Publications

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Submitted
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
2013
Keeffe J, Mwanthi M, Mesurier RL, Hillary R, Jefitha K. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to. estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". 2013. Abstract

Introduction A survey to determine the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (Tl] requires a large sample size and the recommended participant age is 2': 15 years. This study sought to establish the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in Tl surveys. Methods Data from six previous surveys of adults 2': 15 years old were reanalysed. Results Reanalysis indicated that 69.6-93.3% (average 87.0%) of untreated n occurred in those aged 40+ years and 52.2-86.7% (average 73.1%) in those aged 50 + years (age 2':50 years is used in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness). Age 2':40 years was adopted in a Tl survey conducted in Turkana district because it allowed a smaller sample size than age 2':15 years. Conclusions The estimated backlog of untreated Tl in people aged 2':40 years old in Turkana was 5932 and the overall n backlog was likely to be 6358-8523. These findings cannot be generalised because all surveys were carried out in the same country.

2012
Tomedi A, Mwanthi MA, Tucker K. "A strategy to increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants in Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

To increase the number of deliveries with skilled birth attendants (SEAs) in Kenyan health facili┬Čties, with assistance from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). MetllOds: In the Yatta district of Kenya, TEAs were recruited to attend meetings in which they were encouraged to educate pregnant women about the importance of delivering in health facilities; they were offered a small stipend for each pregnant woman they brought to a facility for SBA delivery. The primary outcome was the percentage of prenatal care patients who delivered at intervention health facilities compared with control facilities. Results: During the year preceding the intervention, 102/524 (19.5%) and 413/2068 (20.0%) prenatal care patients had SBA deliveries at intervention and control facilities, respectively, During the t-year study period, 217/440 (49.3%) prenatal care patients delivered at intervention health facilities and 415/1995 (20.8%) delivered at control facilities (P

2011
Smith C, Mwanthi MA. "Tick-borne disease - changing patterns a nd effective interventions.". 2011. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases are an important cause of morbidity and occasionally mortality, with infection usually passing zoonotically from animal hosts to humans. The nature and extent of tick-borne disease can change in distribution as a result of changes in habitat, vectors and reservoirs, as well as through host population movement and alterations in agricultural, industrial and leisure activities. The diseases are also sensitive to climate and may therefore either decrease or increase under the effects of climate change. These dynamically changing patterns of disease, along with increased international travel, mean that medical practitioners need to be aware of the potential diagnosis of tick-borne disease as there can be serious clinical consequences of misdiagnosis or delayed detection.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "A Community Health Worker Program for the Prevention of Malaria in Eastern Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Stromberg DG, Frederiksen J, Hruschka J, Tomedi A, Mwanthi M.; 2011. Abstract
Objective: To assess whether the development and implementation of a community health worker (CHW) project in rural Kenya was associated with an increase in knowledge about malaria and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in children under five years of age.Methods: A baseline knowledge and behavior questionnaire, adopted from the Kenyan Demographic Health Survey, was conducted in August 2007 by Kenyan health officials in 75 villages. Two CHWs were chosen from each village and trained in appropriate use of ITNs. The CHWs provided educational sessions and ITNs to mothers in their respective villages. A follow-up survey was conducted in March 2008 of all families with children less than five years of age within randomly selected villages. The main questions addressed during the follow-up survey included knowledge about malaria and the practice of correctly using ITNs.Findings: There were 267 surveys compiled for knowledge assessment before the intervention and 340 in the post-intervention analysis with an approximate 99% family participation rate. Of the families surveyed, 81% correctly knew the cause for malaria before the study and 93% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01). Of those surveyed before the intervention, 70% owned and correctly used mosquito nets compared with 88% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01).Conclusions: There was a significant increase in knowledge about malaria and use of ITNs after the implementation of the CHW program. Keywords: Community health aides, insecticide-treated bednets, malaria/diagnosis, malaria/prevention andcontrol, Kenya, rural health services, infant, child/preschool, questionnaires
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Angelo Tomedi, Felisha Rohan-Minjares, Kate McCalmont, Rebecca Ashton, Rose Opiyo, Mutuku M; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
2010
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Hruschka, JA, Tomedi AJ, Broudy BW, Frederickson J, Stromberg DG, Schmitt, C L and Mwanthi, MA. Effectiveness of Community Health Care Workers in the Prevention of Diarrhea in Rural Kenya. Journal of Investigative Medicine, Vol.58. NO.1, Jan 2010.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Role of Employers and Stakeholders in Control of Occupational Hazards. Submitted in January 2010 to African Journal for Community Health and Development.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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2009
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Blood Lead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract

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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "BloodLead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. MBChB Community Health Diagnosis Programme Perspective.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A.Factors Contributing to Recurrent Water Shortages in Nairobi City.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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2008
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Evaluation of a Portable Blood Lead Analyzer as an Alternative to Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption SpectrophotometerTom M. Olewe*; Mutuku A. Mwanthi; Joseph K. Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2008), Vol. 10:483-487. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Odindo MA, Mwanthi MA.Role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among HIV/AIDS persons in Kibera, Kenya.East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5.". In: East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Prevalence of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School Children in Nairobi City. Mwanthi, M.A., Kinoti .M; et al.". In: East African Journal of Public Health, Vol. 5. NO. 2. 2008. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
2007
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "MPH Curriculum and Health Promotion Course.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Challenges on Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Africa at the African management Communication.". In: Hilton Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. MPH Curriculum and Health.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination Among HIV/AIDS Persons in Kibera, Kenya,.". In: Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Status and Future of Applied Epidemiology Course for Anglophone (African) countries.". In: Benin. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
2006
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. .". In: UNIDO-RENPAP Workshop, BOGOR, INDONESIA, 18-20 Sept.2006. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
2005
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
2002
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth Ngugi, Violet Kimani, Mutuku Mwanthi and Joyce Olenja, Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings:.". In: A Framework for Action,WHO (Book publication ). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth, N., Kimani, V.N., Mwanthi, M.A. and Joyce O.Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication).". In: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication). 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N. Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Pesticides as Occupational Health Hazards in the Kenya Flower Industry.". In: Workshop Organized by the International Labor Organization, Kenya Human Rights Commission and The Workers Rights Organization, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M. and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumias District. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. .Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
2001
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Occupational Diseases and Other Related Health conditions.". In: Workshop Organised by Kenya Medical Association, Serena Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y. Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001.". In: Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y.Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line:.". In: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
2000
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. A safe adequate water supply and basic sanitation.". In: Health for All at The Year 2000: Wishful Thinking or Realistic Goal, 5-7 April 2000, Silver Springs, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
1998
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1998. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
1997
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A and Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
1996
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Exposure to pesticides through drinking water in a rural community in Kenya.". In: International& Family Health Seminar, School of Public Health, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Presence of three pesticides in rural drinking water sources in Kenya.(.". In: A doctoral dissertation, April 1996) School of Public Health Library, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
1995
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Control of spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Burns Units. Muthotho JN, Waiyaki PG, Mbalu M, Wairugu A, Mwanthi B, Odongo B. Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72:531-535, 1995. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Justification for senior environmental health specialists in Kenya.". In: International Seminar on "Environmental,Sustainable Development and Human Health". Banaras, Hindu University,India. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

1994
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals: Potential health hazards in Africa.". In: Africa Health,6:18-19, 1994. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1994. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

1993
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya. Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Emerging effects of industrial revolution on 29 1993 Health and environment in developing countries.". In: Tanzania Public Health Association & the East Southern and Central Africa Public Health Association, Arusha, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

1992
Mwanthi MA. "International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2,84-88 (1992).". 1992. Abstract

Like other developing areas of the world, Africa is undergoing social, political, and economic changes. These developmental changes have provided important benefits, but have also produced significant impacts on the environment. Industrialization and agricultural mechanization have introduced new environmental hazards to the African environment. Rapid population growth and development have produced significant impact on the environment and health. This paper reviews -the literature on the impact of development on the African environment and health and suggests feasible solutions that can be initiated to decrease degradation and pollution of the environment to minimize resulting risks to health.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. "Kenya: An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pesticide Handling at community level,".". In: International Family Health Seminars at The University of Texas, School of Public Health, USA. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Africa: The changing Environment and Health. International.". In: Journal of Environmental Health Research, 2:84-88, 1992. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

1990
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Health hazards of pesticides. Mwanthi MA, Kimani VN. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430.". In: World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, N.V. Pesticides hazards.". In: An International Journal of Health Development WHO; Geneva, 11:430, 1990. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

1989
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1 ).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

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