Githui, EK, Kibegwa FM, Kamau JM, Mutura SK, Okwany ZA, Ngigi DM, Mwangi EW.  2016.  {Genetic relationships of indigenous goats reared by pastoralists in Kenya based on mitochondria D-loop sequence}. Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales. :1–8. AbstractWebsite

Kenya indigenous goat breeds ( Capra hircus ) have not been accurately described. Therefore, there is threat of erosion of unique genotypes such as those associated with adaptability and disease resistance, through indiscriminate crossbreeding. The Kenyan goats classification based on phenotype/morphology identifies three breeds: Small East African (SEA) goats, the Galla goat and crosses of SEA and the Galla. In the present study, we sampled goats from two main geographic regions of Kenya with pastoralist communities, the Maasai and Somali/Boran. DNA was extracted from whole blood and polymerase chain reaction amplified using primers flanking a fragment of Cytocrome-b and D-loop regions of mitochondria DNA. The sequences derived were analysed both within Kenya goat populations and also compared with phylogeographic-related datasets. These data show that the majority of Kenyan indigenous goats are not distinct and their genetic structure is very diverse; however, distinct haplogroups were present. Genetic diversity showed weak positive in Tajima D test for Kenyan indigenous goats, while the Iberian/Mediterranean/Middle-East dataset had a more pronounced negative value indicating that the two populations are under different selection pressure. These analyses enabled phylogenetic relationships between and within species and the comparisons of local goats to related breeds geographically. The information can be applied management of conservation-guided breeding programmes by crossing the indigenous breed's unique genes with high productivity traits from another source.


Kibegwa, FM, Githui KE, Jung'a JO, Badamana MS, Nyamu MN.  2015.  {Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goats in Narok and Isiolo counties of Kenya}. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 133:238–247. Abstract

Phylogenetic relationships among and genetic variability within 60 goats from two different indigenous breeds in Narok and Isiolo counties in Kenya and 22 published goat samples were analysed using mitochondrial control region sequences. The results showed that there were 54 polymorphic sites in a 481-bp sequence and 29 haplotypes were determined. The mean haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.981 ± 0.006 and 0.019 ± 0.001, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis in combination with goat haplogroup reference sequences from GenBank showed that all goat sequences were clustered into two haplogroups (A and G), of which haplogroup A was the commonest in the two populations. A very high percentage (99.90{%}) of the genetic variation was distributed within the regions, and a smaller percentage (0.10{%}) distributed among regions as revealed by the analysis of molecular variance (amova). This amova results showed that the divergence between regions was not statistically significant. We concluded that the high levels of intrapopulation diversity in Isiolo and Narok goats and the weak phylogeographic structuring suggested that there existed strong gene flow among goat populations probably caused by extensive transportation of goats in history.

Thuo, DN, Junga JO, Kamau JM, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githui KE.  2015.  Biodiversity & Endangered Species Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli ) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya. J Biodivers Endanger Species. 3:1–5., Number 1 Abstract



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