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KIBISU MC. Faculty of Commerce Business Studies Book. Nairobi: E.A. Literature Bureau; 1994.
Kibiego MB;, Odhiambo MO;, Kimani PM. "Analysis of bean marketing system in urban areas of Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

The beans industry in Kenya is faced with several problems, most especially shortage, seasonal fluctuations in supply of beans and lack of reliable statistical information. This study was conducted to determine the structure and performance of the beans marketing system in Nairobi metropolitan area in Kenya. Primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were generated from a survey of 102 beans traders using cluster and systematic sampling methods. Majority of the traders were women (60.8 %). ‘Rosecoco GLP 2’ (Nyayo) wariety was the most prefered variety. Other varieties on sale were red haricot, Canadian wonder and mwitemania among others. Bean marketing structure approached that of pure competition but lack of capital was a barrier to entry into the wholesale/retail trade. There were no cohesive tactics against established rivals or potential entrants. Stiff competition has resulted in marketing margins that closely approximate the actual marketing costs. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test (ADFs) showed no significant co-integration for several pairs of markets. Thus market integration had not been fully realized in Nairobi bean markets. This is due to inadequate flow of market information and risk.

Kibicho SG. "The origin of Sikhism.". 1990.Website
Kibicho SG. "The origins of Buddhism.". 1990.Website
Kibet S, Nyangito MM, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016;6(1):16.
Kibet S, M N, L MO, D K. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock-wildlife landscape." Journal of Ecological Solutions and Evidence.. 2021;2(3):1-13.
Kibet S, Nyamweru C. "Cultural and Biological Heritage at Risk;The Case of the Rabai Kaya Forests in Coastal Kenya." Journal of Human Ecology. 2008;24(4):287-295 .
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Maasai Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism. 2016;6(1):16.
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Farmers’ traditional knowledge and innovation.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibet CW. "Assessment of Kenya’s montane forest ecosystems: A case study on the Cherangani Hills in Western Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce . 2016;1(9).
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Management of agropastoral production systems.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
Kibet S, Nyangito MM, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism, Research Policy & Practice. 2016;6(1):16-29.
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Farmers’ traditional knowledge and innovation.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Management of agropastoral production systems.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibera FN. " “The Effect of Message Content and Source Credibility of Information Gain by Coffee Smallholders in Central Kenya." , Journal of Management Business and Economics, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dakar, Dhaka, . 1985;11(3).
Kibera LW, Kibera FN. "Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects.". 2009.
Kibera LW, Kimokoti A. Fundamentals of sociology of Education African Perspective.; 2007. Abstract

In an academic field, research project and/or thesis is an integral and mandatory component of the higher degree programmes. The guidelines on how to write research proposals are therefore expected to assist a student to identify and choose a viable research problem. Many research proposals are turned down each year because of content and methodological deficiencies. The research proposal serves to present the research question or problem to be researched on; discuss its importance to society; the research efforts of others who have worked on related research; suggests sources of data pertinent to solving the research question and how the data will be gathered, analysed and interpreted. A good research proposal is concise and focused although its length is dependent on regulations of different universities; it often ranges between ten and forty double-spaced pages inclusive of appendices. A research proposal has three main chapters or sections namely introduction, titerature review and research methodology. Kibera, loW. and Kibera F.N. (2009). Guidelines for Writing Academic Research Projects in Fountain, Journal of Faculty of Education, November 3, pp 117-129. Abstract The social changes being experienced worldwide cannot be overemphasized. Children are growing up in several and different environments at home, school and community and religious organizations are the settings for social and intellectual experiences from which children acquire and develop the skills, attitudes and attachments which characterize them as individuals and shape their choice and performance of adult roles. This book is about practices and processes involved in socialization and education, particularly the agencies concerned about the ways in which schools, through their teachers, curricula and organization, deliberately and/or informally influence the young. Among all agencies of socialization, schools are in a strong position to exert influence upon the young. This stems in part from their specialized functions and expertise concerning scholastic and technical instruction. Schools introduce to students forms of authority, social and working relationships and occupational roles. Some of this influence is specific and overt, operating through deliberate instruction to more or less determined objectives. Although there is much emphasis on schools and their students, it would make little sense to discuss schools in isolation from the other agencies of socialization. Consequently, we have approached each of our topics through a broad discussion of practices and processes. By doing this we hope that the influence of each socialization agent has been put in its proper perspective and that its limitations can be appreciated. The first chapter on sociology discusses the development of sociology as a discipline and some of its various branches. Chapter 2 deals specifically with the origins and development of sociology of education and its concerns. Sociological theories and their application to education are contained in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 looks at socialization particularly, the agents of socialization and the relationships between socialization and education. To appreciate formal education, indigenous education cannot be overlooked. Chapter 5 and 6 therefore discuss the role and purpose of indigenous education. Chapter 7 examines the relationship between culture and education. Culture basically is seen as the main content of curriculum of any education system while education is always seen as the major agent of development. However, as much as education means well for the society it has detriments, for instance creating social classes. Chapter 8 discusses education and social stratification. Chapter 9 looks at the sociology of the classroom and examines its complex environment. Chapter 10 highlights the factors affecting the education of girls while chapter 11 discusses the teacher and teaching profession and the changing multiple roles of the teacher in response to societal changes. Finally, chapter 12 is a case study of the Kenya's undergraduate students' attitudes and perceptions towards the teaching profession.

Kibera MW, K.Gakunga D, Imonje R. Provision of Education for Pastoralist Children: The Case of Mobile Schools in Kenya. Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013.
Kibera FN. " “On Measuring Literacy”." Management Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. 1984:13-14.
Kibera FN. "“The Transfer of Western Marketing Know-how to East Africa” ." Journal of Business Administration, Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1988;14:462-83.
Kibera AN, Kuria MW, Kokonya DA. "Alcohol Use Disorders among HIV and AIDS Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Research and Health Sciences. 2017;2(7):21-30.
Kibera FN. "“A survey on Marketing Research conducted in Kenya”. ,." Nairobi Management Journal. 1996;1:29-49.
Kibera MW, K.Gakunga D, Imonje R. Provision of Education for Pastoralist Children: The Case of Mobile Schools in Kenya. Lamert Academic Publishing; 2013. Abstract
n/a
Kibera FN. " “How Rural Buyers View Different Sources of Agricultural Information”." Management, Journal of Kenya Institute of Management. 1982.
Kibera FN. " “An Input-Output Model for Analyzing Retailing Systems in Kenya." SOKONI Journal of Marketing Society of Kenya. 1987.
Kibera LW, Kibera FN. "The Determinants of Learning Achievement of Public Primary School Children in Kenya." Journal of African International Business and Management . 2011.
Kibera FN. "“The Role of the Cooperative Movement in Kenya’s Socioeconomic Development”, ." Journal of Business Administration, University of Dhaka,. 1995;21(1&2):101-114.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines While Evaluating the Microbial Diversity in Feces of Tanzanian Small Holder Dairy Cattle." BioMed Research International. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa F, Githui K, Joseph Jung'a, Jung'a J. {Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships: Among two indigenous Kenyan goat breeds}. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2017. Abstract
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Kibegwa FM, Githui KE, Jung'a JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN. "{Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya}." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 2015;133:238-247. Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among and genetic variability within 60 goats from two different indigenous breeds in Narok and Isiolo counties in Kenya and 22 published goat samples were analysed using mitochondrial control region sequences. The results showed that there were 54 polymorphic sites in a 481-bp sequence and 29 haplotypes were determined. The mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.981 ± 0.006 and 0.019 ± 0.001, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis in combination with goat haplogroup reference sequences from GenBank showed that all goat sequences were clustered into two haplogroups (A and G), of which haplogroup A was the commonest in the two populations. A very high percentage (99.90{%}) of the genetic variation was distributed within the regions, and a smaller percentage (0.10{%}) distributed among regions as revealed by the analysis of molecular variance (amova). This amova results showed that the divergence between regions was not statistically significant. We concluded that the high levels of intrapopulation diversity in Isiolo and Narok goats and the weak phylogeographic structuring suggested that there existed strong gene flow among goat populations probably caused by extensive transportation of goats in history.

Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Francesca Stomeo, Mujibi FD. "A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines while evaluating the Microbial Diversity in feces of Tanzanian small holder dairy cattle." BioMed research international. 2020;2020.
and Kibebe H.W., Gathumbi P.K. KMKCSPGJ. "Comparison between glycated hemoglobin and blood glucose in monitoring diabetic patients at point of care testing. ." Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2013;2:1-4.
Kibebe HW;, Gathumbi PK;, Kigondu CS;, Mbuthia PG;, Karioki JW. "Early detection of hyperglycemia using glycated hemoglobin in mice model.".; 2010.
Kibe. J. K., Nyaga. P.N. NJN, Mbithi. J.N., Njagi. L.W. GRN, Mutune. M., J.Michieka. MAK. "An invitro study of some factors that may influence changes of virulence for Newcastle disease virus.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference and exhibition. University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 2008.
Kibe RS, Muthama NJ, Alfred OO, Franklin OJ. "Assessment of Potential Changes in Hydrologically Relevant Rainfall Statistics over the Sondu River Basin in Kenya Under a Changing Climate .". 2016. Abstract

Abstract
Scenarios of past, present and intermediate future climates for Sondu River basin were analysed in this study to evaluate the potential changes in hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics that are likely to be observed by the middle of this century as a result of climate change. These climate scenarios were developed by applying dynamical downscaling of the relatively course resolution climate scenarios simulated by the fourth generation coupled Ocean-Atmosphere European Community Hamburg Model (ECHAM4) using the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modelling system. The regional climate scenarios, which were available at a daily time-step and a spatial grid resolution of 0.5˚ over the Eastern Africa region, were matched to the Sondu river basin in the western region of Kenya. The possible hydrological impacts of climate change were assessed by applying the scenarios in a daily time-step hydrological model. The analysis of hydrologically relevant rainfall statistics focussed on determining changes in rainfall patterns and the likely hydrological implications to the basin. The results indicated that more rainfall is projected for the region in the immediate and intermediate future in form of increased seasonal rainfall during the December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasons resulting from increased number of days of rainfall and higher probabilities of a wet day following a dry day in a month. Based on these scenarios, the combination of the wetter antecedent conditions and the more rain days in a month will result in more surface runoff being generated which will not only have implications on the water balance but also the water quality in the basin.
Key Words: climate change, climate scenarios, climate modelling, climate downscaling, Sondu Basin, Kenya

Kibe L, Habluetzel A, Kamau A, Mbogo C. "Role of Traditional Healers in the Management of Malaria in Malindi, Kenya in the Context of Declining Malaria.". In: XXVIII Congresso, Nazionale Sophia, Italy .; 2014.
Kibe LW, Kamau AW, Kinuthia JK, Habluetzel A, Mbogo CM. "A formative study of disposal and re-use of old mosquito nets by communities in Malindi, Kenya." MalariaWorld Journal. 2015;6(9):1-9.mwj2015_6_9.pdf
Kibaru EG, Ruth Nduati, Dalton Wamalwa, Kariuki N. "Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya: retrospective study." AIDS Res Ther. 2015;12:26. Abstract

HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

Kibaru EG, Nduati R, Wamalwa D, Kariuki. N. " Baseline Haematological Indices among HIV-1 Infected Children at Kenyatta National Hospital ." International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare. 2014;1(1):21-26.
Kibaru EG, Nduati R, D Wamalwa KN, Kariuki N. " Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;(12:26). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

METHODS:
A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily. HIV infected children aged 5-144 months were enrolled if they had received antiretroviral drugs for at least 6 months with available and complete laboratory results.

RESULTS:
Medical records of 337 children meeting enrollment criteria were included in the study. The median age was 63 months with equal male to female ratio. Following 6 months of HAART, prevalence of anemia (Hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl) declined significantly from 35.9 to 16.6 % a nearly 50 % reduction in the risk of anemia RR = 0.56 [(95 % CI 0.44, 0.70) p < 0.001]. There was significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and platelets above the baseline measurements (p < 0.0001) and a significant decline in total white blood cell counts >11,000 cell/mm(3) but a none significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC). Pre-HAART, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 and 4 was associated with a ten-fold increased likelihood of anemia. Chronic malnutrition was associated with anemia but not wasting and immunologic staging of disease.

CONCLUSION:
Hematological abnormalities changed significantly within 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with significant increase in hemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and platelet and decrease in WBC and RBC.

KEYWORDS:
Changes of hematological parameters; Hematological abnormalities; Paediatric HIV infection

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Kabura MN, John FN, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC. "Domestic violence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1." AIDS. 2006;20(13):1763-9. Abstract

To determine the prevalence of life-time domestic violence by the current partner before HIV-1 testing, its impact on the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and frequency after testing.

Kiarie J, Nduati R, Koigi K, Musia J, John G. "HIV-1 testing in pregnancy: acceptability and correlates of return for test results." AIDS. 2000;14(10):1468-70.
Kiarie GW, ABINYA NO, JOSHI MD, LULE GN, Muthuma GZ. "Familial Clustering of Cancer in Two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." East Afri Med Journal. 2010;87(1):9-13.Website
Kiarie E, Romero LF, Nyachoti CM. "The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry." Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26(1):71-88. Abstract

The value of added feed enzymes (FE) in promoting growth and efficiency of nutrient utilisation is well recognised in single-stomached animal production. However, the effects of FE on the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are largely unrecognised. A critical role in host nutrition, health, performance and quality of the products produced is played by the intestinal microbiota. FE can make an impact on GIT microbial ecology by reducing undigested substrates and anti-nutritive factors and producing oligosaccharides in situ from dietary NSP with potential prebiotic effects. Investigations with molecular microbiology techniques have demonstrated FE-mediated responses on energy utilisation in broiler chickens that were associated with certain clusters of GIT bacteria. Furthermore, investigations using specific enteric pathogen challenge models have demonstrated the efficacy of FE in modulating gut health. Because FE probably change the substrate characteristics along the GIT, subsequent microbiota responses will vary according to the populations present at the time of administration and their reaction to such changes. Therefore, the microbiota responses to FE administration, rather than being absolute, are a continuum or a population of responses. However, recognition that FE can make an impact on the gut microbiota and thus gut health will probably stimulate development of FE capable of modulating gut microbiota to the benefit of host health under specific production conditions. The present review brings to light opportunities and challenges for the role of major FE (carbohydrases and phytase) on the gut health of poultry and swine species with a specific focus on the impact on GIT microbiota.

Kiarie GW. A Study To Determine The Prevalence Of Familial Clustering Of Cancer In Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract

Familial clustering of cancer has been documented in the Western World. Familial
cancer syndromes have been described..' Genetic testing has demonstrated family
member positive for certain genes are at risk of these familial cancers.
No studies have been done in Africa to look into this and familial clustering is still
anecdotal. Evidence of familial clustering of cancer will lead to identification of
susceptibility genes in our setup, counseling affected individuals and instituting targeted
surveillance for early diagnosis and prophylaxis. Early diagnosis of cancer saves cost
and there is a reduction in mortality and morbidity .

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, R W Nduati, Mwanda W, M'imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening Health Systems by Integrating Health Care, Medical Education and Research: University of Nairobi Experience." Academic Medicine . 2014;89 (8)(August Supplement.):109-110.abstract.pdf
Kiarie, J.W, Othieno Abinya, N. A, Riyat MS. "The GLIVEC international patient assistance programme: the Nairobi experience." East African Medical Journal. 2009;86(12):106-107. Abstract

Glivec is a drug used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISI). It is an expensive drug which would be out of reach for most patients in Kenya. Norvatis Pharmaceutical together with Axios International a healthcare management company and Max Foundation have made it possible for patients in developing countries to get access to the drug at no cost. Patients meet the cost of the confirmatory test and are recruited into the programme to receive the drug at no cost. A total of 201 patients are in the programme in Nairobi, mainly drawn from Kenyatta National Hospital the major referral hospital in Kenya. The age range is nine years to 75 years with a mean age of 39.5 years. Males make up 56.5% while females are 43.5%. CML are 173 (86%) while GIST patients are 28 (13.9%). Most of the CML cases are referred in the chronic stable phase (87.8%) and 85.7% have been on hydroxyurea as the initial treatment. Compliance rates are approximately 80%.

Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Nduati RW, John-Stewart GC. "Infant feeding practices of women in a perinatal HIV-1 prevention study in Nairobi, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2004;35(1):75-81. Abstract

To determine feeding practices and nutritional status of infants born to HIV-1-infected women.

Kiarie JN, Farquhar C, Redfield R, Bosire K, Nduati RW, Mwanda W, M'Imunya JM, Kibwage I. "Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience." Acad Med. 2014;89(8 Suppl):S109-10.
Kiarie, E G;, Kabuage LW;, Wakhungu JW;, Gitau GK;, Githure J;, Mutero CM. "A description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme.".; 2002.
Kiarie G, Nduati RW;, Koigi K;, Musia J;, John G. "HIV-1 Testing In Pregnancy: Acceptability And Correlates Of Return For Test Results.". 2007.
Kiarie JN, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Compliance with antiretroviral regimens to prevent perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Kenya." AIDS. 2003;17(1):65-71. Abstract

To compare compliance and infant HIV-1 infection risk at 6 weeks with the Thai-CDC and HIVNET-012 antiretroviral regimens in a field setting.

Kianji G. SGL 407: Engineering Geology.; 2012.
Kianji G, Roberts R, Lund B, Shomali H, Barongo J, Mathu E. "Preliminary seismic catalogue for Kenya and adjoining areas, 1900-2014; Challenges and constraints."; 2016.
Kianji GK. Investigations on the Seismicity of Kenya using the University of Nairobi Seismic Network. Malte DI-von-S, Prof JB, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 2004.
Kianji G. SGL 412: Seismology.; 2012.
Kianji GK. "Earthquake Observation in Kenya; Case study for the period November 1999 to may 2002." Bull. Int. Inst. Seismol. Earthq. Eng.. 2003;VOL.37:23-36.
Kianji CK, kaniaru NW, Mutai PK, Mwabora JM. Importance of Law and Policy on Successful Utilization of Nuclear Technology for Electricity Generation. , Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, 24-26th April 2013; 2013.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CLINICAL, SEROLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN GOATS INFECTED WITH CORYNEBACTERIUM PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS THROUGH CUTANEOUS AND SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract
Goats were injected with caseous pus containing 106 colony forming units CFU of C. pseudotuberculosis either subcutaneously (s/c), intradermally (i/d) or smeared with caseous pus on either scarified or intact skin. All animals were then examined regulary for clinical abnormalities and also for antibodies to C. pseudotuberculosis. All animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after infection and examined for caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) lesions.  Acute lameness was observed in all animals infected s/c but not in the other groups. The regional draining lymph nodes were detected palpably swollen by day three post infection in all animals infected i/d and in one infected on scarified skin. The route of infection did not influence the onset of serological response but animals infected i/d had more rapid and higher response. At post mortem, animals infected s/c; i/d or on scarified skin had abscesses in the regional draining lymph nodes but those infected on intact skin had none. These results indicted that CLA can be transmitted through either s/c, i/d or through scarified skin but that infection through intact skin was unlikely. The disease induced by i/d injection or on scarified skin was more typical of the natural disease in that it had no acute clinical signs.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PROCESSED KENYAN HONEY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1990. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH: THE MISSING LINK TO SUSTAINABLE AND EFFECTIVE INTERVENTION IN AGRICULTURAL COMMITTEEE IN THE AESH FRAMEWORK.". In: Journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract

There is an increasing need to incorporate into agricultural research an element of community participation. Community involvement in the identification of problems and solutions is seen as the key to adoption ands adaptation of new technologies. These two processes have been identified as crucial for sustainable agriculture and hence sustainable rural communities.

A wide gap exists between researchers in the various institutions and the farmer. Yet the latter is the end user of the products thereof. This is an approach to the top-down approach to agricultural extension where extension agents tell farmer's what ought to be done with little regard to the farmers experience and circumstances. Participatory action research (PAR) techniques bridge the gap between the farmer's experiences and the research/extension services. It enables analysis of problem situations and opportunities by farmers and researchers in a participatory and inclusive process. Within the agro-ecosystem health framework PAR is the process that generates a farmer driven demand for research and technology development. This paper describes how PAR is being used in an integrated assessment of agricultural communities in Kiambu agro-ecosystem.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS. "STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PROCESSED KENYAN HONEY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PREVALENCE OF BESNOITIOSIS IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
A preliminary survey of besnoitiosis in domestic ruminants in Kenya based on field and farm visits, clinical and post mortem examinations and histopathological of tissues and biopsies showed that goats are the most affected followed by cattle, while sheep were unaffected. Caprine besnoitiosis occurred in a continuous belt in five of the 8 provinces in Kenya stretching from the Coast, Eastern, North Eastern, Nairobi and Rift Valley provinces.  Mandera in the North Eastern province had the highest prevalence rate of 36%, followed by Kwale 35%, Isiolo 35% Marsabit 33%, Wajir 28%, Nairobi 265 Meru 24%, Garissa 21% Taita Taveta 18%, Embu 17%, Kitui 9%, Machakos 7%, Laikipia 3% Kajiado 2% and Turkana and Elgeyo- Marakwet 1% each. There was no significant difference (P≤0.05) between the bucks and does (18 and 18.4% respectively), but kids were less (4%) affected. Bovine besnoitiosis was found only in Tana River district with an infection rate of 11%.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CAPRINE BESNOITIOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Inoculation of cystozoites obtained from natural, chronic cases of caprine besnoitiosis produced clinical disease in goats but not in rabbits, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats or cattle. Histological examination of tissue sections from the experimental animals showed Besnoitia cysts only in goats. This, together with field observations that cattle reared together with goats having besnoitiosis do not contract the disease, suggests that the Besnoitia species that infects goats in Kenya is host-specific and is not Besnoitia besnoiti. We suggest that the name Besnoitia caprae be adapted for the pathogen.   Keywords; Besnoitia, clinical signs, conjuctiva, goats, infectivity, rabbits, rodents
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYPMHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE PTHOGENESIS,INCUBATION PERIOD AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE AFTER EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Twenty goats in two groups of 10 were injected intradermally, with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The doses of infection were 1x105 and 5x104 colony forming units for groups 1 and 2 respectively. Thereafter, a goat from each group was killed every 2-3 days and examined for gross and microscopic caseous lesions in the draining lymph nodes. Bands or zones of macrophages and polymorphonuclear granulocytes were observed on the second day of infection in both groups. Gross caseous lesions were observed from day 8 and 9 of infection respectively. Positive bacterial agglutination test and haemolysin inhibition test titres were detected after 15-17days and 20 -25 days of infection respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis is a subacute disease with an incubation period of 8-9 days but it is not detectable serologically until after 15 days of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "TRIALS OF TRAPS AND ATTRACTANTS FOR STOMOXYS SPP. (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE).". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Five blue and black cloth traps designed for tsetse were tested for their ability to catch Stomoxys spp. in Kenya. Significantly greatest catches were obtained with Vavoua traps, which then were used to compare odor baits at Nairobi Park. Acetone, lactic acid and animal urine (cow, buffalo, waterbuck, camel) or dung (rhinoceros, elephant and hippopotamus) didn’t increase catches. However, 1-oceten-3-ol dispensed at 0.2-2.0 mg/h increased catches up to 3.7-fold. Vavoua traps were highly specific for Stomoxyinae, with 80% of the catch consisting of 11 different taxa of Stomoxys as well as genera such as Prostomoxys, Haematobosca, Stygeromyia and Rhinomusca. During periods of peak seasonal abundance, up to 3,000 Stomoxys per day were collected in an octenol-baited Vavoua trap. These high catches suggest that Vavoua traps may be of practical use for fly control in isolated settings at a relatively low cost.
Kiambi S, Mwangi EM, Kamucha GN. "Reduction of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM Radio Systems.". In: Institution of Engineers of Kenya conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "APPLICATION OF IMMUNOAFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY AND ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY IN RAPID DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN B1, IN CHICKEN LIVER TISSUES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract

Existing physicochemical analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in animal tissues are expensive, cumbersome, and hazardous. To offer an alternative to these methods, a novel and highly sensitive immunochemical method for the rapid detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in chicken liver tissues is described in this study. Liver tissues were homogenized with cold methanol-acetone (50:50), followed by AFB1 extraction with methanol-acetone-PBS (25:25:50). The tissue extracts were, with or without further purification by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), applied to a highly sensitive direct ELISA for determination of AFB1. The detection limits for this assay were 15 +/- 0.77 pg/mL when standards and samples were dissolved in methanol-PBS (10:90) and 17 +/- 2.0 pg/mL when methanol-acetone-PBS (5:5:90) solution was used. The average recoveries of AFB1 were 54.3 to 65.5% in artificially contaminated tissue samples at 1 to 5 ng/g. In samples spiked with AFB1 at 1 ng/g, the method had diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% for samples processed with IAC and 91.7 and 100%, respectively, for samples without IAC purification. The test was successfully applied to the detection of AFB1 in liver tissues from chickens that were experimentally dosed with AFB1. It is hoped that this test will be applicable in rapid detection of aflatoxins in poultry meats and in diagnosis of aflatoxicosis in chicken.

KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE IMPACT OF MEAT INSPECTION ON THE CONTROL OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Cases of bovine cysticercosis in the carcasses, head and heart from different establishments were analyzed for the period between 1974 and 1991. national prevalence rates showed a dramatic decline from 8.8% in 1974 to 1.1% in 1991. Provvincial prevalence rates showed a decline in the cases reported within the same period. With the coast province having a decline from 45 in 1974 to 0.5% in 1991. Other provinces showed a similar trend in the decline of C. bovis cases. The impact of meat inspection has made on the control of bovine cysticercosis and new strategies for its control are discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS SUITABLE FOR USE IN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAYS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT FROM VARIOUS SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
A method for the extraction of thermostable muscle antigens for use in enzyme immunoassays is described. The method yields antigens devoid of contaminating proteins which reduce the adsorption of the antigens on to the plate. The effect of such proteins is stimulated by the addition of gelatin. Gelatin (5 mg ml-1) results in 100% inhibition of the antigen adsorption on to the plate.   Keywords: thermostable muscle antigens, enzyme immunoassay, meat species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF AUTOCLAVED MEAT SPECIES USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) suitable for use in identification of cooked and autoclaved meat samples using antisera to thermostable muscle antigens (TMA) is described. Goat antisera to TMA of various species were tested against homologous and heterologous partially purified thermostable muscle antigens (PTMA) in an indirect EIA. Goat anti-eland and anti-cattle TMA sera were the poorest in differentiating other species PTMAs. Identification of various species PTMAs could be achieved using a battery of goat anti-TMA sera, where homologous goat anti-TMA serum fails to differentiate some of the PTMAs tested.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSTRAINTS TO AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN KIAMBU DISTRICT.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Sustainability in agriculture requires a better understanding of interactions within the production syatem. Diverse factors such as social structure, knowledge and information flow all as well as other bio[hyscical afctors interact with each other to determine agricultural productivity and sustainability. Researchers and extension agents find that they need to deal with issues that may be outside their area of specialization. An interdisciplinary approach provides a framework through which such support can be provided.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "USE OF IMMUNOASSAYS IN MONITORING MEAT PROTEIN ADDITIVES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
A review of the methods used for monitoring meat protein additives of fresh and cooked meats using physico-chemical and immunological methods is presented.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "CASEOUS LYMPHADENITIS IN GOATS: THE DOSE OF INFECTION AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "HYGIENE STATUS OF BOVINE CARCASES FROM THE THREE SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN NAIROBI, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
A survey of hygienic quality of bovine carcases from three slaugherhouses with different throughput and management was assessed using total viable counts and coliform counts from 5 sites (hindquarter, flank, brisk, forequarter and neck) on each carcass. The total viable counts showed that all three slaughterhouses were equally contaminated with bacteria exceeding 105 per cm2; the coliform counts revealed that contamination of the flank and brisket sites differed between slaughterhouses. Factors attributed to this level of contamination and their controls were discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE IMPACT OF MEAT INSPECTION ON THE CONTROL OF BOVINE HYDATIDOSIS IN KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Cases of bovine hydatidosis in the livers and lungs at post mortem from different establishments in Kenya were analyzed for the period between 1974 and 1991. The results showed a significant difference in the condemnation rates of lungs between provinces (P=0.0001) and a decline per year of 0.4% though this was not statistically significant (P=0.4). The condemnation rates of livers showed a significant difference between the provinces (P=0.0001) with a decline of 2.3%. It was only in the Rift valley province where condemnation rates for both organs did not show a decline, but instead a significant increase was observed. Other provinces had significant declines indicating that the meat inspection and condemnation of infected organs had an impact in the control of hydatidosis. Overviews of the strategies for the control of hydatidosis in Kenya are discussed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "COMPARATIVE ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES ON BESNOITIA BESNOITI AND BESNOITIA CAPRAE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Comparative transmission electron microscopy on Besnoitia besnoiti and on a strain of Besnoitia derived from goats in Kenya revealed that the two organisms differ in their pellicle, micropore, microtubules, nucleus, wall-forming body 1 (W1), amount of lipids and amylopectin. Thus the caprine besnoitia is probably a different organism and the term Besnoitia caprae should continue to be used.   Keywords; Besnoitia besnoiti, Besnoitia caprae, cystozoite, goat, ultrastructure, speciation 
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "ANALYSIS OF THE POSTMORTEM DIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS IN KENYAN CATTLE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n=30) and naturally (n=25) infected animals were used to study the reliability of meat inspection methods in Kenya. Total dissection was used as the gold standard to indicate absence or presence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was on average lower in naturally infected animals than in artificially infected calves. This was because in natural infections, there was more light infections than in experimentally infections and these could not be detected in meat inspection method. The results further confirm that in spite of the time and effort taken by meat inspectors in looking for cysticerci at predilection sites, this method is very insensitive. It was therefore recommended that more parts of the carcass not naturally inspected according to the Kenya Meat Control Act (cap 356 of 1977) for bovine cysticercosis such as the lungs, hind legs, ribs and liver need to be considered as possible and equally important predilection sites and larger areas of these predilection sites should be examined. However, other better sensitive ante-mortem diagnostic methods should be developed to assist in the integrated management of the infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "BLOOD MEAL SOURCES OF GLOSSINA PALLIDIPES AND G. LONGIPENNIS (DIPTERA: GLOSSINIDAE) IN NGURUMAN, SOUTHWEST KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
In total, 1,952 Glossina pallidipes Austen and 1,098 G. longipennis Corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern G. pallidipes and many indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required. Keywords; tsetse, blood source, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  
Kiambi EG, Mugambi MM. "FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE OF ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN PROJECTS IN IMENTI NORTH SUB COUNTY, MERU COUNTY, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017; 2(1):179-196.orphans_and_vulnerable_children_projects.pdf
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "DETECTION OF BEEF AND PORK IN FRESH AND HEAT TREATED MEAT PRODUCTS USING ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Raw and heat-treated pork and beef products were purchased from the outlets of two leading Kenyan manufacturing firms. Pure beef and pork sausages and pork sausages containing 1, 5 and 10% beef were prepared in the laboratory. Antigens from these products were extracted with phosphate buffered saline. The presence of beef and pork in these products was determined using absorbed goat antisera to cattle and pig thermostable muscle antigens in an enzyme immunoassay. The assay was able to detect beef in pork sausages at the level of 10% and 5% but not at 1%. Of the 44 commercial beef products labelled as containing only beef, 23 (52.3%) were shown to contain pork and 23 (50%) of the 46 pork products were shown to contain beef. Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens proved to be of great value in species identification not only of fresh unheated meats but also of heated (cooked, pasteurized and autoclaved) meat products in an enzyme immunoassay.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTIONS OF THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN SPECIATION OF COOKED AND FRESH ANIMAL MEATS.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "AN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM HEALTH APPROACH: AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMERS IN KIAMBU DISTRICT KANYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
This paper describes the methodology and some results obtained from an integrated assessment of smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu District Kenya, using the agro-ecosystem health approach. Participatory techniques, soft system methods, complex system theory and convectional research are used in combination. The approach is holistic, multidisciplinary and iterative. It involves designing, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the development processes. The aim is to make smallholder dairy farms sustainable. A sustainable agricultural system is one in which resource management is optimized to satisfy changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and its capacity. The approach applies the agro-ecosystems concepts of health developed both in veterinary and human health. Screening diagnosis and remediation of ecosystems pathologies are carried out in methods analogous to those in individuals and populations.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "THE USE OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL METHODS IN MEAT SPECIES IDENTIFICATION: A BRIEF REVIEW.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1989. Abstract
Meat species identification has been necessitated by cases of unfair trading where label declarations are not met; in respect to the species of origin of the meat. Advantages and disadvantages of using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoenzyme and fat analysis in speciation of raw and cooked meat are presented. Isoelectic focusing of myoglobulin seems to be the only promising method which can be adopted for use in speciation of meat. However, more research work on myoglobulin assay is needed.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "FASCIOLA WORMS, FECAL AND GALL BLADDER EGG COUNT RELATIONSHIPS IN SHEEP EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA GIGANTICA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1998. Abstract
Goats were infected intradermally with caseous pus containing between 1x105 and 5x101 colony forming units (CFU) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Animals infected with doses of equal and above 1x105 CFU of the organism developed caseous lesions in the regional draining lymph nodes. On serological examination, 3/6 animals infected with equal or less than 1x101 CFU and 2/4 infected with equal or less than 1x102 CFU had no positive bacterial agglutination and antitoxin antibody titres respectively. These results indicated that caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a highly contagious disease since relatively low doses (1x102 CFU) of C.pseudotuberculosis injected intradermally could induce CLA lesions in draining lymph nodes. The serological response in terms of rate and extent appeared to depend on the dose of infection.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF. "TRYPANOSOMIASIS AND THE CONSERVATION OF BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AT THE NGULIA RHINO SANCTUARY, TSAVO WEST NATIONAL PARK, KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
Tsetse polupations and trypanosome infections were monitored at the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary to assess the impact of trypanosomiasis on rhinoceros. High densities of Glossina pallidipes were found near a permanent spring by the Ngulia escarpment; G. longipennis and G. brevipalpis were also present in lower numbers. Infection rates in G. pallidipes averaged 3.6%, with three times as many T. vivax as T. congolense infections. T. simiae and T. brucei were present at low frequency. DNA probes revealed that all mature T. congolense infections belonged to the savanna subgroup. G. pallidipes fed on many hosts, with most meals taken from bovides and elephants. Rhino account for one of the blood meals in a small sample taken from G. longipennis. During a time of low tsetse densities (dry season), we estimated that the wild host population was acquiring seven infections per km2 per day. At lower levels of challenge, an experimental rhino became infected with T. congolense. These results are discussed in terms of future plans for the repopulation of rhino in tsetse-infested areas in Kenya.   Keywords; epidemiology, disease, Glossina, parasitology, Trypanosoma
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF BESNOITIA caprae IN GOATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjuctival inoculation of cystozoites containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between infected and non infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia infected does.Cystozoites inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born both to infected and non infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "SERODIAGNOSIS OF BOVINE CYSTICERCOSIS BY DETECTING LIVE Taenia saginata CYSTS USING A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY- BASED ANTIGEN ELISA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract
{ An ante-mortem antigen ELISA based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n=24) and naturally (n=25) infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in natural infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificially infected calves it was above14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 1 and 2 in naturally infected steers escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harboring dead cysticerci gave negative results in the assay as were the case in non infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially and natural infected calves (r=o.798
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HOST BLOOD FACTORS AND PROTEASES IN GLOSSINA MORSITANS SUBSPECIES INFECTED WITH TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
  Host blood effects on Trypanosoma congolense establishment in Glossina morsitans and Glossina morsitans centralis were investigated using goat, rabbit, cow and rhinocerous blood. Meals containing goat erythrocytes facilitated infection in G. m. morsitans, whereas meals containing goat plasma facilitated infection in G. m. centralis. Goat blood effects were not observed in the presence of complementary rabbit blood components. N-acetyl-glucosamine (a midgut lectin inhibitor) increased infection rates in some, but not all, blood manipulations. Cholesterol increased infections rates in G. m. centralis only. Both compounds together added to cow blood produced superinfection in G. m. centralis, but not in G. m. morsitans. Midgut protease levels didn’t differ 6 days post infection in flies maintaining infections versus flies clearing solutions. Protease levels were weakly correlated with patterns of infection, but only in G.m. morsitans. These results suggest that physiological mechanisms responsible for variation in infection rates are only superficially similar in these closely related tsetses.   Keywords; Glossina, Diptera, Glossinidae, Trypanosoma, lectis, proteases, goat, rabbit, cow, Diecros bicornis, choleastrol, glucosamine, erythocytes, serum
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, WAKONYU DRKANJAL. "Investigation of the risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
Kiamba A. "The role of International Relations in Teaching International Humanitarian Law.". In: An East African Perspective. Nairobi; 2007.
Kiamba A. "The Role of Women in Conflict Prevention and Peace building in the InterGovernmental Authority on Development Region.". In: IGAD meeting on the Year of Peace and Security. Nairobi; 2010.
Kiamba A. "The formulation and conduct of foreign policy in newly independent states.". In: Induction Course for Ambassadors of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
Kiamba A. "The Dragon in Africa.". In: China’s rise and emerging role in Africa Lecture of opportunity. Germany; 2012.
Kiamba A. "All the rage in Kenyan Politics.". In: Trendy tribal and politically correct ethnic identity’ Paper presented in the National Symposium on Post-Election Peace-building . Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi; 2009.
Kiamba A. "Foreign policy and political economic relations.". In: Induction course for Deputy Heads of Mission from the Republic of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
Kiamba A. "The role of ambassadors in the support of negotiation leaders.". In: Paper presented at the Induction Course for Ambassadors of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
Kiamba A. "Women, Development and Representation.". In: Perspectives on Political leadership’ Paper presented to Forum for The Brazilian-African Women and their Challenges in this Millennium. Brazil; 2008.
Kiamba A, Mwagiru M. "Post referendum challenges for Southern Sudan.". In: Confronting Internal and Regional Negotiations’. Mombasa; 2010.
Kiamba A. "Diplomatic missions and international political economy.". In: Induction Course for Ambassadors of South Sudan. Mombasa; 2012.
Kiamba A. "Leadership and Governance in Africa.". In: Enhancement of the Study of international Relations in Africa. Nairobi; 2006.
Kiamba A. "Resolving electoral conflict.". In: A New Agenda for the African Union’ ISS Monograph. Institute of Security Studies Monograph; 2010.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "Dietary exposure to mycotoxins within the Kenya dairy value chain and the role of gender.".; 2015.
Kiama TN, Grace D, EK K’ethe, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ. "Kenya dairy farmers perception of moulds and mycotoxins and implications to exposure to aflatoxins: a gendered analysis. t." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:11106-11125(16):11106-11125.
Kiama TN, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Ochungo P, Waithanji EM, Lindahl J, EK K'ethe, D. G. "How qualitative studies and gender analysis can add value to the assessment of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya.".; 2013.
Kiama TN, Lindahl JF, Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Waithanji EM, Ochungo PA, Poole EJ, EK K'ethe, Grace D. "Farmer Perception of Moulds and Mycotoxins within the Kenya Dairy Value Chain: a gendered analysis.". 2016.
Kiama SG, Adekunle JS, Maina JN. "Comparative in vitro study of interactions between particles and respiratory surface macrophages, erythrocytes, and epithelial cells of the chicken and the rat. .". In: Journal of Anatomy 213:452-63. Elsevier; 2008. Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya

Kiama SG, Maina JN, Bhattacharjee J, Weyrauch KD. "Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted eagle owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus):.". 2001. Abstract

Abstract The pecten oculi is a highly vascularized and pigmented organ that overlies the optic disc and projects into the vitreous body in the avian eye. First reported over 300 years ago, its function(s) remains a puzzle to ornithologists, ophthalmologists and anatomists. Morphometric study of this unique organ was undertaken in birds exhibiting apparently different visual acuities, namely two species of diurnal birds (the ground-dwelling domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus and a highly active predator bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and a nocturnal bird (the spotted-eagle owl Bubo bubo africanus). The volume of the owl's eye was 4.8 and 2.2 times larger than that of the fowl and the kite, respectively. However, the pecten of the fowl consisted of more pleats (16±18) compared to the kite (12±13) and the owl (5±6). The volume of the pecten of the kite was 1.4 and 2.7 times larger than that of the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the surface area of the pecten of the kite was 2.6 and 4 times larger than that of the fowl and owl, respectively (P < 0.05). The volume density of blood vessels (lumen and wall) in the pecten of the kite, fowl and owl comprised 67.7%, 66.9% and 62.6%, respectively, the pigmented tissue constituting the rest. Both the volume density and the volume of the blood in the pecten were higher in the diurnal birds (kite, fowl) than the owl (P < 0.05). The surface area of the capillary luminal surface was 1.7 and 5.3 times higher in the kite than in the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the functional morphology of the pecten correlates with the life-style of the bird and with functional need, and lends further support to the nutritive role of the pecten

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Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Maina JN, Weyrauch KD, Gehr P. "A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.". 1998. Abstract

The luminal surface of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, was examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the blood vessels are generally of two types, the small-calibre capillaries and the large-calibre afferent and efferent vessels. The luminal surface of the efferent blood vessels possesses a few low microplicae. Conversely, the luminal surface of the afferent blood vessels is characteristically smooth except at the cell junctions and at the point of entry into the capillaries. The cells junctions are marked by low ragged ridges while the luminal surface is studded with low sparse pleiomorphic microprojections at the point of capillary emergence. The luminal surface of the blood capillaries is characterised by a labyrinth of closely disposed microplicae that projects into the lumen. These microplicae show no particular orientation with respect to either the longitudinal or transverse axis of the capillary. Instead, they are diffusely orientated. It is conjectured that such a heterogeneous design of the endothelium in the blood vessels of the pecten oculi has developed in order to augment the role of the pecten in the transport of nutrients to the avascular neural retina by an energy saving diffusion process. The process through which the design of the microfolds affects haemodynamics and their putatite role in facilitating the delivery of nutrients are discussed in the perspective of the available data

Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Oduma JA;, Kaluwa CK. "Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya."; 2013. Abstract

Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

Kiama W. Alcohol Related Deaths Amongst Drivers, Passengers, Pedestrians Andcyclists In Nairobi.; 2008. Abstract

Introduction
Alcohol and its effects on persons have use in both civil and criminal
litigation. In terms of civil matters alcohol has impact in the insurance
industry as relates to road traffic accidents, personal accidents claims
and also life insurance claims. Excessive alcohol has been blamed as a
cause of many deaths resulting from road traffic accidents, assault, stab
.wounds, crime and drowning (I).This has been taken to be so. This has
largely remained unverified by scientific research in Kenya.
The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence of alcohol related
deaths in road traffic accidents by measuring alcohol levels in vitreous
humor. Clinical studies have been conducted in this area but there has
not been a forensic pathology study in this area.
Hypothesis
Most deaths of road users in Nairobi are alcohol related.
Study Objects
The study objectives were broadly to determine alcohol related deaths
amongst drivers, passengers, pedestrians and cyclists between January
2007 and March 2007, specifically to determine the presence and levels
of exogenous alcohol levels in vitreous humors of dead bodies from road
traffic accidents; to determine the presence of microorganism in vitreous
humor as a marker of presence of endogenous alcohol and so as a
quality control and to establish the prevalence of alcohol related deaths
in road traffic accidents.
Study Design
A descriptive cross sectional study
Study setting
The study was conducted at the City Mortuary in Nairobi. It is the
biggest mortuary in Nairobi and receives most of the deceased persons
involved in road traffic accidents in Nairobi and its environs.
Methodology
The study subjects consisted of dead bodies of those who died due to
road traffic accidents in Nairobi and were selected consecutively.
The study involved collection of vitreous humor from the deceased
persons.
The sample for alcohol estimation was put into a fluoride bottle
which was tightly closed and sealed with cellotape and transported in a
cooler box and stored at -4 degrees Celsius until time of analysis.
The samples for microbiology were inoculated immediately at the site of
collection into Robertson's cooked media, sobourrounds dextrose agar
media and blood agar.
Results
The study established that out of the 101 subjects 21 had presence of
alcohol in the vitreous humor. Of the 21 subjects 6 had microorganisms
grown from their vitreous humor and were excluded from further
analysis. Exogenous alcohol was therefore established in 15 subjects
which was 15.8%.
The class of persons involved were distributed as passengers
who were 7 out of a total of 36 (46.7%), cyclists who were 3 out of a total
of 24 (20%),pedestrians who were 3 out of a total of 24 (20%) and drivers
2 drivers out of a total of 17 (13.3%).Amongst the males sampled 22.9%
had exogenous alcohol while amongst the females those that had
exogenous alcohol were 16.1%.
Conclusion
The prevalence of exogenous alcohol in bodies from road traffic
accidents was 15.8% this would form a basis for social interventions.
Passengers contributed a larger percentage of the class of persons
involved. The total percentage of death from road traffic accidents was
40% for pedestrians and cyclists.
Recommendations
There is need to structure roads to provide space for pedestrian and
cyclists to reduce contact with motor vehicles. Drivers and passengers
composed 60% of those found to have exogenous alcohol it is therefore
recommended that there be policies on alcohol intake and driving which
would set the legally acceptable drink and drive levels.

Kiama TN, Rita Verhelst, Mbugua PM, Mario Vaneechoutte, Hans Verstraelen, Estambale B, Temmerman M. Characterisation of the vaginal microflora during the menstrual cycle of HIV positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya.; 2011.
Kiama SG, Maina JN, Bhattacharjee, Weyrauch KD. "Functional morphology of the pecten oculi in the nocturnal spotted eagle owl (Bubo bubo africanus), and the diurnal black kite (Milvus migrans) and domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus.". 2006. Abstract

the pecten oculi is a highly vascularized and pigmented organ that overlies the optic disc and projects into the vitreous body in the avian eye. First reported over 300 years ago, its function(s) remains a puzzle to ornithologists, ophthalmologists and anatomists. Morphometric study of this unique organ was undertaken in birds exhibiting apparently different visual acuities, namely two species of diurnal birds (the ground-dwelling domestic fowl Gallus gallus var. domesticus and a highly active predator bird, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and a nocturnal bird (the spotted-eagle owl Bubo bubo africanus). The volume of the owl's eye was 4.8 and 2.2 times larger than that of the fowl and the kite, respectively. However, the pecten of the fowl consisted of more pleats (16–18) compared to the kite (12–13) and the owl (5–6). The volume of the pecten of the kite was 1.4 and 2.7 times larger than that of the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, the surface area of the pecten of the kite was 2.6 and 4 times larger than that of the fowl and owl, respectively (P < 0.05). The volume density of blood vessels (lumen and wall) in the pecten of the kite, fowl and owl comprised 67.7%, 66.9% and 62.6%, respectively, the pigmented tissue constituting the rest. Both the volume density and the volume of the blood in the pecten were higher in the diurnal birds (kite, fowl) than the owl (P < 0.05). The surface area of the capillary luminal surface was 1.7 and 5.3 times higher in the kite than in the fowl and the owl, respectively (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the functional morphology of the pecten correlates with the life-style of the bird and with functional need, and lends further support to the nutritive role of the pecten.

Kiama SG;, Mbaria JM;, Oduma JA;, Kaluwa CK. "Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya."; 2013. Abstract

Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

Kiaira JK, Njogu RM. "Comparison of glycolysis in intact and digitonin-permeabilized bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Digitonin has been used to permeabilize bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma brucei. Such permeabilized parasites revealed a fully-functional glycolytic pathway which catabolized glucose and some phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates. Glucose-starved bloodstream trypomastigotes revealed saturation kinetics with a glucose Km = 0.6 mM and Vmax = 150 natom O/min per 10(8) for intact parasites; Km = 4 mM and Vmax = 100 natom O2/min per 10(8) for permeabilized parasites. Glucose oxidation in intact parasites was stimulated 40% by addition of 3 micrograms digitonin/10(8) parasites. Higher concentrations of digitonin than this inhibited the glucose oxidation. Ten millimolar phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) inhibited the rate of O2 consumption by permeabilized trypanosomes respiring on glucose under aerobic conditions by 50%. It is proposed that glucose oxidation is apparently limited by transport across trypanosomal plasma membrane, and phosphofructokinase is regulated by PEP levels. It is concluded that permeabilization of trypanosomes with digitonin might offer a closer physiological condition for the study of the regulation of glycolysis by using glycolytic intermediates and other chemical compounds which would otherwise not be transported across the membrane(s).

Kiai Wambui, Kiiru Samuel MNUW. The Challenges of Media Training and Practice in East Africa.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; 2009.
Kiai Wambui, Mwangi Wagaki B. HIV/AIDS and the Land Issue in Kenya: A Research Report. South Africa: FAO; 2002.
Kiai W, Muhoro N. Conference On Regional Security Issues In The Age Of Globalisation. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation &Institute for Diplomacy and International Studies; 2004.
Kiai W. The media and corruption: A research report. Nairobi: Clarion; 1995.
Kiai W. Culture, Communication and Development. Nairobi: African Itinerant College on Culture and Development; 2000.
Kiai W. "A Checklist for Environmental Writers in Kenya.". In: ACCE-Kenya Chapter training workshop on Environmental Writing. Nairobi; 1997.
Kiai W. Workshop On Politics Of Transition In Kenya. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation & University of Nairobi, Department of Political Science and Public Administration; 2002.
Kiai W. Media and Wildlife Conservation: A Research Report. Nairiobi: Clarion; 1995.
Kiai W, Mukaindo S. Report of the Proceedings of the Third Joint Review Meeting of GJLOS. Nairiobi: Governance, Justice, Law and Order Reform Programme; 2005.
Kiai W, Mubuu K, Mitullah WV. "Inheritance and Women and Resource Management.". 1999.Website
Kiai W. "Media Functions in HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management in Africa.". In: Media and HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa: A Resource Book. UNESCO; 2000.
Kiai W. An Analysis of Planning and Implementation of HIV and AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya. Prof. Siimiy Wandibba PIN, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.abstract.doc
Kiai W. "Utilising Research methods in Environmental Reporting.". In: training workshop of the Indigenous Information Network (INN) for Journalists from the ASAL regions, in Nairobi. Nairobi; 1998.
Kiai W. "Status Report of the SOJMC Capacity Building Efforts.". In: Capacity Building for Potential Centres of Excellence in Journalism Training in Africa. Grahamstown, South Africa; 2008.
Kiai, Wambui and Ngugi M. Voices of Media Veterans: Reflections over 70 Years on Communication and Media in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Kiai W, Mubuu K, Mitullah WV. "Inheritance and Women and Resource Management.". 1999.Website
Kiai W. Report of the Meeting for Development of a National Plan against Corruption. Nairobi: Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs; 2005.
Kiai W. HIV/AIDS and Communication among the Youth in Nairobi . Nairobi: AAWORD-Kenya; 2000.
Kiai W. "The Role of Media in Debt Management.". In: the EcoNews Africa (ENA) / Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA) workshop on Debt Management. Nairobi; 1997.
Kiage D, Irfan N, Gichuhi S, Karim D, Nyenze E. "The Muranga Teleophthalmology Study: Comparison of Virtual (Teleglaucoma) with in-Person Clinical Assessment to Diagnose Glaucoma." Middle East Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;20(2):150-7. Abstracthttp://www.meajo.org

Purpose: While the effectiveness of teleophthalmology is generally accepted, its ability to
diagnose glaucomatous eye disease remains relatively unknown. This study aimed to compare
a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with clinical slit lamp examination to screen for
glaucoma among diabetics in a rural African district.

Materials and Methods: Three hundred and nine diabetic patients underwent both the clinical
slit lamp examination by a comprehensive ophthalmologist and teleglaucoma (TG) assessment
by a glaucoma subspecialist. Both assessments were compared for any focal glaucoma damage;
for TG, the quality of photographs was assessed, and vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR) was
calculated in a semi-automated manner. In patients with VCDR > 0.7, the diagnostic precision
of the Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) C-20 screening program was assessed.
Results: Of 309 TG assessment photos, 74 (24%) were deemed unreadable due to media
opacities, patient cooperation, and unsatisfactory photographic technique. While the
identification of individual optic nerve factors showed either fair or moderate agreement, the
ability to diagnose glaucoma based on the overall assessment showed moderate agreement
(Kappa [κ] statistic 0.55% and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.62). The use of FDT to
detect glaucoma in the presence of disc damage (VCDR > 0.7) showed substantial agreement
(κ statistic of 0.84 and 95% CI 0.79-0.90). A positive TG diagnosis of glaucoma carried a 77.5%
positive predictive value, and a negative TG diagnosis carried an 82.2% negative predicative
value relative to the clinical slit lamp examination.

Conclusion: There was moderate agreement between the ability to diagnose glaucoma using
TG relative to clinical slit lamp examination. Poor quality photographs can severely limit the
ability of TG assessment to diagnose optic nerve damage and glaucoma. Although further
work and validation is needed, the TG approach provides a novel, and promising method to
diagnose glaucoma, a major cause of ocular morbidity throughout the world.

Key words: Glaucoma, Optic Neuropathy, Slit Lamp Examination, Teleglaucoma,
Teleophthalmology

Kiage D, Kherani IN, Gichuhi S, Damji KF, Nyenze M. "The Muranga Teleophthalmology Study: Comparison of Virtual (Teleglaucoma) with in-Person Clinical Assessment to Diagnose Glaucoma." Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol.. 2013;20(2):150-157. Abstract

PURPOSE:

While the effectiveness of teleophthalmology is generally accepted, its ability to diagnose glaucomatous eye disease remains relatively unknown. This study aimed to compare a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with clinical slit lamp examination to screen for glaucoma among diabetics in a rural African district.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Three hundred and nine diabetic patients underwent both the clinical slit lamp examination by a comprehensive ophthalmologist and teleglaucoma (TG) assessment by a glaucoma subspecialist. Both assessments were compared for any focal glaucoma damage; for TG, the quality of photographs was assessed, and vertical cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR) was calculated in a semi-automated manner. In patients with VCDR > 0.7, the diagnostic precision of the Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) C-20 screening program was assessed.

RESULTS:

Of 309 TG assessment photos, 74 (24%) were deemed unreadable due to media opacities, patient cooperation, and unsatisfactory photographic technique. While the identification of individual optic nerve factors showed either fair or moderate agreement, the ability to diagnose glaucoma based on the overall assessment showed moderate agreement (Kappa [κ] statistic 0.55% and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.62). The use of FDT to detect glaucoma in the presence of disc damage (VCDR > 0.7) showed substantial agreement (κ statistic of 0.84 and 95% CI 0.79-0.90). A positive TG diagnosis of glaucoma carried a 77.5% positive predictive value, and a negative TG diagnosis carried an 82.2% negative predicative value relative to the clinical slit lamp examination.

CONCLUSION:

There was moderate agreement between the ability to diagnose glaucoma using TG relative to clinical slit lamp examination. Poor quality photographs can severely limit the ability of TG assessment to diagnose optic nerve damage and glaucoma. Although further work and validation is needed, the TG approach provides a novel, and promising method to diagnose glaucoma, a major cause of ocular morbidity throughout the world.

Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: experience in East Africa.". In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).; 2008.agv_poster_arvo.pdf
Kiage DO, Damji FK, Gichuhi S, Gradin D. "Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant: Experience in East Africa." Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009;16(3):157-161. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: To describe short term outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve [AGV] implantation in East African patients.Materials and Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series we reviewed eyes of Black African patients with refractory glaucoma, treated consecutively with Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation, in two centers in Kenya between January 2006 and October 2007.Results: About 25 cases including 18 [72%] pediatric eyes and seven [28%] adult eyes were identified. Results have been presented with a median follow-up of two months with inter-quartile range [IQR] of one to 12 months. intraocular pressure [IOP] was reduced from a mean of 36.4 mmHg preoperatively to 16.7 mmHg and glaucoma medications were lowered from a mean of 1.32 before surgery to 0.2 after surgery. The success rate during short term follow-up was 79%. The mean visual acuity dropped slightly from 6/18 pre-operatively to 6/24. There was only one major complication of an extruded, infected valve in a child.Conclusions: The Ahmed Valve Implant is safe and effective in lowering IOP for the short term in pediatric and adult East African patients with refractory glaucoma. Further studies with more patients and longer term follow-up are needed in this population.Key words: Aqueous Rainage Devices, Glaucoma Surgery, Intraocular Pressure

Khroda PO; MGRACG;. "Municipality of Mombasa and It's Environs: A Study in Urban and Regional Planning." Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research and IFRA; 2012.
Khogali KA, Odhiambo JW, Owino JO. On smoothing of some climotological variables.; 2002.

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