulin injections. Infection sites included respiratory, genito-urinary and septicaemia. Almost thirty (29.8%) percent of the study subjects died within 48 hours of hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in about 8% of the hospitalised diabetic patients. It was a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The main precipitant factors of DKA were infections and missed insulin injections. These factors are preventable in order to improve outcomes in the diabetic patients who complicate to DKA.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Relationships between morbidity and development in mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers. Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann C, McDonald MA, Sigman M, Bwibo N, Marquardt M.". In: Pediatrics . 1991 Nov; 88 ( 5 ): 934-42 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1991. Abstract

University of California, Los Angeles.

This study explored the extent to which morbidity in 110 mildly to moderately malnourished Kenyan toddlers was associated with developmental outcomes. Morbidity information was collected from the 18th to 30th months. Concurrent assessments of vocalization, play, and performance on the Bayley scales were obtained. At 5 years, a follow-up battery of cognitive tests was administered. Female toddlers who suffered more illness generally performed less well on developmental measures than their healthier female peers. These children vocalized and played less and performed less well on the Bayley Mental scales at 30 months and on the cognitive battery at 5 years. For the boys, development was largely independent of morbidity. Morbidity was related to patterns of care giving for both boys and girls, but it was not associated with socioeconomic status or food intake. However, girls who were ill more often were shorter and lighter. Relations between morbidity and development in the girls remained statistically significant when other variables, which were also related to development (such as care giving, socioeconomic status, parental IQ and literacy, food intake, and anthropometry) were considered. This suggests that morbidity, in these female toddlers, had an effect on development above and beyond other variables typically associated with malnutrition.

PMID: 1945634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFORINDADA. "Antiviral Activity of Partially Thiolated Plynucleotides. J.A. D.". In: Molecular Pharmacology II, 61-69, (1975). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1975. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Democracy in Africa,".". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1987. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Ground subsidence and its socio-economic implications on the population: A case study of Nakuru area in Central Rift Valley, Kenya.". In: Environmental Geology. 39(6), 567-574. Wiley Interscience; 2000. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K., Were A.J.O. Severe malaria in a renal transplant patient Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995.". In: Afr. J. Medical Pract. 2(1) 8-9, 1995. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1995. Abstract
Renal transplantation is not readily available in the majority of countries in Africa. It is expensive and difficult to sustain on the meagre funds allocated to health. We report our short experience with fifteen living donor recipients followed in our unit for at least 24 months, range 26 - 48 (mean 35 months) post-transplantation. The donors and recipients were mostly young adults with mean ages of 36.7 years and 32.6 years respectively. The majority of the donors and recipients were males. The donors in most cases were siblings. Within this time, one graft has been lost at one year and the patient restarted on haemodialysis. Three patients died, two within the first year, the third at 23 months after transplantation, all with functioning grafts. The one year graft and patient survival rates were 93% and 86.6% respectively. The second year graft survival rates remained at 93% and the patients survival rate 80%. The nature and frequency of complications seen in these patients is comparable to those in other centres. Of all medical complications, bacterial infections contributed 69.4% of all infections. Cardiovascular complications comprised 31.25% of the complications. Hypertension seen in 85.5% of the patients accounted for 65% of the cardiovascular complications. Acute rejections were common and occurred in seven patients. Transplantation is a viable mode of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in our environment. The practice should be supported to make it more readily available to the many young end stage renal failure (ESRF) patients.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract

Extensive research in developed countries has established that very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of early nutritional deficiencies. There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants.

Determine the association between neonatal feeding regimens and post-discharge morbidity/ mortality and neurological abnormalities at the age of two years for a cohort of VLBW infants.

One hundred and seventy five VLBW infants were recruited over a consecutive period of one year and followed up to the age of two years corrected for gestation. With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome variables.

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. Primary Health Care; .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, June 1987. James Murimi; 1987. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Institutional and organisational requirements for implementing the Livestock Identification and Traceability System in Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, J M Gathuma, G Muchemi, W Ogara, N Maingi, W Maritim* and B Moenga* Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Ministry of Livestock Development P.O Kabete 00625 Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya   Abstract Livestock Identification and Traceability Systems (LITS) contribute to reduction, control or eliminated safety scares that result from transbounadry diseases outbreaks.  Recent studies on LITS in Kenya have been focused on testing  innovative technology, information and traceability system management, and examining the determinants for effective implementation. This paper analyzes the strengths and limitations of the operating a LITS institutional and organisational mechanisms in Kenya.   The result revealed that a disarticulated intitutional and organisational environment was the main constraint to effective implementation of LITS.  It proposes that for successful implemenation, a regional approach covering multiple countries, substantial private sector involvement and intensive stakeholder education are essential. Keywords: Institutional and organisational mechanisms, livestock identification, traceability  
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Body mass index in non-insulin dependent diabetics in Kenya. Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Apr;40(2):93-6.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1988 Apr;40(2):93-6. E Afr Med J; 1988. Abstract

Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: The Human TIssue Act: Time and amendment was considered. Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol 19(1):5-7, 1996.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol 19(1):5-7, 1996. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
The currently available evidence suggest that diuretics and/or low dose dopamine increases renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and natriuresis in experimental animals, and limits ATP utilisation and oxygen needs in nephron segments at high risk of ischaemic injury, actions that could potentially limit renal injury and accelerate recovery in acute renal failure (ARF). These effects have indeed been confirmed in most experimental animals while using mannitol or low dose dopanime. Frusemide, however, for unknown reasons, has been effective in some animal models, but not others. In humans, it can be said that diurectics have a limited value to prevent, reverse or speed recovery from acute renal failure. Most clinical studies have failed to demonstrate convincingly that low dose dopamine either prevents ARF in high risk patients or improves renal function or outcome in patients with established ARF. This confusing scenario is further complicated by the fact that both diuretics and low dose dopamine can result in severe metabolic and cardiovascular complications in critically ill patients.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Delivery of paediatric care at the first-referral level in Kenya. Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. English M, Esamai F, Wasunna A, Were F, Ogutu B, Wamae A, Snow RW, Peshu N.". In: Lancet. 2004 Oct 30-Nov 5;364(9445):1622-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract

We aimed to investigate provision of paediatric care in government district hospitals in Kenya. We surveyed 14 first-referral level hospitals from seven of Kenya's eight provinces and obtained data for workload, outcome of admission, infrastructure, and resources and the views of hospital staff and caretakers of admitted children. Paediatric admission rates varied almost ten-fold. Basic anti-infective drugs, clinical supplies, and laboratory tests were available in at least 12 hospitals, although these might be charged for on discharge. In at least 11 hospitals, antistaphylococcal drugs, appropriate treatment for malnutrition, newborn feeds, and measurement of bilirubin were rarely or never available. Staff highlighted infrastructure and human and consumable resources as problems. However, a strong sense of commitment, support for the work of the hospital, and a desire for improvement were expressed. Caretakers' views were generally positive, although dissatisfaction with the physical environment in which care took place was common. The capacity of the district hospital in Kenya needs strengthening by comprehensive policies that address real needs if current or new interventions and services at this level of care are to enhance child survival.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Popular Participation in Planning at the Local Level," in D. K. Leonard, (ed.), Rural Administration in Kenya (Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1973).". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1973. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Rifting of the Continents:.". In: A keyproject of the International Lithospere Program. Tectonophysics, 236, 1-2. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Design and development of an electronic identification and traceability system for cattle under pastoral production systems: A case for Kenya.". In: Journal. Livestock Research for Rural Development; Submitted. Abstract
G O Matete, N Maingi*, G Muchemi, W Ogara and J M Gathuma Department of Veterinary Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenyageorge.matete@gmail.com* Department of Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053-00625, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract Traceability systems offer strong incentives to livestock and meat exporting countries by altering their productive and industrial processes in order to access premium meat markets globally.  Kenya, whilst acknowledged as one of the countries within the horn of Africa with a reasonably credible veterinary service, has very limited access to beef and livestock markets in importing countries due to perceived risk or suspicions of presence of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) such as Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), lack of capacity to prove the absence of TADs and absence of an effective traceability system that acts as proxy for quality assurance.  The objective of this study was to report on the processes through which a model traceability system was designed for pastoral production systems of Northeastern Kenya.   The study reports that industry-wide consultation is a critical ingredient in the design process that encompassed simple drop down menus, low price and phased process of implementation. The use of a single central database reduced considerably the cost of implementation and minimized response time for impact analysis. Key words: Design, electronic traceability systems
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS, OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Mulwa, J. K., Gaciri, S. J., Opiyo-Akech, N and Kianji, G. K., 2005. Geological and structural influence on groundwater distribution and flow in Ngong area,.". In: Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 105-115. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2005. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Pharmacokinetics in medicine. East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Nov;59(11):703-4. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7.". In: Eur J Pediatr. 1990 Mar;149(6):424-7. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
{ Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Jowi JO, Amayo EO.Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. uon; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Oldoinyo Lenkiyio Range: Geology, geomorphology and hydrographic pattern of the.". In: In Kenya from Space. A contribution to a CREDU publication. East African Educational Publishers. 116-119. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
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O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Practical therapeutics: the use of histamine receptor antagonists in contemporary times. East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1984 Jul;61(7):578-82. E Afr Med J; 1984. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "West, N. E. and K.O. Farah 1989. Effects of clipping and sheep grazing on dyers woad. Journ. Range Manage. 42: 5-10.". In: In: Proceedings of First symposium of University of Nairobi ASAL thrust and ICRAF held at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, December, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1989.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developed World. Discovery and Innovation. Vol. 14 No. .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Geoelectric structure below Eburru geothermal field, Rift Valley, Kenya,.". In: Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1982. Abstract
Barongo, J.O.,1982. Proceedings of the regional seminar on geothermal energy in Eastern and southern Africa, 15-21 June, 1982, Nairobi, Kenya.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Machage WG. Double-blind placebo - controlled trial of glafenine in acute pain. East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):226-30. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Mar;58(3):226-30. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading, J. Li and J.T. Berry "Fatigue Crack Growth in Cast Al-Cu Alloy A206 With Different Levels of Porosity" 98 th. AFS Casting Congress, Hamilton, Canada (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994. Abstract

The fatigue crack growth (FCG) characteristics of a cast Al-Cu alloy A206 in the T7 temper condition were studied in laboratory air at a frequency of 30 Hz and an R-ratio of 0.2. Two different (as cast) thicknesses and two different casting conditions (casting with and without a chill) were investigated with the aim of characterizing the effect of porosity on the FCG behavior. The level of porosity in each sample was determined by the point-counting method and varied from 2.4 to 4.0% before hot isostatic pressing (HIP).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

The study covered both near-threshold and mid-range regimes of FCG. The results indicate that for this limited range of porosity, there exists no systematic relationship between casting conditions (i.e., chilled or non-chilled) or the as-cast thickness and the average level of porosity. However, in the near-threshold regime, the FCG resistance decreased as the level of porosity increased, while in the mid-range of FCG, the FCG rate was fairly independent of the amount of porosity.

Application of HIP led to a reduction in the porosity level from about 4% to less than 0.4%, but this was accompanied by improvement in the FCG resistance only, close to the threshold. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of porosity on the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth and the initiation of secondary cracks caused by the size, distribution and morphology, of the pores.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo S.O.: Calculation of creatinine clearance from plasma creatinine. East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993.". In: East African Medical Journal 70(1): 3-5, 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Sclerema neonatorum (a study of 16 cases in the special care unit, Mulago Hospital, Kampala). East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1): Bwibo NO, Anderson BT.". In: East Afr Med J. 1970 Jan;47(1):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Elisha T. O. Opiyo, Distributed computing, agents and trends. In the proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "The Effects of Welding on the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in a Structural Steel" 73rd. Annual Convention, American Welding Society, Chicago, IL. (1992).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1992. Abstract

Fracture mechanics principles have been used to study the effects of welding on the rate of fatigue crack growth (FCG) in a low-carbon structural steel. The steel concerned is used widely in the fabrication of the structural frame-work of passenger buses. Tests were carried out on the base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM). Both the near threshold and midrange regimes of crack growth were studied. In the midrange regime, the FCG rate was highest in the HAZ and lowest in the WM. Near the threshold, the FCG rate was highest in the BM and lowest in the WM. The results are explained in terms of microstructural changes due to welding, welding residual stresses, and fracture mechanisms. Recommendations to reduce the incidence of fatigue cracking have been made.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The M.". In: Kenya Journal of Science & Technology, Series A, 2nd Issue. 117-124. Wiley Interscience; 1980. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Related Articles, Links Practical therapeutics–use of oral anti-diabetic agents. East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Feb;59(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1982. Abstract
The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Critical aspects of animal production, health sciences and environmental litigation. In: The Veterinary profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association joint Region.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMOSIREUBEN. "Mosi, R.O. (1980) Factors affecting accuracy of within-ranch performance testing of Boran bulls in Kenya. M.Sc. (Animal Breeding) thesis. Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh University.". In: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 221:32-46. Elsevier; 1980. Abstract
PIP: The efficacy and complication rate of menstrual regulation with the hand-held Karman cannula was tested on 223 women with amenorrhea up to 56 days in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nairobi, Kenya from October 1982-January 1983. 195 women had positive pregnancy tests, while menstrual regulation was done on the others because of concern over late menses. the procedures were done without anesthesia with a 50 ml vacuum syringe fitted with a self-locking plunger, a rubber adaptor and stop cock, 5-8 mm flexible plastic Karman cannula and a toothless volsellum, using hibitane solution and savlon antiseptic. The average procedure time was 7 minutes. Bleeding lasted over 1 week in 4%, total blood loss was over 50 ml in 3.1%, and immediate side effects were syncope in 1.3%, nausea and vomiting in 1.8% and pain in 5.4%. There were 2 (0.8%) cases of endometritis. In Kenya where 60% of all gynecological hospital admissions are for septic abortions, it is essential to provide safe termination as a backup for family planning method failures.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Swao JO, Wairagu SG, Luta M, Mwongera FK, Otieno LS.Pregnancy in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD): a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):294-5. Review.". In: Central African Journal of Medicine, 38(10): 421-424, 1992. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
We present what we believe is the first case of pregnancy occurring in a patient on CAPD, and indeed end stage renal disease (ESRD), in Kenya. Pregnancy progressed very well until the thirtieth week when foetal movements and heart sounds were noted to be absent and this was confirmed by sonography. A macerated still birth was delivered per vagina following induction of labour. We review the literature on this rare occurrence and discuss the possible causes of the unpleasant outcome in our patient.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Methodology for Flood Risk scenarios for Burundi. Workshop on WFP & ICPAC Consultant mission on .". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Multi-Agent systems scheduler in a dynamic environment.". In: (Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 229-243. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O. and Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello-Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In the Proceedings of The Fourth International 4th Annual International Conference on Computing and Research- SREC08, Makerere University, Uganda, 3-6 August, 2008. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2008.
O PROFOBURRAHERBERT. "Oburra, H. Causes of ear trauma in Kenyan patients.". In: East African Medical Journal 75:323, 1998. MEDICOM; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of adenotonsillectomy in a sample of Kenyan hospitals and to review indications, timing and complications in 97 cases of adenotonsillectomy done by the authors. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National, Nairobi, Aga Khan, Gertrude and Mater Hospitals. RESULTS: Adenotonsillectomy is the most frequent otolaryngologic surgical operation. Indications for surgery were upper airway obstruction in 61.3%, recurrent tonsillitis in 28.7% and both in 7.5%. Surgery was indicated during the acute stage in 6.8% of cases. There was one case of post-operative acute airway obstruction. Post operative bleeding from the tonsillar bed was encountered in 2.1% of cases. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy is the most common otolaryngologic surgical operation in our set-up. The low frequency of complications and a short hospital stay puts up a case for routine adenotonsillectomy as a day surgery procedure.
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "Solution of the Coulomb scattering potential problem by method of contour integration and change of approximation functions.". In: African Journal of Sci. & Tech. 6(2):52-58. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "THE QUOTABLE PLO.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, P G Mbuthia, H Kaburi 1993. Fish pathogens isolated from fish species inhabiting L. Naivasha and aquaculture systems of Nyandarua District, Kenya. European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) 5th International conference. Diseases of fish a.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo, Otieno LS.Diabetic ulcers–a clinical and bacteriological study. East Afr Med J. 1991 Mar;68(3):204-10.". In: East African Medical Journal (68(11): 841-843, 1991. University of Nairobi.; 1991. Abstract
One hundred consecutive patients with diabetic ulcers were studied in an 8-month-period. There were 58 females. The mean age was 59.9 years. Eighty three patients had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11.6 years. The mean duration of the ulcer was 8.5 months. Sixty nine of the ulcers were gangrenous. Over 50% of the ulcers involved the big toes. Neuropathic ulcers were found mainly in the sole of the feet. Roentgenograms showed evidence of osteomyelitis in 44 patients. There were 356 bacterial isolates (340 aerobes and 16 anaerobes) from the ulcers. There were 3.6 infecting organisms per ulcer in gangrenous ulcers, while in neuropathic ulcers, there were 3.4 infecting organisms per ulcer. In both types of ulcer Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the commonest infecting organisms each being isolated in 88 of the 100 ulcers studied. In repeat bacterial cultures at 4 weeks there were 116 bacterial isolates. Staphylococcus aureus persisted in 63 ulcers despite therapy, while Escherichia coli persisted in 35. There were no new organisms isolated at repeat cultures and no ulcer was completely sterile. The Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Augmentin (Amoxicillin plus clavulinic acid), Clindamycin, Novobiocin, and Amikacin while the gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Cefotaxime, Piperacillin, Amikacin and augmentin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol and Lincomycin inhibited the growth of anaerobes to a varying degree.
O DROPEREALFRED, M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The need for a flood forecasting system in Kenya (revised).". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, March 2002. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2002. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Four flavones from seed pods of Milletia dura.". In: Phytochemistry 41(3) pp 951-955.; 1996. Abstract
n/a
O PROFGENGARIEWA. "R. O. Genga Wave Propagation in strongly Magnetized Electron Gas; Kenya Journal of Science and Technology (A), 10 (1989).". In: International Journal of Theoretical Physics (November 1993 issue. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1989.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ngeranwa, J. J. N., Mutiga, E.R., Agumbah, G.J.O., Gathumbi, P.K. and Munyua, W.K. (1991). The effects of experimental Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) (brucei) Evansi infection on fertility of male goats. Vet. Res. Communic. 15.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1991. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Two year neurological outcomes of Very Low Birth Weight infants. East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Were FN, Bwibo NO.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 May;83(5):243-9. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2006. Abstract

Department of Nutritional Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous study identified a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin B-12 intakes, this study examined whether plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were associated with dietary sources of the vitamin at baseline and could be increased by supplementation with animal source foods (ASF). The 4 experimental groups in 503 school children were: 1) control (no food provided); 2) githeri (a maize and bean staple with added oil); 3) githeri + meat (githeri + minced beef); or 4) githeri + milk (githeri + milk). Feedings were isocaloric. Dietary data were collected at baseline, and biochemical data at baseline and after 1 and 2 y of feeding. Baseline plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 193.6 +/- 105.3 pmol/L and correlated with % energy from ASF (r = 0.308, P < 0.001). The odds ratio for low plasma vitamin B-12 (<148 pmol/L), which occurred in 40% of children, was 6.28 [95% CI: 3.07-12.82] for the lowest vs. highest ASF intake tertile (P < 0.001). Feeding ASF (meat or milk) greatly reduced the prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001). The high prevalence of low plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in these children is predicted by a low intake of ASF, and supplemental ASF improves vitamin B-12 status.

PMID: 17311959 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Kinuthia, D.M.W., Yamanaka, T., Otieno, L.S. Ongeri, S.K., Mwongera, F.K., Wairagu, S.G. and McLigeyo S.O.: Hepatitis B Viral Status of staff and patients in a Renal Unit. Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and .". In: Proceedings of the Internatioal Society of Nephrology Sponsored African Kidney and Electrocytes Conference in Cairo, Egypt, February 1987 page 166. University of Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract
We have reviewed the literature relating to the use of monoclonal antibodies in acute renal allograft rejection. More emphasis has been placed on Orthoclone OKT3 which has been more commonly used and summarise our experience with its use as rescue therapy in renal allograft rejection.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA. Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. ""The Mau Mau: A Theoretical Explanation of the Dynamics of a Social Movement",.". In: Hekima Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. III, No. 1, pages 62-80. 2004.; 2005. Abstract
n/a
O OD, N MJ, K KC. "The Effect of Cassava Starch on the Durability Characteristic of Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2020;Vol 14:289-301.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "MacLaren, A.P.C. and Agumbah, G.J.O. (1980). Biotypes/serotypes of C. fetus associated with infertility in S.W. Scotland. Proc. Soc. General Microbil. Gt. Brand Ireland. Veterinary Bulletin. 51. Abst. 2928.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1980. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Medical illness in school-age Kenyans in relation to nutrition, cognition, and playground behaviors. J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992 Dec; 13 ( 6 ): 392-8 . PMID: 1469106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Neumann C, McDonald MA, Sigman M, Bwibo N.". In: J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992 Dec; 13 ( 6 ): 392-8. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1992. Abstract

Department of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1772.

Because medical illness is associated with malnutrition, it might contribute to the poor outcomes seen in malnourished children. This study explored relations between frequency of mild illness and development in 133 mild-to-moderately malnourished school-age Kenyan children. Morbidity information was collected for one year. Concurrent assessments of cognitive status and playground behaviors were obtained. Nutritional and environmental variables were also assessed. Girls with more reported days of mild illness performed less well on developmental measures than did their healthier female peers. They were less cognitively advanced, and, on the playground, girls with more mild illness were less active, happy, and social. Furthermore, relations between frequency of mild illness and playground behaviors (but not cognitive score) in the girls remained statistically significant when other variables, such as socioeconomic status, parental literacy, food intake, and anthropometry, were considered. For the boys, frequency of mild illness was not related to cognition or play behaviors.

PMID: 1469106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Cyropreservation of Boar Semen: Studies on freezing packaging and fertilizing capacity. Master of Veterinary Sciences, Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
O PROFORINDADA. "Rate of Tumour inhibition by Activated Macrophages in Vitro D.A.O. Orinda, E. A. Med. Journal, Vol 55 No. 4 April 1978.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Apr;55(4):177-81. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
PMID: 679868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Civil Bureaucracy in East Africa," in K. Henderson and P. Dwivedi, (eds.), Public Administration in World Perspective (Iowa: University of Iowa Press.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1990. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "Ngugi N., McLigeyo S.O., Kayima J.K. Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellur gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997.". In: East African Medical Journal, 73(8): 503 -504; 1997. Ochieng P. O., McLigeyo S. O., Amayo E. O., Kayima J. K. and Omonge E. O.; 1997. Abstract
Ten patients with acute and 60 with chronic renal failure (both groups having hyperkalaemia), were managed at Kenyatta National Hospital in the medical wards and Renal Unit between August, 1995 and January, 1996. They were divided into seven different treatment groups, each consisting of ten patients. Treatment A glucose 25g i.v. with insulin 10 units i.v., treatment B 50 mmol of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate infusion, treatment C 0.5mg of salbutamol i.v. in 50mls 5% dextrose, treatment D was a combination of treatments A and B, treatment E was a combination of treatment B and C, treatment F was a combination of treatments A and C while treatment G was a combination of treatments A and B and C. Serum potassium was measured, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours and 8 hours after treatment. Plasma glucose concentration was measured before treatment was given and 1 hour after in all patients. Electrocardiography was done before treatment on all patients and repeated 30 minutes and 1 hour after treatment for the patients with hyperkalaemic changes on the initial recording. All treatment modalities had satisfactory potassium lowering effects. Of the single therapeutic approaches, treatment A and C were equieffective, but better than treatment B (P < 0.001). Amongst the two regimen combinations, treatment D and F were more efficacious than treatment E and all the single therapeutic approaches (P < 0.001). Treatment G was the most efficacious in lowering serum potassium in this study. All treatment modalities had maximum serum potassium lowering effect at 1-2 hours. A fall in plasma glucose concentration was a notable feature of treatments A and D, but significant hypoglycaemia occurred in 20% of patients receiving treatment A and in none on treatment D. The ECG changes of hyperkalaemia did not correlate with serum potassium levels. The normalisation of hyperkalaemic ECG alteration occurred within the first 30 minutes after treatment. In conclusion, combination therapies for hyperkalaemia appear to be more efficacious than single therapeutic approaches. Inclusion of salbutamol seems to protect against insulin induced hypoglycaemia. The maximum potassium lowering effect is observed 1-2 hours of administration of either agents. The potassium reducing effect remains significant compared to baseline values even after 8 hours. If dialysis cannot be instituted early enough it seems reasonable to repeat treatment every 4-6 hours to sustain the effect. Repeated administration of glucose with insulin may not be safe because of the hypoglycaemic effect. Other single and combination therapies can theoretically be repeated regularly until dialysis is initiated although this requires further clinical evaluation.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, W. DRIRIMUGRACE, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Irimu G, Wamae A, Wasunna A, Were F, Ntoburi S, Opiyo N, Ayieko P, Peshu N, English M.Developing and introducing evidence based clinical practice guidelines for serious illness in Kenya.Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2008 Sep;93(9):799-804. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Musandu, J. O. .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal December 1998. James Murimi; 1998. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat from slaughterhouses in 13 Districts in Kenya.". In: Journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2009.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Efficacy and tolerability of long term oxprenolol and chlorthalidone singly and in combination in hypertensive blacks. Jpn Heart J. 1990 Mar;31(2):183-92.". In: Jpn Heart J. 1990 Mar;31(2):183-92. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Sixty two black patients who had confirmed but untreated hypertension participated in a double blind clinical trial of the efficacy and tolerability of slow-release oxprenolol in a daily dose of 160 mg initially and 320 mg subsequently versus chlorthalidone 50 mg daily. Thereafter, a combination of oxprenolol with chlorthalidone in an initial dose of 160 mg and 25 mg and a subsequent dose of 320 mg and 50 mg, respectively, was administered and the effects compared with those of the same drugs given singly. The trial lasted for 3 years, but each participant took active medication for 1 year. Oxprenolol as monotherapy had no effect on the blood pressure, irrespective of the dose. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy produced a significant fall in blood pressure (p less than 0.01). Combining the 2 drugs enhanced their blood pressure lowering effects (p less than 0.001). Oxprenolol as monotherapy and as part of combination therapy was well tolerated by all patients. Chlorthalidone as monotherapy was well tolerated by most patients while a fraction of the patients developed biochemical derangements. These results confirm the findings that a beta-blocker alone may be ineffective in lowering blood pressure in hypertensive blacks. The results also show that the efficacy and tolerability of a beta-blocker and a diuretic are enhanced by their combined administration. Finally, the results show that increasing the dose of a beta-blocker or a diuretic does not produce a further increase in its blood pressure lowering effect.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Lodenyo HA, McLigeyo SO, Ogola EN.Cardiovascular disease in elderly in-patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi-Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):647-51.". In: East African Medical Journal. 74(10):605-606, 1997. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY. "McNeill PM, Macklin R, Wasunna A, Komesaroff PA. An expanding vista: bioethics from public health, indigenous and feminist perspectives. Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. No abstract available.". In: Med J Aust. 2005 Jul 4;183(1):8-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. paul.mcneill@unsw.edu.au
O DROUTAGEORGE. "African Examples: Inspirations for Achievment and Personal Fulfilment.". In: ACCE Conference on Media and African Development. ACCE: Accra; 1993. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Agricultural Administration in Kenya,".". In: East African Journal of Rural Development, Vol. 9, 9 June 1976. IPPNW; 1976. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Group takes a fresh look at the lithosphere underneath southern Kenya,.". In: KRSIP Working Group EOS Transactions, AGU 76, 81-82. Wiley Interscience; 1995. Abstract
(including Nyambok, I.O.), .
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Tombe M, Bhatt KM, Obel AO.Clinical surprises and challenges of severe malaria at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):117-9. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):401. E Afr Med J; 1993. Abstract
Department of Cariology Endodontology Pedodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "CLIMATE CHANGE AND TH EMERGENCE OF HELTER-SKELTER LIVELIHOODS AMONG THE PASTORALISTS OF SAMBURU EAST DISTRICT, KENYA.". In: Journal. Ecological Society for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O PA, Rambo CM, Wafula CM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Completion of PPP Projects: A Case of Sondu-Miriu Power Project in Kenya.)." International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics. 2020;7(11):648-659.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Presumed analgesic-induced agranulocytosis. East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):273-7. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Apr;60(4):273-7. E Afr Med J; 1983. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O AI, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM. "3. Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Mara River Basin: A Geospatial Approach. ." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2020;5(5):68-85.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "McLigeyo SO, Mbui J, Kungu A, Amayo E, Ogendo SW.Fibrosarcoma of the lung with extrapulmonary manifestations: case report. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):465-7.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
A 50-year-old female presented with a five months history of recurrent attacks of dizziness, sweatiness, tremors and fainting with loss of consciousness. These were found to be due to hypoglycaemic episodes with blood sugars less than 1 mmol/l and were treated as such. A diagnosis of insulinoma was initially considered, but the patient turned out to have fibrosarcoma of the lung, a rare lung tumour. She also had finger and toe clubbing and features of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Naivasha: Geology and natural resources.". In: In Kenya from space. East African Educational Publishers. 60-62. Nairobi. Wiley Interscience; 1992. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO, Odwako DB. Practical therapeutics: the use of carbamazepine in affective disorders. East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Mar;62(3):224-8. E Afr Med J; 1985. Abstract
Weights and heights of 674 consecutive non-insulin dependent diabetics and 358 control urban healthy Kenyans were recorded prospectively. Weights and heights of a further 162 healthy rural adults were compared retrospectively. The body mass index (weight/height2) of the non-insulin dependent diabetic was lower than that of the corresponding urban control subject. The body mass index of the rural folk was consistently lower than that of the urban dweller. This study concluded that obesity may not be a significant factor in non-insulin dependent diabetes in the African black.
O DRFARAHKASSIM. "Farah, K. O. 1994. Vegetation, pp. 119-128;.". In: in: Tiffen, Mortimore, Gichuki (eds). More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Machakos District, Kenya. John Wiley and Sons. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Owino J., Eric S. Mitema, William O. Ogara, and Herwig O. Gutzeit. 2004. Heat Shock Affects Attachment and Proliferation of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Primary Hepatocytes. In-Vitro cell. Developmental Biol. Animal.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O PROFBARONGOJUSTUS. "Barongo, J.O., 1985. Spectral analysis of the vertical gradient of the total magnetic field anomalies due to two-dimensional dykes,.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A, 6(1), 49-58. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1985. Abstract
n/a
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Obel AO. Current trends in the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetes mellitus-practical therapeutics. East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Apr;58(4):244-8. E Afr Med J; 1981. Abstract

The antihypertensive effect of the fixed combination of timolol, a beta-blocking agent, hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, and amiloride, a potassium sparing agent, was compared against that of methyldopa in an open study lasting 16 weeks in 32 ambulatory African patients with previously untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-120 mm Hg. A significant fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was achieved in both groups up to 8 weeks of treatment and was sustained in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride group during the entire follow-up. In the methyldopa group, mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure rose during follow-up. At 16 weeks the fall in mean diastolic and systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients than in the methyldopa group. Adverse reactions were more frequent and severe in the methyldopa group than in timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride treated patients. It is concluded that the fixed drug combination of timolol-hydrochlorothiazide-amiloride (Moducren) is effective in controlling mild to moderate hypertension in Africans and is better tolerated than methyldopa in these patients. It is further noted that hypertensive patients can be treated with a combination tablet once a day. This is of crucial significance as it would promote better compliance and, hence, minimize the sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension.

O PROFRADINGGEORGE. "G.O. Rading "Fatigue Crack Growth in Welded Al-Li-Cu Alloy 2095 (WeldaliteTM 049)" Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Alabama (1994).". In: Mountain Research and Development, vol. 8, no. 2. 2011; 1994.

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