CTO 203 Hospitality Management

Kyule MD. CTO 203 Hospitality Management. Nairobi; 2008.

Type of Work:

Lecture module for the Center for Open and Distance Learning (CODL), University of Nairobi.


Lecture series: CTO 203 – Hospitality Management

In collaboration with
CTO 203 : Hospitality Management

WRITTEN BY: Mwanzia D. Kyule REVIEWED BY : Gilbert K. Wafula and E. Irandu EDITED BY :

Table of contents
Course Introduction

Lecture 1: Introduction to Hospitality and Tourism management

1.1 Lecture objectives
1.2 Nature of hospitality management in tourism
1.2.1 Tourism
1.2.2 Tourist
1.2.3 Hospitality
1.2.4 Management
1.2.5 Travel
1.2.6 Recreation
1.2.7 Leisure
1.3 Tourism in Kenya
1.4 Review Questions
1.5 Further reading

Lecture 2: Business Organization

2.1 Lecture objectives
2.2 Basic forms of business ownership
2.2.1 Sole proprietorship
2.2.2 Partnership
2.2.3 Corporation
2.3 Units of business management
2.3.1 Human Resources
2.3.2 Finance Internal Audit
2.3.3 Risk management
2.3.4 Marketing and sales
2.3.5 Operations
2.3.6 Customer service
2.3.7 Procurement
2.3.8 Research and Development
2.3.9 Information Technology
2.4 Organizing a business
2.4.1 The size and scope of the business
2.4.2 Limited liability

2.5 Formation of the business policy
2.5.1 Implementation of policies and strategies
2.6 Managerial levels and hierarchy
2.6.1 Senior management
2.6.2 Middle management
2.6.3 Lower management
2.6.4 Foreman
2.6.5 Rank and File
2.7 Review Questions
2.8 Further reading

Lecture 3: Nature and structure of management

3.1 Lecture objectives
3.2 Nature of managerial work
3.2.1 Planning Purpose of Plan Planning Tools
3.2.2 Organizing
3.2.3 Leading
3.2.4 Coordinating
3.2.5 Controlling
3.2.6 Innovating
3.3 Management structure
3.3.1 Human resources management
3.3.2 Facilities management
3.3.3 Operations management
3.3.4 Strategic management
3.3.5 Marketing management
3.3.6 Entertainment Management
3.3.7 Financial Management
3.4 Review Questions
3.5 Further reading

Lecture 4: Background to Tourism management

4.1 Lecture objectives
4.2 Tourism movers
4.2.1 Package holiday
4.2.2 Free Independent Traveler

4.2.3 Vacation
4.3 Tourism Facilitators
4.3.1 Tour Companies
4.3.2 A tour operator
4.3.3 Travel agency
4.3.4 Travel consolidators
4.3.5 Tour guide
4.3.6 Commissions
4.4 The Internet threat
4.5 Review Questions
4.6 Further Reading

Lecture 5: Tourism Accommodation

5.1 Lecture objectives
5.2 Types of tourism accommodations
5.3 The Hotel sector
5.3.1 Resort Hotels
5.3.2 Historic hotels
5.3.3 Unusual hotels
5.3.4 World record setting hotels
5.3.5 Stars classification
5.4 Catering
5.4.1 Restaurant
5.5 The Entertainment Enterprise
5.5.1 Nightclub
5.6 Accommodations Management
5.6.1 Management tasks
5.6.2 Reception
5.6.3 Concierge
5.6.4 Reservations and Bookings
5.7 Review Questions
5.8 Further reading

Lecture 6: Tourism Transport

6.1 Objectives
6.2 Air Lines
6.2.1 Ticket price considerations
6.2.2 Airline partnerships
6.2.3 Management structure of Airline personnel

6.3 Cruise Lines
6.4 Reservation systems
6.4.1 Passenger information system
6.4.2 Recent developments
6.5 Fleet management
6.5.1 Vehicle Tracking
6.5.2 Mechanical Diagnostics
6.5.3 Driver Behavior
6.5.4 Fleet Management Software
6.5.5 Fleet Security and Control
6.6 Review Questions
6.7 Further Reading

Lecture 7: Tourism Destination

7.1 Lecture objectives
7.2 Destination Management Approach
7.3 Community based management
7.4 Tourism carrying capacity
7.5 Physical carrying capacity
7.6 Economic carrying capacity
7.7 Social carrying capacity
7.8 Biophysical carrying capacity
7.9 Review Questions
7.10 Further reading

Lecture 8: Marketing

8.1 Lecture objectives
8.2 Levels of marketing
8.2.1 The Four Ps
8.2.2 Seven Ps
8.3 Product development
8.3.1 Packaging
8.3.2 Trademarks
8.3.3 Brands
8.3.4 Pricing
8.4 Product Delivery channels
8.4.1 Agents

8.5 Marketing communications
8.6 Direct marketing
8.7 Channels
8.7.1 Direct mail
8.7.2 Telemarketing
8.7.3 E - mail Marketing
8.7.4 Couponing
8.7.5 Direct selling
8.7.6 Promotion
8.8 Marketing ethics
8.9 Review Questions
8.10 Further reading

Lecture 9: Advertising

9.1 Lecture objectives
9.2 Objectives of advertising
9.3 Functions of advertising
9.4 Primary steps in an advertising campaign
9.5 Advertising Media
9.6 Types of advertising
9.61 Covert advertising
9.6.2 Television commercials
9.6.3 Billboard Advertising
9.6.4 Freelance Advertising
9.6.5 Newer Web based advertising Web based advertising Mobile phone advertising
9.7 Advert tracking
9.8 Ethics in advertising and promotion
9.9 Review Questions
9.10 Further reading

Lecture 10: Public Relations and publicity

10.1 Lecture objectives
10.2 Methods, tools and tactics
10.2.1 Audience targeting
10.2.2 Lobby groups
10.2.3 Spin
10.2.4 Meet and Greet

10.2.5 Interactive PR
10.2.6 Other techniques
10.3 Publicity
10.4 Review Questions
10.5 Further reading

Lecture 11: Marketing management

11.1 Lecture objectives
11.2 Activities and functions
11.3 Marketing research and analysis
11.4 Marketing strategy
11.5 Implementation planning
11.6 Marketing plan
11.7 Organizational management and leadership
11.8 Measurement, feedback and control systems
11.9 Review Questions
11.10 Further reading

Lecture 12: Business crisis management

12.1 Lecture objectives
12.2 Crisis management
12.3 A Framework for crisis management
12.4 Crisis Management Planning
12.5 Contingency Planning
12.6 Business Continuity Planning
12.7 Review Questions
12.8 Further reading

Lecture 13: Ethics in Hospitality Management

13.1 Lecture objectives
13.2 Ethics in hospitality management
13.3 Review Questions
13.4 Further reading

Course Introduction

The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, (UNCED) – also known as the Rio Earth Summit, identified Travel and Tourism as one of the key sectors of the economy which could make a positive contribution to achieving sustainable development. The Earth Summit led to the adoption of Agenda 21, a comprehensive program of action adopted by
182 governments to provide a global blueprint for achieving sustainable development. Travel and Tourism is the first industry sector to have launched an industry-specific action plan based on Agenda 21.

Tourism is the world’s largest industry and creator of jobs across national and regional economies. Jobs generated by Travel and Tourism are spread across the economy - in retail, construction, manufacturing and telecommunications, as well as directly in Travel and Tourism companies. Tourism is also one of the most effective drivers for the development of regional economies.

Tourism is able to contribute to development which is economically, ecologically and socially sustainable, because it:
• has less impact on natural resources and the environment than most other industries;

• is based on enjoyment and appreciation of local culture, built heritage, and natural environment, consequently, the industry has a direct and powerful motivation to protect these assets;
• can play a positive part in increasing consumer commitment to sustainable development through its unparalleled consumer distribution channels; and
• provides an economic incentive to conserve natural environments and habitats which might otherwise be allocated to more environmentally damaging land uses, thereby, helping to maintain bio-diversity.

Tourism continues to experience rapid growth particularly in the developing world.

This course presents basic concepts of management, and terminologies in hospitality and tourism management. The study of tourism is introduced to the reader and the relationship between hospitality and management established.

The purpose of this course is to provide you with appropriate knowledge and skills to progress into management careers within the tourism sector. These sectors include tourism transportation, facilitation, accommodations and entertainment.

General unit objectives

At the end of course, you should be able to manage facilities and enterprises such as airlines, tour agencies, tour operations, hotels, cruise ships, sport events, theme parks, catering, cinemas, live music venues, museums, art galleries, and night clubs, among others.

Along with having the knowledge and skills needed to become small business entrepreneurs, graduates are prepared for employment as:

• recreation managers for communities and non-profit organizations (i.e. recreation, sport governing bodies and cultural organizations)
• facility managers in sport, recreation and cultural facilities

• program planners in tourism and outdoor recreation education

• small business managers

• special event planners

• parks and recreation coordinators and directors

• tour guides

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