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O. OL. "Communication Theories and their Applications: The Case of Family Planning Adoption in Kenya.". A Kenya Institute of Mass Communication Training Manual. Nairobi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; 1996. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Bailey RC, Moses S, Parker CB, Agot K, Maclean I, Krieger JN, Williams CF, Campbell RT, Ndinya-Achola JO.Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial.Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):643-56.". In: Lancet. 2007 Feb 24;369(9562):643-56. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractmale_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention_in_young_men_in_kisumu_kenya_a_randomised_controlled_trial.docmale_circumcision_for_hiv_prevention_in_young_men_in_kisumu_kenya_a_randomised_controlled_trial.pdf

BACKGROUND: Male circumcision could provide substantial protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Our aim was to determine whether male circumcision had a protective effect against HIV infection, and to assess safety and changes in sexual behaviour related to this intervention. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial of 2784 men aged 18-24 years in Kisumu, Kenya. Men were randomly assigned to an intervention group (circumcision; n=1391) or a control group (delayed circumcision, 1393), and assessed by HIV testing, medical examinations, and behavioural interviews during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. HIV seroincidence was estimated in an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the number NCT00059371. FINDINGS: The trial was stopped early on December 12, 2006, after a third interim analysis reviewed by the data and safety monitoring board. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. Follow-up for HIV status was incomplete for 240 (8.6%) participants. 22 men in the intervention group and 47 in the control group had tested positive for HIV when the study was stopped. The 2-year HIV incidence was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2-3.0) in the circumcision group and 4.2% (3.0-5.4) in the control group (p=0.0065); the relative risk of HIV infection in circumcised men was 0.47 (0.28-0.78), which corresponds to a reduction in the risk of acquiring an HIV infection of 53% (22-72). Adjusting for non-adherence to treatment and excluding four men found to be seropositive at enrollment, the protective effect of circumcision was 60% (32-77). Adverse events related to the intervention (21 events in 1.5% of those circumcised) resolved quickly. No behavioural risk compensation after circumcision was observed. INTERPRETATION: Male circumcision significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in young men in Africa. Where appropriate, voluntary, safe, and affordable circumcision services should be integrated with other HIV preventive interventions and provided as expeditiously as possible.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss J.Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: clinical manifestations among women in Mombasa, Kenya.Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had >/=1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having >/=2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could potentially reduce secondary HIV-1 transmission during this highly infectious period.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wafula EM, Ndinya-Achola JO, Tukei PM, Bell TM, Ademba G. How should Primary Health Care Workers diagnose and treat Acute Respiratory infections in children? E.A. J. Vol. 61: 736 - 744, 1984.". In: E.A. J. Vol. 61: 736 - 744, 1984. IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "A Comparison of the Classical Black-Scholes Model and the GARCH Option Pricing Model for Currency Options.". In: Proceedings of the 4th International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, October 23-24 August 2008, Nairobi, Kenya. ORSEA; 2008. Abstract
Historia ya maisha binafsi kutoka kwale
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochieng VO, Osir EO, Ochanda JO, Olembo NK.Temporal synthesis of cuticle proteins during larval development in Glossina morsitans. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1993 Jun;105(2):309-16. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
1. Larval development in Glossina species occurs in utero with the mature third instar larva being deposited after a developmental period of 7 days. 2. In this study, the patterns of cuticular protein synthesis during larval development were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 3. From the results, four types of cuticle proteins were identified: those specific to larval, pupal and adult cuticles, and others common to all the stages. 4. Few cuticular proteins were synthesized between the first and second larval instars. By the third larval instar (two days before larviposition), a large number of proteins (Mr < or = 30 kDa) were induced. These proteins persisted up to the brown pupal stage and showed a rapid decline thereafter. Most of the proteins with molecular weights Mr < or = 30 kDa were undetectable at apolysis (5 days after larviposition). 5. By day 15 of the pupal stage, the number of cuticle proteins was very small. The protein profile during the pupal stages remained relatively constant. This was probably due to the fact that the pupal cuticle does not provide any protection since it is itself enclosed at all times within the protective puparium.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonck K, Leye E, Kidula N, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M.Increased risk of HIV in women experiencing physical partner violence in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2005 Sep;9(3):335-9. Epub 2005 Oct 27.". In: AIDS Behav. 2005 Sep;9(3):335-9. Epub 2005 Oct 27. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstractincreased_risk_of_hiv_in_women_experiencing_physical_partner_violence.docincreased_risk_of_hiv_in_women_experiencing_physical_partner_violence.pdf

As part of a study on etiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among 520 women presenting at the STI clinic in Nairobi, data on partner violence and its correlates were analyzed. Prevalence of lifetime physical violence was 26%, mainly by an intimate partner (74%). HIV seropositive women had an almost twofold increase in lifetime partner violence. Women with more risky sexual behavior such as early sexual debut, number of sex partners, history of condom use and of STI, experienced more partner violence. Parity and miscarriage were associated with a history of lifetime violence. We found an inverse association between schooling and level of violence. Six percent of the women had been raped. Gender-based violence screening and services should be integrated into voluntary counseling and testing programs as well as in reproductive health programs. Multi-sector approaches are needed to change prevailing attitudes towards violence against women.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Martin Jr. HL, Stevens CE, Mwatha AK, Chohan BH, Nyange PM, Mandalya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JKUse of Nonoxynol-9 and changes in Vaginal LactobacilliJ. Inf. Dis 178: 441-5, 1998.". In: Inf. Dis 178: 441-5, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, MULEI DRMUSYOKASAMMY. "A three dimensional geodetic network model for the analysis of localised earth deformation.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 34, No 263, London. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Ndeereh, D.R., Mbithi, P.M.F. and Kihurani, D.O. (2000): The evaluation of 4-Aminopyridine for the reversal of Xylazine sedation in goats. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 55 (1): 23-26.". In: Proceedings of the 6th Kenya Camel Forum, Maralal, Samburu District, 7th-11th March, 2000, p. 43-45. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2000.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 16 Pleurotus Luteoalbus .". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and T.O. Otieno, "Bicycle Crossings: A Non- Motorised Transport Study in Nairobi". African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 12, 1998.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Beaten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA< Emery S, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bankson DD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomised clinical.". In: J Infect Dis 2002;185:1187-91. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rakwar J, Jackson D, Maclean I, Obongo T, Bwayo J, Smith H, Mandaliya K, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Antibody to Haemophilus ducreyi among trucking company workers in Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):267-71.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):267-71. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, correlates, and incidence of Haemophilus ducreyi antibodies, a cohort of East African trucking company employees was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-seronegative men working in six trucking companies in Mombasa, Kenya, were evaluated with a questionnaire and serologic testing for antibodies to H. ducreyi and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Men who were initially H. ducreyi seronegative were retested at 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: The H. ducreyi seroprevalence among 501 men at enrollment was 26.5%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with older age, married status, years of active sex life, number of sex partners in the past year, history of unprotected sex with a prostitute in the past year, and history of alcohol intake (all P values < 0.01). Occupational travel for more than 14 days per month was also significantly associated with H. ducreyi seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.2). Using multivariate analysis, H. ducreyi seropositivity was independently associated with age, married status, history of sex with a prostitute, and history of alcohol intake. Presence of H. ducreyi antibodies was significantly associated with seropositivity to the other major genital ulcerative pathogens, Treponema pallidum (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.2-8.3), herpes simplex virus type 2 (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.0-11.5), and Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.9). These associations remained significant after adjusting for demographic and exposure variables. The incidence of seroconversion to H. ducreyi antibodies was 3.6 per 100 person years. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of H. ducreyi infection was common among male trucking company employees. H. ducreyi seropositivity is an objective marker of high-risk behavior and is associated with serologic evidence of other ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. PIP: A prospective cohort study of 501 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male trucking company employees from Kenya revealed high rates of infection with Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid. At enrollment in March 1993, the seroprevalence of H ducreyi antibodies was 26.5%. Also detected were high rates of herpes simplex virus-2 (49%), Chlamydia trachomatis (41%), and syphilis (8%). Of the 368 men who were seronegative at enrollment, 241 were re-evaluated after 12 months of follow-up. There were 9 seroconversions (3.6/100 person years). Sexual contact with a prostitute in the preceding year was reported by 33% of truckers and only a third of these encounters involved condom use. Ever-use of condoms was reported by only 51%. H ducreyi seropositivity was significantly and positively associated with older age, occupational travel for more than 2 weeks per month, history of sex with a prostitute, high number of sex partners in the past year, unprotected sex with a prostitute in the past year, alcohol drinking, and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases. The significant association of H ducreyi and seropositivity to syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2, and C trachomatis (odds ratios: 4.3, 4.9, and 3.2, respectively) raises the possibility that a genital ulcer increases the likelihood of infection with a second ulcerative pathogen. Overall, these findings suggest that the seroprevalence of H ducreyi may be used as an indicator of the extent of high-risk sexual risk behavior in a population, as well as an objective end point for measuring the efficacy of behavioral interventions in communities where the HIV seroincidence is too low to serve this purpose.
O. KG. "Advance Geomorphology.". Forthcoming. Abstract
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O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F, Waldenstr.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2008. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya. AIMS: Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Baeten JM, Nyange PM, Richardson BA, Lavreys L, ChohanB, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: results from a prospective study. Am J obstet Gynecol 2001.". In: Am J obstet Gynecol 2001; 185:380-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1996). Severity of Consequences for the Leader and Subordinates Work History as Determinants of Leader Attribution.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996. Abstract

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Plourde P, Pepin J, Agoki E, Ronald AR, Ombette J, Tyndall M, Cheang M, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with Genital Ulcers. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 170: 313 - 317, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Karuru JW, Lule GN, Joshi M, Anzala O.Prevalence of HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection among volunteer blood donors and VCT clients.East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):166-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Apr;82(4):166-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "The role of varicocelectomy in the management of infertile males with varicoceles. East African Medical Journal, 71: 800-802, 1994.". In: East African Medical Journal, 71: 800-802, 1994. EAMJ; 1994. Abstract

Inguinal varicocelectomy was performed on 27 selected infertile males with Grade III varicoceles. Follow up was effected for eighteen months. 18 (66%) patients recorded improvement in sperm count to above (20 X 10(6)/ML). 17 (63%) patients recorded improvement in active sperm mortility to above 40%. 15 (55%) patients showed diminution in the level of abnormal sperms to less than 30% abnormal forms. A pregnancy rate of 33.3% was recorded. These findings indicate that varicocelectomy is effective in the management of carefully selected infertile males with varicoceles in conformity with the findings of previous other studies.

O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Personality Characteristics in Personal Selling.". In: Marketing Review.; 1988.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Moses S, Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Nagelkerke NJD, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO.Controlling HIV in Africa: Effectiveness and cost of intervention in a high frequency STD transmitter core group. AIDS 5: 407 - 411, 1991.". In: AIDS 5: 407 - 411, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: 22-24 April 1987, Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 81-83. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Ball B, Rostron T, Smith M, O.". In: (June 1998, The Lancet). John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O., et al., (2001): .". In: In Occasional Papers, Vol.1. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi: pp43-54. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. OW. "The Niche of Sociology in the Climate Change Debate." The Professional Journal. 2011;Vol. 3(2):21-26.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Cameron DW, Simonsen JN, D'Costa LJ, Ronald AR, Maitha GM, Gakinya MB, Cheang M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Brunham RC, Plummer FA.Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Risk factors for seroconversion in men. Lancet ii 403 - 7.". In: Lancet ii 403 - 7, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. A’G, S. S, E. WANJEKECHE, J. OGENDO, P. ARAMA, M. O, R. M, M. KAMIDI. "Post-harvest practices, constraints and opportunities along cassava value chain in Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2016;4(2):114-126.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1990): .". In: UNESCO/IUBS. Berne, Switzerland. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Karabatsos G, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S, Bailey RC.Scaling Sexual Behavior or "Sexual Risk Propensity" Among Men at Risk for HIV in Kisumu, Kenya.AIDS Behav. 2008 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print].". In: AIDS Behav. 2008 Jul 24. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractscaling_sexual_behavior_or_sexual_risk_propensity_among_men_at_risk_for_hiv_in_kisumu_kenya.pdf

We present a scale to measure sexual risk behavior or "sexual risk propensity" to evaluate risk compensation among men engaged in a randomized clinical trial of male circumcision. This statistical approach can be used to represent each respondent's level of sexual risk behavior as the sum of his responses on multiple dichotomous and rating scale (i.e. ordinal) items. This summary "score" can be used to summarize information on many sexual behaviors or to evaluate changes in sexual behavior with respect to an intervention. Our 18 item scale demonstrated very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.87) and produced a logical, unidimensional continuum to represent sexual risk behavior. We found no evidence of differential item function at different time points (except for reporting a concurrent partners when comparing 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) or with respect to the language with which the instrument was administered. Further, we established criterion validity by demonstrating a statistically significant association between the risk scale and the acquisition of incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the 6 month follow-up and HIV at the 12 month follow-up visits. This method has broad applicability to evaluate sexual risk behavior in the context of other HIV and STI prevention interventions (e.g. microbicide or vaccine trials), or in response to treatment provision (e.g., anti-retroviral therapy).

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M, Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss JK.The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22. E.". In: J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22. Epub 2001 Feb 28. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
To assess the effect of treatment of vaginal infections on vaginal shedding of cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1-infected cells, HIV-1-seropositive women were examined before and after treatment of Candida vulvovaginitis, Trichomonas vaginitis, and bacterial vaginosis. For Candida (n=98), vaginal HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.36 to 2.86 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), as did the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (36% to 17%; odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.5). For Trichomonas vaginitis (n=55), HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.67 to 3.05 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), but the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA remained unchanged (22%-25%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). For bacterial vaginosis (n=73), neither the shedding of HIV-1 RNA (from 3.11 to 2.90 log(10) copies/swab; P=.14) nor the prevalence of DNA (from 21% to 23%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.0) changed. Vaginal HIV-1 decreased 3.2- and 4.2-fold after treating Candida and Trichomonas, respectively. These data suggest that HIV-1 transmission intervention strategies that incorporate diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent infections warrant evaluation.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Simonsen NJ, Cameron DW, Taelman H, Plummer FA. Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987.". In: Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. OL. "Africa's Poverty Trap: What Role the Mass Media?". Peter Desbarats and Phillis Giroux (eds.) Encounter 91. London, ON.: The University of Western Ontario; 1992. Abstract
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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda,J.O. Mumcuoglu,K.Y.,Ben-Yakir,D; Okuru,J.K. Oduol,V.O and Galun, R. Characterization and properties of louse midgut antigenic protein recognized by resistance host: Medical and Veterinary Entomology 10, 35-38.". In: Med Vet Entomol. 1997 Oct;11(4):315-8. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mehta SD, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Agot K, Maclean I, Bailey RC.Identification of novel risks for nonulcerative sexually transmitted infections among young men in Kisumu, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):892-9.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Nov;34(11):892-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstractidentification_of_novel_risks_for_nonulcerative_sexually_transmitted_infections_among_young_men_in_kisumu_kenya.pdf

OBJECTIVES: STI prevention interventions often aim to reduce HIV incidence. Understanding STI risks may lead to more effective HIV prevention. GOAL: To identify STI risks among men aged 18-24 in Kisumu, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed baseline data from a randomized trial of male circumcision. Participants were interviewed for sociodemographic and behavioral risks. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) were diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction assay and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) by culture. The outcome for logistic regression analysis was infection with NG, CT, or TV. RESULTS: Among 2743 men, 214 (7.8%; 95% CI: 6.8%-8.8%) were infected with any STI. In multivariable analysis, statistically significant risks for infection were: living one's whole life in Kisumu (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.12-2.01), preferring "dry" sex (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.07), HSV-2 seropositivity (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01-1.86), and inability to ejaculate during sex (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.15-3.62). Risk decreased with increasing age and education, and cleaning one's penis less than 1 hour after sex (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.33-0.80). CONCLUSION: Understanding how postcoital cleaning, "dry" sex, and sexual dysfunction relate to STI acquisition may improve STI and HIV prevention.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mostad SB, Kreiss JK, Ryncarz AJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Corey L.Cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: effects of hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and vitamin A deficiency. J.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):58-63. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
{ Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) results in frequent transmission of infection to sexual partners and neonates. In a cross-sectional study, cervical shedding of HSV DNA was detected in 43 (17%) cervical swab samples from 273 women seropositive for HSV-1, HSV-2, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Cervical shedding of HSV was significantly associated with oral contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-12.2), use of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7), and pregnancy (aOR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.0-31.7). In the subgroup of women who were not pregnant and not using hormonal contraception (n=178), serum vitamin A was highly predictive of cervical HSV shedding: concentrations indicating severe deficiency, moderate deficiency, low-normal, and high-normal status were associated with 29%, 18%, 8%, and 2% prevalences of cervical HSV shedding, respectively (linear trend
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lubwama SW, Nsanze H, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Ronald AR, D'Costa LJ, Naamara W, Maitha G.Laboratory diagnosis of chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1986 Jun;63(6):389-94.". In: East Afr Med J. 1986 Jun;63(6):389-94. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Olembo, N.K., Nguu, E.K., Ochanda,J.O. and Ochieng, V.O. Inhibition of bloodmeal digestion in tsetse fly Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse midgut proteins:.". In: East African Medical Journal Vol. 71. No.10 Page, 35-39. James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 14. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff DD, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90.". In: AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
Few data are available on genital tract viral replication early after HIV-1 acquisition, when infectivity is high. We compared cervical HIV-1 RNA from 60 women with paired samples from within 90 days after HIV-1 acquisition and at viral setpoint (4-24 months). Cervical HIV-1 was higher in early compared with setpoint samples (mean 3.43 versus 2.85 log10 copies/swab, P < 0.001). After adjusting for HIV-1-plasma RNA, cervical HIV-1 RNA from 30 days or less after infection was increased by 0.45 log10 copies/swab (P = 0.006).
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Thompson ML, Jackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of .". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):330-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Establishing teaching staff requirements for university academic programmes.". In: Higher Education Policy, 12/1 (1999) 101-106. Elsevier Science Ltd. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (2001): Computer tomography: a novel diagnostic technique used in horses. The Kenya Veterinarian, 21; 32-33.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Kenya Camel Forum, Nanyuki, Laikipia district, 13th to 16th March, 2001, p. 46-47. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
In Veterinary Medicine, Computer Tomography (CT scan) is used more often in dogs and cats than in large animals due to their small size and ease of manipulation. This paper, however, illustrates the use of the technique in horses. CT scan was used in the diagnosis of two conditions of the head and limbs, namely Alveolar periostitis and Navicular disease. The advantages of the technique are evident in the clarity with which the lesions are seen, as well as the precise identification of the affected tooth or bone.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Importance of the Principles of Management to Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1989.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B. Syuto., K. Oguma., H. Iida and S. Kubo. Compariosn of antigenicity of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 47, 1319-1322.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1984. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy and Air Quality Assessment in Transport Industry in Kenya". Proceedings: International Roundtable on Transportation Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development, Cairo, Egypt, UNDESA-World Bank-Egypt Ministry of Transport, 5-7 Dece.". In: International Roundtable on Transportation Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development, Cairo, Egypt, UNDESA-World Bank-Egypt Ministry of Transport, 5-7 December 1999. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Ashley R, Chohan B, Richardson BA, Corey L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK. Human herpesvirus type 8: Seroprevalence and correlates in prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363.". In: J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection is very prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, but the role of sexual transmission has not been well characterized. HHV-8 seroprevalence and correlates were evaluated in a cohort of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Between February 1993 and January 2000, stored plasma samples taken from 736 women were tested, by whole-virus ELISA assay, for the presence of HHV-8 antibodies; of these 736 women, 633 were included in the analysis of correlates of HHV-8 infection; and, of these 633, 44.1% were seropositive for HHV-8 antibodies. In univariate analysis, age, years of education, years of prostitution, workplace, hormonal contraception, intrauterine-device use, alcohol consumption, syphilis, and gonorrhea were all significantly associated with the presence of HHV-8 antibodies. In a multivariate model, older age, fewer years of education, and 2 markers of high-risk sexual behavior-namely, alcohol consumption and gonorrhea-were each independently associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. These results suggest that heterosexual transmission may contribute to acquisition of HHV-8 infections in this African population of prostitutes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rusen ID, Fraser-Roberts L, Slaney L, Ombette J, Lovgren M, Datta P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Talbot JA, Nagelkerke J, Plummer FA, Embree JE.Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonisation among kenyan children: Antibiotic resistance, strain types and associations with.". In: Paediatric Infections Disease Journal 16: 656-62, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gichangi Pb, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ombette J, Nagelkerke NJ, Temmerman M Antimicrobial prophylaxis in pregnancy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial with cefetamet-Pivoxil in pregnant women with a poor obstetric history Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 680-4, 1.". In: J. Obstet. Gynecol. 177: 680-4, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
During a four year period, a survey of antibiotic sensitivity patterns in clinical isolates of pneumococci was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. The isolation and characterisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using standard laboratory procedures. Sensitivity testing was by disc diffusion method using discs supplied by Oxoid. During the period, 45 clinical isolates were recorded. This figure is somewhat lower than the expected rate of pneumococcal isolation at the hospital. Penicillin resistance of 24% among the pneumococcal isolates was recorded. Among the antibiotics tested, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, erythromycin and chloromphenicol had highest activity against the pneumococci. Surprisingly low sensitivity rates were recorded for trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole and cefuroxime. Implications of these findings in the management of pneumococcal infections are discussed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Chohan BH, lavreys L, Mandaliya KN, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO,Martin HL Jr. Validation a modified commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 immunnoglobulin G antibodies in saliva. Clin Diagn Lab .". In: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2001;8:346-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the performance of a saliva collection device (OmniSal) and an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) designed for use on serum samples (Detect HIV1/2) to detect human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies in the saliva of high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. The results of the saliva assay were compared to a "gold standard" of a double-EIA testing algorithm performed on serum. Individuals were considered HIV-1 seropositive if their serum tested positive for antibodies to HIV-1 by two different EIAs. The commercial serum-based EIA was modified to test the saliva samples by altering the dilution and lowering the cutoff point of the assay. Using the saliva sample, the EIA correctly identified 102 of the 103 seropositive individuals, yielding a sensitivity of 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94 to 100%), and 96 of the 96 seronegative individuals, yielding a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 95 to 100%). In this high-risk population, the positive predictive value of the assay was 100% and the negative predictive value was 99%. We conclude that HIV-1 antibody testing of saliva samples collected with this device and tested by this EIA is of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to make this protocol useful in epidemiological studies.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. Management of Social Services: Examples from the Health Sector.". In: Medicus, vol. 15, No. 1, pp.6-12.; 1996.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Nagelkerke N, Bwayo J, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Piot P.HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy: a comparison between HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60.". In: AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte profiles during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum, and to determine whether HIV-1 infection affects the normal profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 416 pregnant HIV-1-infected women and an age and parity-matched HIV-seronegative group of 407 pregnant women were enrolled into a prospective study on the impact of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy. Maternal blood was obtained for lymphocyte subset determination at enrollment, delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Whole blood sample drawn in EDTA-containing tubes were used to determine T-helper/inducer (CD4) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) cells by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No relationship was found between gestational age and any immunological variable. The CD4 percentage was lower postpartum than antenatally, in both HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women, but this was not true for absolute CD4 counts. CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher postpartum than antenatally. The differences between HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women in changes over pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support a short-term synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on the immune function as determined by T-lymphocyte subsets. PIP: The impact of HIV-1 on pregnancy was investigated in a prospective case-control study of 416 pregnant HIV-infected women and 407 age- and parity-matched pregnant HIV-seronegative women from Nairobi, Kenya. No relationship existed between gestational age (14-30 weeks) and any hematologic or immunologic variable studied. In both cases and controls, the CD4 percentage (but not absolute count) was lower postpartum than during pregnancy, while CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher in the postpartum period. The differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in changes during pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio were not statistically significant. These findings fail to provide support for a synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on immune function. Further studies are needed, however, to assess the long-term effects of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, to determine the impact of pregnancy at different stages of HIV disease, and to establish normal and HIV-1-related T-lymphocyte subset profiles during the entire course of pregnancy in African women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Schroeder TL, Burger H, Weiser B, Bengualid V, Kimani J, ANZALA AO, Parker MM, Lamson D, Philpott SM. Characterization of intersubtype recombinant HIV type 1 genomes using a nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2005 April.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 2005 April; 21(4):314-8. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2005. Abstract
The Asp-derived amino acid pathway has been studied during the early stages of development in two maize genotypes, Io and F2, differing in germination efficiency and post-germination growth. In both genotypes expression of Ask2 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-2), Akh1 and Akh2 (bifunctional Asp-kinase-homo-Ser dehydrogenase-1 and 2), increased throughout germination and post-germination growth, suggesting a developmental regulation, whereas Ask1 (monofunctional Asp-kinase-1) was expressed constitutively. The major difference between Io and F2 concerned genes encoding bifunctional enzymes, particularly Akh2, the expression of which was dramatically low in F2. 15N-Asp labelling showed differences in in vivo Asp-kinase activities between the genotypes studied. Asp flux through the Met/Thr branches was higher in Io than in F2, while the latter exhibited a higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. Physiological results, together with the higher Akh2 expression in Io, suggest that bifunctional enzyme activity, favourable to Met/Thr, was higher in Io than in F2 and that the monofunctional pathway was boosted in F2 because of the lower competition by the bifunctional pathway, thus allowing for higher flux of Asp through the Lys branch. In conclusion, it is suggested that F2 germination and post-germination growth might have been partially inhibited due to a limitation in Met and Thr availability. A negative physiological effect related to Lys accumulation in F2 is also discussed.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Cancer of the male genital tract. East African Medical Journal,72: 545-546, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal,72: 545-546, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Partial penectomy is effective in the treatment of T1 and T2 penile carcinoma with 80% five-year survival rates in the absence of inguinal metastases, and the residual stump is serviceable for upright micturition and sexual function. The use of micrographic surgery first introduced by Mohs in 1941 for small distally located lesions of upto one centimetre diametre achieves results comparable to partial penectomy. Carbon dioxide and Neodymium-Yag lasers have also been used in the treatment of T1 and T2 tumours with 89% five year survival rates. Radiotherapy is also ideal for the treatment of T1 and T2 primary penile carcinoma because failure is corrected with salvage partial penectomy. In T3 disease with extensive local growth total penectomy and removal of scrotal contents followed by perineal reconstruction with scrotal flap is associated with 90% five year survival rates. In advanced T4 tumours with fixed inguinal nodes (N3), hemipelvectomy or hemicorporectomy with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered in selected cases. Various cytotoxic agents like bleomycin, vincristine and methotrexate have been used in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with mixed results. Pre operative radiotherapy is useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic groin lymph nodes of greater than or equal to 4 cm in size. Radiotherapy also provides effective palliation in patients with advanced regional and/or distant metastases. Groin block dissection is commonly performed to treat groin node metastasis and to stage nodal disease in patients with clinically negative groins. The procedure is however associated with significant morbidity resulting in complications such as wound infection and skin necrosis leading to wound breakdown and lymphoedema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP. "Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. PMID: 16261923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.
O. MAGOMERET, D. OBUKOSIAS, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, F O, C. NGICHABE, I. SHIBAIROS. Molecular Characterization of ‘Candidatus’ liberibacter species/strains causing huanglongbing disease of citrus in Kenya..; 2009.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "ANZALA AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Nagelkerke NJ, Rutherford J, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA. Acute sexually transmitted infections increase human inmmunodeficiency virus type 1 plasma viremia, increase plasma type 2 cytokines, and decrease CD4 .". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):459-66.Epub2000 Jul 12. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "A computer program for self‑analyzing students evaluation data by the individual faculty.". In: Now available at RSCC library]. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; Submitted. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Brunham RC, Laga M, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Peeling R, McDowell J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Maitha G, Plummer FA. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among mothers of children with trachoma. Am. J. Epidemiol. 132(5): 946 - 952, 1990.". In: J. Epidemiol. 132(5): 946 - 952, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O. (1996): "Population Dynamics: Some Past and Emerging Issues". (eds). R.A. Powe Powell, E.A Mwangemi and A. Ankomali.". In: Published by the Institute of Population Stuides. University of Exter, U.K. In African Journal of Fertility Sexuality and Reproductive Health, vol.1 No.2. 1996. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatt K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola J, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Embree J, Bwayo J, Nagelkerke N, Njenga S, Nyange P, Ndinya-Achola J, Pamba H, Plummer F.Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected children in Nairobi. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403.". In: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Reference lymphocyte subset values for African children are lacking. This study documents these values as well as their alterations associated with perinatal and postnatal HIV-1 transmission and with protection from HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets were determined for HIV-1-seronegative nonpregnant women and their children (controls) and for uninfected, perinatally infected and postnatally infected children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. The mean, median and 5th and 95th percentile values for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts and percentages were determined and compared at the age ranges birth to 3 months, 4 months to 1 year, yearly from 1 to 5 years and from 6 to 10 years of age. RESULTS: Among control children counts differed from published values of other populations. In all age ranges, whereas the absolute values were significantly higher than adult values, the percentages were significantly lower. Children perinatally infected with HIV-1 had clearly distinguishable differences in lymphocyte subset percentages by 3 months of age, when the median CD4+ percentage was 27.9% (5th to 95th percentile, 25.7 to 30.1%) for infected vs. 35.9% (33.3 to 38.7%) for uninfected and 39.9% (37.8 to 42.2%) for control children, P < 0.001; whereas the median CD8+ percentage was 37.0% (33.1 to 41.0%) for infected vs. 27.5% (24.2 to 30.8%) for uninfected and 27.5% (24.2 to 30.8%) for control children
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Datta P, Laga M, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Maitha G, Ronald AR, Brunham RC.Infection and disease after perinatal exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988.". In: J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Benki S, Chohan V, Lavreys L, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus infection, and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among Kenyan women.AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7.". In: AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracthormonal_contraceptive_use.dochormonal_contraceptive_use.pdf

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on the risk of HIV-1 acquisition have generated conflicting results. A recent study from Uganda and Zimbabwe found that women using hormonal contraception were at increased risk for HIV-1 if they were seronegative for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), but not if they were HSV-2 seropositive. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of HSV-2 infection on the relationship between hormonal contraception and HIV-1 in a high-risk population. Hormonal contraception has previously been associated with increased HIV-1 risk in this population. METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1206 HIV-1 seronegative sex workers from Mombasa, Kenya who were followed monthly. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to adjust for demographic and behavioral measures and incident sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS:: Two hundred and thirty-three women acquired HIV-1 (8.7/100 person-years). HSV-2 prevalence (81%) and incidence (25.4/100 person-years) were high. In multivariate analysis, including adjustment for HSV-2, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with use of oral contraceptive pills [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-2.13] and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (adjusted HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34). The effect of contraception on HIV-1 susceptibility did not differ significantly between HSV-2 seronegative versus seropositive women. HSV-2 infection was associated with elevated HIV-1 risk (adjusted HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.64-7.82). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of high-risk African women, hormonal contraception and HSV-2 infection were both associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. HIV-1 risk associated with hormonal contraceptive use was not related to HSV-2 serostatus.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonck K, Kidula N, Jaoko W, Estambale B, Claeys P, Ndinya-Achola J, Kirui P, Bwayo J, Temmerman M.Validity of the vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Feb;76(1):33-8.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Feb;76(1):33-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of different algorithms for the diagnosis of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women consulting health services for vaginal discharge in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Cross sectional study among 621 women with complaints of vaginal discharge in three city council clinics between April and August 1997. Women were interviewed and examined for symptoms and signs of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Specimens were obtained for laboratory diagnosis of genital infections, HIV, and syphilis. The data were used to evaluate the Kenyan flow chart as well as several other generated algorithms. RESULTS: The mean age was 24 years and 334 (54%) were pregnant. The overall prevalence rates were: 50% candidiasis, 23% trichomoniasis, 9% bacterial vaginosis, 7% gonorrhoea, 9% chlamydia, 7% syphilis, and 22% HIV. In non-pregnant women, gonococcal and chlamydial infection was significantly associated with (1) demographic and behavioural risk markers such as being single, younger than 20 years, multiple sex partners in the previous 3 months; (2) symptom fever; and (3) signs including presence of yellow or bloody vaginal discharge, cervical mucopus, cervical erythema, and friability. Among pregnant women only young age, dysuria, and fever were significantly associated with cervical infection. However, none of these variables was either sensitive or specific enough for the diagnosis of cervical infection. Several algorithms were generated and applied to the study data. The algorithm including risk markers performed slightly better than the current Kenyan algorithm. CONCLUSION: STIs form a major problem in the Nairobi area and should be addressed accordingly. None of the tested algorithms for the treatment of vaginal discharge would constitute a marked improvement of the existing flow chart. Hence, better detection tools for the specific aetiology of vaginal discharge are urgently needed.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Haase DA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nash RA, D'Costa LJ, Hazlett D, Lubwama S, Nsanze H, Ronald AR. Clinical evaluation of rosoxacin for the treatment of chancroid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 30(1) 39 - 41, 1986.". In: Agents Chemother 30(1) 39 - 41, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD. "Olembo NK, Nguu EK, Ochanda JO, Ochieng VO.Inhibition of bloodmeal digestion in glossina morsitans fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse midgut homogenate.East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):651-5. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The efficacy of bloodmeal digestion in teneral Glossina morsitans centralis fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extracts was progressively monitored over a period of 96 hours. Flies fed on immunized rabbits showed reduced rate of bloodmeal digestion as compared to the controls. Although there was insignificant difference in the rate of bloodmeal digestion upto 24 hours post-feeding in later stages of digestion there was quite a significant difference. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns of bloodmeal drawn from the posterior sections of the midgut demonstrated that, bloodmeal is completely degraded in the midgut after 96 hours in the control flies, while substantial amount is still undigested in the experimental flies. However, not much difference in the rates of digestion was observed with bloodmeal drawn from the anterior section of the midgut. These results suggests that when flies are fed on rabbits immunized with tsetse fly midgut extract, there is an impairment on the efficiency of digestion. The anti-midgut antibodies could be interfering with either the induction or proteolytic activity of the midgut enzymes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Drain P, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Wener M, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, McCllelland RS. Low serum albumin and the acute phase response predict low serum selenium in HIV-1 infected women.". In: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006, 6:85. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractlow_serum_albumin_and_the_acute_phase_response.doclow_serum_albumin_and_the_acute_phase_response.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Stevens CE, Sinei S, Reilly M, Grieco V, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss J.Effects of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection on microbial origins of pelvic inflammatory disease and on efficacy of ambulato.". In: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec;181(6):1374-81. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection on the clinical presentation, severity, causal organisms, and response to ambulatory therapy of pelvic inflammatory disease. STUDY DESIGN: Women 18 to 40 years old with lower abdominal pain for <1 month were recruited. Participants underwent a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, screening for human immunodeficiency virus 1 and other sexually transmitted infections, and endometrial biopsy to detect plasma cell endometritis. Reevaluations were performed at 1 and 4 weeks to assess response to therapy. RESULTS: Among 162 women with adequate endometrial biopsy specimens 63 (39%) had histologically confirmed endometritis. Endometritis was more frequent among women who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 than among women who were seronegative (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.9). Infections with either Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis, or both, were least common and bacterial vaginosis was most common among human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected women with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts <400 cells/microL (P <. 04, P <.03, respectively). After oral antibiotic therapy, similar proportions of both women who were seropositive and women who were seronegative for human immuno-deficiency virus 1 had a >/=75% reduction in clinical severity score (81% vs 86%). CONCLUSION: Outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease was successful regardless of human immunodeficiency virus 1 serostatus.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Financing public universities in Kenya: a model based on rationalised student unit costs and staffing. International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management Leadership Efficacy in.". In: Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2001. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Mogoa, E.G.M., Mbithi, P.M.F., Nguhiu, J.M. and Kihurani, D.O. (2001):Alpha-2-Adrenoceptor agonists in Veterinary practice. The Kenya Veterinarian, 22: 82-90.". In: Proceedings of the First Scientific Symposium of the European College of Equine Internal Medicine. In Tierarztliche Praxis, 32; 80-81. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract
Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to asses their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four shall East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15 % 40aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25mg/kg to Group 4. The hohimbine/40aminopyridine combination was also used to antangonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the peal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-sigificantly (p>0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produce better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged. Key words: small East African goats, xylazine antagonists, xylazine hydrochloride, yombine, 4-aminopyridine.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Malonza IM, Omari MA, Bwayo JJ, Mwatha AK, Mutere AN, Murage EM, Ndinya-Achola JOCommunity-acquired bacterial infections and their susceptibility in Nairobi EAMJ 74: 166-70, 1977.". In: EAMJ 74: 166-70, 1977. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J.O., B.Syuto., H.Kitagawa and S.Kubo: Solubilization and characterization of Clostridium botulinum toxin binding component from synatosomal membrane of rat brain.". In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Medical Scientific Conference page, 189. Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., " Comparative Evaluation in Estimating Trip Generation of Primary and Secondary Cities: The Case of Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya" African Journal of Science and Technology, submitted in July 2002.". In: The Caseof Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya" African Journal of Science and Technology,. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Emery S, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bankson DD, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.Micronutrient supplementation increases genital tract shedding of HIV-1 in women: results of a randomized trial.J Acqu.". In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Dec 15;37(5):1657-63. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
{ To test the hypothesis that micronutrient supplementation decreases genital HIV-1 shedding, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of multivitamin plus selenium supplementation vs. placebo was conducted among 400 HIV-1-seropositive, nonpregnant, antiretroviral-naive women in Mombasa, Kenya. Primary outcome measures included cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-1-infected cells and RNA. Secondary outcomes included plasma viral load and CD4 count. Surprisingly, the odds of detection of vaginal HIV-1-infected cells were 2.5-fold higher (P = 0.001) and the quantity of HIV-1 RNA in vaginal secretions was 0.37 log10 copies/swab higher (P = 0.004) among women who received micronutrients in comparison to placebo, even after adjustment for potential confounders including baseline HIV-1 shedding and CD4 count. The increase in vaginal HIV-1 shedding was greatest among women who had normal baseline selenium levels. Micronutrient supplementation resulted in higher CD4 (+23 cells/microL
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jackson DJ, Rakwar JP, Chohan B, Mandalya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJD, Kreiss JK, Moses S. Urethral Infection in a Workplace Population of East African Men: Evaluation of Strategies for screening and Management. J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 19.". In: J. Inf. Dis 175: 833-8, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Transport workers (n = 504) in Mombasa, Kenya, were screened for urethral infection by history, clinical examination, and laboratory testing of urethral swabs and first-catch urine specimens. The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 3.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.6%, and Trichomonas vaginalis, 6.0%; more than two-thirds of infections were asymptomatic. A complaint of urethral discharge, dysuria, or both was twice as sensitive as the sign of discharge on physical examination (34.5% vs. 15.5%) in identifying infection. A positive leukocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test on urine predicted infection with a sensitivity of 95.0% and a specificity of 59.3% in symptomatic men and with a sensitivity of 55.3% and a specificity of 82.8% in asymptomatic men. Demographic and behavioral factors were not independent predictors of infection. In resource-poor settings with high prevalences of urethral infection, an effective screening and management strategy would be to treat symptomatic men, as well as asymptomatic men with a positive LED test, for all three infections.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Optimisation of a three dimensional terrestrial geodetic network.". In: MSc thesis, University of Nairobi,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1981. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Ngatia, T.A. and Nguhiu-Mwangi, J.A. (1989): Anorectal squamous cell carcinoma in a cow and incidence of bovine intestinal tumours in Kabete, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the first annual scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Special issue. p. 103-105. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1989. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Otieno FA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Wafula EM, Ndinya-Achola JO.Evaluation of a proposed clinical case definition of paediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome.East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):111-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Mar;79(3):111-4. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proposed criteria against the laboratory parameters and to identify the clinical features with the highest predictive value in the diagnosis of paediatric AIDS. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. RESULTS: More than twenty three per cent of the children studied were seropositive and 14% were diagnosed as having AIDS. Almost 70% of the children studied were below 24 months. AIDS was significantly associated with mouth lesions, both ulcers and oral candidiasis, skin lesions especially eczema and generalised pruritic dermatitis, prolonged cough, prolonged fever and generalised lymphadenopathy. The WHO criteria had a sensitivity of 60%, a specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 60%, and negative predictive value of 94%. The Nairobi diagnostic criteria had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value of 38% and a negative predictive value of 96%. CONCLUSION: The Nairobi Diagnostic Criteria are superior to the WHO criteria as a screening test due to their higher sensitivity, 80% against 60% for WHO.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, McLaren PJ, Waruk JL, Mao X, Ramdahin S, Anzala AO, Kamene J, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA.Epitope cross-reactivity frequently differs between central and effector memory HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 15;17.". In: J Immunol. 2007 Mar 15;178(6):3750-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2007. Abstract
HIV diversity may limit the breadth of vaccine coverage due to epitope sequence differences between strains. Although amino acid substitutions within CD8(+) T cell HIV epitopes can result in complete or partial abrogation of responses, this has primarily been demonstrated in effector CD8(+) T cells. In an HIV-infected Kenyan cohort, we demonstrate that the cross-reactivity of HIV epitope variants differs dramatically between overnight IFN-gamma and longer-term proliferation assays. For most epitopes, particular variants (not the index peptide) were preferred in proliferation in the absence of corresponding overnight IFN-gamma responses and in the absence of the variant in the HIV quasispecies. Most proliferating CD8(+) T cells were polyfunctional via cytokine analyses. A trend to positive correlation was observed between proliferation (but not IFN-gamma) and CD4 counts. We present findings relevant to the assessment of HIV vaccine candidates and toward a better understanding of how viral diversity is tolerated by central and effector memory CD8(+) T cells.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1998) "Consumer Motives and Trends in Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Public Policy".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 44-57.; 1998. Abstract

The theory of consumption values is used to analyze and explain trends in cigarette smoking worldwide. The analysis shows that the problem of smoking in increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The impact of the campaign against smoking that has been going on for more than a decade appears to have been limited. This may be partly due to private health organizations. To a large extent, various forms of control and warning messages on the harmful effects of smoking are directed at the individual. Yet most of these messages consist almost exclusively of warnings and threates that do not traget the smoker's consumption values. Research by Sheth, et.al (1991) found that emotional value was salient in discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. Based on the finding, it is concluded that people should be encouraged rather than threatened. This can be achieved by telling them good things about not smoking rather than bad things that are associated with smoking. Overall, the theory of consumption values provideds a useful framework for explaining and predicting behaviour of cigarette smokers and for formulating public policies and strategies for containing the incidence of smoking and its attendant effects.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Moses S, Plummer FA, Bradley JE, Ndinya-Achola JO, Nagelkerke NJD, Ronald AR ;Male Circumcision and the AIDS Epidemic in Africa Health Transition Review 5:100-103, 1995.". In: Health Transition Review 5:100-103, 1995. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
For a HIV vaccine to be effective, it will be essential that it protect against the virus variants to which individuals are most frequently exposed. HIV-1 is predominantly a sexually acquired virus, thus, variants in genital secretions are a potentially important reservoir of viruses that are transmitted. Because there are no data available on variants in the genital mucosa, we analyzed this provirus population and compared it to the proviruses in the blood of individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. A major genetic difference between variants within a patient were insertions, which were apparently created by duplication of adjacent sequences, that resulted in acquisition of new potential glycosylation sites in V1 and V2. Comparisons of mucosal and PBMC variants suggest that these tissues harbor distinct, but related populations of HIV-1 variants. In two of three patients, the mucosal variants were most closely related to a minor variant genotype in blood. In a third individual, viruses in both tissues were surprisingly homogeneous, but the majority of variants in the cervix encoded a V1 sequence with a predicted glycosylation pattern similar to a minor variant in blood. The V3 sequence patterns of the mucosal isolates indicate they may be predominantly macrophage-tropic viruses.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Effective Seminar Presentation: Notes for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Ali FM, Ndinya-Achola J, Moses S, Plummer FA, Piot P.Rapid increase of both HIV-1 infection and syphilis among pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1992 Oct;6(10):1181-5.". In: AIDS. 1992 Oct;6(10):1181-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and syphilis antibodies in a population of pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1989 and 1991. METHODS: As part of an ongoing prospective study on the effect of HIV-1 infection and sexually transmitted diseases, 4883 pregnant women were screened for HIV-1 and syphilis antibodies in one health-centre in Nairobi. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence increased from 6.5 to 13.0% (P < 0.001) and syphilis seroreactivity from 2.9 to 5.3% (P = 0.002), while there was no change in gonococcal infection rates. The most rapid increase in HIV-1 prevalence was observed in women aged less than 25 years. There was no evidence of demographic fluctuations in the population during this time, or of changes in sexual behaviour, except that fewer women enrolled in 1991 reported having more than one sex partner, compared with women enrolled in 1989 (39.1 versus 20.0%; P = 0.0001). HIV-1-seropositive women were more likely to be seroreactive for syphilis than HIV-1-seronegative mothers (7.7 versus 3.2%; odds ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8; P < 0.001), but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of gonorrhoea prevalence. CONCLUSION: These data confirm an association between HIV-1 and syphilis infection, and indicate that both are spreading rapidly among women in Nairobi outside high-risk groups. Increased efforts to control both infections are urgently required.

PIP: Between January 1989 and December 1991, health workers took blood samples from 4883 pregnant women attending the Nairobi City Commission's Langata Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya to determine demographic factors and indicators of sexual behavior to explain the increase in HIV-1 infection and syphilis among these women of low socioeconomic status. HIV-1 seroprevalence stood at 8.8%. Syphilis seroreactivity was 3.6%. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were 2.5 times more likely to also test positive for syphilis than were HIV-1 seronegative mothers (7.7% vs. 3.2%; p.001). There was no significant association between HIV-1 seropositivity and gonococcal infection rate (7.3% vs. 8.9%), however. Women who tested HIV-1 positive tended to be from western Kenya (60.1% vs. 39.1%; p.0001). Between 1989 and 1991, annual HIV-1 seroprevalence rates increased from 6.5% to 13% (p.001) as did annual syphilis seroreactivity rates (2.9-5.3%; p=.02). The HIV-1 seroprevalence rates remained high, but did not rise significantly among syphilis seroreactive women between 1989 and 1991 (17.9-20.7%). They did rise among syphilis seronegative women (6.9-12.5%; p.0001), however. The HIV-1 infection rate increase was greater among 25-year old women (5.6-13.2%; p.001) than it was among 25-year old women (6.8-12.7%; p=.09). Indeed the annual incidence rate for 25-year old women was 3-4%. Between 1989-1991, there was a decrease in the percentage of both HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women who had had 1 sex partner during the last 2 years (39.1% vs. 20%; p=.0001). Demographic factors remained the same throughout the study period. These results verified the link between HIV-1 infection and syphilis and their rapid rise among women in low risk groups. Thus there was a pressing need to improve HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease prevention programs.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias, H.O. Ayiemba: 2003: .". In: African Population Studies, Vol.18, No. 2, October 2003. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003.
O. DRABUNGUCORNELIO. "The characteristics of Successful Principals in AA High Schools of Texas.". In: ERIC: Resources in Education,. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1976. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Braddick MR, Kreiss JK, Embree JE, Datta P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Pamba H, Maitha G, Robert PL, Quinn TC, Holmes KK, Vercauteren G, Piot P, Alder MW, Plummer FA.Impact of maternal HIV infection obstetrical and early neonatal outcome. AIDS 4 (10): 1001 - 1005,.". In: AIDS 4 (10): 1001 - 1005, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. ABOKE, W. OM, N. KC, O. ALIWAB. "Microbiological quality and contamination level of water sources in Isiolo County in kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health . 2018:1-10.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, E.H.O.: Chapter 8: ''Strengthening the Labour Market Information System in Kenya''. In Meeting the Employment Challenges of the 21st Century. ILO/EAMAT. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.". In: in Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series C. 1999. p.1-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM, Kurth AE, Holmes KK.Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: r.". In: J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1361-8. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Vaginal infections are common and have been associated with increased risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of directly observed oral treatment administered monthly to reduce vaginal infections among Kenyan women at risk for HIV-1 acquisition. A trial intervention of 2 g of metronidazole plus 150 mg of fluconazole was compared with metronidazole placebo plus fluconazole placebo. The primary end points were bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis vaginalis (hereafter, "trichomoniasis"), and colonization with Lactobacillus organisms. RESULTS: Of 310 HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers enrolled (155 per arm), 303 were included in the primary end points analysis. A median of 12 follow-up visits per subject were recorded in both study arms ([Formula: see text]). Compared with control subjects, women receiving the intervention had fewer episodes of BV (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.63) and more frequent vaginal colonization with any Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80) and H(2)O(2)-producing Lactobacillus species (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.27). The incidences of vaginal candidiasis (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.04) and trichomoniasis (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.27-1.12) among treated women were less than those among control subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic presumptive treatment reduced the incidence of BV and promoted colonization with normal vaginal flora. Vaginal health interventions have the potential to provide simple, female-controlled approaches for reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Matukas L, Embree JE, Fowke K, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Oyugi J, Kiama P, Kaul R, Luscher MA, Rowland-Jones S, Ndinya-Achola J, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Plummer FA.Human leucocyte antigen supertypes and immune susceptibility to HIV-1, implications.". In: Immunol Lett. 2001 Nov 1;79(1-2):151-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ T cell responses against HIV-1 have been identified in a number of exposed uninfected populations. We hypothesized that the ability to mount an effective T cell response is partly determined by the human leucocyte antigens (HLA) phenotype of the individual. We examined whether certain HLA supertypes were associated with differential HIV-1 susceptibility in sexually exposed adults and in the setting of mother to child HIV-1 transmission. By multivariate analysis, decreased HIV-1 infection risk was strongly associated with possession of a cluster of closely related class I HLA alleles (A2/6802 supertype) in sexually exposed adults (Hazard ratio=0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.22-0.81
O. NH, Nzuma. M.J. "Kenyan Agriculture’s Domestic Trade Regime and External Market Access Conditions 1980-2000.". In: New World Trade Order. Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium; 2008.
O. OE, Tyson PD, C PT. "Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Southern Africa." South African Journal of Science 97. 2001;97(3 &4):139-150.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Greenblatt RM, Lukehart SA, Plummer FA, Namaara W, Critchlow CW, Quinn TC, Ronald AR, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Holmes K.K.Genital Ulceration as a risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. AIDS 2: 47 - 50, 1988.". In: AIDS 2: 47 - 50, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O. Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus Pleurotus Luteoalbus leeli.". In: First Meeting of Federation of African Society Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Page (233-236). East African Medical Journal; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Ndinya-Achola JO, Baeten JM. Re: .". In: Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165; 474-5. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Mostad SB, Kreiss JK, Ryncarz A, Chohan B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Corey L.Cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus throughout the menstrual cycle in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.Am J Obstet .". In: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct;183(4):948-55. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the frequency and patterns of the shedding of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus in the female genital tract throughout the menstrual cycle. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen women, all seropositive for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, underwent daily evaluation of cervical viral shedding for the duration of 1 menstrual cycle (21-31 visits per woman). Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were monitored 3 times weekly. RESULTS: Overall, herpes simplex virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in 43 (10%) of 450 cervical swabs, and cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in 232 (52%) of 450 cervical swabs. For individual women there was considerable variability in the percentage of days on which virus was detected, ranging from 0% to 33% for herpes simplex virus and from 20% to 97% for cytomegalovirus. Shedding of herpes simplex virus did not vary significantly with menstrual cycle; however, shedding of cytomegalovirus was significantly more frequent in the luteal phase (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4). A CD4(+) lymphocyte count <200/microL was associated with increased frequency of the detection of herpes simplex virus (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-29.4). CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic cervical shedding of both herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus occurs very frequently in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The risk of transmitting these viruses to sexual partners and neonates may be higher than previously recognized.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola Haase D, Fransen L, Nsanze H. Treatment of PPNG with Regimens involving Augmentin with or without Probenecid, and Penicillin + Probenecid with or without a small dose of Augmentin. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. OW, G. N, S.A. A, O. ON. "Determination of carnivore prey base in Samburu community group ranches byscat analysis.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference. University of Nairobi; 2008.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ, W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Benki S, Chohan V, Lavreys L, McClelland RS, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W, Overbaugh J.Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus infection, and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among Kenyan women.AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7.". In: AIDS. 2007 Aug 20;21(13):1771-7. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2007. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies of the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on the risk of HIV-1 acquisition have generated conflicting results. A recent study from Uganda and Zimbabwe found that women using hormonal contraception were at increased risk for HIV-1 if they were seronegative for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), but not if they were HSV-2 seropositive. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of HSV-2 infection on the relationship between hormonal contraception and HIV-1 in a high-risk population. Hormonal contraception has previously been associated with increased HIV-1 risk in this population. METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort study of 1206 HIV-1 seronegative sex workers from Mombasa, Kenya who were followed monthly. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to adjust for demographic and behavioral measures and incident sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS:: Two hundred and thirty-three women acquired HIV-1 (8.7/100 person-years). HSV-2 prevalence (81%) and incidence (25.4/100 person-years) were high. In multivariate analysis, including adjustment for HSV-2, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with use of oral contraceptive pills [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-2.13] and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (adjusted HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34). The effect of contraception on HIV-1 susceptibility did not differ significantly between HSV-2 seronegative versus seropositive women. HSV-2 infection was associated with elevated HIV-1 risk (adjusted HR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.64-7.82). CONCLUSIONS: In this group of high-risk African women, hormonal contraception and HSV-2 infection were both associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. HIV-1 risk associated with hormonal contraceptive use was not related to HSV-2 serostatus.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Wamunyokoli F., Osir;E.O., Ochanda, J.O., and Olembo, N.K: Studies of Bacillus thuringiensis S- endo-toxin active against Aedes egypti larvae.". In: In Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium Biotechnology for Rapid Development in Africa held at ILRI Nairobi on 17-21 February 1992 PP 279-288. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Chohan V, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. Higher set point plasma viral load and more severe acute HIV-1 illness predict mortality among high-risk HIV-1 infected African women.Clin Infect Dis.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;42(9):1333-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.dochigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.pdf

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. We used data from a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, who were followed up monthly from before the date of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive women who had a well-defined date of HIV-1 infection were included in this analysis. The effects of set point plasma viral load (measured 4-24 months after infection), early CD4+ cell count, and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection on mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Among 218 women, the median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 infection was 4.6 years. Forty women died, and at 8.7 years (the time of the last death), the cumulative survival rate was 51% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Higher set point viral load, lower early CD4+ cell count, and more-symptomatic acute HIV-1 illness each predicted death. In multivariate analysis, set point viral load (hazard ratio [HR], 2.28 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase; P=.001) and acute HIV-1 illness (HR, 1.14 per each additional symptom; P=.05) were independently associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Among this group of African women, the survival rate was similar to that for HIV-1-infected individuals in industrialized nations before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Higher set point viral load and more-severe acute HIV-1 illness predicted faster progression to death. Early identification of individuals at risk for rapid disease progression may allow closer clinical monitoring, including timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Rakwar J, Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Jackson D, Bwayo J, Hassanali S, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss J.Cofactors for the acquisition of HIV-1 among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya.AIDS. 1999 Apr 1;13(5):6.". In: AIDS. 1999 Apr 1;13(5):607-14. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of east African trucking company employees. METHODS: HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and evaluated at 3 monthly intervals for HIV-1 seroconversion, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual behavior. RESULTS: The baseline seroprevalence of HIV-1 among 1500 trucking company employees was 17.8%. Among 752 HIV-1-seronegative men who were followed, the HIV-1 annual seroincidence was 3.1%. In univariate analysis, HIV-1 acquisition was associated with age under 25 years, 10 years or less of sexual activity, occupation as a driver/driver's assistant, occupational travel for more than 14 days per month, religion other than Christian or Muslim, uncircumcised status, sex with a prostitute, sex with a girlfriend/casual partner, extramarital sex, and enrollment seropositivity to Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (all P values < or = 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, HIV-1 acquisition was independently associated with 10 years or less of sexual activity (hazard rate ratio (HRR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.3), occupation as a driver/driver's assistant (HRR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.0), religion other than Christian or Muslim (HRR 6.1, 95% CI 1.4-25.7), uncircumcised status (HRR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0), and unprotected sex with a prostitute (HRR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.0). CONCLUSIONS: Trucking company employees had a high HIV-1 seroprevalence rate at enrollment and a high HIV-1 seroincidence during follow-up. Risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion included years of sexual activity, occupation, religion, uncircumcised status, and unprotected sex with a prostitute. This population is an appropriate target for HIV-1 prevention trials and behavioral interventions.

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "On outlier identification in geodetic networks using principal component analysis. International Conference on Influential Data Analysis,.". In: University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kungu A, Kivindu CM. Malignant Granular Cell Tumour (Granular Cell Myoblastoma) E. A. Med. J Vol. 55, No. 12. 1978.". In: E. A. Med. J Vol. 55, No. 12. 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "B. Syuto., I.Ohishi., M.Naiki and S. Kubo: Binding of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin to gangliosides, J. Biochem. 100, 27-33.". In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1986. Abstract
Lipophorin was isolated from the haemolymph of adult tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, by ultracentrifugation in a potassium bromide density gradient. 2. The tsetse fly lipophorin (Mr congruent to 600,000) has a density of congruent to 1.11 g/ml and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin-I (apoLp-I, Mr congruent to 250,000) and apolipophorin-II (apoLp-II, Mr congruent to 80,000), both of which are glycosylated as shown by staining with periodate-Schiff reagent. The protein complex is composed of 49% protein and 51% lipids. 3. The finding of lipophorin in tsetse fly haemolymph suggests that, although these flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Accessibility Modelling for a Developing Economy: The Case of Inter-regional Traffic Flows in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya" Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, vol. 1. April 2004.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, vol. 1. April 2004. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Taylor MM, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Hassan W, Huang ML, Corey L, Ashley Morrow R, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss J.Shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in oral and genital secretions from HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative Kenyan wo.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 1;190(3):484-8. Epub 2004 Jul 7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "MacDonald KS, Embree J, Njenga S, Nagelkerke NJ, Ngatia I, Mohammed Z, Barber BH, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Plummer FA.Mother-child class I HLA concordance increases perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;177(3):.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Mar;177(3):551-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene products are expressed on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and incorporated into the lipid envelope of HIV virions. Macaques immunized with human MHC gene products are protected from simian immunodeficiency virus challenge when the virus is grown in cells expressing the same MHC alleles. To relate these findings to mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, investigations of whether sharing HLA between mother and infant influenced the risk of transmission of HIV-1 to the child were carried out. Class I HLA concordance was independently associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission for each additional concordant allele (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.07; P = .003). Thus, discordant HLA may provide infants with a means of protection against HIV-1 as a result of allogeneic infant anti-maternal MHC immune responses.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A static dynamic model for densification of geodetic networks.". In: Allgemeine Vermessungs Nachrichten, International Edition, 1. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O. (1990): Surgical conditions of the urinary tract in cattle. The Kenya Veterinarian, 14:5-6.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Schipper, L.., and O. O. Mbeche, "Present and Future Energy Demand in Industry and Services Sector in Kenya", Proceedings: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 1980.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1980. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "McClelland RS, Wang CC, Richardson BA, Corey L, Ashley RL, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK.A prospective study of hormonal contraceptive use and cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositiv.". In: J Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;185(12):1822-5. Epub 2002 May 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
Cross-sectional analyses have demonstrated an association between use of hormonal contraceptives and shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV). This prospective study evaluated the effect of initiating use of hormonal contraception on cervical HSV detection. Two hundred women who were seropositive for HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 were examined for cervical mucosal HSV by use of quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction before and after beginning the use of hormonal contraceptives. Cervical HSV was detected in 32 women (16.0%) before initiating and in 25 women (12.5%) after initiating use of hormonal contraception (P=.4). There were no significant differences in HSV shedding among the subgroups of women starting combination oral contraceptives containing both estrogen and progesterone or progesterone-only contraceptives. Among the 54 women who shed HSV at least once, the median change in cervical HSV after initiation of hormonal contraception was -313 copies/swab. In this prospective study, use of hormonal contraceptives did not increase detection of cervical HSV.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Stevens W, Kamali A, Karita E, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Jaoko W, Kaleebu P, Mulenga J, Dally L, Fast P, Gilmour J, Farah B, Birungi J, Hughes P, Manigart O, Stevens G, Yates S, Thomson H, von Lieven A, Krebs M, Price MA, Stoll-Johnson L, Ketter N.Baseline mo.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Apr 30;3(4):e2043. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the health of potential volunteers in Africa is essential for the safe and efficient conduct of clinical trials, particularly for trials of preventive technologies such as vaccines that enroll healthy individuals. Clinical safety laboratory values used for screening, enrolment and follow-up of African clinical trial volunteers have largely been based on values derived from industrialized countries in Europe and North America. This report describes baseline morbidity during recruitment for a multi-center, African laboratory reference intervals study. METHODS: Asymptomatic persons, aged 18-60 years, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study at seven sites (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; Kangemi, Kenyatta National Hospital and Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia). Gender equivalency was by design. Individuals who were acutely ill, pregnant, menstruating, or had significant clinical findings were not enrolled. Each volunteer provided blood for hematology, immunology, and biochemistry parameters and urine for urinalysis. Enrolled volunteers were excluded if found to be positive for HIV, syphilis or Hepatitis B and C. Laboratory assays were conducted under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of the 2990 volunteers who were screened, 2387 (80%) were enrolled, and 2107 (71%) were included in the analysis (52% men, 48% women). Major reasons for screening out volunteers included abnormal findings on physical examination (228/603, 38%), significant medical history (76, 13%) and inability to complete the informed consent process (73, 13%). Once enrolled, principle reasons for exclusion from analysis included detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (106/280, 38%) and antibodies against Hepatitis C (95, 34%). This is the first large scale, multi-site study conducted to the standards of GCLP to describe African laboratory reference intervals applicable to potential volunteers in clinical trials. Approximately one-third of all potential volunteers screened were not eligible for analysis; the majority were excluded for medical reasons.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2000). "Liability of Size and Age: Some Evidence from Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sector in Kenya.".". In: Business Investment Insight, Vol. 1.3, 18.; 2000. Abstract

There has been an increasing awareness at the Public Policy level that the micro and small enterprise sector in Kenya offers a greater potential for employment creation and income generation. This change in focus is a reflection of a strategic shift worldwide from emphasis on large centralized business establishments to more open, flexible, and creative systems of management. The pertinent literature assocites problems of micro and small enterprise survival and growth with enterprise size and newness (age). The data used in this study was obtained from secondry sources. The main findings are that smaller firms are more likely to fail; the influence of enterprise size and age on growth and survival varies from one sector of the economy to another, gender of the pioneer of an enterprise has a moderating effect on the influence of enterprise size and age on the risk of failure, and enterprise location appears to have no moderating influence on the effect of size and age on enterprise failure and growth.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO, Kihara AN, Fisher LD, Krone MR, Plummer FA, Ronald A, Holmes KK.Presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in a primary health care setting in Nairobi.Int J STD AIDS. 1996 May-Jun;7(3):201-5.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1996 May-Jun;7(3):201-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients 12 years of age or older attending a primary health care clinic in Nairobi, 1076 (4.8%) complained of symptoms suggesting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Of these, 518 females and 462 males underwent complete clinical evaluation, and 78% had objective microbiologic or clinical evidence of STD, including 168 (17.1%) with genital ulcer disease (GUD). Presumptive specific clinical diagnoses on initial physical examination in cases of GUD were chancroid (131 patients), syphilis (25), genital herpes (15) and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (1). Clinical diagnoses correlated only weakly with microbiological and serological diagnoses. Haemophilus ducreyi was isolated from 51 (41%) of the 125 with a clinical diagnosis of chancroid, and 4 (22%) of 18 with a diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, or LGV (P = 0.13). The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test was reactive in 6 (24%) of 25 with a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, 18 (12.3%) of 146 with a diagnosis of chancroid or herpes, and 37 (4.7%) of 786 without a genital ulcer (P < 0.001, GUD vs no GUD). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value for presumptive clinical diagnosis of chancroid, relative to H. ducreyi isolation, were 93%, 16%, and 41%; and for diagnosis of syphilis, relative to reactive RPR, were 25%, 88% and 25%. Specific treatment based on presumptive specific clinical diagnosis frequently was inadequate for syphilis among patients with GUD and reactive RPR test. Syndromic treatment of GUD with antimicrobial combinations active against both chancroid and syphilis would be preferable to treatment with single drugs based on presumptive specific clinical diagnoses for this population. PIP: During a 12-month period in 1990-1991 in Kenya, 1076 of 22,274 patients (4.8% of all patients over 12 years of age) presented at the Langata Health Center in Nairobi with symptoms of a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Researchers analyzed data on 980 of these patients whose records had complete data to assess the use of presumptive specific clinical diagnosis in the management of STDs in a primary health clinic. 17.1% (168) had genital ulcer disease (GUD). Men were more likely to have a GUD than women (24.7% vs. 10.4%). Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, was isolated in the cultures of 40% of the patients with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid compared with 17% of those with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, or lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (p = 0.02). The clinical diagnoses of these two GUDs had only a weak correlation with microbiological and serological diagnoses (p = 0.13). 24% of patients with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis, 31% of those with a presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid, 6% of those with a specific clinical diagnosis of genital herpes or LGV, and 4.7% of those who had no GUD disease tested positive for syphilis (p 0.001, GUD vs. no GUD). Among patients with syndromic diagnosis of GUD, the presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of chancroid had a high sensitivity (91%), low specificity (24%), and low positive predictive value (40%). Among patients with syndromic diagnosis of syphilis, the presumptive specific clinical diagnosis of syphilis had a low sensitivity (25%), higher specificity (87%), and low positive predictive value (24%). 13% of patients with positive cultures for H. ducreyi did not receive a recommended or effective drug for chancroid. 82% of patients who tested positive for syphilis did not receive a recommended drug for syphilis. Based on these findings, the researchers conclude that syndromic treatment of GUD with use of antimicrobial combinations active against both chancroid and syphilis is a better course of treatment than use of single drugs based on presumptive specific clinical diagnoses for this population.
O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Lown B, Bukachi F, Xavier R. Health information in the developing world. Lancet. 1998 Oct;352 Suppl 2:SII34-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 1998. Abstract

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OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS<or=20%) were identified. Patients' data before and after angioplasty were analyzed. RESULTS: Post PTCA: angiographic success was 95.2%. Major complications occurred in 19.5% and hospital mortality was 2.7%. At 6 months after PTCA:LV fractional shortening (FS) increased from 15.9+/-3.4% to 19.6+/-6.6%

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Relationship Between Corporate Culture and Corporate Strategy.". In: Banking Times. Vol.2. pp.12-14.; 1995.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Bwayo J, Plummer F, Omari M, Mutere A, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola J, Velentgas P, Kreiss J.Human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east Africa.Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jun 27;154(12):1391-6.". In: Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jun 27;154(12):1391-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among long-distance truck drivers in Kenya. METHODS: Truck drivers along the Mombasa-Nairobi highway were enrolled at a roadside research clinic. A standardized interview and serologic evaluation for HIV and syphilis were conducted. RESULTS: We enrolled 970 truck drivers and their assistants of whom 257 (27%) had HIV antibodies. In univariate analysis, HIV infection was correlated with older age, non-Kenyan nationality, Christian religion, longer duration of truck driving, travel outside of Kenya, less frequent visits to wives, and more frequent visits to prostitutes. Uncircumcised status, history of genital ulcer disease or urethritis during the previous 5 years, and a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay for syphilis were each associated with positive HIV serostatus. Univariate correlates of uncircumcised status included younger age, non-Kenyan nationality, Christian religion, travel outside of Kenya, and less frequent visits to prostitutes. There was a significant association between uncircumcised status and 5-year history of genital ulcer disease or serologic evidence of syphilis, but not with 5-year history of urethritis. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was independently associated with uncircumcised status (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 8.4), history of genital ulcer disease (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.1), history of urethritis (adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.9), more frequent sex with prostitutes (more than once per month; adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8), and positive T pallidum hemagglutination assay (adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4). The attributable risk percentage for the association between HIV and uncircumcised status was 70%, and the population attributable risk was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers in east Africa are at high risk of HIV infection. The strongest correlates of HIV seropositivity were uncircumcised status and history of both ulcerative and nonulcerative sexually transmitted diseases.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Murray MC, Embree JE, Ramdahin SG, Anzala AO, Njenga S, Plummer FA Effect of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Viral Genotype on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2000 181:746-9.". In: J Infect Dis. 2000 181:746-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2000. Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine whether the maternal infecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 clade affects mother-to-child transmission frequency. Mothers in the mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi, Kenya, were grouped by HIV-1 status of their first enrolled child: uninfected, perinatally infected, or postnatally infected. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine HIV-1 viral clades of nested polymerase chain reaction products from HIV-1 protease or p24 genes. When inconclusive, sequencing determined the clade. Clade distributions within the groups were compared. The 3 groups displayed a uniform clade distribution. The predominant clades were A (59%) and D (20%). Clades B, C, F, mixed, and recombinant infections comprised the remainder (21%). No significant association was seen between clades A and D and either frequency or mode of vertical transmission. RFLP analysis revealed 2 clade B infections, 9 mixed, and 5 p24/protease recombinant infections in the study population.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Jessamine PG, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Wainberg MA, Wamola I, D'Costa LJ, Cameron DW, Simonsen NJ, Plourde P, Ronald AR. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin synergism in HIV 1 transmission. Scand. J. Infect Dis. 69(supp.". In: J. Infect Dis. 69(suppl.):181 - 186, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kreiss JK, Ngugi E, Holmes K, Ndinya-Achola J, Waiyaki P, Roberts PL, Ruminjo I, Sajabi R, Kimata J, Flemming TR, ANZALA AO, Holton D, Plummer F. Efficacy of nonoxnol-9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi pros.". In: J Amer Med Assoc 1992; 268(4): 477-82. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Ayiemba, Elias H.O. (2000): ''Effective Family Planning Programmes for Africa: Lessons from Kenya's Experience'. In Population and Development in Kenya (eds) J.O. Oucho et al. Population Studies and Research Institute.". In: published and printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. OUMAG, N MUTHAMAJ, O. OPEREA. "Validation of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Estimates: The Ethiopian Case Study.". In: Proc. 7th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop on Meteorological Research, Applications and Services, Nairobi, 17-21 0ctober 2005. Eastern and South African Journal; 2005. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Gaillard P, Mwanyumba F, Verhofstede C, Claeys P, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Temmerman M. Vaginal lavage with chlorhexidine during labour to reduce mother to child HIV transmission: clinical trial in Mombasa, Kenya. AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96.". In: AIDS 2001; 15(3): 389-96. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between use of oral contraceptive pills or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort included 948 Kenyan prostitutes. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed, adjusting for sexual behavioral and demographic variables. RESULTS: When compared with women who were using no contraception, users of oral contraceptive pills were at increased risk for acquisition of chlamydia (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) and vaginal candidiasis (hazard ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.9) and at decreased risk for bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.0). Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had significantly increased risk of chlamydia infection (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4) and significantly decreased risk of bacterial vaginosis (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.8), trichomoniasis (hazard ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.0), and pelvic inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). Consistent condom use was associated with significantly decreased risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. CONCLUSIONS: The use of oral or injectable hormonal contraception altered susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, which may in turn influence transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Consistent condom use was protective with regards to sexually transmitted disease and should be encouraged for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among women who use hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Cameron DW, Ngugi EN,Pamba HO A review of HIV-1 in Africa. Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988.". In: Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine 64: 480 - 490, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. OM, O KDB, A. OH. Microwave Response to Moisture Content. JKUAT, Nairobi ; 2006.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Oucho, J.O., A.B.C. Ocholla-Ayayo: Elias H.O. Ayiemba and J. Odhiambo (200): Population and Development in Kenya.". In: Published and Printed by School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 1964. Abstract
This paper investigates the relationships between knowledge of common sexually transmitted diseases and or HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour change among adolescents in school and out of school in Nairobi City. Despite the existence of a well-structured health education system supported by informal health educators, it is apparent that health education knowledge acquired is not commensurate with desired changes in attitudes and behaviour. This study sampled 250 adolescents in Nairobi City aged between 14 to 24 years. Furthermore, focus group discussions were conducted to supplement views of individual respondents. The respondents socio-economic and cultural backgrounds represented well the major societal groups and classes. It was found that 93.2 percent of adolescents were knowledgeable of sexually transmitted diseases and over 90 per cent accurately identified symptoms of common sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. However, it also emerged that peer pressure and peer networks have a very strong impact on attitude and behaviour of adolescent. The study recommends that more research is needed to understand how effects of peer networks could be made more effective in reducing adolescents pre-marital sex.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O. Biodegradation of DDT: The Role of Pleurotus sp., a lignicolous fungus. In Bioremediation of Nitroaromatic and Haloaromatic Compounds:.". In: Proceedings of the fifth international in situ and on . East African Medical Journal; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Screening and biochemical characterisation of trypanosome-lysing factor (trypanolysin) from non-vector insect, Schistocerca gregaria. DESIGN: Laboratory based experiment. SETTING: Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. RESULTS: Lysis of isolated trypanosomes was demonstrated with midgut homogenates of natural vector Glossina morsitans centralis as well in non-vector insects. The highest trypanolytic activity was observed in midgut homogenate of the desert locust. Schistocerca gregaria followed by the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L). Further studies on the S. gregaria trypanolytic factor showed its proteinaceous nature due to its sensitivity to temperatures above 40 degrees C and to proteases. Additionally, the factor showed lectin-like properties since the activity was blocked by D-glucosamine. CONCLUSION: The trypanolytic factor has the potential of being used to modulate tsetse fly vectorial capacity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Christine L. Mattson, Robert C. Bailey, Kawango Agot, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola and Stephen Moses. A Nested Case-Control Study of Sexual Practices and Risk Factors for Prevalent HIV-1 Infection Among Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, May 2007, Vol. 34, No. 5. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstracta_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.doca_nested_case-control_study_of_sexual_practices_and_risk_factors.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Fonk K, Kidula N, Kirui P, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, claeys P, Temmerman M. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors among women attending a major STD referral clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2000;27:7:417-23.". In: Sex Transm Dis 2000;27:7:417-23. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wafula E.M. Tukei PM, Bell TM, Nsanze H, Ndinya-Achola JO, Hazlett DTG, Ademba G, Pamba M.Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) among under fives in the Paediatric Observation Ward (POW) Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. E.A.M.J. 64: 263 - 26.". In: E.A.M.J. 64: 263 - 269, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M.,Ochanda,J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation properties of white rot-fungi in Karura, Forest, Kenya- workshop on fungal diversity in Subsaharan ecosystems and their role in rural development. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 29th Novembe.". In: Skin Research, January 19, Bellinson Hospital, Petach Tikva. Israel J. of Med. Science Vol 31,pp 66. East African Medical Journal; 1995. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "R. Scott McClelland, Jared M. Baeten, Barbra A. Richardson, Ludo Lavreys, Sandra Emery, Kishorchandra Mandaliya, Jeckoniah O. Ndinya-Achola and Julie Overbaugh. A Comparison of Genital HIV-1 Shedding and Sexual Risk Behaviour Among Kenyan Women Based on E.". In: J. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, April 2006, Vol. 41, No. 5. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
We conducted a prospective study among women in Mombasa, Kenya, to determine whether Trichomonas vaginalis infection was associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. At monthly follow-up visits, laboratory screening for HIV-1 and genital tract infections was conducted. Among 1335 HIV-1-seronegative women monitored for a median of 566 days, there were 806 incident T. vaginalis infections (23.6/100 person-years), and 265 women seroconverted to HIV-1 (7.7/100 person-years). Trichomoniasis was associated with a 1.52-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.24-fold) increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Treatment and prevention of T. vaginalis infection could reduce HIV-1 risk in women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Nielson JR, John GC, Carr JK, Lewis P, Kreiss JK, Jackson S, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha D, Panteleef D, Bodrug S, Giachetti C, Bott MA, Richardson BA, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999.". In: Overbaught Journ. Virol. 73: 4393-4403, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. PIP: This study presents the trend in syphilis prevalence among 81,311 pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1994 to 1997. Clinic nurses performed syphilis serology using a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test in 10 NCC clinics and Chi square; these were used to study trends over time. Results showed that a total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996, and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. Thus, a significant decrease in syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96, by contrast with the rising trend in syphilis prevalence reported in 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. This decline was attributable in large part to the syphilis control program initiated in Nairobi in June 1992, which focused on sexual behavior modifications, changes in health care seeking behavior and improved health care services.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "A model for the establishment of an integrated regional geodetic datum.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 32, No 250,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ndinya-Achola JO. Typing methods for the genus Klebsiella for use in clinical bacteriology. Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981.". In: Thesis MSc. Medical Microbiology, University of London. 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
Routine procedures used to isolate Haemophilus ducreyi in a busy laboratory are reported. Identification was based on colony morphology and nutritional and biochemical properties of 120 fresh isolates of H. ducreyi. These isolates grew very well on Gonococcal Agar and Mueller-Hinton Agar incubated at 34 degrees C in candle extinction jars containing moistened filter paper. Colonies varied in size, giving a polymorphic appearance. They were smooth, dome-shaped, and buff-yellow to grey in colour, and measured 2 mm in diameter. They could be pushed intact across the agar surface. By microscopic examination of gram-stained smears the isolates were gram-negative coccobacilli arranged in short chains, clumps or whorls and occasionally in typical "rail track" arrangements. Individual bacteria showed bipolar staining. Colonies autoagglutinated in saline. All strains were catalase-negative and did not produce indole or H2S. They were oxidase- and beta-lactamase positive and required X but not V factor for growth. Now that reliable techniques have been developed and characteristics established it is possible for most clinical laboratories to isolate and identify this organism from most patients with chancroid.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Common Nearly Best Linear Estimates of Location and Scale Parameters: Normal and Logistic Distributions." Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . 2006;18(2):161-178. AbstractWebsite

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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Rowe, A., Richman, J.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Brickell, P.M : Retinoic acid treatment alters the pattern of retinoic acid receptor beta expression in the embryonic chick limb : Dev. Pattern of Vert. Limb (pp 97-100).". In: Scand J Immunol Suppl. 1992;11:41-7. East African Medical Journal; 1991. Abstract
The haemolymph of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans, contains a high (lipophorin) and a low molecular weight protein of high densities, 1.11 and 1.29 g/ml, respectively. The purification of the proteins was achieved by a combination of density gradient ultracentrifugation and reported gel permeation chromatography. The lipophorin is of high molecular weight (M(r) integral of 600,000) and consists of two apoproteins, apolipophorin I (M(r) integral of 250,000) and apolipophorin II (M(r) integral of 80,000) both of which are glycosylated. Lipophorin also has a pI of 6.1. However, electrophoresis under non-denaturing and denaturing conditions showed the low molecular weight protein to be a single polypeptide chain (M(r) integral of 23,000). Amino acid analysis revealed a relatively high content of the acidic amino acids as well as serine and glycine. The protein contained lipids as shown by Sudan Black staining but was unglycosylated. Using rabbit antiserum against the isolated protein in immunodiffusion and immunoblotting experiments, no cross-reactivity was detected with haemolymph samples from insects representing six orders. In conclusion, the finding of lipophorin suggests that, although flies primarily utilize proline for their energy needs, there is an active transport mechanism for the supply of lipid requirements. However, the results for the low molecular weight protein indicate that the protein is unique to Glossina, suggesting that it may have an important role in the physiology of this insect and is therefore a significant target for vector management.
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., "Energy Use in Kenya", Proceedings: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980.". In: International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries, US AID/National Academy of Sciences, Jerkyll Island, Georgia, USA, January 1980. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; Submitted. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan BH, Hassan W, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in w.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;189(2):303-11. Epub 2004 Jan 9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstractinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.docinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.pdf

We examined the association between host factors present near the time of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and subsequent virus loads, in a prospective cohort study of women in Mombasa, Kenya. Women were prospectively followed monthly before HIV-1 infection. One hundred sixty-one commercial sex workers who became infected with HIV-1 were followed for a median of 34 months, and 991 plasma samples collected > or =4 months after infection were tested for HIV-1 RNA. The median virus set point at 4 months after infection was 4.46 log10 copies/mL, and the average virus load increase during subsequent follow-up was 0.0094 log10 copies/mL/month. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for sexual behavior, the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) at the time of HIV-1 infection was associated with a higher virus set point, and the presence of genital ulcer disease (GUD) during the early phase of HIV-1 infection was associated with greater change in virus load during follow-up. These findings suggest that, in women, the use of DMPA and the presence of GUD during the early phase of HIV-1 infection may influence the natural course of infection.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Hillier SL, Mwatha AK, Chohan BH, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Use of nonoxynol-9 and changes in vaginal lactobacilli.J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Several in vitro studies have shown nonoxynol-9 (N-9) to be toxic to lactobacilli, especially to strains that produce H2O2. Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial that investigated the safety and toxicity of 2 weeks of daily vaginal application of an N-9 gel were analyzed, to examine the effect of N-9 use on vaginal lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis. In vivo, N-9 promoted sustained colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli among women already colonized (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.7). In addition, use of N-9 for 2 weeks reduced the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0). In contrast, N-9 use by women initially colonized only by non-H2O2-producing lactobacilli resulted in loss of vaginal lactobacilli (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3). These data suggest that daily use of N-9 does not adversely affect vaginal colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli but that such use may promote loss of non-H2O2-producing strains.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "The surveying profession into the 21st century.". In: The Kenya Surveyor, Vol. 3 No 4 Nov/Dec 1994 and Vol. 4 No 1 June 1995, Nairobi. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFKIHURANIDAVID. "Kihurani, D.O., Nantulya, V.M., Mbiuki, S.M. and Masake, R. (1993): Diagnosis and treatment of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd Geneva Congress of Equine Medicine and Surgery, and 3rd Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association (WEVA), Geneva, 7-11 December, 1993, Swiss Vet 11-S/ 1993, p. 184. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
Equines are particularly susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei, but rarely is natural T. congolense and T. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya, initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay ( antigen ELISA ).
O. PROFMBECHEOYUKO. "Mbeche, O. O., and S. O. Omol, "A Health Service Distribution for Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi" African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 7, August 1993.". In: African Urban Quarterly Journal, vol. 7, August 1993. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Ma Luo, Joanne Embree, suzie Ramdahin, Jeckoniah Ndinya-Achola, Simon Njenga, Job b. Bwayo, Sha, Pan, Xiaojuan Mao, Tammy Stuart, Robert C. Brunham , and Francis A. Plummer 2002 HLA-A and HLA-B in.". In: Kenya, Africa: Allele frequencies and identification of HLA-B*1567 and HLA-B*4426. Tissue Antigens 59(5): 370-80. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2001) Gender Differences and the Effect of Health Warnings and legislation on cigarette smoking:.". In: The African Journal of Finance and Managment, Vol. 9, No. 2, 65-77.; 2001. Abstract

The widespread existence of smoking as a form of social behaviour despite groing worldwide disapproval has placed cigarette smoking at the heart of a growing controversy. The World Health Organization (WHO) now periodically reports on the effect of tobacco consumption on the health of smokers. In South Africa, new legal steps are being takentowards the control of tobacco smoking. This is in line with world-wide trends towards tougher tobacco legistlation. Research on the topic of tobacco and smoking are numerous and represennts world-wide attampts on the understand and eradict what is generally considered a deadly epidemic. however, the role of gender in cigarette consumption and tobacco-control is springly an under-researched aspect of smoking. While few attempts have been made to study the underlying circumstances of smoking by differentiating between the genders, the possible response to tobacco-control measures by men and women seem to have not commanded much attention. The present study was a response to the need to gain a better understanding of the differences in the smoking profiels of women and men and whether these differences ae reflected in the way the two sexes respond, first, to health warnings on smokings and, secondly, to legislation prohibiting advertisng of tobacco products. 50 women and 50 men drawn from tertiary institutions and retail businesses participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. The results show some similarities and differences between female and male smokers. In the light of this, it seems appropriate to suggest that more gender sensitive approaches to dealing with smoking problems might achieve better outcomes.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Tyndal MW, Ronald AR, Agoki E, Malisa W, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S, Plummer FA Increased Risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 among Uncircumcised Men Presenting with Genital Ulcer Disease in Kenya Clin. Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 .". In: Inf. Dis 23: 449-53 1996. IBIMA Publishing; 1996. Abstract
A ten-year retrospective review of laboratory detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid was undertaken using past laboratory and clinical records at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 1462 India-ink tests were carried out, 76 (5.2%) of these tested positive for C. neoformans. An increasing number of clinical requests for India-ink test mirrored by increasing number of patients with immunological disorders were noted over the study period although no obvious trend emerged in the detection pattern of C. neoformans. The use of a more sensitive test such as the latex agglutination technique is suggested.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "Determination of stress characteristics at Connections of Welded Members using Finite Element Method. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 1, April 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Incidence of rickets of prematurity at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. PMID: 10442123 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Feb;76(2):63-6. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
O. KG. Changing patterns in water resource tenure in Kenya and mechanisms for resolving emerging conflicts. East African Regional Seminar for Journalists, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), March; 1999. Abstract

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O. DRBUKACHIFREDERICK. "Bukachi F. Ventricular long axis function: amplitudes and timings.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2004.frederick_bukachi.pdf
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Government-owned Businesses. In Introduction to Business.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. (Edited by Professor Kibera).; 1996.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P.Maternal human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and pregnancy outcome. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994.". In: Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. DROUMAGILBERT. "Strengthening Remote Sensing for Early Warning, Food Security and Environmental Monitoring in the IGAD Countries.". In: Proc. United Nations Regional Workshop on the Use of Space Technology for Disaster Management in Africa, 1-5 July 2002, Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia.; 2001. Abstract
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O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Koesters SA, Matu L, Kiama P, ANZALA O, Embree j, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR. Elevation of immune activation in Kenyan women is associated with alterations in immune function: implications for vaccine development. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9.". In: J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFAYIEMBAELIASH. "Charles Omondi and Elias .H.O. Ayiemba: 2005: .". In: In Maseno journal of Education, Arts and Science. Vol. 5 No. 1 Maseno University. January 2005 pp 61-76. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Subcapsular Orchidectomy in the management of prostatic carcinoma in Nigerians. East African Medical Journal, 66: 400-403, 1989.". In: East African Medical Journal, 66: 400-403, 1989. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract

Thirty patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma were treated by subcapsular orchidectomy at the urology unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Post orchidectomy plasma testosterone levels measured at 3 and 6 months were low in all patients with a mean of 44 ng/100 mls +/- S.D. 21 compared to levels in the control group of 10 untreated prostatic cancer patients with a mean of 526 ng/100 mls +/- S.D. 109; the difference being highly significant (P greater than 0.001). Subcapsular orchidectomy was effective in the treatment of 28(93.3%) of the 30 prostatic cancer patients as assessed by diminution in the size of primary tumours per rectum, improvement of urinary symptoms and reduction of skeletal metastases radiologically. None of the patients showed the undesirable side effects of prolonged oestrogen therapy and psychological trauma of total orchidectomy. These results indicate that subcapsular orchidectomy is effective in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer in this locality.

O. J. Olwendo, P. Baki, P.J. Cilliers, Mito C, and Doherty P. "Comparison of GPS TEC variations with IRI-2007 TEC prediction at equatorial latitudes during a low solar (2009-2011) phase over the Kenyan region." Advances in Space Research. 2013;52(10):1770-1779.
O. J. Olwendo, P. Baki, Mito C, and Doherty P. "Effects of TEC disturbances on Satellite Tracking Using GPS-SCINDA receiver over the Kenyan Space." Nigerian Journal of Space Research. 2010;7:73-85.Website
O. J. Olwendo, P. Baki, P.J. Cilliers, Mito CO, and Doherty P. "Comparison of GPS TEC measurements with IRI-2007 TEC prediction over the Kenyan region during the descending phase of solar 23." Advances in Space Research. 2012;49(5):914-921.
O. J. Olwendo, P.J. Cilliers, P. Baki, and Mito CO. "Using GPS-SCINDA observations to study the correlation between scintillation, total electron content enhancement and depletions over the Kenyan region." Advances in Space Research. 2012;49(9):1363-1372.
O. J. Olwendo, T. Baluku, P. Baki, P.J. Cilliers, C. Mito, and Doherty P. "Low latitude ionospheric scintillation and zonal irregularity drifts observed with GPS-SCINDA System and closely spaced VHF receivers in Kenya." Advances in Space Research. 2013;51(9):1715-1726.
O. J. Olwendo., P. Baki, Mito. C, and Doherty P. "Characterization of ionospheric GPS Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) in low latitude zone over the Kenyan region during a very low solar activity phase." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics. 2012;84(85C):52-61.
O. K. Koech, R. N. Kinuthia, G. N. Karuku, S. M. Mureithi, Wanjogu R. "Field curing methods and storage duration affect the quality of hay from six rangeland grass species in Kenya." Ecological Process. 2016;5(1):3.
O.Akinyemi R, O.Owolabi M, MasafumiIhara, AlbertinoDamasceno, AdesolaOgunniyi, CatherineDotchin, Stella-MariaPaddick, Ogeng’o J, RichardWalker, N.Kalaria R. "Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive impairement in Africa." Brain res Bull. 2019;145:97-108. Abstract

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2–3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10–20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30–40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

O.B. O, A.O. M, J.P. P, H.K A. "Energy Dispersive X-Ray Florescence analysis of mine waters from the Migori gold mining belt in Southern Nyanza, Kenya." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2011;87(3):260-263.
O.D WH. "“Gluttonous Octopuses” in Mwanganza,." Journal of Literature. 1988;Vol.(, No. 3.).
and O.J. Chichoque, G.N. Karuku. MOMAKCMC. Fertilization of maize-legume Intercrop in Mozambique. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
O.J.Owino, F.Kibera, R.Musyoka. "ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, INDUSTRY COMPETITION AND PERFORMANCE OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN KENYA." DBA-Africa Management Review. 2015;5(2):1-14. Abstractjournal_article_organizational_culture_industry_competion_performance_dba.pdf

The objective of our study is to assess the influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance of microfinance institutions in Kenya. The population of the study comprise microfinance institutions that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) in Kenya. We used descriptive cross-sectional survey design. We collected secondary data from annual industry performance reports by AMFI. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. We analyze data through Chi-square tests, factor analysis and regression analysis. Results of Cronbach’s alpha test confirm reliability of our measurement scales. Our results demonstrate that organizational culture has significant positive influence on performance when the latter is measured using subjective performance indicators. However, the relationship between organizational culture and financial performance is not statistically significant. The results also indicate that industry competition has significant but, moderate positive influence on firm performance. Our results do not confirm significant influence of interaction between organizational culture and industry competition on firm performance. Finally, our results show that the joint influence of organizational culture and industry competition on performance is statistically significant. Findings of the study have implications for theory and marketing practice. Our results support resource based view and resource advantage theories of competition. The results imply that possession of strong organizational culture that enhances reconfiguration and deployment of organizational resources is a key success factor in the microfinance industry. Findings of the study also imply that industry competition is beneficial to firms within the industry. The above findings inform our conclusion that organizational culture positively and strongly influence performance outcomes in the microfinance industry. However, the study is limited by the cross-sectional research design used. Based on the limitations of the study, we recommend the use of longitudinal research design to assess changes in organizational culture and performance over time.

O.Koteng D, Chen C-T. "Development of High-Strengths Lime-Pozzolana Pastes.". In: The second international Conference on chemically-activated materials (CAM'2010).; 2014.koteng.pdf
O.M.Ondimu, V.A.Ganesan, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Agostinho LLF. "Modeling simple-jet mode electrohydrodynamic-atomization droplets' trajectories and spray pattern for a single nozzle system." Journal of Electrostatics. 2017;89:77-87.
O.Nyumba T, Wilson K, Derrick CJ, Mukherjee N. "The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation." Methods in Ecology and evolution. 2018;9:20-32. Abstract
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O.Nyumba T, Wilson2  K, Derrick CJ, Mukherjee  N. "The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation." Methods in Ecology and evolution. 2018;9(1):20-32. Abstractdio.org

Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in‐depth understanding of social issues. The method aims to obtain data from a purposely selected group of individuals rather than from a statistically representative sample of a broader population. Even though the application of this method in conservation research has been extensive, there are no critical assessment of the application of the technique. In addition, there are no readily available guidelines for conservation researchers.
Here, we reviewed the applications of focus group discussion within biodiversity and conservation research between 1996 and April 2017. We begin with a brief explanation of the technique for first‐time users. We then discuss in detail the empirical applications of this technique in conservation based on a structured literature review (using Scopus).
The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, n = 114,) were published between 2011 and 2017. Rarely was the method used as a stand‐alone technique. The number of participants per focus group (where reported) ranged from 3 to 21 participants with a median of 10 participants. There were seven (median) focus group meetings per study. Focus group discussion sessions lasted for 90 (median) minutes. Four main themes emerged from the review: understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%). Most of the studies were in Africa (n = 76), followed by Asia (n = 44), and Europe (n = 30).
We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. More than half of the studies (n = 101) did not report the sample size and group size (n = 93), whereas 54 studies did not mention the number of focus group discussion sessions while reporting results. Rarely have the studies provided any information on the rationale for choosing the technique. We have provided guidelines to improve the standard of reporting and future application of the technique for conservation.
1 INTRODUCTION
Conservation social science has come of age (Bennett et al., 2017). From being an outlier and on the sidelines of the discourse on conservation, the importance of understanding human perspectives is now centre stage in conservation decision making (Bennett et al., 2017; Khadka, Hujala, Wolfslehner, & Vacik, 2013; Paloniemi et al., 2012). Within the repertoire of tools that conservation biologists can use, focus group discussion is a commonly used method. Focus group discussion is a technique where a researcher assembles a group of individuals to discuss a specific topic, aiming to draw from the complex personal experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of the participants through a moderated interaction (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995; Hayward, Simpson, & Wood, 2004; Israel, Schulz, Parker, & Becker, 1998; Kitzinger, 1994; Morgan, 1996).

Focus group discussion is widely used in conservation research unlike some of the other relatively lesser known techniques such as Nominal Group Technique (Hugé & Mukherjee, in prep) and Q methodology (Zabala & Mukherjee, 2017). The method's popularity is closely linked to the rise of participatory research, especially the “active experimentation with focus groups” in the academic social sciences during the 1980s (Morgan, 2002). The technique emerged as a qualitative data collection approach and a bridging strategy for scientific research and local knowledge (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995). Focus group discussion is perceived to be a “cost‐effective” and “promising alternative” in participatory research (Morgan, 1996) offering a platform for differing paradigms or worldviews (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Orr, 1992). Sociologists and psychologists have used the method since the 1940s (e.g. Merton & Kendall, 1946; Merton, Fiske & Kendall 1956). However, its popularity and application has grown across a wide range of disciplines including education (Flores & Alonso, 1995), communication and media studies (Lunt & Livingstone, 1996), sociology (Morgan, 1996), feminist research (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999), health research (Wilkinson, 1998) and marketing research (Morgan, Krueger, & King, 1998; Szybillo & Berger 1979).

Focus group discussion is sometimes seen as synonymous with interviews, especially the semi‐structured “one‐to‐one” and “group interviews” (Parker & Tritter, 2006). Similarities between these techniques relate to the tendency to uncover people's perceptions and values (e.g. Hargreaves, 1967; Lacey, 1970; Mac an Ghaill, 1994; Sewell, 1997; Skeggs, 1997). Consequently, there are cases where authors have confused and conflated these two distinctive methods (Parker & Tritter, 2006). However, existing evidence on the role of the researcher and the relationship with the participants points to a fundamental difference between the two techniques (Smithson, 2000). Interviews involve a one‐to‐one, qualitative and in‐depth discussion where the researcher adopts the role of an “investigator.” This implies the researcher asks questions, controls the dynamics of the discussion, or engages in dialogue with a specific individual at a time. In contrast, in a focus group discussion, researchers adopt the role of a “facilitator” or a “moderator.” In this setting, the researcher facilitates or moderates a group discussion between participants and not between the researcher and the participants. Unlike interviews, the researcher thereby takes a peripheral, rather than a centre‐stage role in a focus group discussion (Bloor, Frankland, Thomas, & Robson, 2001; Hohenthal, Owidi, Minoia, & Pellikka, 2015; Johnson, 1996; Kitzinger, 1994).

The link between people's perceptions and their socio‐cultural situation is critical to decision‐making on natural resources since most people derive their notions, mental constructions and interpretations from their immediate surrounding and develop these from experiential knowledge (Berkes, 2004). Given the rise of participatory research in conservation over the last few decades (Bennett et al., 2017), it is crucial to reflect on the scope and remit of focus group discussion as a methodological tool. Currently, there is relatively little or no critical discussion on the merits and demerits of focus group discussion in comparison to other similar qualitative techniques. It is therefore difficult to ascertain when and in which context, focus group discussion would be most appropriate. There are no guidelines for best practice for the application of the technique in conservation literature. In addition, there are no comprehensive reviews of the use of focus group discussion in conservation to the best of our knowledge.

Here we assess the strength and weaknesses of the focus group discussion technique based on a review of its application in conservation in the last two decades. We first briefly explain the procedure of the technique and then provide an overview of the different forms of focus group discussion. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant literature, we discuss the merits and potential pitfalls of the technique. Finally, we provide guidelines for reporting future applications of the technique and suggestions to address key psychological biases that can impact group interactions.

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