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Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara A, Karanja P, Kennedy O. "INFLUENCE OF STRATEGIC CONTINGENT ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS ON PERFORMANCE OF LARGE MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN KENYA." International Journal of Strategic Management and Current Business Studies.. 2016;5(1):35-49 .allan_kihara_karanja_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Opondo F, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara, A, Harries, AD, Bissell K, Kizito W, Van Den Berg, R, Mueke, S, Mwangi, J.W., Sitene, JC, Gathara, D, Kosgei, RJ, Kiarie, J.W, Gichangi. "Antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes in a safe motherhood health voucher system in rural Kenya: 2007-2013." 2007-2013. PHA 2015; . 2015;5(1):23-29.
Kihara P, Schröder H. "A relevance-theoretical analysis of aspects of Mchongoano." Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol 2, Department of Linguistics and Languages, University of Nairobi:63-78.
Kihanya, Oonge, Dulo. "Refinement of Gas generation estimates from anaerobic Lagoons." IOSR Journal of mechanical and Civil Engineering. 2017;14(5).
Kigwilu, P. C. A& WJ. "Resource utilization and curriculum Implementation in community colleges in Kenya." International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET. 2017;4(4):369-381.
Kigondu CS NPM:, et al. "A Survey of Knowledge of Family Planning (FP)Methods among Kenyan Medical Doctors: Secondary Data Analysis: ." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 1995;11(1):31-36.
Kigera JW;, Gakuu LN. "Incidence of early post operative surgical site infection after primary total hip arthroplasty in the African setting.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Implant orthopaedic surgery is associated with a risk of post operative Surgical Site Infection (SSI). This can have devastating consequences in the case of arthroplasty. Due to the less than ideal circumstances under which surgery is conducted in Africa, there are concerns that the risk of SSI may be high. Objective: To determine the incidence of post operative SSI after primary total hip arthroplasty. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: All primary total hip arthroplasties done from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed. The incidence of infection was determined on follow-up of the patients. The study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. Results: The overall incidence of post operative SSI was 1.5%. Co-morbidities identified were not associated with an increased risk of infection. Increased duration of surgery and increased body weight were also not found to increase the risk of post operative SSI. Conclusion: The risk of post operative SSI after total hip arthroplasties is low in the African setting. Further investigation is recommended to identify modifiable risk factors that may increase the risk of SSI. Key words: Post operative, Surgical site infection, Arthroplasty, Primary total hip

Kigera JWM, Kimpiatu P. "Incidence of Early Post Operative Infection after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty at an East African Centre." Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(2):70-72.
KIGERA DRJENIFFERNJERI. "Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners.Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meier AS, Waiyaki PG, Nguti R, Njeri JN, Holmes KK. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun;33(6):361-7.; 2006. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously examine associations of bacterial vaginosis (BV) with potential risk factors in both the female and her male partner. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited women 18-45 years of age and their male partners from clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. All underwent face-to-face standardized interview physical examination, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis serologic testing, endocervical cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV by Gram stain and trichomoniasis by culture. RESULTS: Of 219 women, 97 (44%) had BV. BV was significantly associated by univariate analyses with women's own risk factors (young age, being unmarried, early sexual debut, more than 1 sexual partner, lifetime, rectal sex, trichomoniasis, HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, with low socioeconomic status [SES]) and also with male partners' characteristics (HIV infection, and by principal components analysis, low SES, and poor hygiene). In multivariate analysis including risk factors from both genders, the odds of having BV was 5.7 times higher if either partner was HIV seropositive, 13.2 times higher if the female had trichomoniasis, 2.5 times higher if the female had more than 1 sex partner ever, and decreased with increasing age of the female. CONCLUSION: In this population, characteristics of males and of females were independently associated with BV. Close association of male hygiene and male HIV status precluded distinguishing the influence of male hygiene on partner's BV.

Kigera JWM, Kimpiatu P. "Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11(1):16-18.blood_loss_in_thra.pdf
Kigera JWM. "Shoulder Injuries.". In: AFEM Handbook of Acute and Emergency Care. Cape Town, South Africa: African Federation for Emergency Medicine; 2014.
Kigen B, Omondi-Ogutu J, Machoki M, i Gichang P. "Abnormal cervical cytology among women in a rural Kenyan population – Narok district." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2006;18:113-118.
Kigen B, Omondi O, Machoki M, Gichangi P. "Knowledge attitude and practice of safe motherhood among women attending antenatal clinic in a rural district-Narok." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr.. 2006;19:17-24.
Kigen C, Abungu DNO. "Voltage Controller for Radial Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal Of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(3).
Kieti RM, Ogolla W. "Hedonic valuation of apartments in Kenya." Property Management. 2021;39(1):34-53. Abstract

Emerald Publishing Limited, UK.

Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Kieti RM, Rukwaro RW, Olima WA. "Affordable Housing in Kenya: Status, Opportunities and Challenges." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(1).
Kiemo K, Leseni B. "Mobile Money Services and Entrepreneurial Development in Rural Communities: The Case of the Agricultural Kikuyu and Pastoral Maasai Communities in Kenya.". In: IMTFI Annual Conference 2011 . Institute for Mooney, Technology and Financial Inclusion, University of California, Irvine, USA; 2012.
Kiema JB, Kipkemei A, Karanja FN, Musyoka SM. "Using Geoinformatics to Identify Suitable Middle to Long Distance Athletics’ Training Sites in Kenya. ." International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching.. 2006;2(4):473-484.
Kiema JBK. "Remote Sensing Application Supporting IWRM in Kenya.". In: Kenya: A Natural Outlook: Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards, Developments in Earth Surface Processes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2014.
Kiema JBK, Siriba DN, Ndunda R, Mutua J, M. MS, B. L. "Microwave Path Survey Using Differential GPS." Survey Review. 2011;43(323):451-461.
Kiema JBK, Dang´ana MA, Karanja FN. "GIS-Based Railway Route Selection for the Proposed Kenya-Sudan Railway: Case Study of Kitale-Kapenguria Section.". 2007. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a procedure developed for automated railway feasibility analysis based on GIS and Multi-Criteria analysis. Good engineering railway alignment requirements are assessed and suitable factors and constraints for feasibility analysis derived. Relevant digital map layers are then prepared and reclassified to meet the factor and constraint requirements. The layers are weighted and combined giving rise to a cost layer. Combination of the source and cost layer generates CostDistance and CostDirection layers. These two layers are combined with the destination to automatically generate four alternative routes each constrained to pass through apriori selected locations along the corridor from which the most optimal one is selected. This study aptly demonstrates that GIS is an indispensable and efficient tool for use in railway route selection.

Kiema JBK, Siriba DN, Ndunda R, Mutua J, Musyoka SM, Langat B. "Microwave Path Survey Using Differential GPS." Survey Review. 2011;43(323):451-461.
Kielty CM, Sherratt MJ, Shuttleworth AC. "Elastic fibres." Journal of Cell Science. 2002;115:2817-2828. AbstractWebsite

Elastic fibres are essential extracellular matrix macromolecules comprising an elastin core surrounded by a mantle of fibrillin-rich microfibrils. They endow connective tissues such as blood vessels, lungs and skin with the critical properties of elasticity and resilience. The biology of elastic fibres is complex because they have multiple components, a tightly regulated developmental deposition, a multi-step hierarchical assembly and unique biomechanical functions. However, their molecular complexity is at last being unravelled by progress in identifying interactions between component molecules, ultrastructural analyses and studies of informative mouse models.

Kidula NA, Kamau R, Ojwang SB, Mwathe EG. "A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii district, Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kisii District in the western part of Kenya between April 1 and April 28, 1991, with the objectives of ascertaining the attitude of nurses towards induced abortion, patients, and their involvement in abortion. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. All nurses present at the various institutions were recruited. A total of 218 nurses were recruited into the study. 75-83% were married, female nurses younger than 40, and therefore in the reproductive age group. 134 (61.5%) nurses were Protestant and 51% worked in the government district hospital. The nurses displayed a deficient knowledge of all aspects of induced abortion. Among clinically safe methods only intraamniotic saline instillation and dilation and curettage were mentioned by 4% and 11%, respectively. This deficiency in knowledge may be explained by the fact that most nurses work in the government hospitals, where induced abortion is not a routine procedure. Only 26-28% of the nurses thought it was safe to induce abortion at 1 and 2 months of gestation. 31-43% either did not know or were uncertain. Abortion is illegal in Kenya except when the life of the mother is in danger. Most nurses seemed to favor the law. A previous study in Nairobi revealed that only 38% of the nurses favored abortion on demand under a liberalized abortion law. 24 (11%) of nurses admitted to have induced abortion before. Their knowledge of induced abortion needs to be improved in order to prevent an increase in mortality and morbidity associated with improperly performed abortions

Kidula NA, Kamau R, Ojwang SB, Mwathe EG. "A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion among nurses in Kisii district, Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kisii District in the western part of Kenya between April 1 and April 28, 1991, with the objectives of ascertaining the attitude of nurses towards induced abortion, patients, and their involvement in abortion. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. All nurses present at the various institutions were recruited. A total of 218 nurses were recruited into the study. 75-83% were married, female nurses younger than 40, and therefore in the reproductive age group. 134 (61.5%) nurses were Protestant and 51% worked in the government district hospital. The nurses displayed a deficient knowledge of all aspects of induced abortion. Among clinically safe methods only intraamniotic saline instillation and dilation and curettage were mentioned by 4% and 11%, respectively. This deficiency in knowledge may be explained by the fact that most nurses work in the government hospitals, where induced abortion is not a routine procedure. Only 26-28% of the nurses thought it was safe to induce abortion at 1 and 2 months of gestation. 31-43% either did not know or were uncertain. Abortion is illegal in Kenya except when the life of the mother is in danger. Most nurses seemed to favor the law. A previous study in Nairobi revealed that only 38% of the nurses favored abortion on demand under a liberalized abortion law. 24 (11%) of nurses admitted to have induced abortion before. Their knowledge of induced abortion needs to be improved in order to prevent an increase in mortality and morbidity associated with improperly performed abortions

Kidombo HJ, Kidombo PK. "The faces of corruption.". 2004.
Kidata GN, Nderitu JH. "Survey, biology and control of agromyzid beanflies in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The common beans are the most widely grown pulses in Kenya. They are intercropped with such crops as maize, sorghum, cassava, in high and low potential areas. They are consumed as green leaves, green pods and dry beans and form an economic source of protein to the bulk of Kenya population. However, despite their importance as a major source of protein, their yields are variable for a number of reasons. One of the major limitations to obtaining high yields include insect pests. Among the pests of the beans, certain agromyzid beanflies have been reported to cause heavy losses to beans in Kenya. The control measures for the beanflies include mainly seed treatment with aldrin or dieldrin. However, these insecticides are being withdrawn because of their persistence in the environment. Therefore, the objectives of the research project are as follows: 1) to map the distribution of beanflies in bean growing areas in Kenya in four cropping seasons. 2) to identify the losses of common beans due to beanflies in farmers fields in four seasons. 3) To relate the biology of beanflies to the growth stages of the common beans grown in the field for two seasons. 4) to determine the effectiveness of the insecticides and natural enemies in the control of beanflies on common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 5) to investigate the incidence of beanflies and its natural enemies in different cropping patterns of common beans grown in the field for four seasons. 6) To evaluate soil, seed, foliar and spray treatments for control of beanflies. The project will evolve an integrated control strategy of beanflies for the poor resource farmer. The results will be obtained by undertaking a survey in farmers fields, field and laboratory experiments at the research centres. The cost for all the research activities will be U$12,588. The project is expected to take two years

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Use of educational Technology in schools. Case of ivory coast.". In: Paper read at the international seminar on Evaluation of Educational programmes, at the Univesity of southmpton,U.K. in June, 1977. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator And His Society.". In: A seminar paper given at the center of African studies, university of Edinburgh Jan.1978. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Apaper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "A Textbook of Oral Literature,S Kichamu Akivaga ,A Bole Odaga. (Heinemann Education Books, 1981).". In: Paper presented at workshop on vocational Training in Nyeri 3rd . Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Literature and NationalBuilding; The Kenya Teacher , Dec. 1974.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1974. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Local Authorities in Kenya (H.E.B.) . forthcoming.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "A Study of George Orwell.". In: Paper read at the international seminar on Evaluation of Educational programmes, at the Univesity of southmpton,U.K. in June, 1977. Elsevier; 1976. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The Adult Educator and His Leaerner-1977.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Teaching of African literature in schools vol.1 Edited by Eddah Gachukia and Kichamu Akivaga, K (Kenya Literature).". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult education, Conscientization and National Development.". In: A paper read to the law Society Kenya, Conference held in Kisumu in October, 1979. Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Training for participation and development.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education, the individual, and society; Darlite March, 1972.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1972. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and political culture, S.K. Akivaga.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Political currents in african Literature.". In: Delivered at machakos T.T.C. ON 18TH June .1975. Elsevier; 1975. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Adult Education and National Building.". In: Based on speech given at Bushangara school in Jan. 1977. Elsevier; 1977. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Educational reform and Social Change, Aspects of Educational Changes in Kenya, 1963-1991 Unpublished M.Sc. thesis of university of Edinburge, Sept.,(1978).". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Social change and Educational reform.". In: A paper delivered as a public lecture in Kisumu, Kakamega and Kitale in Jan. 1979. Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "The university and National Development, The Nairobi Times 23rd August 1980.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1980. Abstract
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KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Possibilities of using V.P. to solve some of the rural unemployment problems.". In: Paper presented at workshop on vocational Training in Nyeri 3rd . Elsevier; 1984. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Politics, Religion and development.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1975. Abstract
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and with Kibwana ECK, Wanjala S, Mute: L. " The Case for an Ombudsman in Kenya. ." Nairobi. CLARIPRESS; 1998.
Kibwage IO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Mugo HN. "Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Dombeya torrida (J.F. Gmel) and Hydnora abyssinica (A. Braun)." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(2303-9841):14-18.abstract.pdf
Kibwage IO, Kaimenyi JT, Migosi D. "Quality performance of metronidazole tablet products on the Kenyan market.". 1991. Abstract

The in vitro performance of metronidazole tablet product by different manufacturers avallable on the Kenyan market was evaluated. It was found that a number of generic metronidazole tablet products have quality performance equal to that of FlagylR-the Innovator product. All products confirmed to pharmacopoelal speciflcations, Three products with percent weight loss of 1.4, 11.08 and 14.93 fulled the crucial friability test, for multidose packs. Two products failed the dissolution test releasing 46.8% and 45.8% of drug In 40 minutes. Drug release from tablet was found to vary between batches for one product. Ageing appears to decrease amount of drug released from tablets but longer storage periods and more samples are required before def1nlte conclusions are drawn

Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. "Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):577-80. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K.Maloba, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE)." East Afric. J. Bot. 2(1): 279-289. 2011.
Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Kibwage IO, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Separation of erythromycin and related substances by high-performance liquid chromatography on poly (styrene-divinylbenzene) packing materials.". 1985. Abstract

A comparative evaluation of three brands of polyrstyrene-divinylbenzene) co¬polymers, Hamilton PRP-I (10 ,um), Rogel (8 ,um) and TSK-Gel (10 Jim), as column packing materials for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of eryth¬romycins is presented. Erythromycins A, Band C, anhydroerythrornycin A, eryth¬rornycin A enol ether, Nvdcmcthylerythromycin A, anhydro Nvdemethylerythro¬myci n A and Nvdemethylerythromycin A enol ether were chromatographed. The effects of column temperature, concentration of organic modifier in the mobile phase, concentration of phosphate buffer, the addition of quaternary ammonium salts and pH are described. The best separations were obtained on TSK-Gel with the mobile phase acetonunle-methanot-uz M tetramethylammonium hydroxide pH 8.0-0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0-water (30:15:25:5:25). PRP-l and Rogel gave equally good separations but with higher retention volumes .

Kibwage IO, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karume DW, K. M, Maitai CK. "Pharmacological screening of extracts of Clematis brachiata THUNBERG (RANUNCULACEAE).". 2011.
Kibwage IO, J.W. M. "Quality Control of Herbal Medicines." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):27-30.
Kibwage IO, Janssen G, Busson R, Roets E, Hoogmartens J, Vanderhaeghe H. "Preparative high performance liquid chomatography on straight silica gel of fermentatio liquor of Streptomyces erythreus.". 1984.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

Kibwage IO, francis njiiri, O'Malley G, Baird S, Ojoome V, Kiarie J, Davies LD. "Evolution of a Multiuniversity Monitoring and Evaluation Technical Working Group." Academic Medicine. 2014;89(8):110. Abstractevolution_of_a_multiuniversity_monitoring_and_evaluation_technical_working_group.pdf

Background: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of large-scale government and donor investments is essential for tracking quality improvement, documenting lessons learned, and measuring returns on investment. M&E becomes particularly salient when interventions are also large in scale and unproven, as is the case with the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). Through the Principal Investigators' Council, MEPI institutions observed that many schools faced similar challenges in M&E and that there was a need for more collaboration across programs. In response, an M&E Technical Working Group (TWG) was established in 2012, more than two years after the onset of MEPI, to facilitate interaction across the 13 MEPI institutions. The TWG was composed of M&E leads from each school, with technical support from the MEPI Coordinating Center (George Washington University and the African Center for Global Health and Social Transformation), the University of Nairobi, and the University of Washington.

Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality Control of Herbal Medicines." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2005;8:27-31.
Kibukho K, Kidombo H, Gakuu C. "The influence of gender in the relationship between Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, and Citizen Empowerment.". In: 1st DBA-Africa Management Review International Conference. Nairobi; 2015.
KIBUKA-SEBITOSI E, KAAYA GP. "The potential of lectins in the prevention and control of tick-borne diseases.". In: PARSA 2006. Windhoek, Namibia; 2006.
Kibui AW. "Stakeholders' perspective on disciplinary problems in Kenya's secondary schools." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5(5):95-102.
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
Kibui AW. "Determinants of the girl child participation in secondary school education in Central Division of Mandera East District Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research, University of Nairobi. 2012;Vol V, No. 1, 2011(ISSN 2079-3383):p. 130.
Kibui AW, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, Mwaniki B, Kahiga R. "Health Policies in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030. International Journal of Educational Science and Research." International Journal of scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol.2 No. 1:127-134 .
Kibui AW, Kahiga R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, Mwaniki BK, Mwaniki I. "Health Policies in Kenya and the new Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2015;2(1):127-134.
Kibui AW, Bradshaw G, Kibera L. "Conflict Management as a Tool for Restoring Discipline in Kenyan Public Secondary Schools." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol. 1 (3):1-10 .
Kibui AW. "The Influence of the Church in Enhancing Peaceful Co-Existence among African Communities ." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2016;4(4):11-16.
Kibui AW. "Influence of School Environment on student's performance in Kenyan Secondary Schools." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;6(4):2295-2300.
Kibui AW. Resolving Conflict in Kenya's Schools: Theory And Practice. Germany: LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2016.
Kibui A, Mugo R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, N. M, N M. "Heath policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research, and Innovative Technology, . 2016;2(1):127-134.
Kibui AW. Reading and Comprehension i the African Context-Cognitive Enquiry. Limuru, Kenya: Zapf Chancery Publishers African Ltdl; 2012.
Kibui AW. "The Proficiency in English Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension in Kenyan Secondary School Learners." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research, University of Nairobi. 2010;Vol. IV, No. 1, 2010(ISSN 2079-3383):p. 22.
Kibui AW, Kahiga R, Gichuhi L, Mwaniki B, Ngesu L, Nyaga G. "Multicultural Education as a Mechanism for Promoting Positive Ethnicity in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;Vol. 2. No. 3:9-17.
Kibui AW, Gavin B, Kibera L. "Conflict Mitigation in Enhancing Discipline in Kenya’s Secondary Schools." DBA Africa Management Review. 2014;4(2):1-13.
Kibui AW, Logarmuthie L. "Language Policy in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research- ISSN: 2249-8052. 2014;Vol.4 :89-98 .
Kibui AW. "Pedagogical implications of Hedging in the Discussions of Medical Research Discourse, BEST." International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 2016;4(2):75-82.
Kibui AW. "Education as a Vehicle for Socio-Economic Change in Kenya." AMECEA, Gaba Publications. 2010;54(1 & 2 ).
Kibui AW, Muasya JN. Module on Distance and Open Learning . TEC 108-Health and Safty for pre-schools; 2012.
Kibui AW. TEC 108: Health and Safety for Preshcools. NAIROBI: Centre for Distance and Open Learning; 2012.
Kibui AW, Logan A, Mwaniki B. "Gender Equity in Education Development in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;1(2):1-13.
Kibui AW. "An Analysis of Kenyan Learners’ proficiency in English Based on Reading." JOURNAL OF NELTA. 2012;Vol 17 No. :1-2.
Kibui AW. "The Role of the Church in Enhancing Multicultural Education for Positive Social Development in Kenya." AMECEA- Gaba Publications: African Ecclesial Review- AFER. 2014;Vol. 56.No.4:376-397.
Kibui AW. "Conflict mitigation as a mechanism of promoting religious tolerance for peaceful social cohesion in Africa." International Journal for Management, Information Technology and Engineering . 2016;4(5):41-48.
Kibui AW. "Pedagogical implication of schemata on reading comprehension in the English language." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2017;5 (4):89-94.
and Kibugu J.K., Makumi J.N. NKGMJJNJM. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by aflatoxin B1 in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense." Protozool. Res. 19. 2009:24-33.
Kibugu J.K., Ngeranwa J.J. MGKMMMJNJK. "Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by ochratoxin A in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. ." Parasitology.. 2009;136(3):273-281.
Kibugi R, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C, Gift R. Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Adaptation to climate change in smallholder agriculture in Kenya: the role of law.". In: Research Handbook on Climate Change and Agricultural Law. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Mineral Resources and the Mining Industry in Kenya.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2008.
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya.". In: Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences.; 2016:. Abstract
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Kibugi EW. "Susceptability of Candida albicans isolates to miconazole and ketoconazole.". 2002. Abstract

To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design: Retrospective descriptive study Study setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm. Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate.

Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "10. Enhanced access to environmental justice in Kenya." Environmental Law and Sustainability after Rio. 2011:158. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Common but differentiated responsibilities in a North-South context: assessment of the evolving practice under climate change treaties.". In: Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited; 2018:. Abstract
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Kibugi R, Makathimo M, Mwathane I. Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties . Nairobi: Land Development and Governance Institute ; 2016. Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

Kibugi R. "Evaluating the Role of Private Land Tenure Rights in Sustainable Land Management for Agriculture in Kenya.". In: International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy 2016. Springer, Cham; 2017:. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Development and balancing of interests in Kenya." The balancing of interests in environmental law in Africa. 2011:191. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Enhanced Access to Environmental Justice in Kenya: Assessing the Role of Judicial Institutions.". In: Environmental Law and Sustainability After Rio. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; 2011.
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
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Kibugi R, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C, Gift R. Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Implementing Stewardship in Kenyan Land Use Law: The Case for a Sustainability Extension.". In: Environmental Governance and Sustainability . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar; 2012.
Kibugi R. "Legal Options for Mainstreaming Climate Change Disaster Risk Reduction in Governance for Kenya." Adaptation to Climate Change: ASEAN and Comparative Experiences. 2015:409. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "A Failed Land Use Legal and Policy Framework for the African Commons? Reviewing Rangeland Governance in Kenya." Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law. 2009;24(2):310-336.
Kibugi R. "14. Implementing stewardship in Kenyan land use law: the case for a sustainability extension." Environmental Governance and Sustainability. 2012:288. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "New Constitutional Environmental Law in Kenya: Changes in 2010." IUCN Academy of Environmental Law e-Journal. 2011;2011 (1):136-142.
Kibugi R, Wardell AD, Cordonnier-Segger M-C, Haywood C, Gift R. Enabling legal frameworks for sustainable land-use investments in Tanzania: Legal assessment report. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia; 2015. Abstract
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Kibugi R. "Development and Balancing of Interests in Kenya.". In: Balancing of Interests in Environmental Law in Africa . Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press; 2012.
Kibore. B, Gitao. CG, Sangula A, Kitala. P. "The Epizootiology of Foot and Mouth Disease in high risk zones in Kenya." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(9):129-154.kibore_vol29.pdf
Kibore B, Gitao C.G, Sangula A, P. K. "Porcine FMD Sero-prevalence in Kenya and its potential effect." American Journal of Research Communication. 2014;2(10):105-126.kibore_2.pdf
Kibore B, Gitao CG, Sangula A, Kitala P. "Foot and Mouth Disease Sero-prevalence in Cattle in Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2013;5(9):262-268.FMD jvm kibore.pdf
Kibore MW, Daniels JA, Child MJ, Ruth Nduati, Njiri FJ, Kinuthia RM, O'Malley G, John-Stewart G, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Kenyan medical student and consultant experiences in a pilot decentralized training program at the University of Nairobi." Educ Health (Abingdon). 2014;27(2):170-6. Abstract

Over the past decade, the University of Nairobi (UoN) has increased the number of enrolled medical students threefold in response to the growing need for more doctors. This has resulted in a congested clinical training environment and limited opportunities for students to practice clinical skills at the tertiary teaching facility. To enhance the clinical experience, the UoN Medical Education Partnership Initiative Program Undertook training of medical students in non-tertiary hospitals around the country under the mentorship of consultant preceptors at these hospitals. This study focused on the evaluation of the pilot decentralized training rotation.

Kiboi S, Skogsmyr I. "Pathogen infection and selection on fertilization success in Cucumis sativus." Sexual Plant Reproduction. 2006;19:1-6. AbstractWebsite

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We investigated whether resistant pollen genotypes can be selected for when the maternal plants are infected and whether infection can result to changes in the pistil nutrient level influencing reproductive outcome. Both resistance and susceptibility come with costs that may affect pre- and post-fertilization reproductive functions. We performed the study by crossing zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant and susceptible pollen (from a hybrid donor) to infected and healthy maternal plants. We also analysed the pistil nutrient content in both treatments and found an increase of the susceptible and not resistant genotypes when maternal plants were infected. The level of nutrients K, P and S was higher in the pistils of the infected maternal plants than the healthy ones. Pistil nutrient level did not affect pollen tube growth rates, as indicated by seed siring patterns along the fruit. We propose that the effect on the siring ability of pollen carrying the susceptible and resistant alleles occurred at the post-fertilization stage, possibly as an indirect result of different growth rates of the two embryo genotypes under elevated nutrient conditions. We discuss our results with respect to possibilities of differential selection, costs and reproductive implications.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex Epidural Hematoma Manifesting with Bilateral Upper Limb Decerebrate Posture: Case Report." EAMJ. 2009;86(6):300-304. AbstractWebsite

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Kiboi JG, Muriithi IM. "Vertex epidural haematoma manifesting with bilateral upper limb decerebrate posture: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(6):300-4. Abstract

Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.

Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Angwenyi P, Mbuthia F, Sagina LS. "Predictors of functional recovery in African patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas."; 2011. Abstract

Head injury is a critical public health problem responsible for up to 50% of fatalities among trauma patients and for a large component of continuing care among survivors. Intracranial hematomas are among the most common clinical entities encountered by any neurosurgical service and have a very high mortality rate and extremely poor prognosis among traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate reliable factors influencing the functional outcome of the patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (ICHs). A retrospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients presenting at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2000 and December 2009. Following ethical approval, the records of patients admitted to the neurosurgical unit and diagnosed with traumatic ICH were retrieved and reviewed. The outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge. Data were collected in preformed questionnaires, and the coding and analysis were carried out using SPSS, version 11.5. Of the 608 patients diagnosed with intracranial hematomas during the study period, there was a clear male predominance, with 89.3% male and 10.7% female patients. Majority of the patients (49%) were aged between 26 and 45 years, whereas 5.6% and 9.4% were younger than age 13 years and older than age 61 years, respectively. The most common cause of injury was assault (48%). Good functional recovery was achieved by 280 (46.1%) of the patients in our series, whereas moderate and severe disability accounted for 27% and 6.9%, respectively. Males were more likely to have functional recovery (46.4%) than were females (43.1%), though this finding was not statistically significant (P = 0.069). The proportion of patients who achieved functional recovery seemed to decrease with increasing age. Patients who were involved in motor vehicle accidents were less likely to have functional recovery (33.7%, P = 0.003) than those who fell (53.6%). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who achieved functional recovery, with 65.2% of those who had mild head injury as compared to 46% and 15.1% (P ≤ 0.001) for those with moderate and severe head injury, respectively. Patients who had surgical intervention were more likely to achieve functional outcome (51.2%) as compared to 31.7% in those managed conservatively. Furthermore, the time elapsed from initial trauma to surgery significantly influenced outcome. The type of surgery done was not found to significantly influence patient outcome (P = 0.095). An increased risk of poor outcome occurs in patients who are older than age 61 years, have lower preoperative GCS scores, pupillary abnormalities, and a long interval between trauma and decompression. The findings would help clinicians determine management criteria and improve survival.

Kiboi SK, Otieno NE, Gichuki N, Farwig N, Kiboi S. "The role of farm structure on bird assemblages around a Kenyan tropical rainforest.". 2011.
Kiboi JG, HK Nganga, Kitunguu PK, Mbuthia JM. "Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients." Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(1). Abstract

Background: Extradural hematomas are neurosurgical emergencies and are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury. This study aimed at evaluating the current management and factors that influence outcome in patients treated for extradural hematoma in an African setting.

Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients who were admitted to the neurosurgical unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital and diagnosed with extradural hematoma between January 2007 and December 2011 were included in this study.

Results: There was a male predominance of 96.9%. The median age was 29 years. The most common cause of injury was assault (45%). Good functional recovery was achieved by 190(86.2%) of the patients in our series, whereas residual disability accounted for 6.7% and mortality for 7.1%. The proportion of patients who achieved functional recovery significantly decreased with increasing age (p=0.011). A lower GCS score at
admission was associated with a poorer outcome (p=0.032). The time elapsed from initial trauma to surgery significantly influenced outcome (p=0.007).

Conclusion: A longer duration between trauma and decompression, a low preoperative GCS score, pupillary abnormalities and those older than age 61 are poor prognostic indicators.

Key Words: Extradural hematoma, Head injury, Intracranial hematoma, Outcome

Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Angwenyi P, Mbuthia F, Sagina LS. "Predictors of functional recovery in African patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas.". 2011. Abstract

Head injury is a critical public health problem responsible for up to 50% of fatalities among trauma patients and for a large component of continuing care among survivors. Intracranial hematomas are among the most common clinical entities encountered by any neurosurgical service and have a very high mortality rate and extremely poor prognosis among traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate reliable factors influencing the functional outcome of the patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (ICHs). A retrospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients presenting at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2000 and December 2009. Following ethical approval, the records of patients admitted to the neurosurgical unit and diagnosed with traumatic ICH were retrieved and reviewed. The outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at discharge. Data were collected in preformed questionnaires, and the coding and analysis were carried out using SPSS, version 11.5. Of the 608 patients diagnosed with intracranial hematomas during the study period, there was a clear male predominance, with 89.3% male and 10.7% female patients. Majority of the patients (49%) were aged between 26 and 45 years, whereas 5.6% and 9.4% were younger than age 13 years and older than age 61 years, respectively. The most common cause of injury was assault (48%). Good functional recovery was achieved by 280 (46.1%) of the patients in our series, whereas moderate and severe disability accounted for 27% and 6.9%, respectively. Males were more likely to have functional recovery (46.4%) than were females (43.1%), though this finding was not statistically significant (P = 0.069). The proportion of patients who achieved functional recovery seemed to decrease with increasing age. Patients who were involved in motor vehicle accidents were less likely to have functional recovery (33.7%, P = 0.003) than those who fell (53.6%). There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who achieved functional recovery, with 65.2% of those who had mild head injury as compared to 46% and 15.1% (P ≤ 0.001) for those with moderate and severe head injury, respectively. Patients who had surgical intervention were more likely to achieve functional outcome (51.2%) as compared to 31.7% in those managed conservatively. Furthermore, the time elapsed from initial trauma to surgery significantly influenced outcome. The type of surgery done was not found to significantly influence patient outcome (P = 0.095). An increased risk of poor outcome occurs in patients who are older than age 61 years, have lower preoperative GCS scores, pupillary abnormalities, and a long interval between trauma and decompression. The findings would help clinicians determine management criteria and improve survival.

Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Angwenyi P, Mbuthia F, Sagina LS. "Predictors of functional recovery in {African} patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas." World neurosurgery. 2011;75:586-591. AbstractWebsite
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Kiboi JG. "Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH." Natural History and Outcome of an Aneurysmal SAH. 2013.
Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Angwenyi P, Mbuthia F, Sagina LS. "Predictors of functional recovery in African patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas." World Neurosurg. 2011;75(5-6):586-91. Abstract

Head injury is a critical public health problem responsible for up to 50% of fatalities among trauma patients and for a large component of continuing care among survivors. Intracranial hematomas are among the most common clinical entities encountered by any neurosurgical service and have a very high mortality rate and extremely poor prognosis among traumatic brain injuries.

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