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Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "A HANDBOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "AN OUTLINE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
Imungi, JK; Okoth MW. 2nd Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1996.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "2nd Kenya National Symposium on Music (Egerton University) Publication of Permanent Music Commission of Kenya.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract

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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "2nd Opening lecture on "Savanna and Woodland Ecosystems in Tropical America and Africa: Geomorphological concepts". Pp. 3-4 (see also Symposium on Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem in Tropics. University of Brasilia, BRAZIL, 2-7 October.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
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GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
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Akech M. "3) Evaluating the Impact of Corruption (Perception) Indicators on Governance Discourses in Kenya.". In: Research Network on Indicators Panel, Law and Society Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, California; 2011.
Akech M. "3) The Police Must Not Take Sides in Political Contests." East African, January 28, 2008.
El-Tamawy M, Helmi A, Hamdi S, El-Serafi O, El-Banhawy E. "3-21-16 Is prolactin implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine?". 1997.Website
Mutai P, Heydenreich M, Thoithi G, Mugumbate G, Chibale K, Yenesew A. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking." Phytochem. Lett.. 2013;6:671-675.
Yenesew A., Peggoty Mutai, Matthias Heydenreich GTGMKC. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking studies." Phytochemistry Letters . 2013;6 :671-675. Abstractpaper_65_mutai_et_al_phyto_2013.pdf

Two new 3-hydroxyisoflavanones, (S)-3,4′,5-trihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-3′-prenylisoflavanone (trivial name kenusanone F 7-methyl ether) and (S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-2″,2″-dimethylpyrano[5″,6″:3′,4′]isoflavanone (trivial name sophoronol-7-methyl ether) along with two known compounds (dalbergin and formononetin) were isolated from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. Kenusanone F 7-methyl ether showed activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas both of the new compounds were inactive against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at 10 μg/ml. Docking studies showed that the new compounds kenusanone F 7-methyl ether and sophoronol-7-methyl ether have high affinity for the M. tuberculosis drug target INHA.

Yenesew A, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich, Ndakala A, Hoseah M, Akala, M Kamau E. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;10:28-31. Abstractpaper_73_atilaw_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The stem bark extract of Schizozygia coffaeoides (Apocynaceae) showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 8–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new schizozygane indoline alkaloid, named 3-oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine. In addition, two dimeric anthraquinones, cassiamin A and cassiamin B, were identified for the first time in the family Apocynaceae. The structures of the isolated compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The schizozygane indole alkaloids showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–52 μМ).

Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
P OCHILO. 3. A Review of a WHO Video Programme and two WHO Radio Programmes on Health . Finland: Geneva and University of Tampere, ; 1986.
(Editor) FM,(Editor) HN. 3. Africa Imperatives in the World Trade Order: Case Studies on Kenya. , 2005.. Nairobi: AERC.-KIPPRA; 2005.
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "3. Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8):1-12 .
"3. Inequality and Child Survival in Kenya: a Probit Model Approach.". In: 31st General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. St Gallen, Switzerland; 2010.
Ndungu MN. "3. Kiswahili na Uzalishaji Chakula.". In: CHAKITA Conference 2012 on Kiswahili, Cohesion, Intergration and Development . Kenyatta University; 2012.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "3. Maichomo, M. W., Gitau, G. K., Gathuma, J. M., Ndung.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Akech M. "30) The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Implications for Kenya’s Trade and Development." JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLITICS . 2001;33(651).
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "32) J. M. Mbaria, J. J. McDermott, M. N. Kyule, E. J. Gichanga (1995). Prevalence of Helminths and Helminth Control Practices in Molo Division, Nakuru District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,.43(1): 35-446.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT: The efficacies of pyrethrum marc and of albendazole against experimental sheep gastrointestinal nematode infection were compared. Sheep were infected orally with 10000 larvae (Haemonchus spp. (60.1%), Oesophagostomum spp. (13.9%), Trichostrongylus spp. (13.2%), Cooperia spp. (8.3%), Nematodirus spp. (3.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.8%) and Ostertagia spp. (0.2%)). Faecal egg count reduction in albendazole-treated sheep was 100% by day 4 following treatment, compared to 37.03%, 31.3%, 38.9% and 51.8% on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 in pyrethrum marc-treated sheep. These reductions were statistically significant on days 8 and 10 post-treatment (p<0.05). The potential for using pyrethrins for helminth treatment is discussed.
Akech M. "33) The Kenyan Penal Code and Spousal Rape: Is there Need for Legislative Intervention? ." UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI LAW JOURNAL . 1995;2(2).
Akech M. "34) African Customary Law and the Common Law Presumption of Marriage: Strange Bedfellows? ." UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI LAW JOURNAL . 1994;1(1).
Oredo J. "3D Printing: From Manufacturing to Infofacturing." MANAGEMENT November (2019).
Ma. "3rd Annual East Africa Transport & Infrastructure Projects 2016.". In: 3rd Annual East Africa Transport & Infrastructure Projects 2016 . Nairobi,Kenya; 2016.transport__infrastructure_projects_2016.pdf
"The 3rd Global Taxonomy Workshop.". In: Global Taxonomy Workshop. Pretoria, South Africa; 2002.
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Yenesew A, Derese, S., Barasa, L., Akala HM, Yusuf, A.O., Kamau E, Heydenreich. "4'-Prenyloxyderrone from the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and the antiplasmodial activities of isoflavones from some Millettia species." Phytochemistry Letters ,. 2014;8:69-72. Abstractpaper_68_derese_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis showed antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 10–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyderrone (1), together with known isoflavones (8-O-methylretusin, durmillone, maximaisoflavone B, maximaisoflavone H and maximaisoflavone J), a rotenoid (tephrosin) and a triterpene (lupeol). Similar investigation of Millettia leucantha resulted in the identification of the isoflavones afrormosin and wistin, and the flavone chrysin. The identification of these compounds was based on their spectroscopic data. Five of the isoflavones isolated from these plants as well as 11 previously reported compounds from Millettia dura were tested and showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–53 μM), with the new compound, 4′-prenyloxyderrone, being the most active (IC50 = 13–15 μM).

Akech M. "4) Constraining Government Power in Africa." JOURNAL OF DEMOCRACY96. 2011;Vol. 22(96):No. 1.
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "4. Characterization and the Construction of Gender Identity in John Habwe’s Maumbile si Huja." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;vol. 1(No. 9):1-18 .
Gor SO. "4. Poverty and Child Survival in a High Malaria Mortality Zone: The Case of Kenya.". In: Chronic Poverty Research Center 2010 Conference. University of Manchester, UK.; 2010.
Atieno R. "4. “Government Policy and Female Labour Force Participation in Kenya”.". In: International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) annual conference. Boston, USA; 2009.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "46) J Wanyama, L Mpoke, JM Mbaria, HFA Kaburia and JM Gathuma (2001). Participatory validation of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases by pastoralists of Kenya: A case of Samburu and Turkana pastoralists.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Held from 29th October to 3rdNovember 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. E; 2001. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Onjala J, Kimuyu P, Musyoki R, Dorothy McCormick. The 4th Human Development Report for Kenya 2004. Industrialization and Human Development. Programme UND, ed. Nairobi; 2005.
4th International DETA Conference on “Ensuring the Highest Possible Quality of Education in a Changing Africa”. ”, Univesidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique. 3rd – 5th August, 2011.: 4th International DETA Conference ; 2011.
Derese S. "4′-Prenyloxyderrone from the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and the antiplasmodial activities of isoflavones from some Millettia species." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;8:69-72. Abstract

4′-Prenyloxyderrone from the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and the antiplasmodial activities of isoflavones from some Millettia species

Solomon Derese, Leonard Barasa, Hoseah M. Akala, Amir O. Yusuf, Edwin Kamau, Matthias Heydenreich, Abiy Yenesew

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis showed antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 10–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyderrone (1), together with known isoflavones (8-O-methylretusin, durmillone, maximaisoflavone B, maximaisoflavone H and maximaisoflavone J), a rotenoid (tephrosin) and a triterpene (lupeol). Similar investigation of Millettia leucantha resulted in the identification of the isoflavones afrormosin and wistin, and the flavone chrysin. The identification of these compounds was based on their spectroscopic data. Five of the isoflavones isolated from these plants as well as 11 previously reported compounds from Millettia dura were tested and showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–53 μM), with the new compound, 4′-prenyloxyderrone, being the most active (IC50 = 13–15 μM).

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editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Mika Våhåkangas. 5 2001 Christian Theology and Environmental Responsibility. Nairobi: Acton; 2001.
Akech M. "5) Abuse of Power and Corruption in Kenya: Will the New Constitution Enhance Government Accountability?" INDIANA JOURNAL OF GLOBAL LEGAL STUDIES. 2011;Vol. 18(341):No. 1 .
Akech M, Kinyanjui S. 5) Pretrial Detention in Kenya: Balancing the Rights of Criminal Defendants and the Interests of Justice . Open Society Initiative Global Criminal Justice Fund ; 2011.
Chindia ML, Wagaiyu EG, ocholla Tom, Opondo F, Kihara E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Opondo F, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

Kihara EN, Opondo F, Ocholla TJ, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "5-year audit of the range and volume of diagnostic radiographic services at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic imaging constitutes an invaluable tool in the accurate diagnosis and management of a diverse range of conditions and diseases that afflict the oral and cranio-maxillofacial region. In order to improve on any existing facility, periodic audit evaluation is paramount. In this way proper and relevant service delivery can be achieved. Objective: To evaluate the range and volume of dental and cranio-maxillofacial diagnostic radiographic services offered at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) in Kenya over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Methods: Retrospective survey involving manual examination of patient records at the Division of Dental and cranio-maxillo- facial Radiology registry of the UNDH. Results: Over the study period, the range of diagnostic radiographic services offered comprised of both intra- and extra- oral examinations. The total volume of radiographs taken was 48,874 among which 41,980 (86%) were intraoral and 6894 (14%) extraoral views. Among the intraoral views, 74% were bitewing, 25% periapical and only 1% were occlusal diagnostic views. The majority (95%) of the extraoral projections consisted of panoramic views and only 5% constituted other techniques. The volume of radiographs was high from January to September while November and December had the lowest number of examination requests. Conclusion: Intraoral radiography was the commonest examination with bitewings having been the majority while the panoramic tomography was the com- monest extraoral examination performed.

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "5. .". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
TIMAMMY RAYYA, SWALEH AMIRI. "5. A Thematic Analysis of Utendi wa Mwana Kupona: A Swahili/Islamic Perspective." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;vol. 4(No. 28):Journal of Education and Practice.
Etta M. "5. Application of Brick as a Building Material for Low Cost Housing in Hot and Dry Climates." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication,. 2018;Vol. 8(Issue 9, September 2018): ISSN: 2250-3153, 619-623.
Gor SO. "5. Developing a Sustainable Funding Framework to Support the Road Transport Sub-Sector in Kenya: What Role for Public-Private Partnership.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "5. Njanja J C, Gathuma J M, Gitau G K, Njeruh F M, Ngugi R. K. Measures of Health and Production in Preweaned Kids in Pastoral Herds in Northern Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2008) 56: 78-89.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2008. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Ogot M. "5. Development and Implementations of TRIZ Theory-5.4 EMS Models: Adaptation of Engineering Design Black-Box Modeling for Use in TRIZ." 5. Development and Implementations of TRIZ Theory-5.4 EMS Models. 2004:1000-1013. Abstract

The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) has been widely recognized as a
powerful systematic innovation technique that can be applied to a wide arrange of
disciplines. This paper focuses on engineering design and illustrates how modeling
methods already familiar to engineering designers can be adapted for use in TRIZ.
Specifically, the'black-box'modeling technique, common in problem formulation and
clarification in engineering design, is modified for use in TRIZ. The new technique, referred …

Amenya HZ, Mbaria JM, Thaiyah AG, Thoithi GN, Gathumbi PK. "A 56-Day Oral Toxicity Study of the Aqueous Extract of Rapanea melanophloeos (L.) Mez in Ratsb." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016;Volume 2016(Article ID 7403087, 10 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7403087).
Onjala J, Agevi E, Wasala W, Kut G. The 5th Human Development Report for Kenya 2006: Human Security and Human Development. Programme UND, ed. Nairobi; 2006.
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Akech M. "6) Institutional Reform in the New Constitution of Kenya.". In: International Center for Transitional Justice.; 2010.
Akech M, Kinyanjui S. 6) Sentencing in Kenya: Practice, Trends, Perceptions and Judicial Discretion . Legal Resources Foundation; 2011.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "6. .". In: Governance Issues in East Africa. Centre for African Studies: University of Florida, Gainesville; 1995. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mwaliwa HC, et al. 6. A Unified Orthography for Bantu Languages of Kenya. Cape town, South Africa: CASAS; 2012.
TIMAMMY RAYYA. "6. Gender Perspective in Selected English and Kiswahili Stories." The Nairobi Journal of Literature, UoN. 2013;7(1):pgs107-117.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "6. Maichomo M W, Gitau G K, Gathuma J M, Ndung.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. . Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2008. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Gor SO. "6. Rethinking the HDI: a More Theoretically Consistent Alternative.". In: International Development Conference-Summer Congress . Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 2010.
and Magutu KKPJ. "6. ThePhenomenonofBuildingMaintenanceCulture:Needfor Enabling Systems ." Global Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology. 2015;Volume-1(Sept.-Oct 2011).
Anzala AO, Ball TB, Rostron T, O’Brien SJ, Plummer FA, study group NHIV, Rowland-Jones SL. "The 64I allele of the CCR2 chemokine receptor is strongly associated with delayed disease progression in a cohort of African prostitutes.". 1998.Website
Muiva L, Macharia B, Akala H, Derese S, Omosa LK, Yusuf A, Kamau E, Koch A, Heidenreich M, Yenesew A. "6a-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-Tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:179-183.scan0062.pdf
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "6th ECARBICA Conference in Nairobi. Publication of National Museums of Kenya.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1980. Abstract

n/a

Kersten E. "6th International Symposium on Maritime Medicine 1974." Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdynia. 1975;26(2):131-2.
Yenesew A, Muiva-Mutisya L, Macharia B, Heydenreich M, Andreas Koch, Hoseah M. Akala SDLOK. "6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-Tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014. Abstractpaper_75_muiva_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia villosa showed good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded a new rotenoid, 6α-hydroxy-α-toxicarol, along with five known rotenoids, (rotenone, deguelin, sumatrol, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol and villosinol). Similar treatment of the extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively) yielded a new flavone having a unique substituent at C-7/C-8 [trivial name (+)-tephrodin], along with the known flavonoids tachrosin, obovatin methyl ether and derrone. The relative configuration and the most stable conformation in (+)-tephrodin was determined by NMR and theoretical energy calculations. The rotenoids and flavones tested showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 9 − 23 μМ). Whereas the cytotoxicity of rotenoids is known, the flavones (+)-tephrodin and tachrosin did not show significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μМ) against mammalian African monkey kidney (vero) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) cell lines.

Lois Muiva-Mutisya, Bernard Macharia MHAKHASDLOAMK. "6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:179-183. Abstract

6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species

Lois Muiva-Mutisyaa, Bernard Machariaa, Matthias Heydenreichb, Andreas Kochb, Hoseah M. Akalac, Solomon Deresea, Leonidah K. Omosaa, Amir O. Yusufa, Edwin Kamauc, Abiy Yenesew
Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 10, December 2014, Pages 179–183

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia villosa showed good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded a new rotenoid, 6α-hydroxy-α-toxicarol, along with five known rotenoids, (rotenone, deguelin, sumatrol, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol and villosinol). Similar treatment of the extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively) yielded a new flavone having a unique substituent at C-7/C-8 [trivial name (+)-tephrodin], along with the known flavonoids tachrosin, obovatin methyl ether and derrone. The relative configuration and the most stable conformation in (+)-tephrodin was determined by NMR and theoretical energy calculations. The rotenoids and flavones tested showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 9 − 23 μМ). Whereas the cytotoxicity of rotenoids is known, the flavones (+)-tephrodin and tachrosin did not show significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μМ) against mammalian African monkey kidney (vero) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) cell lines.

7
editor Jesse N.K. Mugambi, editor Frank Kürschner Pelkmann. 7 2004 Church-State Relations: A Challenge for African Christianity, Nairobi: Acton (with Frank Kürschner-Pelkmann).. Nairobi: Acton; 2004.
Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Summerhayes CP, Odada E, Wagreich M, Draganits E, Edgewor M. "7 The Stratigraphic Boundary of the Anthropocene.". In: The Anthropocene as a Geological Time Unit: A Guide to the Scientific Evidence and Current Debate. Cambridge University Press; 2019. Abstract

Here we outline the basis on which a formal proposal should be made for potential inclusion of the Anthropocene in the Geological Time Scale, examining the scale and rate of human change to the Earth System to help recognise the point at which anthropogenic impacts became of sufficient scale to allow discrimination of the Anthropocene as a geological unit. This examination covers such factors as impacts from early hominin species, the first human artefacts, early ecosystem modification through agriculture, deforestation, the domestication of animals, urbanisation, metal mining and smelting and early globalisation. The Industrial Revolution, starting in the UK in the 18th century, and the global Great Acceleration of the mid-20th century, are investigated, as both provide popular narratives that explain the Earth System changes indicative of the Anthropocene, with the latter producing the near-synchronous stratigraphic signals most consistent with an effective geological time boundary. We assess which hierarchical level–age, epoch, period, era or eon–seems most suitable for the Anthropocene, and suggest that epoch (= series) level is conservative and appropriate. The Anthropocene might be defined via a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age or a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point, with the latter being most appropriate. Finally, we assess the kinds of geological environments, including anoxic marine basins, annually banded coral and bivalve skeletons, estuaries and deltas, lake floors, peat mires, anthropogenic deposits, polar ice, speleothems and tree rings, in which such a physical reference level might be placed.

Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "7) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State ." EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Submitted;18(357 ):2.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "7) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State ." EAST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PEACE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. 2010;18(357):2.
Akech M. 7) Towards Professionalized Prosecution Services in Kenya. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime & Directorate of Public Prosecutions; 2010.
O DROUTAGEORGE. "7. .". In: Souvenir Journal of African Literature, No 1. Vol 1. Octawns: Nairobi, 1999. 1999; 1986. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 11957248 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "7. E.G. Kiarie, L.W. Kabuage, G.K. Gitau, J.W. Wakhungu, J. Githure and C.M. Mutero. Description of livestock and their role in Mwea irrigation scheme. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2006) 54: 110-117.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2006. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Gor SO. "7. Industrial Structure, the Nature of Informal Enterprise and Inequality in Kenya: A Dominance Analysis.". In: AIM-IARIW Special Conference on Measuring the Informal Economy in Developing Countries. Kathmandu, Nepal; 2009.
P. OCHILO. "7. Press Freedom and The Functions of the Media in Kenya." the Journal of Africa Media Review . 1993;Volume 7 (No. 3 – December, 1993).
Mwega F. "7. `The Short-run Shifting of the Manufacturers' Sales Taxes in Kenya: Revisited'." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1988;4(5).
Mwaliwa HC. "7. ‘Nafasi ya Kiswahili Sanifu katika Stesheni za Televisheni Nchini Kenya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili : Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali . Nairobi: Focus Publishers Limited; 2014.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "720 Hours in This Scept.". In: The Journal African Travel-Writing 8-9 (2001): 106-19. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2001. Abstract

Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Cock A, Peter MG. "7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring--C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isofiavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isofiavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "7a-O-Methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata." Phytochemistry. 2005;66:653-657. AbstractWebsite

Phytochemistry. 2005 Mar;66(6):653-7.

7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.

Yenesew A, Mushibe EK, Induli M, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Kabaru JM, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Peter MG.

From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and alpha-toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.

Yenesew A. "7a-O-Methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, from the roots of Derris trifoliata.." Phytochemistry . 2005;66:653-657. Abstractpaper_36_yenesew_et_al_phyto_2005_66_653.pdf

From the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata an isoflavonoid derivative, named 7a-O-methyldeguelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C, representing a new sub-class of isoflavonoids (the sub-class is here named as rotenoloid), was isolated and characterised. In addition, the known rotenoids, rotenone, deguelin and a-toxicarol, were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Rotenone and deguelin were identified as the larvicidal principles of the acetone extract of the roots of Derris trifoliata.

DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "7a-O-methyldequelol, a modified rotenoid with an open ring-C from the roots of derris trifolianta Phytochemistry, Vol. 66, 653-657.". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The crude methanol extract of the seeds of Derris trifoliata showed potent and dose dependent larvicidal activity against the 2nd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. From this extract two unusual rotenoid derivatives, a rotenoloid (named 7a-O-methyl-12a-hydroxydeguelol) and a spirohomooxarotenoid (named spiro-13-homo-13-oxaelliptone), were isolated and characterised. In addition a rare natural chromanone (6,7-dimethoxy-4-chromanone) and the known rotenoids rotenone, tephrosin and dehydrodeguelin were identified. The structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The larvicidal activity of the crude extract is mainly due to rotenone.
"The 7th Conference of the Parties to the UNCCD.". In: Conference of the Parties to the UNCCD. Nairobi, Kenya.; 2005.
Keiyoro, P.N., Kinuthia, Ngunjiri. 7th International conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training in Africa. Cotonou Benin; 2012.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "7th March, 2007 .". In: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, AICAD, Juja, Kenya.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
"The 7th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on the Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA – 7) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).". In: Subsidiary Body on the Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA – 7) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Montreal, Canada.; 2001.
8
Akech M. 8) Facilitating and Monitoring the Implementation of the New Constitution. African Centre for Open Governance; 2010.
Akech M. "8) FIFA’s Role in Governance of Football in Kenya.". In: Resolving the Dilemma of Non-Intervention.; 2010.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "8-4-4 system of education and the teaching of English The way forward Research Paper. presented at the international conference on communication and education, Nairobi, 1992.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1992. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "The 8-4-4 system on Education and its implications on career and educational aspirations of students.". In: Staff Seminar Paper to the Department of Educational Foundations. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1990. Abstract
  
Yenesew A, N A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H-G, Sewald N. "8-Hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid and 6',8-O-dimethylknipholone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;9:67-73. Abstractpaper_70_abdissa_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

Phytochemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the roots of Bulbine frutescens led to the isolation of a new xanthone, 8-hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid (1) and a new phenylanthraquinone, 6′,8-O-dimethylknipholone (2) along with six known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analyses. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed through X-ray crystallography which was then used as a reference to propose the revision of the structures of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cells with the phenylanthraquinone knipholone being the most active (IC50 = 0.43 μM). Two semi-synthetic knipholone derivatives, knipholone Mannich base and knipholone-1,3-oxazine, were prepared and tested for cytotoxic activity; both showed moderate activities (IC50 value of 1.89 and 2.50 μM, respectively).

M.N. M. "8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING FLAVONOIDS FROM ERYTHRINA ABYSSINICA." Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 2009;23(2):205-210. Abstract

A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the
root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and
shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on
the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against
Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavenging
activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-
dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006.; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACT. A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavengingactivity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3- dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.
Yenesew A. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica." Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia . 2009;23:205-210. Abstractpaper_47_yenesew_et_l_bull_chem_soc_ethiop-2009-23-205.pdf

A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the
root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and
shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against
Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavenging activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.

KEY WORDS: Erythrina abyssinica, Root bark, Leguminosae, Pterocarpan, 8-Methoxyneorautenol,
Pterocarpenes, 3-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylallyl)pterocarpene, Erycristagallin, Antimicrobial, Radical scavengers, DPPH

Gor SO. "8. A New Approach to the Measurement of Wellbeing: A Technical Note.". In: General Conference of The International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. Portoroz, Slovenia; 2008.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "8. Karimi S.K., G.K. Gitau, J.J. McDermott, R.N. Kinuthia, J.M. Gathuma. Estimation of birth weight of Maasai Zebu calves and their crosses with Sahiwal and Boran in Kajiado District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa (2005) 53: 35.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2005. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P. OCHILO. "8. The Role of the Media in the Prevention and Control of AIDS in Africa.". In: The AIDS Epidemiology and Control Seminar .; 1988.
Mwega F, Due J, Osoro N. "8. `Evolving Sales Taxation in Kenya and Tanzania'." Bureau of International Fiscal Documentation. 1990:233-239.
Mwaliwa HC. "8. ‘Nafasi ya Kiswahili katika Kueneza Shughuli za Kidini’ .". In: Kiswahili na Maendeleo ya Jamii. Dar es salaam: TUKI; 2015.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "8. Muhongo S. and N. Opiyo-Akech , 1999 - Geology and mineral resources of east Africa:.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol.29, Issue 2. pp 281-282. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1999. Abstract
n/a
Chohan BH, Froggett S, Emery S WD, G J-S, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, J. O. "8.Evaluation of a single round polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in an African setting." BMC Pediatr. 2011 Feb 18;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-18.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The aim of this study was to develop an economical 'in-house' single round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using filter paper-dried blood spots (FP-DBS) for early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and to evaluate its performance in an African setting.
METHODS:
An 'in-house' single round PCR assay that targets conserved regions in the HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene was validated for use with FP-DBS; first we validated this assay using FP-DBS spiked with cell standards of known HIV-1 copy numbers. Next, we validated the assay by testing the archived FP-DBS (N=115) from infants of known HIV-1 infection status. Subsequently this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay was then established in Nairobi, Kenya for further evaluation on freshly collected FP-DBS (N=186) from infants, and compared with findings from a reference laboratory using the Roche Amplicor® HIV-1 DNA Test, version 1.5 assay.
RESULTS:
The HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS assay could detect one HIV-1 proviral copy in 38.7% of tests, 2 copies in 46.9% of tests, 5 copies in 72.5% of tests and 10 copies in 98.1% of tests performed with spiked samples. Using the archived FP-DBS samples from infants of known infection status, this assay was 92.8% sensitive and 98.3% specific for HIV-1 infant diagnosis. Using 186 FP-DBS collected from infants recently defined as HIV-1 positive using the commercially available Roche Amplicor v1.5 assay, 178 FP-DBS tested positive by this 'in-house' single-round HIV-1 pol PCR FP-DBS PCR assay. Upon subsequent retesting, the 8 infant FP-DBS samples that were discordant were confirmed as HIV-1 negative by both assays using a second blood sample.
CONCLUSIONS:
HIV-1 was detected with high sensitivity and specificity using both archived and more recently collected samples. This suggests that this 'in-house' HIV-1 pol FP-DBS PCR assay can provide an alternative cost-effective, reliable and rapid method for early detection of HIV-1 infection in infants.

Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "85 Flower formation in Primula vulgaris.". 2002.Website
"The 8th Conference of Parties to CBD.". In: Conference of Parties to CBD . Curitiba, Brazil; 2006.
9
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 9) Kenyan Courts and Politics of the Rule of Law in the Post-Authoritarian State. Helsinki : the Institute of Development Studies, University of Helsinki ; 2009.
Akech M. "9) PRIVATIZATION AND DEMOCRACY IN EAST AFRICA.". In: THE PROMISE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW .; 2009.
P. OCHILO. "9. A Review of Health Communication Exercised by Mass Media in Kenya.". In: the Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "9. C.M. Mutero, C. Kabutha, V. Kimani, L. Kabuage, G. Gitau, J. Ssennyonga, J. Githure, L. Muthami, A. Kaida, L. Musyoka, E. Kiarie and M. Oganda. A transdisciplinary perspective of the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Acta Tropica (2004.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Acta Tropica; 2004. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "9. The femoral collodiaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups. Kaisha W, Pulei A, Koech A. Journal of morphological sciences.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Journal of Morphological sciences; 2011.
P. OCHILO. "9. The Media: Professional Independence and Fair Coverage of Elections Published in: Kenya Journal of Sciences: Series C. Humanities and Social Sciences ." Kenya Journal of Sciences: Series C. Humanities and Social Sciences . 1997;Volume 4 (No.1).
9. Transition from Early childhood Education to Primary . Kisumu: Ministry of Education; 1999.
Mweha F, Mwangi N, Ngola S. "9. `Real Interest Rates and the Mobilization of Private Savings in Africa: The Case of Kenya'." Ile Ife Journal of Economics and Finance. 1991;1(1).
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "93.Maingi, N.,Gichohi, V.M.,Munyua. W.K., Gathuma,J.M. and Thamsborg, S.M. (1997). The epidemiology of nematode and liverfluke infections in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. 45, 27-34.". In: journal. FARA; 1997. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.

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