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Mwanzia D. KYULE Introduction

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Profession: Archaeologist /Paleoanthropologist ; training and work experience in Information and computing technology (ICT), Curriculum development, Capacity building, e-learning and Distant education, Tourism.

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Publications


In Press

Kyule, MD, Oyamo M.  In Press.  Cultural resource management in Kenya: a case for legislation review. Kenya from Independence to early 21st century. , Nairobi: Nairobi University Press Abstract

This paper builds a case for a reconsideration of Kenya’s legislation that relates to cultural and societal heritage resources management by briefly revisiting the circumstances that informed the enactment of the related laws. We present the view that existing legislation has tended to serve corporate, multinational and foreign interests at the expense of local and national interests, and that although these Acts may have somewhat served the country in the past, the legislations have turned the cultural heritage management in Kenya into a lame duck framework of abstractions of policy matters, that are irrelevant and unresponsive to changing local and international circumstances. We highlight contradictions between and within varied Acts, and offer suggestions for remedy that are geared toward the development of a cultural management policy with local ownership and universal compatibility.

2013

Kyule, MD.  2013.  Archaeology of Pli-Pleistocene Hominids in Eastern Africa. MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. , Nairobi: Nairobi University Press Abstract

This paper reviews recent and continuing research undertaken in eastern Africa on aspects that characterize proto-human behavioral patterns. Flaked stone from amongst other places, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Koobi Fora, Kenya, represent some of the earliest definite signs of modification of natural materials for use as tools. Fossil fauna from these sites show cut marks and other modification, which establish that hominids were using stone tools on animal tissues as early as the Lower Pleistocene; that hominids acquired meat based foods through scavenging rather than hunting; and that hominids and carnivores were in competition for carcasses and/or bones. Presently, there is no indisputable archaeological evidence for Plio Pleistocene hominid deliberate construction of habitation shelter. However, it is possible that Oldowan hominids may have used their most sophisticated organizational abilities in activities such as foraging, social relations or communication, but employed only simple organizations in the actual manufacture of stone tools.

Kyule, MD, Onyango-Abuje JC.  2013.  History of Prehistory in the Lake Victoria Basin.. MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki. , Nairobi: Nairobi University Press Abstract

This paper outlines both the archaeological and later prehistoric research that has so far been undertaken on the Kenyan side of the Lake Victoria basin. We introduce the regions current demographic distribution and geophysical setting to provide a background for the various prominent paleoanthropological findings and discoveries in the region. Significant aspects that require further research have also been highlighted.

Kyule, MD, Gona GM.  2013.  Introduction to Mizizi Book Project. MIZIZI: Essays in Honor of Prof. Godfrey Muriuki. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract

in M.D. Kyule and G. Gona (Eds), MIZIZI: Essays in honor of Professor Godfrey Muriuki, Nairobi University Press.

2011

Kyule, MD.  2011.  CAC 405 Tourism in the Internet Age. , Nairobi
Kyule, MD.  2011.  Teachers' experiences in teaching evolution, 31st July – 2nd . Building Bridges between Evolution and Religion. , The Prehistory Clubs of Kenya/National Museums of Kenya Abstract

Although prehistory and evolutionary studies are included in the Kenyan secondary school biology and history subjects, lack of consistent up-dating of the syllabi and sheer ignorance by a very large cross-section of teachers has led to paucity of enthusiasm among students towards these subjects. Further, the educators do not have access to up-to-date information emanating from the recent prehistory research. The net effect of this is lack of knowledge and appreciation of prehistory particularly among the youth.

2009

Kyule, MD.  2009.  CAC 308 Aspects of African Arts and Crafts. , Nairobi
Kyule, MD.  2009.  Overview on Presentation and discussion of report on the General History of Africa Textbook project, 23-26 November). Fourth ordinary session of the conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (COMEDAF- IV). , Mombasa, Kenya

2008

Kyule, MD.  2008.  CTO 203 Hospitality Management. , Nairobi
Kyule, MD.  2008.  CAC 202 Archaeology Field Methods. , Nairobi: lecture module for the Center for Open and Distance Learning (CODL), University of Nairobi.

2007

S.H. Ambrose, C.J Bell, BBDDDGH-SRLJ-R, and M. D. Kyule, F. K. Manthi MNSSWLHEMCM.  2007.  The Paleoecology and Paleogeographic context of Lemudong. Kirtlandia, Journal of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio, USA. 56:38-52.: Kirtlandia 56: 38-52. AbstractWebsite

The Lemudong’o Formation in the Narok District of Kenya comprises a 135-m-thick series of predominantly lacustrine and lake basin margin sedimentary rocks with interstratified primary and reworked tuffs. The formation, deposited ,6 Ma, records deposition within the second of three sequential lake basins created by tectonic and volcanic activity on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley of Kenya. These sedimentary paleobasins are exposed in the vicinity of the confluence of three rivers cutting steep cliffs into rugged, vegetated terrain. Over 1200 fossils of terrestrial vertebrates have been recovered from the site of Lemudong’o Locality 1 (LEM 1), which was formed at the edge of a shallow lake fed by slow-moving streams. Much like smaller Rift Valley lake basins in Kenya today, the Lemudong’o lake margin probably supported a mosaic of habitats ranging from closed riparian woodland to grassland and swamps. There are two fossiliferous horizons at LEM 1, clayey sands and gravels and overlying mudstones. Although the mudstones yielded the majority of the fossil material, there are significant faunal differences between the two horizons. The mudstone assemblage consists of taxa whose modern representatives primarily prefer relatively closed environments such as riparian forests, as well as many species that prefer open woodland to wooded grasslands. The sandstone assemblage samples fauna from a wider range of habitats. This contrast in taxonomic composition suggests that the mudstone and sandstone horizons sample a lakeshore environment that was varying through time. The apparent shift in habitat preferences of the fauna is consistent with the geological and geomorphological evidence for a mosaic of closed to open habitats that characterize rapidly variable rift-valley lake basins in mesic climatic regimes. One of the salient characteristics of these assemblages is the complete absence of fish, and the paucity of large mammals and reptiles, such as hippos, crocodiles, and larger bovid species that would be expected at the edge of lake basins fed by large rivers. Modern central rift-valley lake basins that are fed by small streams vary widely in size and salinity in response to climate change, and occasionally dry out completely. They do not contain fish and crocodiles, and only one has a substantial hippo population. These modern rift-valley lakes may therefore provide an analog to the depositional environment of Lemudong’o.

The LEM 1 fossil assemblage is also unusual because it is dominated by small mammalian taxa, including numerous rodents, small colobine monkeys, hyracoids, and a diversity of viverrid and other carnivores. Given the lack of evidence for fluvial transport in the main fossil horizon, the biased size composition, and the significant carnivore damage on the bones, we interpret this site to represent an accumulation of carcasses by several avian and small mammalian carnivores. This paleoecological and paleogeographic reconstruction is discussed relative to penecontemporaneous fossil sites in Africa.

Kyule, MD, Ambrose SH, Hlusko L.  2007.  History of Paleontological research in the Narok District of Kenya,. Kirtlandia, Journal of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Ohio, USA. 56:1-37.: Kirtlandia 56: 1-37 Abstractkirt-56-00-1.pdfWebsite

The geology of the Narok District of southern Kenya was first studied in the 1960s. From 1994 through 2005 more extensive paleontological and geological research was conducted on a series of late Miocene sediments of the Lemudong’o Formation in the region of Lemudong’o Gorge and Enamankeon where the Ntuka and Narok Rivers merge to form the Uaso Ngiro River. Numerous paleontological sites have been located, however all but one are poorly fossiliferous. The exception is the site of Lemudong’o Locality 1, near the village of Enkorika. Here we describe the geological and paleontological research that has been performed in the entire project area, with detailed information about the paleontology at Lemudong’o Locality 1

2005

Ambrose, SH, Kyule MD, Muia M.  2005.  MSA, MSA/LSA and LSA sites in the south of Narok District of Kenya, 22-25, July. The Middle Stone Age of East Africa and Modern Human Origins conference. , National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya (17-21, July) and National Museums of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kyule, MD.  2005.  Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behaviour.. Hekima (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.. 3(1):27-42.: Hekima III (1) 27-42 AbstractWebsite

Biotic and abiotic factors interact to influence plant and animal community structures, which in turn, influence human subsistence, land use, mobility, population density, territorial organization and social structure. This paper evaluates the extent to which human behaviors reflect adaptations to environments over time, as well as the relationship between these adaptations and the gradual evolution of human behavior from archaic to modern.

2004

Kyule, MD.  2004.  Cultural heritage management: a review case for the Antiquities and Monuments Act (CAP 215) Laws of Kenya (1983), 10 - 13, June. Historical Association of Kenya Conference. , Baringo, Kenya
Ambrose, SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MJ.  2004.  Lemudong’o: a new 6 Ma paleontological site near Narok, Kenya Rift Valley. Journal of Human Evolution . 44:737-742.: Hekima III (1) 27-42 AbstractWebsite

Lemudong’o is located on the western margin of the southern Rift Valley approximately 100 km west of Nairobi (Fig. 1), an area deeply incised by three major permanent river systems. Stratified lavas, air-fall and water-laid tuffs, alluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments, and paleosols of Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene age crop out over a w25 50 km area. Wright (1967) reconstructed three paleolakes and shoreline facies, assumed to be Plio-Pleistocene in age, in the vicinity of an isolated Basement Complex inselberg. Radio- metric dating demonstrates the paleolake deposits exposed at Lemudong’o are Late Miocene in age. During archaeological surveys and excavations in this region in 1995-96 (Kyule et al., 1997) and 1999–2002 (Ambrose et al., 2000; 2002; Hlusko et al., 2002), 55 new archaeological sites (Acheulean, Middle Stone Age, Later Stone Age, Neolithic and Iron Age), and several paleontological occurrences were discovered. Here we describe the preliminary results from research at the Late Miocene fossil site of Lemudong’o. The most productive Late Miocene paleontological site in the area is exposed in Lemudong’o Gorge, GvJh15, GvJh32 (Figs. 2 and 3). Lithologic units include paludal (marsh) and lake margin claystones, lacustrine diatoma- ceous silts and claystones, and coarser alluvial deposits with interstratified tuffs. Similar ex-posures occur within tens of kilometers, though their correlation to the Lemudong’o strata is not yet confirmed, and fossils are scarce and taxonomically non-diagnostic. Lemudong’o Gorge is a fault-controlled, deeply incised gully system bounded on the east by the Enkoria fault (Wright, 1967). Fossiliferous sedi- ments are exposed at two localities approximately 500 m apart. Locality 1 (Lemudong’o 1, GvJh15, coordinates: 1(18.19S, 35(58.74E, approximate elevation 1600–1620 m) was discovered in 1994, and is located in the upper reaches of the main gully. It contains the higher levels of the depo- sitional sequence, and the main fossiliferous horizons. Locality 2 (Lemudong’o 2, GvJh32, coordinates: 1(17.98S, 35(59.04E) was discovered in 1999 and includes lower strata and a poorly- exposed horizon with sparse, generally non- diagnostic fossil material. No significant unconformities occur in the main sedimentary sequence.

Ambrose, SH, Kyule MD.  2004.  The evolution of modern human behavior in East Africa. International Council of African Museums.. : Hekima III (1) 27-42 Abstract

Genetic evidence suggests an African origin for modern human ANATOMY, and archaeological evidence suggests a subSaharan African origin for modern
human BEHAVIOR. Testing the latter hypothesis requires a reliable, precise and accurate chronology for the first appearance of innovations considered hallmarks of the origin of modern human behavior, including ground bone tools, art, ornamanentation, sophisticated stone tool technologies and resource exploitation patterns, and systematic trade over long distances. These innovations are conventionally associated with the transition from the Middle to the Later Stone Age. This transition may be earlier than the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in N. Africa and W. Eurasia, but this is difficult to prove because most chronometric techniques that can be used in this time range (40-100,000 years ago) are highly unreliable, particularly radiocarbon dating.

Advances in techniques of radiogenic argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) by single crystal laser fusion dating of volcanic tephra make it possible to obtain accurate and precise dates on eruptions as young as 2000 years old. The central and southern Rift Valley regions of Kenya have many Middle and early Later Stone Age sites with stratified volcanics. The primary sources of traded obsidian are in the central Rift and the southern Rift sites often have excellent bone preservation. Several archaeological sites with multiple stratified volcanic horizons have now been sampled in both areas of the Rift. In the southern Rift, test excavations have been conducted at four sites that have MSA and/or early horizons. Each site has two to four volcanic layers stratified within the archaeological deposits. Argon dating will be performed by Dr. Alan Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, USA. Amino acid racemization of ostrich eggshell provides an additional means of dating archaeological sites. Dr. Gifford Miller of the University of Colorado, Boulder, has dated the top of an 8-meter thick Early LSA to MSA sequence to 32,000 BP. The shell also produced a radiocarbon date of 29,975 BP. The MSA/LSA transition occurs approximately 7 meters below this date, and one meter below a volcanic ash. The late MSA and transitional horizons have high frequencies of traded obsidian. The results of chronometric dating on the tephra from the transitional industries at two of these sites should make it possible to test the hypothesis for an east African origin for modern human behavior.

We thank the Office of the President for research clearance, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the University of Illinois Graduate College and Research Board, and the National Museums of Kenya, for financial and/or logistical support for this research.

2003

Kyule, MD.  2003.  Aspects of modern human behavior during the late Pleistocene: insights from southwest Kenya, 8 -9, August. Conference on Current Archaeology and Paleoanthropological research in Kenya . , National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya

2002

and S. H. Ambrose, L. J. Hlusko, KDWMDAM.  2002.  Lemudong’o: A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya, 13, April. 71st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. , Buffalo, New York, USA
Ambrose, SH, Deino A, Mwanzia D. Kyule, Steele I, Williams MAJ.  2002.  The emergence of modern human behavior during the Late Middle Stone Age in the Kenya Rift Valley, 19–20 March 2002. Paleoanthropology Society Meetings. , Adam’s Mark Hotel, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A Abstract

Archaeological evidence suggests modern human behavior patterns emerged during the late Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) in Africa between 50 and 100 ka. Sites of this age are scarce and their chronologies are ambiguous. We report on excavations at new archaeological sites in the central and southern Kenya Rift Valley that contain late MSA and early LSA occurrences with stratified volcanic ashes (tephra) that are being dated by the 40Ar/39Ar technique and chemically fingerprinted for regional tephrostratigraphic correlation. Obsidian artifacts are being sourced to study mobility and interaction patterns.Marmonet Drift (GtJi15) is located in the Naivasha-Nakuru basin close to the main obsidian sources. Four main MSA horizons and twelve tephra are stratified in a 21 m paleosol sequence. Assemblages from the three earliest horizons contain radial cores and faceted platform flakes. The youngest horizon contains retouched points and has the most distant obsidian sources.Sites on the western margin of the southern Rift are 60-90 km from the major central Rift obsidian sources. Ntuka River 4 (Norikiushin, GvJh12) contains a 2.5 m sequence with large obsidian backed ‘‘microliths’’, blades with faceted platforms and points from radial cores, stratified above and between two tephra. Ntuka River 3 (Ntumot, GvJh11) contains a 9 m sequence with two stratified tephra. Obsidian bifacial points and narrow backed microliths are stratified 1-3 m below the lowest tephra. Three major LSA horizons lie 3-5 m above this tephra. The youngest LSA is dated 29,975 bp. In the central and southern Rift the highest frequencies of non-local lithic raw materials occur in the youngest MSA and in MSA/LSA occurrences. Lithic source distance data indicate increased range size and/or intensification of regional exchange networks. Dramatic changes in socio-territorial organization may have accompanied the MSA/LSA transition. Supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0113565) and the L.S. B. Leakey Foundation.

Kyule, MD.  2002.  Ecological and Behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, Southwest Kenya., 3 Jan 2002. 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4) . , University of Cape Town, South Africa: Hekima III (1) 27-42
Ambrose, SH, Hlusko LJ, Kyule MD, Deino A, Williams MAJ.  2002.  Lemodong'o A late Miocene fossil site in southern Kenya.. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. . Supplement 34.:37.: Hekima III (1) 27-42

2000

and Kyule, SAMHD.  2000.  Chronology of the Middle and Later Stone Age, Kenya Rift Valley, 2000. , Nairobi: Report to the Office of the President, Republic of Kenya, and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract

The ultimate objective of the program of research on the chronology of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Early Later Stone Age (LSA) in the southern and central Rift Valley of Kenya is to document the emergence of modern human behavior in East Africa. Archaeological evidence suggests that behavioral innovations that characterize modern human behavior occurred during the later MSA and early LSA in eastern and southern Africa, at an earlier date than in other parts of Africa and the Old World.

Accurate chronometric dates for the MSA and the transition to the LSA will contribute to testing the hypothesis of an East African origin for modern human behavior.

The primary objective of the 1999 field season in the southern Rift Valley was to excavate MSA and Early LSA archaeological occurrences that contain volcanic tephra stratified for Single Crystal Laser Fusion (SCLF) 40Ar/39Ar dating. One paleontological and four archaeological sites were excavated. The paleontological site, apparently a fossil hyena den, contains cut-marked bones.

Two sites have typical MSA occurrences characterized by lithic assemblages with radial cores and faceted platform flakes, made predominantly on locally available lavas. Two sites have artifact occurrences with diagnostic features of both the MSA and LSA, including backed microliths and elongated triangular flakes with faceted platforms from levallois cores, predominantly made on obsidian. These sites have excellent faunal preservation. Twelve stratified tephra were sampled from these five sites. Samples from the four archaeological sites have been submitted for dating
and chemical fingerprinting by Al Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center. Three sites also contained ostrich eggshell, permitting dating by amino acid racemization by Gifford Miller.

Three hydroelectric dams will be constructed by KenGen in the heart of the survey area, and river discharge will be increased by diverting a major tributary of the Mara River. Construction will begin in 2001, and be completed by 2006. Many important fossil and archaeological localities will be inundated, so intensive survey and excavations must be undertaken in a timely fashion.

and S. H. Ambrose, M. D. Kyule, MDWMAMA.  2000.  Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya, 5, April. 65th Annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. , Philadelphia, USA
Ambrose, SH, Kyule MD, Muia M, Deino A, Williams MAJ.  2000.  Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya. Society for American Anthropology. :33.

1999

Kyule, MD.  1999.  Ecological and behavioural implications of early Later Stone Age Fauna from Ntuka River 3, southwest Kenya, 3, Jan. 4th World Archaeological Congress (WAC4). , University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

1997

Kyule, MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL.  1997.  Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southwest Kenya, 1, April. Paleoanthropology Society, 6th Annual Meeting. , St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Kyule, MD, Ambrose SH, Noll MP, Atkinson JL.  1997.  Pliocene and Pleistocene sites in southern Narok District, southKenya.. Journal of Human Evolution 1997, . 32:A9-10.: Hekima III (1) 27-42 AbstractWebsite

Survey in southwest Kenya above the western margin of the Gregory Rift Valley since 1994 has led to the discovery of LSA, MSA, Acheulean and possible Oldowan occurrences, as well as fossil-bearing sites representative of the early Pliocene. A long sedimentary sequence of airfall and waterlain tuVs, fluvial and lacustrine sediments and paleosols is exposed in the region of the confluence of the Ewaso Ngiro, Narok, Seyabei, Ntuka and Olonganaiyo rivers. At Lemudongo, a total of 278 well-preserved fossil bones and teeth of a variety of species including carnivores, primates, suids, bovids, hippopotamids, crocodilians, hyracoids and rodents, were collected in one day along a 70 m area of sediment outcrop. Three potentially datable tuVs are stratified within this 6 m-thick fossil-bearing paleosol. The presence of Nyanzochoerus kanamensis suggests this locality is older than 2•5 m.y.a. Four Acheulean sites have low densities of handaxes and cleavers, mainly made on phonolite, basalt and quartz. None are clearly in primary context. Excavations at Ntuka River 3 have yielded a long sequence of new Early LSA microblade industries in discrete horizons that have high densities of well-preserved bones and teeth of equids, bovids, micromammals and humans. Paleosol stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis at this site demonstrate substantial environmental changes through time in the 7•5 m sedimentary section. In the Ntuka area, Late Quaternary sediments contain numerous in-situ early and late MSA and early LSA sites with well-preserved faunas, a penecontemporary fossil carnivore den site and other fossil-bearing sites with minimally fragmented faunas associated with low artefact densities. This provides a rare opportunity to compare faunal and lithic resource exploitation patterns through time during the Middle and Early Later Stone Age, and to compare faunal exploitation patterns of humans and carnivores on the same landscape.

Kyule, MD.  1997.  The Sirikwa Economy: Further work at site on Hyrax Hill Nakuru. Azania: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa . 32:21-30.: Hekima III (1) 27-42

1996

and M. D. Kyule, ANSHMP.  1996.  Archaeological surveys in the Ntuka Area, Narok, Kenya: a preliminary report. Report (OP/13/001/25C 123/2) , 1996. , Nairobi: Office of the President, Republic of Kenya, and the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract

This report describes preliminary results of ongoing research in the Ntuka area, Narok District, Kenya, where surveys and test excavations for Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences were conducted in June and July of 1994 and 1995. The primary objective of the field research is to find and excavate sites with well preserved faunal remains that date to the late MSA and early LSA in order to evaluate the hypothesis that MSA/LSA transition and the origin of modern human behavior occurred first in East Africa. Other sites in the region dating earlier and later are also reported.

1994

  1994.  Archaeological research in Africa, 1994. , Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., USA.
Kyule, MD.  1994.  Implications of a modification analysis of a Sirikwa faunal assemblage at Hyrax Hill, 1994. 12th Biennial meeting of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAFA). , Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
Kyule, MD.  1994.  The Game of Bao in East Africa’s Prehistory. , Center for African Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, USAWebsite

1993

Mwanzia D. Kyule, Munyiri S, Mbae BN.  1993.  Report on rescue excavations at Hyrax Hill, 1993. , Nairobi: National Museums of Kenya
Kyule, MD.  1993.  Fifty years of archaeological research. Kenya Past and Present: Journal of the Kenya Museum Society . 25 :47-53.: Hekima III (1) 27-42

1992

Kyule, MD.  1992.  The Sirikwa Culture: New evidence from Hyrax Hill, 1992. . Staff Seminar Paper. , Njoro
Kyule, MD.  1992.  Economy and subsistence of Iron Age Sirikwa culture at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru: A Zooarchaeological approach. (Dr. Chris Koch, Dr. Henry Mutoro, Eds.)., Nairobi: University of Nairobi
Kyule, MD.  1992.  Dogs and the Sirikwa at Hyrax Hill.. East Africa Natural History Soc. Bulletin. 22 :34-37.: Hekima III (1) 27-42
Kyule, MD.  1992.  Plant remains from a Sirikwa culture site at Hyrax Hill, Nakuru. Nyame Akuma 36: 8-10 1991, , USA. Nyame Akuma (Publication of the Society for Africanist Archaeologists).. 36:8-10.: Hekima III (1) 27-42Website

1991

Kyule, MD, Kamau J.  1991.  Reporting Nyamathi: A Late Stone Age site in the Naivasha Basin, Kenya, 1991. , Nairobi.: National Museums of Kenya Abstract

This article brings to notice the existence of a Late Stone Age (LSA) archaeological site in the Kinugi area near Naivasha, Kenya. Although no excavations were done, a brief survey of the site was undertaken and exposed surface material collected for examination. Results of the examination, in addition to information on the general surrounding environment at the site are presented.

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