Brief Resume

Christopher A. Moturi is currently a senior faculty at the Department of Computing and Informatics (formerly School of Computing and Informatics). Prior to that he served as University ICT Director from 2017 to 2019, Deputy Management Representative for ISO 9001:2015 Standard and Head of the Quality Management System from 2015 to 2021, Deputy Director, School of Computing and Informatics from 2007 to 2017.

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Mambo, SR, Moturi CA.  2022.  Towards Better Detection of Fraud in Health Insurance Claims in Kenya: Use of Naïve Bayes Classification Algorithm. East African Journal of Information Technology. 5(1):244-255. AbstractWebsite

The extent, possibility, and complexity of the healthcare industry have attracted widespread fraud that has contributed to rising healthcare costs hence affecting patients’ health and negatively impacting the economy of many countries. Despite putting up various technologies and strategies to fight fraud such as planned, targeted audits, random audits, whistle-blowing, and biometric systems, fraud in claims has continued to be a challenge in most of the health insurance providers in Kenya. This paper explored the application of data mining in detecting fraud in health insurance claims in Kenya. Classification algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree and K-Nearest Neighbour) were used to build predictive models for the knowledge discovery process. After conducting several experiments, the resulting models showed that the Naïve Bayes works well in detecting fraud in claims with 91.790% classification accuracy and 74.12% testing hit rate. A prototype was developed based on the rules extracted from the Naïve Bayes model, which, if adopted, will save costs by detecting fraud as it is committed. Fraud detection in health insurance claims is much needed in many countries so as to help reduce loss of money and in return improve service delivery to patients.

Moturi, CA, Wairimu AG.  2022.  Big data adoption in official statistics in Kenya: challenges, opportunities and determinants. Statistical Journal of the IAOS . 38(1):251–262. AbstractWebsite

The data revolution has increased data demands for leveraging on Big Data in the production of statistics. The paper assesses the adoption of Big Data in research institutes in Kenya. Data were collected from 64 data practitioners based in the 24 research institutes that have a mandate to produce and analyse official statistics. The paper establishes the risks and challenges of using Big Data in statistics, identifies the determinants of adoption of Big Data in statistics and validates the relevance of a Technology Adoption Model (TAM) for predicting the adoption. It is the conclusion that there are immense opportunities for Big Data in statistics if the associated risks and challenges are addressed and the identified key determinants prioritized to promote the adoption.


Moturi, C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D.  2021.  Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs.. International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Omwando, KJ, Moturi CA.  2021.  Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Moturi, CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO.  2021.  Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation. International Journal of Big Data Management. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

Moturi, C, Karuga E, Orwa D.  2021.  Leveraging Big Data Analytics. International Journal of Big Data Management. DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720 AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Moturi, CA, Kosgei AK.  2021.  Is Kenya ready to Leverage Blockchain Technology in Horticulture Traceability? Kenya Policy Briefs. 2(1):59–60., Nairobi: University of Nairobi


Ndungu, JM, Moturi CA.  2020.  Determinants of Mobile Fintech Uptake in Kenyan Microfinance Sector. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 39(28):102-114. AbstractWebsite

The Kenyan microfinance sector faces many challenges such as high operation costs, increased credit risk, low visibility and poor understanding of emerging technology opportunities and risks among others. These problems are persistent due to low levels of innovation and limited uptake of digital financial technologies. This research aimed to identify the determinants that influence uptake of mobile fintech and propose an appropriate model for uptake of mobile fintech within the sector. A descriptive survey of all 30 Microfinance institutions registered with Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) 2018 in Kenya was carried out. Data was collected using questionnaires from 120 respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on correlation model, this study established that technology factors (r=0.862, P<.05), environmental characteristics (r=0.387, P<.05) and organizational factors (r=0.256, P<.05) have a strong influence on the uptake of mobile fintech. Using regression model, technology factors (β=.563, P<.05), organizational factors (β=.281, P<.05) and environmental characteristics (β=.562, P<.05) all have positive and significant influence on uptake of mobile fintech. These factors include technology availability, perceived technology benefits, organization size, resources availability, and competition, regulatory and legal environment among others. Uptake of mobile fintech was found to reduce operation costs and improve business operations efficiency. Understanding of the factors derived in this study will help microfinance institutions, software developers and policy makers as they develop strategies directed at promoting successful implementation of mobile fintech.

Moturi, CA, Ogoti G.  2020.  Strengthening technology risk management in mobile money lending. International Journal of Financial Services Management. 10(3):217-238. AbstractWebsite

Innovative mobile money services have grown tremendously in the East African market. While there are positive effects of technology-enabled financial inclusion, risks exist. This study sought to strengthen the capacity of technology risk management by proposing practices and strategies that can protect the financial technology ecosystem. Applying the ISACA Risk IT Framework, data was collected in June 2019 from the leading digital lenders in Kenya. The study found that while regulated mobile lenders have an IT risk management environment that is viewed as a critical success factor, unregulated entities have minimal integration of IT risk management essentials. This study is useful to many developing countries where governments are working towards having secure and strong financial systems that contribute to the Millennium Sustainable Development Goals. Regulators and practitioners must ensure the financial technology lending ecosystem is protected from risks that could reverse gains made from witnessed developments in financial inclusion.


Ondiek, MA, Moturi CA.  2019.  An An assessment of the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya. Innovation & Management Review. 16(4):391–403. Abstract10-1108_inmr-08-2018-0058.pdf

Purpose – There has been a high rate of failure among the Living Labs in Kenya resulting in the expected
outcomes not fully realized. This paper aims to assess the sustainability of Living Labs in Kenya.
Design/methodology/approach – Based on the four capital method of sustainable development evaluation framework, data were collected through interviews and questionnaires from innovators, users and employees among the 25 living labs in Kenya.
Findings – The research found that some innovators are not familiar with the living labs, the living labs are innovative and prepared to survive in future, some labs have strategic plans on how to pursue future environment and have developed ways of choosing right people to incubate, inability to get enough funding from the host organizations and limited knowledge on the supervision level of the operations. A model is proposed that can be generalized to other living labs in developing countries.
Research limitations/implications – The study was done in Nairobi where most of the living labs are situated.
Practical implications – The study concludes by emphasizing on the user involvement during innovation process. There is need to expand the capacities of living labs to accommodate more people to ensure more innovations are supported at a time. The senior managers in charge of the living labs should increase the level of supervision to ensure that the labs are effective in their incubation efforts and institutionalize support of the host organization to the labs to ensure continued growth and expansion.
Originality/value – The findings of this study are of value to research community, the decision and policymakers as it seeks to document the current status of the living labs in the Kenya
Keywords Sustainableinnovation,Livinglabs,Innovationecosystem,Innovationlab, Innovation space, User-driven innovation


Nguru, W, Moturi CA.  2018.  Supplier Selection Process Based on Fuzzy Logic, 2018. Conference on Science and Development. , College of Biological and Physical Sciences, Chiromo Abstract

In Kenyan governmental organizations, supplier selection during procurement process is regulated by the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal act. The act requires the selection to be done on technical and financial basis, taking into consideration price, quality, time and service. The common way of selecting suppliers is by forming an evaluation committee which takes considerable time and may be characterized by biases and associated costs. Furthermore, the “quality” and “service” factors advised by the act are imprecise and subjective during an evaluation process and also challenging to quantify. This study presents an approach to help decision-makers evaluate potential suppliers by utilizing fuzzy inference system. Initially, the main quantitative and qualitative criteria used in supplier selection process in the construction service industry were identified from literatures and experts through structured questionnaires. After ranking the identified criteria, a Matlab Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was utilized to develop the selection model. The proposed model was tested using a real tender for construction works in a government office block. We realized that the proposed model makes the selection process more systematic and achieved a shorter turn-around time as compared to an evaluation committee. It was concluded that using the Fuzzy inference system resulted in an optimum solution and thus can support in decision making when selecting suppliers thus contributes to the advancement of e-procurement in supply chain management.

Wanjohi, LM, Moturi CA.  2018.  Smartphones Supporting Monitoring Functions: Experiences from Sweet Potato Vine Distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. Digital Technologies for Agricultural and Rural Development in the Global South. , Oxfordshire: CAB International


Kalui, DM, Moturi CA, Muketha GM, Tarus JK.  2017.  An Investigation into Customers' Requirements for Electronic Banking: A Case Study of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya. International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 8(2):39-54. AbstractIGI Global

There is a general consensus that governments, businesses and all individuals need to harness the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT enabled services for wider access and improved welfare standards. The requirements of MFI clients in regard to electronic banking (e- banking) have received limited attention in the reviewed literature. In Kenya, little is known and understood about the customers' requirements with emergence of e-banking. In this paper, the authors investigate the MFIs clients' e-banking requirements to align with the MFIs preparedness for sustainable success. Besides, it narrows the digital divide in provision of financial services to Kenyans. Findings from this study indicate that in Kenya, MFI clients are ready for e-banking. The paper finally recommends some possible solutions that MFIs could embrace towards successful implementation of e-banking.


Mwasambo, LM, Moturi CA.  2016.  Experience in Social Engineering by eCommerce Platforms in Kenya. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 18(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

eCommerce systems have been targeted by cyber criminals as they receive and use the money, rely on technology, outsourced services and use of payment technologies like mobile money and online banking channels to carry out their day-to-day transactions. Thisstudy sought to investigate social engineering and its mitigation in eCommerce platforms in Kenya. An existing Social Engineering Defensive Framework was adopted and its dimensions were used to create questionnaires and interview guides. The study used 30 out of the 34 pure-play eCommerce firms operating in Nairobi, Kenya. The results indicate that phishing/spear phishing as the leading threat followed by baiting/Trojan Horse, social media/fraudulent websites, search engine poisoning among others. Mitigation measures indicate organizations need to regularly check their website listing in hacking sites (such as and and periodically document and update new policies regarding social engineering and information security. This paper proposes social engineering mitigation best practices, emphasizing the need for organizations using the derived best practices and incorporating security culture.

Wanjiku, PW, Moturi CA.  2016.  Cloud Computing: Transforming Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya. IST Africa. , Durban, South Africa Abstract

Cloud Computing provides novel perspectives in internetworking technologies and has the potential to dramatically change business models. This study aimed at establishing Cloud Computing adoption in Medium and High Tech Industries in Kenya, with an ultimate intention of recommending an appropriate model for its adoption. Using questionnaires, data was collected from 126 Medium and High Tech Industries within Nairobi and interviews were conducted with 25 Cloud Computing providers. Data analysis was done using SPSS and qualitative content analysis. Approximately 70% of cloud users and providers had recognized Cloud Computing as a force that is reshaping ICT and powering innovation. The major factors influencing the adoption of Cloud Computing were identified as cost, performance and reliability of The Cloud application. After analysis of four existing models for technology adoption, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model is recommend for adoption of Cloud Computing.

Muiruri, CK, Ruhiu S, Moturi CA.  2016.  A Hybrid Algorithm for Detecting Web Based Applications Vulnerabilities. American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 4(1):15-20. AbstractWebsite

Web vulnerability scanners (WVS) are tools for discovering vulnerabilities in a web application. However, they are not 100% accurate. In this paper we develop a hybrid algorithm for detecting web based applications vulnerabilities and compare its performance with other open source WVS. The comparison is based on three metrics namely time taken to scan, detection accuracy and consistency.

Sang, J, Moturi CA.  2016.  Predicting E-Procurement Utilization in Independent Commissions in Kenya. International Journal of Applied Information Systems,. 10(5):12-17. AbstractWebsite

E-procurement has recently been introduced in the Kenyan public sector due to the many practical advantages it brings. Usage of the system is still at a very nascent stage. This paper sought to predict e-procurement utilization by analyzing the constructs of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model. The study administered a questionnaire to 229 employees of the 11independent commissions in the country. Regression analysis was done to describe the significance and the strength of relationships between variables. The analysis yielded important findings that partially support research hypotheses. The results indicated that subjective norm and reliability of the system influence utilization of the system while compatibility was insignificant. All the identified elements have correlations with the model elements and in turn impact on the behavioral intention to use the system. This study would influence government technology plans through implementation of policies that enhance adoption of emerging technologies in the public sector.

Akhusama, PM, Moturi CA.  2016.  Cloud Computing Adoption in Insurance Companies in Kenya. American Journal of Information Systems,. 4(1):11-16. AbstractWebsite

Cloud Computing allows companies to access ICT-based services (infrastructure, applications, platforms and business processes) via the Internet. Cloud Computing is still at the infancy stage in Africa. Studies have indicated a lack of cloud based awareness, even among big organizations in Africa. Kenya just like any other African market is yet to fully adopt cloud based systems due to trust and security concerns. This study aimed at identifying the extent and characteristics of Cloud Computing adoption in insurance companies in Kenya. The study assessed Cloud Computing uses in terms of productivity applications, business applications (CRM, SaaS), infrastructure on-demand (storage, network, and server), finance applications, core business application, databases and desktop. The adoption of the Cloud Computing services in insurance companies was relatively low. The results obtained would assist in providing a roadmap for the best practices to improve Cloud Computing services in the insurance industry in Kenya.

Ondego, B, Moturi CA.  2016.  Evaluation of the Implementation of the e-Citizen in Kenya. International Journal of Applied Information Systems. 10(4):13-21. Abstractondego-2016-ijais-451486.pdfWebsite

Information Communication Technology (ICT) can make a valuable contribution towards the operations of and the services offered to citizens by a government. While the benefits of e-Government initiatives and projects in Kenya cannot be disputed, there are key issues about their successful implementation. A survey about e-Government initiatives in developing countries by [42] show that 50% have partially failed, 35% have totally failed and only 15% have been successful. This research was based on a case study whose aim was to assess the implementation of the Kenya e-Citizen project. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from four ministries and the general users/citizens. The questionnaires and interview guides were created based on the six dimensions of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. An enhanced model for assessing successful implementation of ICT projects is presented. In addition to the dimensions of the model, stakeholder engagement, has been suggested. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need of stakeholder engagement during the life of any government ICT project. A strategy that would oversee awareness campaigns would be required. Other strategies required would address communication, change management and training.

Moturi, CA, Mburu R, Ngaruiya N.  2016.  A Case for Judicial Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Kenya. American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 4(1):7-14. AbstractWebsite

This aim of this study was to demonstrate how the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process can be utilized to assist the Kenyan Judiciary address challenges of data integration in its operational systems and hence provide better mechanisms for extracting data to allow easier reporting and generating judicial intelligence. The research determined the common data sources and operational systems, demonstrated, using case returns data, how the ETL process can be used to migrate data from sources to a data warehouse, proposed a framework for an ETL environment, and developed guidelines for creating a data warehouse for the Kenya Judiciary. This is in line with the Kenya Judiciary Transformation Framework that seeks to harness Information and Communications Technology as an enabler in the justice system in order to achieve expeditious delivery of justice. The practical implication of this work is the better preparation of judiciaries with limited adoption and utilization of ICT in laying the groundwork for judicial knowledge discovery.


Oronje, SL, Moturi CA.  2015.  Implementation Framework for Information Systems Policy for Fraud Control in Credit Unions. American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 3(2):18-26. Abstract

A gap exists in implementing information systems (IS) policy making it difficult to achieve desired impact of securing systems. The resultant problem is fraud which prevails in organizations even though there are documented policies. Four objectives which guided this study included: to establish the level of implementation of IS policy framework, to determine the extent of fraud occurrence on IS, to determine the potential fraud level exposure, and to identify implementation framework for IS policy. The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The targeted population consisted 43 licensed deposit taking Credit Unions within Nairobi Metropolitan Region in Kenya. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed out of which 125 were returned and validated. Results demonstrated that low level of implementation of policies leads to high fraud rate and higher chances of future occurrence of fraud. The enforcement level of the policies was realized to be directly proportional to the impact level. This indicated that the documented policies within the organizations required an implementation framework. Presence of IS policies in isolation as studied was not sufficient to control fraud in organizations. This study concluded with demonstrating use of the 6x6 Zachman’s framework to implement IS policies.

Kalui, DM, Moturi CA.  2015.  E-Readiness assessment of microfinance institutions in Kenya. Information and Knowledge Management. 5(10):61-80. Abstract

The financial industry has in recent years embraced the use of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) such as e-banking for transactions, m-banking for payment channels development and e-business for
logistics. Digital financial service delivery channels and methodologies face a number of challenges mainly the
e-readiness assessment of Microfinance institutions. This paper presents the results of a study on the level of e-
Readiness in Microfinance Institutions in Kenya and an Integrated Framework for Assessing (IFA) the e-
Readiness levels of Microfinance Institutions. We deployed the proposed framework on selected microfinance
institutions in Kenya to evaluate its performance and the case study shows our method can achieve a satisfactory

Moturi, CA, Ngugi MN.  2015.  Information and Communication Technology Talent Management Alignment with Outsourcing: Case of a Power Company in Kenya. International Journal of Services, Economics and Management. 7(1):1-23.Website
Moturi, CA, Mbithi PMF.  2015.  ISO 9001: 2008 Implementation and Impact on the University of Nairobi: a Case Study. The TQM Journal. 27(6) AbstractWebsite

This paper presents the experience and impact of implementing the ISO 9001:2008 Standard at the University of Nairobi, in relation to effectiveness on service delivery, operational performance, automation, implementation challenges and related emerging issues.

The paper adopted a case study design approach based on qualitative analysis of internal audit reports, internal surveys and feedback, surveillance audits conducted by the certifying body, and rankings by external bodies, over a period of seven years.

Significant achievements have been realized with regard to institutionalization of quality into the university processes, work environment, documentation and record management, customer satisfaction, infrastructure and facilities, use of ICT as a prime mover of performance improvement, and ranking of the university. Opportunities for Improvement as well as critical success factors are presented.

Practical implications
The paper reports successes that may encourage other institutions of higher learning that are not certified to implement quality management systems according to ISO 9001 Standard by focusing on specific factors.

This paper shows how an ISO 9001 certified Quality Management System can improve internal institutional practices and avoid frequently experienced drawbacks.

Moturi, CA, Mbiwa P.  2015.  An Evaluation of the Quality of Management Information Systems used by SACCOs in Kenya. The TQM Journal. 27(6) Abstract

Savings and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) in developing countries require core banking Management Information Systems (MISs) to run their business, serve their clients, and provide differentiated products and services to gain competitive advantage. Considering that SACCOs in Kenya lack the necessary resources to acquire the best information systems, this research sought to evaluate MISs currently in use in the SACCO subsector to determine how well they are serving.

Using the ISO/IEC 25010 Software Product Quality Model, the quality of MISs operated by 215 Deposit-Taking SACCOs in the Kenya was evaluated to determine their level of performance.

The results indicated that the MISs currently in use by the SACCOs serve them well in terms of functionality, efficiency, reliability, ease of use and portability. However, vendor support, technical training and implementation process are a big concern to the SACCOs.

Practical implications
The SACCOs in Kenya need not look for other MISs as the ones in use satisfied the condition required by the ISO/IEC 25010 Software Product Quality Model. The areas that require attention are vendor support services by entering into contracts technical training and Service Level Agreement; and good project management in software implementation.

The research addresses itself to one of the biggest setbacks faced by a fast growing subsector in adopting ICT with limited capacity and infrastructure.

Malungu, CB, Moturi CA.  2015.  ICT Infrastructure Sharing Framework for Developing Countries: Case of Mobile Operators in Kenya. International Journal of Applied Information Systems, . 9(4):17-24. Abstractict_infrastructure_sharing_framework_for_developing_-_ijais.pdf

The lack of infrastructure in Africa especially south of the Sahara is widely recognized as one of the continent’s greatest impediments to sustainable development )[(1)]. Even with this challenge, ICT operators in Kenya prefer to invest in own infrastructure despite the availability of underutilized ICT resources from other operators and players. This has led to wastage of scarce resources, high cost of services, poor quality services, environmental degradation and low investment in rural areas among others. The research sought to propose an adoption framework for ICT infrastructure sharing for mobile operators in Kenya after establishing the levels, drivers and challenges of infrastructure sharing. Data was collected from ICT staff of the four mobile operators Safaricom, Airtel, Essar and Telkom Kenya Orange across the country using a questionnaire. To supplement and increase reliability, data was also collected from other ICT stakeholders such CAK, ICTA, submarine operators, ICT vendors, KBC and non ICT related firms Equity, Barclays and Kenya Power Company. The research found out that the level of ICT infrastructure sharing among mobile operators was low at 20.4%. The five key drivers were identified as new market entrants, cost optimization, environmental conservation, operators focus on core business and network deployment to underserved and un served areas. The five main challenges were lack of regulatory framework, high capital, complexity of the sharing process, high charges by infrastructure owners and operators unwillingness to share. The TOE framework can be adopted for ICT infrastructure sharing with organizational factors having a greater influence than technology and external factors. Operator controlled infrastructure rollout had worked previously but due to changes in local and global market, there was need to change the way ICT resources were utilized. To achieve quick wins, operators had to partner with competitors by leasing and undertaking joint ventures. Infrastructure sharing was beneficial hence strategies to promote the same by use of incentives license fee and tax concessions, having a legal framework, government investment in backbone infrastructure and attracting independent firms will ensure competitiveness and a knowledge economy status

Moturi, CA, Kahonge VW.  2015.  Association Analysis of Pharmaceutical Imports in Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research. 4(6):467-474. AbstractWebsite

The objective of this study was to apply Data Mining in the analysis of imports of pharmaceutical products in Kenya with the aim of discovering patterns of association and correlation among the various product groups. The RapidMiner Data Mining was used to analyze data obtained from the Pharmacy and Poison Board, the regulator of pharmaceutical products in the country, covering the period 2008 to 2010. The CRISP method was used to get a business understanding of the Board, understand the nature of the data held, prepare the data for analyze and actual analysis of the data. The results of the study discovered various patterns through correlation and association analysis of various product groups. The results were presented through various graphs and discussed with the domain experts.These patterns are similar to prescription patterns from studies in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. The research will provide regulators of pharmaceutical products, not only in Kenya but other African countries, a better insight into the patterns of imports and exports of pharmaceutical products. This would result into better controls, not only in import and exports of the products, but also enforcement on their usage in order to avert negative effects to the citizens.

Moturi, CA.  2015.  Implementation of the ISO 9001:2008 Standard at the University of Nairobi, 7 April. 19th International Conference on ISO & TQM. , Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi Abstract

This paper presents the experience of implementing the ISO 9001 standard at the University of Nairobi, the largest university in Kenya. We present achievements of the of the University after implementing the standard in relation to effectiveness on service delivery, operational performance, use of automation, implementation challenges and related emerging issues. This is based on qualitative analysis of internal audit reports; internal surveys and feedback; surveillance audits conducted by KEBS; rankings by external bodies such as Webometric and the Government of Kenya Performance Contracting. The objective of this paper is to show how the ISO 9001 Quality Management System can improve internal institutional practices and avoid frequently experienced drawbacks.

Moturi, CA, Emurugat A.  2015.  Prototyping an Academic Data Warehouse: Case for a Public University in Kenya. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 8(6):550-557. AbstractWebsite

This study aimed at determining the gaps between university top decision makers in a public
university in Kenya and IT personnel in accessing, analyzing and reporting data. We sought to
determine an easier and quicker way to analyze data, design, and implement a solution to turn
analysis into a report with little or no help from IT department. A survey showed that the
University’s existing systems do not allow the top management to explore data, analyze data, and
create quick reports. They depend on IT personnel to access data that they need to analyze and
generate reports. As result the decision makers tend to have an uneasy relationship with IT people.
The study successfully implemented a data warehouse database composed of a single
multidimensional cube based on subject area of Fee Payment. By implementing a Business
Intelligence (BI) program based on Excel, we turned ordinary spreadsheets into a flexible, powerful,
and inexpensive BI system that gives users significant power and flexibility.

Ngaruiya, N, Moturi CA.  2015.  Use of Data Mining to Check the Prevalence of Prostate Cancer: Case of Nairobi County. IST- Africa 2015. , Lilongwe, Malawi: IIMC International Information Management Corporation Abstract

Prostate cancer has been on the rise in the past years and alarming cases being
found in men in their 20’s. The problem is that most of the cases are diagnosed in their late
stages thus the mortality rate being high. In recent years data driven analytic studies have
become a common complement with novel research where different tools and algorithms
are taking a centre stage in cancer research. In this research, the main objective was to use
data mining to derive patterns which were used in building a prognostic tool that helps in
identification of the Gleason score once screened and deciding the treatment technique. In
this research, we used two popular data mining tools (R Environment and WEKA) which
exhibited almost same results .The dataset contained around 485 records and 7 variables. In
WEKA, a 10-fold cross-validation was used in model building and comparison between
ANN and J48. The results showed that ANN is the most accurate predictor compared to
J48 in all the instances displaying varying levels in the different zones created. This study
contributes to society, academics and cancer research which ultimately assist in reduction
of mortality rates by use of pattern recognitions which leads to better decision making.
Furthermore, this is a potential impact in helping the GOK (Government of Kenya) in
establishing where they should correctly place the cancer diagnosis and treatment
equipment that were rolled out by the National government early 2015.

Mungai, VW, Moturi CA.  2015.  Effect of Information Technology Outsourcing on the Performance of Banks in Kenya: Application of the Balanced Scorecard. IOSR Journal of Business and Management . 17(3):83-89. Abstract

Purpose: The study sought to look at Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) practices in the Kenyan
banking sector and the effect it had on performance. Balance Scorecard was used to measure performance as it
considers both financial and non-financial aspects.
Design/methodology/approach: The study took the form of a descriptive survey design with a target
population of 14 commercial banks operating in Kenya. Primary data was collected from structured
questionnaires and secondary data was collected from the banks past financial records.
Findings: Thestudy revealed that Connectivity and Help desk support were the most outsourced IT functions in
the commercial banks. The study also revealed the two main drivers for ITO were strategic focus and cost
reduction. The main challenge the commercial banks faced during the ITO process was lack of a proper cost
benefit analysis and loss of control. The study further revealed that ITO has a positive and significant effect on
financial performance, learning and growth, customer satisfaction and internal processes.
Research limitations/implications: This study uses three financial firm-level performance measures ROA,
ROE, NIM. The study also didn’t t explore if different types of IT outsourcing categories have different influence
on banks’ performance.
Originality/value: The findings of the study will provide insight for managers in banking industries when
confronted with the decision of whether or not to outsource IT services in their banks. The study will also be of
importance to researchers and future scholars as it will act as a source of reference besides suggesting areas
for further studies that future scholars can research further.
Keywords: Commercial Banks,Balanced Scorecard, IT outsourcing

Wekesa, B, Miriti E, Moturi CA.  2015.  Agent-based Vulnerability Assessment of Government Web Applications. NNGT Int. J. on Internet and Web Applications. 2( International Journals of N&N Global Technology(IJNNGT)):1-6. Abstract

While most governments, including the government of Kenya, have improved their performance through allowing more information exchange using web support, there is increased spread of information crimes targeting government web applications. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection and Cross Site Scripting attack (XSS) are ranked as the two top most vulnerability attacks by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) top 10, 2013 vulnerability list. Recently there have been massive attacks on a number of websites including the government of Kenya. Agent orientation is emerging as a dominant research area and as a new paradigm in provision of solutions to problems. Agents provide developers and designers with a way of structuring applications around autonomous and communicative elements. In this paper, we present a solution that uses multi-agents to detect both SQL injection and XSS attacks vulnerabilities on web applications. The system has been developed using Java programming language and Prometheus methodology as an Agent Oriented Software. It will specifically target websites in development environment
for testing the vulnerabilities before being hosted in the production environment. We have also incorporated the testing of already hosted websites for the two vulnerabilities. The proposed system will help web developers and owners of websites to fix the vulnerabilities and enhance the entire security.


Ruugia, SK, Moturi CA.  2014.  Application of GIS Spatial Interpolation Methods in Auto Insurance Risk Territory Segmentation and Rating. 10th Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA 2014) International Conference. , School of Business, University of Nairobi: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa Abstract

Evolution in the field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has given rise to sophisticated scientific techniques for collection, analysis and visualization of location based data. These GIS analysis processes are used to reveal some critical patterns of occurrences. Due to inaccurate analysis and covering of insurance risks in Kenya, several companies have closed down prompting the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) and Association of Kenyan Insurers (AKI) set up maximum and minimum premium rates on insurance risks. The set premiums discounts are given to the insured based on records of their annual claims. The main problem here is that the rates cover the entire nation without considering the distribution of risk in various regions. The objective of the paper is to show that GIS can be used to analyse and generate auto insurance risk territories for insurance companies from which an insurance rating model can be developed. We used GIS analysis methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation, data smoothing and clustering techniques and data on auto insurance accidents and crime, geo-coded police stations, roads, socio-economic, aerial and satellite imagery for Nairobi County. A risk territory map showing the distribution of auto insurance risk and other related maps were generated. A prescriptive insurance rating model was then developed that uses generated risk territories to calculate varying rates for auto insurance premiums rates for the respective regions. This research shows that GIS techniques can be used for better visualization of risk at a given location for accurate risk analysis and uptake.

Moturi, CA, Gaitho PN.  2014.  Embracing Continuous Auditing: A Case for Public Sector in Kenya. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade. 4(11):1643-1654.
Moturi, CA, Kinuthia RM.  2014.  Mobile based Notifiable Disease Surveillance – Case for Kenya. International Journal of Computer Applications. 95(7):22-30. AbstractWebsite

Identifying infectious disease outbreaks in their early stages is an important task, both for governments and international organizations working in the health sector. This study reviewed the notifiable disease reporting systems in Kenya with an aim of understanding their strengths and weaknesses. We evaluated the performance of the present notifiable disease reporting systems, assessed the preparedness of the disease notifiers for the task of reporting notifiable diseases, assessed the readiness of people who participate in disease reporting in the use of computers and mobile systems in disease surveillance, and we developed a mobile based disease surveillance prototype that can report and analyze notifiable disease data to recognize disease outbreaks early. The study targeted medical personnel who presently participate in the reporting and analysis of notifiable disease data in the Nairobi Metropolitan Region. Mobile systems are best to improve the disease reporting and analysis process because of their low cost, widespread use and minimum training required.

Mwagha, SM, Waiganjo PW, Moturi CA, Masinde EM.  2014.  Intelligent System for Predicting Agricultural Drought for Maize Crop. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research. 2(4):51-54.solomon_mwagha_-_intelligent-system-for-predicting-agricultural-drought-for-maize-crop.pdf
Atieno, LV, Moturi CA.  2014.  Implementation of Digital Village Projects in Developing Countries - Case of Kenya. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 4(5):793-807.
Moturi, CA, Karugu GC.  2014.  Embracing Contingency Planning for University Information Resources. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 4 (3):492-509.


Musika, F, Moturi CA.  2013.  Spatial Visualization and Analysis of Tuberculosis infection Case of Kitui County. ESRI Eastern Africa User Conference. , Kenyatta University: ESRI Abstract

The importance of using technology such as Geographic Information System (GIS) in the study of spread diseases and its support decision making, health planning and management has brought a paradigm shift from traditional social medicine to a new technology empowered public health care. The growth of medical informatics, decreasing cost in computer systems and availability medical geo-referenced data can be harnessed and integrated with GIS technology to help study Tuberculosis (TB) Epidemiology. This project was informed by these emerging new developments and the need of information of interest to epidemiologist, to come up with user friendly GIS based model to capture, store, analyze, visualize and manage TB in Kitui County. The study models data from five TB management units. The data comprised mainly of secondary data obtained from registers and quarterly reports. The physical addresses of the facilities and the participants were converted into GIS coordinates and exported to ArcGIS/ R-GIS for visualization and analysis. The study showed evidence of high prevalence of TB in major towns, along the major road, and densely populated areas. High death rate was registered not only in high populated areas but also in areas with poor facility coverage. It also showed correlation between the rate of TB infection and HIV, high death rate (8%) and rate ofHIV and that 29% of all TB patients with HIV. Further there was evidence of lack criteria in allocation of TB diagnostic and treatment centers and related services

Moturi, CA, Kinu GG, Kahonge AM.  2013.  A Process Model for Enterprise Application Integration: Case for a Customs Department.. . International Journal of Applied Information Systems . 6(2):1-16.ijais_published_paper.pdf

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