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Ikiara GK, Mbataru P, Kariuki J, Tallio V. Kenyan studies.; 2005.Website
Kithung'a P. Nzuki Marketing Communications, An E. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2005. AbstractWebsite
We are interested in pricing rainfall options written on precipitation at specific locations. We assume the existence of a tradeable financial instrument in the market whose price process is affected by the quantity of rainfall. We then construct a suitable
Wamitila KW. Matatu.; 2005.Website
T.K. M. Medicinal Plants of Kenya. IDRC-KARI-ISBN 9966-879-68-4; 2005.
and van Oucho, P. Kok GOZDJOJ. Migration in South and Southern Africa. Pretoria: HSRC Press; 2005.
MUMMA_MARTINON CA. nflict And Litigation Between Oil Companies And Village Communities.. Rutgers University: Transaction Publishers; 2005.book_review.pdf
Wasamba P. Notes on Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Coming to Birth. Nairobi: Marimba ; 2005.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Paradiso. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2005.

As agroforestry technologies are developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate indigenous knowledge about pest identification and management techniques into the scaling-up process in order to improve farmers’ pest management practices. This paper documents farmers’ knowledge, perceptions and management practices against termites in agroforestry in Tororo District, Uganda. The applicability and implications of such information in the development and promotion of sustainable termite management in agroforestry are discussed.

Odada PEO, Olago PDO, Ochola W, Ntiba M, Wandiga S, Gichuki N, Oyieke H. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11 TH WORLD LAKES CONFERENCE, NAIROBI, KENYA, 31 OCTOBER TO 4TH NOVEMBER 2005 . Nairobi: PASS Publication; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Winam Gulf is a large (surface area ~ 1400 km2) and shallow (<20 m) bay of northeastern Lake Victoria with only one connection to the open lake through Rusinga Channel. To understand the exchange dynamics between Winam Gulf and the offshore waters of Lake Victoria and the hydrodynamics of the region, field studies were carried out from Apr. 22-May 4 and Aug. 5-16 of 2005. A meteorological station (shortwave, total radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction), thermistor chain (0.75 m vertical resolution) and ADCP (40cm vertical resolution) were deployed in Rusinga Channel in a depth of 20 m. Similarly, at an offshore station in northeastern Lake Victoria another thermistor chain was deployed in a water depth of 40 m along with wind speed and direction sensors.

Over both field campaigns the exchange dynamics through Rusinga Channel behaved similar to a tidally- driven system with surface level fluctuations of between 5-15 cm at the ADCP location, and much larger excursions at the eastern end of Winam Gulf. In general, these surface level movements led to barotropically driven flows into the Gulf during rising surface levels and currents towards the open lake during falling lake level. The frequency of these currents was found to vary between 6 and 12 hours and current speeds ranged from 10-50 cm s-1. Field data and ELCOM simulations indicate that despite the high current velocities in the channel the net exchange is low due to the oscillatory nature of the forcing. This implies that the Gulf is relatively decoupled from the main lake.

Key words: Lake Victoria, Exchange flow, Flushing times

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients. MBA; 2005. AbstractWebsite

D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005

Crossley M, Herriot A, Waudo J. Research and Evaluation for Educational Development: Learning from the PRISM experience in Kenya. Oxford: Symposium Books Limited; 2005.
Ndugire N;, K’omudho B;, Kuhumba F;, Onyango JC;, Okoth MW;, Magambo J;, Ikiara M;, Mutunga C. Selection, design and implementation of economic instruments in the solid waste management sector in Kenya: The case of plastic bags.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem everywhere in the world, but particularly in developing countries. The fast expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial activities spurred by rapid population growth has produced vast amounts of solid and liquid wastes that pollute the environment and destroy resources.

Njeri KM, Meleckidzedeck K. Social Capital, Micro and Small Enterprises and Poverty Alleviation.. Addis Ababa: OSSREA; 2005.
Wamitila KW. Tamthilia ya maisha.; 2005.Website
McCluskey WJ, K'akumu A, Olima WHA. Theoretical Basis of Land Value Taxation.; 2005.Website
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Upotevu. NAIROBI: Phoenix Publishers; 2005.
Oluoch-Kosura, W; Karugia JT, W; Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

Mescher A. Junqueira's {Basic} {Histology}: {Text} . 12th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2005. AbstractWebsite
Clark OH, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. Textbook of endocrine surgery. WB Saunders Company; 2005. Abstract
MANGALA MJ. Urban Farming along Nairobi River.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

Nairobi River originates from a swamp near Kikuyu town, about 24 kilometres west of Nairobi city centre and meanders across the city covering a stretch of about 30 kilometres. Within the city area, the river is contaminated by runoff waters; untreated effluent from …

editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Frank Kürschner Pelkmann. 7 2004 Church-State Relations: A Challenge for African Christianity, Nairobi: Acton (with Frank Kürschner-Pelkmann).. Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
Nyandemo S, Singh. Aspects of project planning, monitoring, evaluation and implementation. Bishen Sighn Publishers; 2004.
Mwai OA;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Mwai OA, Mitaru B;, Rosati A;, Tewolde A;, Mosconi C. Development of livestock production systems in Africa..; 2004.Website
Bahemuka J,(Eds) JB. East Africa in Transition: Images, Institutions and Identities. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.University of Nairobi Press
F.G M, Anne N. Educational Policy and Planning. NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB; 2004.
Gatumu HN. EGC 500: Research Methods in Counselling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 2004.
Gatumu HN. EGC 501: Research Statistics and Data Processing. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu HN. EGC 501: Research Statistics and Data Processing. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Ogot M, Kremer G. Engineering design: a practical guide. Trafford Publishing; 2004. Abstract

Successful engineering design requires a strong understanding of fundamentalconcepts in
the basic sciences and engineering combined with mathematics. This text provides an
introduction to the design tools used in engineeringdesign. It focuses on the first two steps of
the design process: determination of need/problem clarification and conceptualization. In
addition, an overview of materials and manufacturing methods ispresented. The use of Excel
has been incorporated throughout the text forperforming routine calculations, leaving more …

Gatumu HN. EPS 402: Educational Statistics and Evaluation. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Gatumu HN. EPS 402: Educational Statistics and Evaluation. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Githiori J;, Mbaabu M;, poke L;, Miaron. J;, Omari P. Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa.; 2004.Website
Miaron. J;, Omari P, poke L;, Mbaria. JM;, Mbaabu M;, Githiori J;. Ethnoveterinary Practices in Eastern Africa.; 2004.Website
and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 3.; 2004.
Kioko UM, Guthrie T, Lara G, Sumbana H, Phororo H, Kerapeletswe C, Fairstein C, Valdes A, Sotomayor J, Darce D. Funding the fight: Budgeting for HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries. ISBN 1-919798-71-4, . Idasa, Cape Town; 2004.
K DRKARIUKIDAVID. General and Inorganic Chemistry Book for First Year Distance Learners. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.

Mulei CM;, Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Nguhiu-Mwangi, Mbithi PMF;, Mulei CM;. Handbook of the Principles of General Veterinary Surgery.; 2004.Website
Michael A, Walker C, Machera M, Paul Kamau, Kanyinga K, Omondi C. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Rights: Case Studies from Kenya. Cape Town: Human Science Research Council Publishers; 2004.
Odipo G, Bowa O. Industrial Geography. . Nairobi: College of Education and External Studies Press, University of Nairobi; 2004.
Kithung'a P. Nzuki Consumer Behaviour,. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2004. AbstractWebsite
We are interested in pricing rainfall options written on precipitation at specific locations. We assume the existence of a tradeable financial instrument in the market whose price process is affected by the quantity of rainfall. We then construct a suitable
Hamu PJH, Karanja P. Misingi ya Sarufi ya Kiswahili. Phoenix Publishers; 2004.
Wamitila KW. Musaleo!.; 2004.Website
Machera M, ed) SA(. Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute; 2004.
Yusuf A. Organic Chemistry 2 (SCH 202). Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.scan0023.pdf
Kamenju J, Mwathi L, Kiganjo G. Physical Education Form Three Teacher's Guide.; 2004.
Mbithi PMF;, Mwangi JAN. Principles of Veterinary Surgery . Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.University of Nairobi Press
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mary N. Getui. Religions in Eastern Africa Under Globalization . Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
Otieno SP. Ripples of Guilt. Trafford: Trafford; 2004.
Gatumu HN. STC/GCD 517: Psychological Assessment. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2004.
Jumba A. Students’ Constructions of Citizenship in the United States: A Study of the 11th Grade students. Urbana-Champaign: . Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. (314 pages); 2004.
Okombo O, Githinji WC, Maina J, Gachoya E. Success English STD 7.; 2004.Website
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Wimbo Mpya. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2004.
Williams N, Bulstrode C, O'Connell RP. Bailey 's {Short} {Practice} of {Surgery}. London; 2004. Abstract
…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya. IAEA-CN-91/56 401-404; 2004. Abstract
Skandalakis JE, Colborn GL. Skandalakis' {Surgical} anatomy: the embryologic and anatomic basis of modern surgery. Vol. 2. Athens, Greece: PMP; 2004. Abstract
Disaster Management : HighLights  . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
D.N. Kariuk i, J.Kithinji PMCAMN. . Explore Chemistry, Form 1.; 2003.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. C.M. Mulei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases of Food Animals. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.. AWC and FES; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christian Theology and Social Reconstruction. Nairobi: Acton; 2003.
Mulwa JK. Earth Processes Lecture series for Bachelor of Science (Geology) and Bachelor of Science (ODL). Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 2003. Abstract

The Earth Processes course unit is one of the three core courses in Geology. The other two core courses are SGL 101 – Materials of the Earth and SGL 103 - Introduction to Paleontology. Geology is a science of the study of the earth with reference to its evolution, composition and processes that have prevailed from the time of its evolution to the present time.

The earth is a dynamic body that has undergone various changes. These changes are both of internal and external origin. The internal processes are referred to as diastrophism and they tend to elevate the earth’s surface. They are counterbalanced by the external processes that wear down the land surface. The constant interaction between these two processes determines the configuration of the earth’s surface. The external processes are as a result of solar energy and gravitational forces whereas the internal processes are as a result of the earth’s internal heat.

Weather pattern, for example, is to a large extent due to the solar energy on the one hand. Along the equator there is a substantial amount of heating because the sun is always overhead and therefore this results in the rising up of hot air. The rising hot air is replaced by cold air from the colder regions. This cyclic process is closely related to ocean waves and currents generated by solar heating. Waves are effective forces for determining the shape of the landscape along shorelines of oceans and seas.

The force of gravity on the other hand is due to mutual attraction between bodies. The greater the attracting bodies the greater the gravitational force. Because the mass of the earth is greater than any other body on its surface, materials are attracted towards the earth’s center. Rain and snow precipitate due to gravitational attraction of the earth. Water moves towards the oceans because of gravitational force. Glaciers on higher mountains are normally pulled down by the force of gravity.

Internal earth processes are due to heat energy which keeps rocks in the mantle below the earth’s crust in a molten state. This break forth as a volcanic flow during volcanic eruptions. Heat energy is also responsible for large-scale processes such as earthquakes and mountain building, and small scale processes such as geysers, hot springs, steaming ground and hydrothermal processes.

We can therefore conclude that all earth processes are manifestations of energy and these processes are responsible for sculpturing the land surface.

The Earth Processes course unit begins with an overview of the types of energy which contribute to earth processes. These are discussed in Lecture 1. The unit is thereafter subdivided into two parts. Lectures in Part I of the course unit discusses the External Earth processes where else lectures in Part II of the unit discusses the Internal Earth Processes.

The general objective of the Earth processes course unit is to introduce you to the basic concepts of geosciences. More specifically, at the end of this course unit you should be able to:

 describe the internal and external processes which shape the earth;
 explain the present configuration of the earth and attempt to reconstruct its original form;
 explain the natural processes of the earth;
 categorize hazardous and non-hazardous processes of the earth;
 outline the contribution of the earths natural fields in exploration of natural resources;
• propose measures of minimizing hazards due to earth processes.

You are required to have writing materials e.g. books or foolscaps, pens, lead pencils, coloured pencils or crayons, a scientific calculator, a ruler and a mathematical set. Although every effort has been made to provide you with an up-to-date lecture notes, you are expected to do further reading for a better understanding of Geology, Geological concepts and Processes.

Practicals are compulsory in this course unit and a separate practical manual will be availed to you.

and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 2.; 2003.
Kioko UM, Njeru ENH. The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Primary Education in Kenya ISBN 9666-948-16-3. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) . ISBN 9666-948-16-3. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR); 2003.
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya Fasihi: Misingi na Vipengele Vyake. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Kamusi ya misemo na nahau.; 2003.Website
Wamitila KW. Kichocheo cha Fasihi: Simulizi na Andishi. . Nairobi: Focus Publications Ltd.; 2003.
Ndegwa PN. Lecture Notes on Invertebrate Zoology. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.Website
Nyandemo S, Singh. Managerial Economics, theory and Applications. Bishen Singh Publishers; 2003.
evans Mbuthia DM, K.W. PW. Mwongozo wa Kitumbua Kimeingia Mchanga” . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers ; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Mwongozo wa Walenisi. A detailed study Guide on Katama Mkangi's novel Walenisi. . Nairobi: Sasasema Publications Ltd; 2003.
New Partnership for Africa’s Development: NEPAD a New Path?. Journal Discovery and Innovation ; 2003.
Nursing Trends in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
Wamitila KW. Pango.; 2003.Website
L. M, Njoroge K, Bett C, Mwangi W, Verkuijl H, Groote DH. The Seed Industry for Dryland Crops in Eastern Kenya.; 2003.
Wandibba S, Thuranira J, Baya D. Social Studies STD 6.; 2003.Website
Dequan S. “Get Top Results on Your IELTS and Get into the College of Your Choice”. Tianjin: Tianjin Science and Technology Press ; 2003.
MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of trace elements in mineral water samples using total reflection X ray fluorescence (TXRF).; 2003. AbstractWebsite

[en] Full text: Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium (K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium (Ca) 2.2 to …

…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon (222Rn) levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya.; 2003. AbstractWebsite

[en] Measurements of indoor radon levels by electret technique in Coastal and Rift Valley Region of Kenya are reported. The results indicate a large variation in the concentrations (5-704 Bq m-3) and that remedial action is necessary in some dwellings. The geological …

…, Kinyua AM, Nderitu SK, Agola JO, MANGALA MJ. Indoor radon ({sup 222} Rn) levels in coastal and rift valley regions of Kenya.; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Measurements of indoor radon levels by electret technique in Coastal and Rift Valley Region of Kenya are reported. The results indicate a large variation in the concentrations (5-704 Bq m {sup-3}) and that remedial action is necessary in some dwellings. The geological …

Moore K, Persaud T. The {Developing} {Human}: {Clinically} {Oriented} {Embryology}. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. Abstract
with Kanji N, Braga C. Promoting Rights in Africa: How do NGOs make a difference? . London: iied.; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Bin-Adamu.; 2002.Website
author Jesse N.K. Mugambi. Christianity and African Culture. Nairobi: Acton; 2002.
Collaborative management of wildlife in Kenya: an empirical analysis of stakeholders' participation, costs and incentives.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Selected wildlife co-management arrangements in Kenya are analysed using descriptive methods, benefit-cost analysis and econometric models. In 2000, household and community-level data were collected from Kimana and Golini-Mwaluganje (GM) community sanctuaries in the wildlife dispersal areas of Amboseli National Park and Shimba Hills National Reserve, respectively. It is shown that transaction costs arising from landowners' participation in the information acquisition, negotiations and operation activities are not a major factor influencing co-management efficiency. Although the lack of profitability may be a disincentive for landowners' participation, co-management can also create other stronger incentives such as protection of landowners' property rights and economic interests. The importance of structuring the co-management process in such a way that all categories of landowners participate effectively in the information gaining and negotiation phase is emphasized. There is also a need to look into ways of compensating categories or groups of landowners who incur wildlife conservation costs without access to direct benefits.


his document provides a systematic framework for establishing and maintaining community home-based care (CRBC) in resource-limited
settings for people with RIV / AIDS and those with other chronic or disabling conditions. Most CRBC services so far have been established through unsystematic, needs-based efforts. As the RIV / AIDS epidemic continues to grow, many organizations and communities are now considering expanding in a more programmatic approach, and countries are looking for scaled-up responses and national strategies for CRBe. This document therefore provides an important framework to guide governments, national and international donor agencies and community-based organizations (including nongovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations and community groups) in developing or expanding CRBC programmes. The need for such a document has been clearly identified.
CRBC is defined as any form of care given to ill people in their homes. Such care includes physical, psychosocial, palliative and spiritual activities. The goal of CRBC is to provide hope through high-quality and appropriate care that helps ill people and families to maintain their independence and achieve the best possible quality of life.
This document targets three important audiences: policy-makers and senior administrators, middle managers and those who develop and run CRBC programmes. Although the roles and responsibilities of these target audiences differ somewhat, developing effective partnerships among the three is essential. Policy-makers and senior administrators must be involved in developing and monitoring CRBC programmes, and the people who manage and run the programmes must share information and feedback with senior administrators. In this sense, policy and action are interrelated as each partner learns from and guides the other. To this end, this document is divided into four interrelated sections: a policy framework for CRBC; the roles and responsibilities for CRBC at the national, district and local levels of administration; the essential elements of CRBC; and the strategies for action in establishing and maintaining CRBC in resource-limited settings.


The Second International Symposium on the East African Lakes was held from 10-15 January 2000 at Club Makokola on the southern shore of Lake Malawi. The symposium was organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL), a research consortium of African, European and North American scientists interested in promoting the investigations of African Great Lakes as archives of environmental and climatic dynamics. Over one hundred African, European and North American scientists with special expertise in the tropical lakes participated in the symposium which featured compelling presentations on the limnology, climatology, palaeoclimatology and biodiversity of the East African Lakes. It is their papers that comprise this book.

The large lakes of East Africa are important natural resources that are heavily utilized by their bordering countries for transportation, water supply, fisheries, waste disposal, recreation and tourism. The lakes are unique in many ways: they are sensitive to climatic change and their circulation dynamics, water-column chemistry and biological complexity differ significantly from large lakes at higher latitudes; they have long, continuous, high resolution records of past climatic change; and they have rich and diverse populations of endemic organisms. These unique properties and the significance of the palaeolimnological records demand and attract research interest from around the world. IDEAL research is contributing to our understanding of basic limnological processes in the African Great Lakes and how physical dynamics drive their biogeochemistry and thus rendering them sensitive, compared to temperate great lakes, to climatic and anthropogenic change. Recent studies indicate that Lake Victoria has undergone dramatic shifts in the lake ecosystem caused by the introduction of the Nile Perch in 1950s and of the water hyacinth during the past five years.

The lake also dried up completely prior to 12,400 years BP. Thus, the hundreds of species of fish in modern Lake Victoria may have evolved within the last 12,400 years; this is the fastest rate of vertebrate species evolution ever recorded. Elsewhere in East Africa, high resolution studies of past climate change in Lake Naivasha, Kenya and in Lake Malawi have shown a distinct Little Ice Age in tropical Africa. Evidence for the Younger Dryas even in tropical Africa has also been documented in the sediment record of Lake Albert. More recent studies havedemonstrated that Lake Malawi was at a low stand during the LGM like all the African lakes in the Northern Hemisphere. This lake was previously known to havex been low in the early Holocene and around 35ka but was believed to have been at a high stand during the LGM. Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika are aquatic island systems of elevated endemic biodiversity providing extraordinary conditions to study evolutionary biology. In these lakes we have the unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of evolutionary and ecological change.

Patterns of speciation, the origin of major morphological evolution, and the origin of major reorganizations in community structures can all be investigated in a comparative setting in these two lakes. The sedimentary record of these lakes offers us an opportunity to resolve both evolutionary and ecological changes in their biota at time scales of decades, centuries, millennia, to millions of years. Despite their long histories and geological similarities, the patterns of diversity and genetic differentiation of the biota differ dramatically between Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Both lakes were colonized by cichlid fishes, thiarid gastropods and ostracode crustaceans, but these exemplar taxal currently have contrasting aspects in the two lakes. Approximately 1000 fish species are estimated to have evolved within the cradle of Lake Malawi, which is approximately 10 per cent of all freshwater fish species in the world. Despite their astonishing multitude, these species encompass a rather modest degree of molecular genetic and morphological change. The fishes in Lake Tanganyika are genetically and morphologically much more diverse than those in Lake Malawi, yet total only 300 species. In Lake Tanganyika about 240 out of 250 species of prosobranch gastropods and ostracode crustaceans are unique to that lake, and like the cichlid fish, form numerous distinct, divergent lineages. The living prosobranch gastropod fauna of Lake Malawi has undergone only limited differentiation and few if any endemic ostracodes are reported from this lake.

The papers presented in this book provide a comprehensive coverage of the large lakes of East African Rift Valley, touching on climate, limnology, palaeoclimatology, sedimentation processes, biodiversity and management issues of these lakes. The papers show that high quality, globally relevant research can be, and is being done in Africa. The call from African researchers is for their international colleagues and the science funding agencies to move from a position where they see their interactions in Africa essentially as “capacity building” to one of partnership and “capacity recognition” with capacitating where necessary and effective. African and developed world science administrators must work together to sustain the scientific capacity which has been built in Africa, instead of tacitly allowing it to migrate to Europe and North America. The world needs it to stay home.

Wanjala G. Educational Planning : Lecture Series. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-CEES; 2002. Abstract

The module as a whole is designed to provide both the student and the lecturer/professor with a descriptive account of the content of planning and its application to education and national development. it is divided into four sections. Section One comprises of the first six lectures of the unit and is intended to introduce the learner to the study of educational planning. Lecture 1 deals with the general concept of planning ; its characteristics and scope. The concept of planning as applied to education is described in Lecture 2 and Lecture 3 deals with the concept of modelling in educational planning. Lecture 4 discusses the historical background and rationale for educational planning while the social and psychological factors affecting educational planning are dealt with in Lecture 5 and the final lecture in this section discusses the process of educational planning.
Section Two covers three lectures which , taken together intend to introduce the learner to methodologies of educational planning with particular reference to developing countries , that is the Social Demand Approach covered in in Lecture 7 ; the Labour Requirements Approach covered in Lecture 8 and the Cost/benefit Analysis Approach covered in Lecture 9.
Section Three has three broad lectures , which give some highlights on the need to plan for changes in the educational system. They focus on the issues of efficiency and equity as a measure of the success of an educational system.
Section Four has three lectures dealing with population , education and national development. Apart from considering demographic factors and how they affect educational planning , we also examine matters dealing with the location of schools.

Gatumu HN. GCD-015: Research Methods in Guidance counseling. Nairobi: Kenyatta University press; 2002.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K. Gender and Constitution: Academicians’ Perspectives. Nairobi: CCGD; 2002.
Subbo W. Gender training in and resource manual.; 2002. AbstractWebsite

Why a Christian Gender Manual The Church plays a pivotal role in contributing to a world where justice, peace, truth, freedom and solidarity prevail, a world where God reigns. Thus the Church is committed to protecting the dignity of women like any other human being. These include elimination of gender-based discrimination, exclusion and violence among others. Addressing gender is translating the Christian message of love of neighbor into action. This manual will guide users to address gender imbalances in the light of Christian virtues-the Social Teaching of the Church and to plan for active peace-building that will bridge the Gender Gaps and harmonise relations between women and men of God. It will assist development workers of the Kenya Episcopal Conference – Catholic Secretariat in particular and Church Organisations in general, to plan for interventions that will correct gender imbalances and lead to more equitable and sustainable human development. This manual is primarily meant for Catholic Development Workers and Trainers. It is envisaged that this manual: • Provide a comprehensive training for gender trainers that also takes into account vital African and theological perspectives. • Help promote gender awareness thus increasing he empowerment of the Family of God – both women and men.

Nyasani PJ. A General Guide to English Pronounciation for Learners and Teachers in African Schools. Nairobi: The Nairobi Academic Book Publishers; 2002.
Yoon DH, Ochieng JW, Lee HK, Oh SJ, Cho BW, Cheong IC, Hanotte O. Genetic diversity and relationships of three Eastern Asian cattle breeds.; 2002. AbstractBook

Ten cattle populations, 3 Asian (Hanwoo, Yanbian, Wagyu), 2 African, and 2 European Bos taurus as well as 2 Asian B. indicus and one Bali cattle, B. banteng, were characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. A total of 364 animals from the different cattle populations were used in the study. Allele frequencies were used to estimate expected heterozygosities (He), genetic distances (Ds), and to perform principal component analysis. 165 alleles were observed across all loci. The data supported a common origin for the Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (Ds=0.013). No evidence for a major West European taurine introgression into the Wagyu was observed. The Eastern Asian cattle were found to be genetically distinct from the European and African taurine and from the Asian zebu. It is recommended that the genetic uniqueness of these cattle breeds be maintained in conservation and improvement programmes

E.O O, Tyson P, Virji, H. Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System. Berlin: Springer; 2002. Abstract

This book synthesizes current knowledge of regional-global linkages in four regions to demonstrate that study of environmental change on a regional scale can enhance understanding of global-scale environmental changes. The atmospheric circulation over Southern Africa links regional nutrient and pollutant sources to distant sinks affecting both regional and global ecosystem functioning. Extended human modification of land cover in East Asia has altered the complex surface-atmosphere exchanges impacting the Asian monsoon system. Biogenic and anthropogenic emissions over South Asia are implicated in changes in global tropospheric ozone and oceanic biogeochemical balances. Economic globalisation has negatively impacted regional environments of Southeast Asia.

Keywords » biogeochemical cycling - climate change - environmental change - global change - land use

Kamau MM. Law and Ethics of Media: English Adaptation. Nairobi: Pauline Publications; 2002.
L. Owiti, W. Musyoni JB. Rise Up and Act: A Resource Material on iolence Against Women. Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Uhakiki wa Fasihi.; 2002.Website
Oucho JO. Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflict in Kenya. Leiden: The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers; 2002.
Wangu wa Makeri: A Biography . Nairobi.: East African Education Publishers, ; 2002.
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Mitullah WV, Alila PO, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Wamitila KW. Zimwi la leo.; 2002.Website
GATARI MJ. Studies of tropospheric aerosols at selected sites in Kenya. Chalmers University of Technology; 2002. Abstract
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
Likimani T. Chemistry and its applications.; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased. The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life. The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards. Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Handbook for Civic Education: Nairobi. CEDMAC, CRE-CO, ECEP, and the Gender Consortium.; 2001.
Njeru G. Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. . Nairobi: Co-author of Making Informed Choices: A Trainer’s Manual for Civic Education. ; 2001.
Bahemuka J,(Eds) JB. East Africa in Transition: Communities, Cultures and Change. Nairobi: Acton Publishers; 2001.
Ogara WO;, Nyariki DM;, Kironchi G. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website
Nyariki DM;, Kironchi G, Ogara WO;. Food Security In Rural Development.; 2001.Website

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