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Waithira M. An evaluation of the educational programme of Breastfeeding Information Group (BIG) in Nairobi.; 1989. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to
compare the knowledge. attitudes. ,and practices of
mothers and health workers exposed to the educational
programme of the Breastfeeding Information
Group (BIG) with those who have not been exposed to
the programme. In addition. the knowledge. attitudes
and practices of BIG counselors and members
of the executive committee were also assesed with
respect to their knowledge and practices of breastfeeding
and weaning.
The knowledge. attitude and practice (i(AP ;0
study took place in Maternal and Child Health
Clinics (MCHC) in Nairobi, between January and June
1987. A sample of 150 randomly selected B i
Exposed mothers was compared with a similar sample
of randomly selected NON-BIG Exposed rno t her· s .
Similarly a sample of 24 randomly selected B1GExposed
Health Workers was compared with a s l m I lar
number of NON-BIG Exposed health workers. in addition,
12 BIG volunteers and 6 counsellors were
included in the study. Thus a total of
366 interviews were conducted for the study.
higher in
BIG-exposed study sample scored
the knowledge test than the Non-BIG
exposed controls.
The initiation of breastfeeding was largely
universal among the entire study sample. The duration
of breastfeeding of the youngest child
however, was longer among mothers not exposed to
the BIG educational programme. than among mothers
exposed to it.
The onset of weaning the youngest child of
both groups of mothers was significantly different
between the two groups. The Non-BIG exposed
mothers introduced supplementary foods earlier than
the BIG-exposed mothers.
Questioned on the main message delivered in
BiG's promotional visual aid (poster) designed to
promote and encourage breastfeeding. the majority
of respondents identified it to be: " to breastfeed"

Boniface N. Learning Resource Centers in Diploma Teacher Colleges in Kenya.. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1989.
B.A.Kimeto. Pathology and Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma Vivax Infection in Cattle. Nairobi: University Of Nairobi; 1989.thesis..pdf
Ngau PM. Rural-Urban Relations and Agrarian Development in Kutus Area, Kenya .; 1989. Abstract

A considerable flow of resources takes place at the household level from urban to rural and from non-agrictl~tural to agricultural activities by way of urban-rural remittances, nonfarm income, and return migration~ The potential of this flow of resources in spurring rural economic development has ~~ . been accordel~~-ittle significance in development theory and planning. This dissertation uses data from Kutus area, Kenya to show how rural-urban exchange relations drive rural development. First, it investigates the relationship between farm income, xi the propensity to earn income from sources other than the farm, and agricultural production and productivity. Next, it examines where rural households earn their incomes, where they spend and invest it, and the consequences for economic development in the Kutus area. The analysis demonstrates that the use of nonfarm income enables rural households in Kutus area to raise agricultural output, productivity, and farm income. The study also reveals that rural household economic behavior is highly oriented towards spending and re-investing in the local area spurring the grewth of nonfarm acti vi ties in Kutus town and lower market centers. Growth of smallholder production and rural economy has been the main engine of Kenya's sustained economic growth. There is still considerable scope for further development of agriculture. The study emphasizes establishment of rural development policies that encompass both agriculture and non farm activities, rural as well as urban areas, and the need to re-orient institutional infrastructure for rural ,. development to make it more responsive to smallholder production.

F.A. O. Studies on occurrence, Transmission of camel trypanosomiasis in Northern Kenya,. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1989.
Ntarangui TN'olua. A study into energy management and possibilities of energy conservation in student hostels. .; 1989. Abstract

Energy has become a very important aspect of our lives. This study has tried to examine the problems related to energy use, and has tried to outline various measures that can be effectively used to improve energy utilization in the student hostels. Energy use in buildings is discussed with emphasis laid on the need to incorporate energy as a design parameter at the design stage. Energy management for old buildings is also examined with the aim of showing that effective and efficient energy management is a key factor in reducing energy consumption in buildings. The research tries to bring out the nature of energy consumption in the student hostels. This is done with the aim of identifying energy conservation opportunities. Finally the study has outlined various conclusions and recommendations, that if applied could possibly help in reducing the high energy consumption in the student hostels

A AS. Export Marketing: A Case Study of Handicraft Exporters. . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1988.
Joshi MD. Changes in the Upper Gastrointestinal track in patterns with chronic renal failure.; 1988. Abstract

Between February and July 1987, some 40 consecutive patients with established chronic renal failure, on either maintenance dialysis or conservative management, were studied to determine the nature and incidence of upper gastrointestinal tract mucosal disease. Serum assays for gastrin, bombesin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were also done.

Endoscopic gastritis was evident in 27.5%, duodenitis in 20%, bile reflux in 17.5%, distorted duodenal bulb in 17.5% oesophangitis in 5% and duodenal ulcer in 5%. In 32.5% of the patients there was no endoscopic abnormality noted. No patient had active gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were significantly elevated in all study cases when compared to the controls. None of the cases had conditions, other than chronic renal failure to account for fasting hypergastrinemia. Fasting serum gastrin levels did not correlate significantly with endoscopic diagnosis, serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. A statistically significant correlation was found between serum gastrin and bombesin levels.

The results indicate a high prevalance of inflammatory and hypertrophic mucosal changes in chronic renal failure but not peptic ulcer disease, and suggest that these changes may be a consequence of hypergastrinemia.

It is r~ded that all chronic renal failure patients with significantupper gastrointestinal symptomatology and all pre­ renal transplant patients undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopicassessement.

Amayo EO. Clinical manifestation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sydrome in adults as seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1988. Abstract

50 confirmed AIDS patients admitted in the medical wards between March to December, 1987 were studied. Male to female ratio was 1:5:1. The mean age was 31 - 7 years. Females had an earlier peak at 21 - 25 years as compared to the males at 26 - 30 years. The commonest risk factor was heterosexual contact with multiple partners in 80% of the cases. The patients were of low socio-economic status. The commonest general signs and symptoms were unexplained weight loss in 92%, fever in 66% and generalized lymphnode enlargement in 24% of the cases. In the gastrointestinal system the cornnonestsigns and symptoms were oral thrush 66%, chronicdiarrhoea 60% and dysphagia in 50%, of the cases. 46% of the patients had chronic cough. The most significant radiological finding in the abnormalchest x-ray was pleural effussion in 50% of the cases. The central nervous system was involved in 36% of cases with meningitis being the commonest sign accounting for 28% of all the central nervous system signs.10% of the cases had Kaposi's sarcoma on histology of which 60% were of the aggressive form. The commonest skin manifestation was maculo-papular pruritic skin rash 56% of all the patients had hemoglobin less than 10g.dl.


Med(PTE-science Education)
The purpose of the study was to investigate factors that affect science teaching in primary schools in Kenya. The study was carried out in Kiambu district, Ndumberi zone, an area with nineteen(19) primary schools. The research was carried out in (2) phases, a pilot study followed by the main study.
The pilot study involved nine (9) teachers selected from two (2) schools. The purpose of pilotting was to review the survey questionaire and to gain experience in the preparation for the main study. The sample for the main study consisted of thirty (30) teachers, selected from (10) schools. Ten (10) of the teachers were senior science teachers who responded to all the three (3) selections of the survey questionaire.
The rest (20) teachers responded to section 1 and 2 only. The data collected was reported and analysed using descriptive statistics, mainly averages and percentages. The findings confirmed the existence of certain factors that affected science teaching such as, an accute shortage of apparatus and other teaching materials which compelled teachers to resort to theoretical approaches of teaching science. Further, teachers hardly improvised instructional materials and when they did, the materials were not stored for future use. Also teachers complained of not getting adequate assistance from the local Teachers Advisory Sub-centre. When a new curriculumn was introduced,teacherts had to cope with late supplies of vital materials like syllabi and inadequate inservicing.
However, teachers had a positive opinion towards courses offered in Teacher Training Colleges and would welcome the idea of subject specialization. Owing to the challenges facing science education in primary schools in kiambu municipality, teachers would welcome solutions to alleviate these problems. Identification of a source of funds and Inservice Education for the science teachers would be some of the relevant steps to take.

Goro EC. Laboratory and field swelling pressures of a black cotton soil .; 1988. Abstract

The swelling pressure of a black cotton soil is investigated :n the project carried out for this thesis. SoiI as one of the materials on the earths crust is introduced; its mineralogy and atomic properties are discussed. The solid phase in soil consist of crystals whose properties are discussed paying particular attention to the structure part of it. The m1nerals in soils could be non-clay or clay, their difference with respect to structure and behaviour are considered in the thesis. The classification of clay minerals into groups and the structural differences existing between the groups are also considered. Problems encountered 1n the building industry, from black cotton soil due its swelling properties are outlined in this thesis.The various factors that influence the swelling characterlstics of soi 1 black cotton/ are considered, and thei r interrelation and influence on each other are also discussed. When an engineer undertakes to design a project, there are field and laboratory investigations ,. to be carried out before construction starts.The absence oE standard apparatus to measure swelling pressure of black cotton soil in the Eield called for the design and testing of appropriate equipment. The requirements for such equipment vary from site to site depending on both physical and environmental conditions. For this project a design was cariied out to suit the local conditions. The equipments were fabricated, tested ahd calibrated as part oE the res earch wo rk, Laboratory swelling pressure of black cotton soil was measured on soil samples obtained from all the five identified sites. In order to carry out the laboratory swelling pressure tests and be able to relate the results obtained to those from the field data, sampling apparatus had to be designed and the laboratory swelling pressure apparatus had to be modified. The pressure obtained both in the field and in the laboratory were compared and it was found that the field swelling pressure were much less than the laboratory swelling pressures, regardless of whether the laboratory soil sample was disturbed or undisturbed.

E.Muriuki. Semantics of formal systems. Ukraine: Kharkov, ; 1988.
Kithinji NB. Systems approach to building project management: experience from Kenya .; 1988. Abstract

This report is an attempt to impress on managers of building projects the relevance and importance of the systems approach to management in their field. To achieve this aim the report has started by examining some common theoretical models of management and their inherent shortcomings in the management of complex problems such as building projects. The complexity of building projects is demonstrated throuqh a discussion of their resource markets which are found to be highly differentiated yet interdependent. The building process itself is made up of different activities which often require different skills, materials and facilities. As a consequence, a wide range of participants are involved in building projects. This raises the need to coordinate their inputs. The systems approach and its concepts which are most relevant to building project management is discussed. Its place in project management is illustrated with parallels drawn from districts which form the case studies for the research. ~. Among" the most important concepts discussed is the environment. It is the framework of forces within which construction activity takes place. The extent of the environment of a project depends on its resources requirements. Various aspects of the environment affect the execution of building projects. The environment is usually turbulent and projects are vulnerable to the turbulence. The functions of the managerial system of a project are considered in detail. They include the planning; securing and bringing together various inputs in amounts and modes which best suit the requirements of a project. It resolves disputes among project participants and controls the interaction between the project and its environment. In so doing the project is shielded from harmful environmental effects while the environment is protected from the harmful products of a project. Two case studies reveal that project management in districts is disjointed and suffers from technical, managerial, and logistic problems. There is poor coordination between and among participants and projects. Resources are not adequately planned and controlled. Procedures are constrained by bureaucracy and shortage of facilities. A major conclusion of the study is that the organization structure within which building projects are managed is not suitable for the tasks involved in building. The inappropriateness-is largely, the result of Iack of channels for speedy communciation within the structure and the rigidity of the structure especially with regard to the expenditure of authority. The recommendations that are given aim to make the authority structure more flexible to allow a faster rate of discharging duties while at the same time disallowing wasteful operations which result from poor planning and control.

Mungai AFG. “Urban Village” an urban design for Pasadena. Califonia: University of Califonia; 1988.
R W Nduati. Acute Septic Arthritis As It Is Seen In Children At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1987. Abstract

A nine-month study was done on children with acute septic arthritis admitted to the Paediatric Orthopaedic and general paediatric wards. The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and aetiological agents of septic arthritis in children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. Thirty one children were recruited into the study and of these 58% were infants and 32.3% were school age children. There was a striking male predominance in the school age children - 9:1 while male/female ratio was 1.2:1 in the
younger children. Knees and shoulders were the most frequently affected by septic arthritis and together were responsible for
71% of the septic joints. It is of interest that all the septic

shoulder joints occurred in infancy. Non-typhoidal salmonella species especially Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria.

The rate of bacterial isolation was as high as 72.2% when both blood cultures and joint aspirate cultures were done. Salmonella species had 75% sensitivity to the aminoglycosides (Gentamicin,Kanamycin) and Chloramphenicol while only two thirds of the Klebsiella species were sensitive to the same antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus isolated in this study were sensitive to Erythromycin and uniformly resistant to
Ampicillin,.Cloxacillin and Cotrimoxazole. There was full

recovery in 63.7% of the patients while 23% went home without appropriate follow-up.

The author recommends that blood and joint aspirate cultures should be done in all patients suspected to have septic arthritis. Antibiotic sensitivity testing should be done r~gularly to facilitate appropriate drug therapy. Clinicians should ensure adequate follow-up of patients following discharge from hospital.

Khamala CP. Control of Bedbugs in Kenya.; 1987.
Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
Okumu BM;, Obel JD;, Gachari MK. National Geodetic Network .; 1987.
Wangoh J. Possibilities and Limitations in Flavouring of the Cultured Milk product Mala by means of Preparations from Fruits available in Kenya. Schulthess W, Struebi P, eds. University of Nairobi; 1987. Abstract

This research was conducted to asses the possibilities
and limitations in flavouring of the cultured
milk product "mala" by preparations from fruits
available in Kenya. Experiments were therefore
carried out to:
- determine the sucrose and fruit pulp or juice
levels in mala most acceptable to Kenyans and
the comparative acceptability of different fruit
based flavours;
- optimise the viscosity of mala flavoured with
fruit juices;
devise simple means for preparation and preservation
of fruit-sugar mixes for aromatising and
sweetening mala;
- assess the storage quality of mala flavoured
with selected fruit-suga~ mixes.
Samples of the cultured milk product mala
flavoured with different fruits at varying fruit
and sugar levels were tested for acceptability by
adult Kenyans. Pulps of mango, banana and strawberry,
passion fruit juice and pineapple juice
together with its pieces were used to flavour
mala. For the various fruit-sugar preparations the
optimum flavouring effect was obtained with the
following combinations:-
Mango: 18% pulp and 12% sucrose
Passion fruit: 12% juice and 10% sucrose
Banana: 18% pulp and 10% sucrose
Strawberry: 20% pulp and 12% sucrose
Pineapple: 16% pieces and juice and 10%
When various quality characteristics of mala
flavoured with different fruit-sugar combinations at
their optimum were compared, mala with mango pulp and
with passion fruit juice respectively, had the best
appearance; those flavoured with mango and strawberry
pulp respectively were the most preferred for
taste; mala flavoured with mango pulp had the best
consistency. Seeds in strawberry mala were found
objectionable. The same applied to specks and high
t viscosity of mala flavoured with banana pulp. The
viscosity of mala flavoured with passion fruit juice
was considered low. Odour hedonics for all the malas
did not differ.
When 0.164% pectin and 0.9% gelatine respectively,
were added the viscosity of the mala flavoured
with optimum passion fruit juice-sugar mlX
was improved to that of the control/original mala.
Sodium caseinate (17.9% dry matter) added at the rate
of 0.6% on dry matter basis to the milk prior to
acidification had the same balancing effect.
Raising the temperature of fruit-sugar mixes
to 75°C, hot filling immediately after removal of
bottles from boiling water and cooling to ambient
proved adequate to preserve the mixes without refrigeration
for one month. Banana pulp without heat
treatment however had to be preserved by freezing.
The possible levels of 330-500 ppm sorbic acid on
fruit part, considering that the flavoured mala
should not exceed 50 ppm, can protect the product from
infections if not used immediately after opening.
Unflavoured mala and mala flavoured with
different preparations became unacceptable when yeast
and mould counts were of the order of 107/ml. At
the same storage temperature unflavoured mala or
mala flavoured with different fruit preparations
attained these counts after varying storage periods
although the initial yeast and mould counts were
approximately the same. Unflavoured mala, mala
flavoured with pineapple preparation and mala
flavoured with banana pulp attained the counts after
more than 6 days, 6 days and 4 days storage at 25°C,
respectively. The type of fruit preparation added
determined the yeast and mould growth and thereby the
keeping quality of the product at a given temperatuLe.
Sorbic acid at 200 ppm of the final product
prolonged the storage period of mala flavoured with
passion fruit juice sugar mix from 6 to 8 days at
15°C by slowing down the initial proliferation of
yeasts and moulds. Mala flavoured with fruit preparations
other than passion fruit juice showed a
decrease of pH and viscosity and an increase of
titrable acidity over the storage period. On the
other hand mala flavoured with passion fruit juice
showed an increase in pH, a decrease in titrable
acidity and a constant viscosity over the storage
period. The latter may be due to the hydrocolloids
added to improve the viscosity of the product.

Manene MM, Odhiambo JW. Probability and Statistics I.; 1987.
Manene MM, Odhiambo JW. Probability and Statistics I.; 1987.
Kwasa TOO. A Study Of Clinical And Laboratory Features In Stroke Patients At The Kenyatta National Hospital..; 1987. Abstract

This is both a retrospective as well as a prospective study conducted from January 1986 to January, 1987 at KNH involving 72 stroke patients.
Thirty point four per cent of the patients were found to hypertensive. The majority were found to be from the Central Province- More patients were rural dwellers than urban dwellers. The majority y of the hypertensive patients were either first diagnosed at admission for stroke or had had poor control of their hypertension, Most hypertensive
patients were old, (> 45 years).
Laboratory investigations showed hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, renal insufficiency, and high ESR to be common amongst stroke patients. Syphilis was not found in any of the patients.
The young normotensive patients were examined and some possible aetiological factor identified in all except four.
Recommendations are made as to' further work
and prevention against stroke.

Munyao TM. Antimicrobial sensitivity in cholera in Kenya.; 1986. Abstract

Investigations were carried out with a view to
establishing vibrio cholerae susceptibility to
various antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline,
chlorampenicol, co-trimoxazole, Erythromycin,
Ampicillin, Minocycline, Amoxycillin and Nalidixic
acid were included.
Vibrio cholerae strains tested from 178 isolates were
found to be completely resistant to Co-trimoxazole
and amoxycillin. Complete resistance was encountered
to Tetracycline, in Kirinyaga district (N=124) and
highly resistant in Nyanza Province 67%(N=33).
Variable high resistance was also encountered to
Erythromycin 65.2% (N=178) and ampicillin 99.3%(N=l78)

The V. cholerae strains were 100% sensitive to
Minocycline and Nalidixlc acid, and 84.3% sensitive to
The multiple drug resistance encountered is
usually confered by plasmids.

Mwenda JN. An Assessment of the Cadastral Survey System in Kenya. Fredericton, NB, Canada: University of New Brunswick; 1986.
Mbatha CM. Building Contract Performance: A Case Study Of Government Projects In Kenya .; 1986. Abstract

The success of any project is determined mainly by the effectiveness of the procedure used and by the efficiency of the organizational tools employed. Building and construction projects in general are particularly very sensitive to the nature of the organizational structure of the implementation team. This is so because many different, autonomous and fragmented institutions are brought together to combine their various expertise with a comon objective of producing a structure to the satisfaction of the client. It is the efficiency of combining their various activities that generally determines the success of the project. In Kenya, many reports have continued to appear in the local newspapers, professional journals and even meetings have been held by the respective institutions on accusations and counter accusations on the performance of government building contracts. The concern has been raised by a few cases of delayed projects which are likely be the tip of the iceberg, because nobody has come up with an emperical data to prove their side of the argument. Among other methods of measuring contract performance are cost and time, the success which contributes to yet another measure-client satisfaction The aim of this study is to establish whether or not the performance of government building contracts in terms of cost and time was poor in the period 1967 - 1981.~ This is done by use of a statistical technique - regression and correlation analysis as programmed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)• It is shown that majority of government building contracts suffer cost and time overruns. Time overruns are more frequent than cost overruns and the two are not related. Big projects have been shown to be more prone to both time and cost overruns than the smaller ones although delays have been found to bear no relationship to contract sizes.

Matanji P. Implementation of automated housekeeping systems in academic libraries in Kenya.. Melbourne: Monash University, Graduate School of Librarianship; 1986.
Marube K. Investigation of attitudes towards Mathematics by teacher trainees of Migori and Kisii Teachers Training colleges. Nairobi: Kenyatta University; 1986. Abstract

Performance in Mathematics has been poor for the last many years. The course of the problem has not been established. Children at the primary level of education in Kenya are not known to have probems with mathematics concepts. This is clear from the good performance in the subject at the national examination level (KCPE). Students start having problems with Mathematics concepts at the secondary level. Results in mathematics at the national secondary examination tell it all; poor performance.
It is suspected that the problems related with Mathematics among school pupils emanates from the teachers of Mathematics. This is what necessitated the study; to investigate the attitudes of the teacher trainees who on their graduation become teachers of Mathematics.
The study established that the teacher trainees from the two Colleges was negative. The teacher trainees took mathematics because it was compulsory. It was found out that most of them did not pass mathematics at their qualifying examination to College. Probably, this is why they hold negative attitudes towards the subject. This may be the reason why the pupils they teach may not like the subject.

Swazuri MA. A study of housing needs assessment a case study of Malindi town .; 1986. Abstract

The gap between what amount of housing is available and the desired housing level represents housing need. Investigations have shown that this need is growing over time, with little in the form of more housing being provided. In order to gauge by how far this need is being satisfied, it is necessary to undertake some study of housing needs in an area. This project work comprises a study of methods for estimating overall housing needs. Prevailing theories of housing need have concentrated very much on the physical housing product itself as a representation of what and how much housing is required. Some of these theories and their practical applications in estimating housing needs are investigated. The results of most of these methods point out that the housing problem in many developing countries is one of unmanageable proportions, and that the needs have in many cases been measured unconvincingly. These methods have been applied to the study area of Malindi Town in the Coast Province of Kenya. The results of the study reveal the deficiencies in the current assessment methods. Any proper method for estimating housing needs should consider important elements like the environmental quality of the houses and their surrounding neighborhoods. It should also consider the level of housing services and peoples cultures that are necessary for the decent living of the occupants, whether these occupants can or cannot afford these essentials. The proposed model in this study incorporates a methodology for assessing housing needs in the light of the above prerequisites, which have often been neglected in the current housing need estimates. Though without fault, the method at least tries to reduce some of the defects inherent in the prevailing methods for estimating housing needs. There are three main parts to the study. First, housing needs are discussed in relation to current theories and methods of measuring them. Models are given and analysed against the magnitude of the housing problem as portrayed by other analysts. The second part is about the study area, Malindi Town in Coast Province, in which the various methods have been applied in order to test the hypothesis and carry out aims of the study. Data on population trends, household sizes, income structures, building materials, housing information .and construction activities are presented and analysed to provide a basis for the estimations. The third section links parts one and two in actual housing needs estimation using data obtained from a field survey. This section winds up with summary and recommendations obtained from the results of the estimations. Housing needs should not be assessed literayfor, they involve more than what meets the eye and more often they should be measured in recognition of the society's housing norms and allied attitudes

Sharif SK. Autoimmune Profile In Insulin' Dependent Diabetes Mellitus At Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1985. Abstract

131 patients with IDDM attending K.N.H. were studied.
The mean age of onset of IDDM was 20.1 years. There
was a male predominance with M:F ratio of 1.4:1 There
was a low prevalence of IDDM among first degree
relatives of diabetic probands. Definitive history of
viral infection preceding the onset of IDDM was found in
one patient. None of the patients had thryroglobulin
antibodies; thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in
0.7% of the patients. Parietal cell antibodies were
found in 4.6% of the patients. Islet cell antibodies
were found in 3.7% of patients with IDDM.· The prevalence
of autoantibodies in Kenyan Africans with IDDM is much
lower when compared with Caucasians and Black Americans
with IDDM. In view of the low prevalence of autoantibodies
in Kenyan Africans with IDDM, primary autoimmune diabetes
mellitus is considered rare in Kenyan Africans with IDDM.

Githang'a JN. Chromosomal Abnormalities In Childhood Acute Leukaemia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract

This is a prospective study of 14 patients aged from
ten months to 13 years admitted to KNH with acute leukaemia
(AL). Chromosomal analysis was successfully performed in
nine children. The clinical and laboratory features of the
patients were also analysed in relation to cytogenetic
abnormalities identified.
The study revealed that eight out of 14 (57!1~) of the
patients had acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) and 43%
had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Out of the five
children with ANLL who had chromosomal analysis performed
three (60%) had karyotype abnormal it i es: two pat i en ts had
hyperdiploidy, one with AML M5a had 47 chromosomes, and the
other with AML M2 had trisomy 21; the third patient had
monosomy 7. None of the four patients with ALL who had
chromosomal analysis performed had any karyotype
Four out of the nine patients, whose karyotypes were
determined, died. All the four had normal karyotypes . Two
died of haemorrhage having had platelet counts less than 20
x 109/1 which is a poor prognostic feature. The other two
died of overwhelming infections.
Surface marker studies done during the course of the
study were helpful in making a final
complemented the morphological diagnosis.
diagnosis and

Evidence from the study shows that karyotypic
abnormalities in ANLL occur as frequently as those found in
other studies. The prognostic significance of the
chromosomal abnormalities has not been clearly demonstrated
in this study in view of the sample size. It is therefore
recommended that further similar but larger studies be
performed. A larger study should also bring out any
associations between certain karyotypes and morphologi cal
types of acute leukaemia.

Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
MCLIGEYO SO. The experience at Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective and Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Shihembetsa LU. Factors in the provision of low income housing a case study of kariobangi .; 1985. Abstract

Housing for the low-income group has been and is still a major problem in the developing countries. More attention has been put on this problem by the world in.the recent years. Kenya being one of the developing countries faces this problem like any other developing country. The population growth rates In third world countries' cities is too high as compared to developed countries. This study looked at the factors in the provision of low-income housing and how these factors hinder the process of provision of shelter. The factors included inter alia, National Housing Policy, Land, Financial Resources, Construction costs and Building standards. These factors were analysed independently in the various chapters of this study and then findings we r e drawn. The findings were used as guidelines for the recommendations made. The study was organised in six chapters. Chapter one was an introduction, giving what the study was all about. Chapter two looked at the National Housing Policy of Kenya pointing out the weaknesses of the policy. The study found that the policy has vague, unrealistic and too ambitious


Anza Graben is situated in the north and northeastern Kenya. It is about 120 km wide and approximately 600 km long. The area of the present study is located mainly in NE Kenya and constitutes a strike length of about 300 km. The graben is almost entirely sediment filled and is estimated to be of Cretaceous age. It is characterized by a prominent negative Bouguer anomaly reaching -40 mGal.

Several studies were made in an effort to determine its subsurface structure. These involved interpretation of a number of seismic reflection profiles, 3D interactive gravity modelling using fixed density contrasts between the sediment infill and the basement, and the analysis by filtering and modelling of the aeromagnetic data hover the graben. A crustal modelling of refraction data along the western shoulder of the Anza graben using 2D ray tracing was also performed.

Two major basins are recognizable from the results of the studies, namely the southern basin which has a northeasterly dip and the northern basin having a southwesterly one. This alternating asymmetry is also indicated for an adjoining smaller basin located to the west of the graben. The density contrast used for the final gravity model is -300 kg/m3 which indicates a maximum sediment thickness of about 8 km. The modelling of aeromagnetic data however favour a maximum thickness of at least 10km. A 2D refraction crustal P wave model of the western shoulder indicates that the crust thins northwestwards with the Moho depth decreasing from 35 km under Chanler's Falls to approximately under the southeastern shores of Lake Turkana. The abrupt shallowing of the Moho in the Lake Turkana area is attributed to the effects of the Kenya Rift Valley. However the gentle variation in the Moho depth along the remaining section of the shoulder of Anza Graben appears to depict a regional phenomenon also attributable to the formation of the Kenya Rift Valley. It is proposed from the study that sections of the graben shoulder are underlain by slightly denser rocks and that the crustal thinning associated with Anza Graben is not significant.

MCLIGEYO SO. Haemodialysis - The Experience At Kenyatta National Hospital - A Retrospective And Prospective Study.; 1985. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

I.O. Kibwage (1985). A study on new metabolites of streptomyces erythreus and on the metabolism of erythromycin. Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium..; 1985. Abstract

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.


This was an exploratory study to investigate some of the factors that influence motor vehicle premiums. The factors that were chosen for investigation were the number of accidents, the amount of claims paid and the number of operating vehicles (licensed).
These factors were chosen after reading through some press reports. They are not usually included directly in underwriting and rating factors considered by motor vehicle insurers.
The main objectives of the study were:-
1. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance premiums and motor vehicle accidents.
2. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance and claims incurred.
3. To investigate the extent of the relationship between motor vehicle insurance premiums and the number of cars licensed to operate.
The findings were that there is no significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and the number of accidents. There was also no significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and the number of vehicles operating. But there was quite a significant relationship between motor insurance premiums and claims incurred.

Wahome EW. Later Iron Age in Nyeri District, Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1985.
J.N.Muriuki. Non-linear prognoses of Markov's process. Kharkov,; 1985.
Magoha GAO. Primary carcinoma of the prostate in Nigerians as seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. . Lagos: Lagos University Teaching Hospital; 1985. Abstract

A prospective study of serial serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations was made on 21 patients who had received renal allografts. CRP was raised during 27 of 32 rejection episodes and in all of five episodes of rejection associated with infection. CRP values were persistently elevated in three irreversible rejection episodes. Significantly raised CRP concentrations were documented in 14 of 20 episodes of infection. In some cases CRP was a predictive indicator of rejection or infection. In all cases of infection or rejection associated with a rise in CRP, CRP values fell following successful treatment with appropriate agents. Serial CRP measurement used in conjunction with other clinical and biochemical parameters appears to be valuable clinically following renal transplantation.

Njokah JMM. Review Of Omphaloceles (Exomphalos) In Kenyatta National Hospital 1976-1985.; 1985. Abstract

A retrospective study of the omphlocele has been done. The study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital which is the referral hospital for the Republic of Kenya and the teaching hospital for the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Nairobi.

This study covers a ten year period from 1976 ~ 194.

A total of 34 cases have been studied. The yearly incidence has 'heen static notwithstanding our high populati~n growth.

Among the 34 cases there were 18 males and 16

females. Of the 34 cases there were 19 survivals arid15 deaths.

12 deaths (80%) among the 15 followed early surgery.

Only 3 patients ha.dsurgery among 19 survivals. Tne 'major cause of death (6 out of 12) among the surgical cases was respiratory complications. Surgery had been performed within
1-3 days of birth.

Surgical management consisted of excision and repair of the o,mphalocele. Non-surgical regime entailed painting
the omphalocele with mercurochrome (1 patient) or simply

daily clensing with antiseptics followed by sofratule
dressing (18 patients).


Complication of the ~mphaloceles occured in ~ cases only (Table 4). Malformations co-existing with omphalocele occured in 12 cases of which 7 died. In our series non-surgical regime produced more survival (84.2%) 16 out of 19

DR. Ogola ESN. Some Aspects Of Dilated Cardiomyopathy As Seen At Kenyatta National Hospital With Emphasis On Echocadiographic Features.; 1985. Abstract

A total of 37 patients were studied, 16 males and 21 females. The ages ranged from 13-78 (mean!
Almost all the males (except

one) were 30 years and above, while the females showed a peak in the twenties followed by another from the fifties.
A11 the patients presented in severe heart

failure, most (81%) being in New York Heart

Association (NYHA) class 4. Third heart sound

was universal, while murmur of mitral regurgitation was heard in about two thirds. Chest pain was present in 10 patients (27%) but only in one case was it angina-like. Embolic phenomena occured in two patients, both in association with pregnancy.
Mean rate(velocity) of circumferential fibre

shortening (Mean Vcf) was depressed in a~l patients, range, 0018-0095 circ/sec, Mean ± 5.0, = 0048
+ 0.22 circ/sec.

Electrocardiographic abnormalities were present in all except one patient. ST - T changes were the most common (64.9%), followed by left bundle branch
block (LBBE) (24.3%)0

- 5 -

No single case of atrial fibrillation was seene

Pregnancy was a strong contributory factor

in the female population, being associated in

52% of the caseSe

Association with alcohol was observed

exclusively in the males. There was association in 6205% of the maleso
Elevated blood pressure was found in 6

patients (l6.20/0)e

Ongore D. A Study Of Malaria On The Kano Plains, Kisumu District, Kenya: A Community Study Of Currrent Knowledge, Attitudes And Control Practises; Parasite And Spleen Rates; Mosquito Bionomics And The Feasability Of Vector-control At The Community Level.; 1985. Abstract

A Study of Malaria on the Kano Plains, Kisumu District,
Kenya was carried out between April and August, 1985. The
study included the following:-
1. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Survey
was conducted, it covered 187 households, representing 20%
of the total households in the study area. The responses
were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social
Sciences (SPSS) system on the ICL 2950 computer. In general
knowledge about malaria was found to be good, however knowledge
about the life cycle and habits of the mosquito was
found to be poor. Various plants with possible insecticidal
and/or repellent action were mentioned and are discussed.
2. During a clinical and parasitological survey 1216
people of all ages were examined for malaria parasites and

414 children aged 2-9 years were examined for splenomegaly
as well. Malaria was found to be highly endemic in the area
with an 84.1% parasite rate in children aged 2-9 years ..The

spleen rate in the same age group was found to be 50.2%. The

results and further analysis are given and fully discussed.
3. The Entomological Survey was base¢ upon six selected

collection stations. A total of 599 adult mosquitoes and

424 mosquito larvae were collected. All the import ant local
vectors of malaria were found in the area. In addition many
nuisance mosquitoes and potential arbovirus vectors were
found breeding. The species distribution is analysed and

4. The validity of clinicaldiagnosis in malaria was
studied by comparing the clinical and blood film findings
in 1216 subjects. 43 people were found with symptoms
suggestive of clinical malaria. The practical usefulness
of clinical diagnosis is discussed on the basis of these
5. An Intervention Strategy is described based upon
the survey findings. The feasibility of·vector control at
community level is explored with emphasis on environmental
measures and the use of local resources.

Matanji P. Use of the off-the-shelf software in housekeeping activities in academic Libraries in Australia.. Australia.: RMIT, Department of Librarianship.; 1985.
Kioy PG. Electrophysiological Study Of Diabetic Autonomic And Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy.; 1984. Abstract

Neurological complications of Diabetes Mellitus were
looked for in a group of 31 patients using clinical examination
and electrophysiological tests. Clinically evident sensorimotor
neuropathy was found to be prsent in 41.9% and clinical
autonomic neuropathy in 15% of the patients. Electrophysiological
tests showed evidence of sensorimotor neuropathy in 80% and
autonomic nerve dysfunction in 35% of the same patients. Autonomic
neuropathy was found to occur always in association with
sensorimotor neuropathy.
The electrophysiological tests were found to be convenient
as they were easy, and required little cooeration from the patient.
Sensory nerve tests were found to be more sensitive than motor
nerve tests alone and the yield of anyone test was found to
increase the more nerves one examined. Electrocardiographic tests
for autonomic neuropathy ( i.e. 'beat to beat variation' of pulse
rate and the 'valsalva ratio' ) were found to be of equal
sensitivity, but the former was easier to carry out and is
therefore recommended. The use of postural blood pressure changes
to assess autonomic nerve function was found to be too insensitive
for any practical use. When postural hypotension is present, other
signs of neuropathy are usually grossly evident.

Parmeejet A. 'FLEXIBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FACILITIES. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1984.
OCHILO, GATELY. The Football Sub-Culture "The Case of Sydney Swan Team in Syney Australia". London: Mitchel University College; 1984.
Adwok JA. Stricture Of The Urethra. The Disease As Seen At The Kenyatta National Hospital Over A One Year Period, 1982 - 1983.; 1984. Abstract

A prospective study of seventy seven patients with urethral
strictures treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period
of twelve months (1982-1983) was done. The age, tribal, and
aetiological incidencies were investigated. Various aspects of the
clinical presentation, investigation and treatment were also looked
Post-inflammatory strictures were significantly more than
post-traumatic and iatrogenic strictures. However, post-prostatectomy
strictures were not included with the later.
The lapse period following post-inflammatory strictures was,
about 5years on the avereqe , Orno-Dore quotes 18 years for a
Nigerian study done two decades ago for post-gonococcal strictures.
It was not possible to determine the initial cause of urethritis in this
study due to the fact that most patients had no cultures for the
organisms done at the time of infection. Some were treated at
dispensaries and previous medical records were unobtainable.
Data on tribal incidence could not be critically analysed
without bias due to the uneven distribution of the tribes around the
Nairobi area. Others live a few kilometers away and others hundreds

of kilometers.
Half of the urine cultures done were negative. The rest grew
gram negative organisms, mainly E. coli. No gonococci were isolated.
B.U.N. was elevated above normal in about one third of the patients;
Intravenous pyelograms were normal in four-fifths of the patients
investigated. Micturatingure throqrcmcdone in eleven patients showed
the majority of strictures to be in the posterior urethra.
Seventy-three percent of the patients were managed with
intermittent dilatations with good results. Urethroplasty was done in
23% and urethrotomy in 4% of the patients - urethroplasty was offered
more to the younger age group.
The need for proper health education to the public about this
'disease and its causes is emphasized. Suggestions for better management
of these patients are forwarded. Special stress on the benefits of
urethrotomy under vision for suitable patients is made. A critical review
of the various types of urethroplasty is also presented.

A. OF. Mechanical Transmission of Trypanosoma evansi steele, by Stomoxys calcitrans.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi ; 1983.
Karogi JK. Design of district centres with special reference to Kayole .; 1982. Abstract

The main intention of this thesis is to establish design principles and evolve a design for Kayole District Centre within the North Eastern part of Nairobi city region. The design of Kayole District Centre should be seen as an evolution of design principles which can also be applied in designing other district centres now that decentralization of Nairobi City Centre is imminent. The first chapter is a discussion of one of the major design determinants; the context within which Kayole district centre will grow. In this chapter the geographical placement of Kayole District Centre in respect to other surrounding urban centres has been analysed in an attempt to establish the catchment population it will serve at various strategic years. The first chapter also shows the correlation between the catchment population arid the planned infrastructure. In this way it has been established that the planned infrastructure can support both Kayole District Centre and its catchment population for various strategic years. Chapters two and three are case studies of two suburban centres, Westlands and Eastleigh. The intention in these two chapters is a critical study, in an attempt to discern the forces behind the functional zoning movement patterns, structure, and urban form of the two centres. Westlands and Eastleigh have been chosen because they cater for different income Chapter five is the design of Kayole District groups and evolved from different urban cultures. Thus Westlands serves a high income group and is western in outlook. Eastleigh on the other hand serves a low income group and was an Asian settlement at its inception. In their nature the two case studies constitute a spectrum of the urban reality in Nairobi City region. The design determinants discerned in chapters two and three have been embodied in chapter four which is a conclusion of the case studies. In the fourth chapter as in the design, the more sensory determinants have been given greater emphasis. Centre. As far as has been possible, the design incorporates what has been learned in the case studies. The centre is in two sectors. The main sector constitutes a majority of commercial, residential, social and administrative facilities. This sector is complete in itself and is the only sector, that the design goes into detail. The second sector to the East has some major institutions and future extensions of commercial and residential activities of the Centre. The institutions in this sector are so specialized that it is beyond the scope of this thesis to design them to any detail. Only the required amounts of land has been set aside. Although the future commercial and residential activities have pot been designed to any detail, the design principles used in the design of the first sector, to the West should apply.

Nyang'aya JA. Efficiency of African charcoal burning stove .; 1982. Abstract

Fuelwood accounts for most of the domestic energy use in the Third World. In East Africa the use of charcoal especially in urban centres has continued though threatened by social factors such as deforestation. The typical East African metal charcoal stove has been studied with emphasis on its efficiency and pollutant emission. The study has brought to better focus the very low performance figures and the dangerously high pollutant emissions by the stove. The study consisted of: i. Continuous flue gas monitoring which was achieved by positioning the stove in a specially constructed enclosure allowing sampling of the flue gases before dillution with the surrounding air. ii. Temperature monitoring of various .. posi tions both on and off the stove to assess the heat energy distribution. Following lighting up concentrations of over 3% CO and 8% CO were recorded each time. These concentrations reduced to about half the above values within 10 minutes though for up to 30 minutes the concentrations were still1\3 times above the.:poisonous ., threshold limit based on normal air. changes -wi thin an occupied room

Dindi EW. A GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE JOMBO HILL AREA, SOUTH COAST KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract


The aeromagnetic survey of the Jombo Hill Area conducted in l977 revealed an anomaly of 2000 gammas in amplitude in the area of the intrusive rocks. This value gtands,out as one of the highest values ever recorded in Kenya. In order to investigate the anomaly further, a gravity survey was conducted in the area within 40 km radius_of Jombo hill. After the necessary corrections to the observed data they were compiled into a Bouguer gravity map of the area.

The Bouguer gravity anomalies range from - 40 to over 50 mgals. The peak of the anomaly occurs immediately to the south of the hill and most of the contours close on this peak. It is noticeable that the magnetic and gravity anomalies are roughly coincident. The relative ease and convenience of gravity 3D modelling relative to magnetic 3D modelling, in the context of this study, dictated the placing of a greater emphasis on the former in the quantitative interpretation.
The gravity anomaly is interpreted in terms of an inverted funnel like body of density 3.1 gcm-3, with its top surface at about l km depth. Estimates from the magnetic map yield a similar value for the depth to the top of the body.

Most of the magnetization in these rocks is the induced type and is in the direction of the ambient field. The large grain size has an appreciable effect on the magnetization in these rocks.
It appears from the study, that both the magnetic and gravity anomalies are caused by a single body. The gravity anomaly depicts the effect of the entire body while the magnetic anomaly that due to a relatively small central and shallow portion of it. The exact geometry of this portion was not determined. However a sphere fitted to the anomaly gave satisfactory results.

By comparison with the geology of the area and with the characteristics of other known alkaline complexes in Eastern Africa, the gravity model is considered geologically reasonable.

K'Oyugi BO. Mortality and Morbidity Situation in Siaya District. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1982.
Monyonko NM, Reid JH. Neutrino charge in the non-linear Rzeta gauge.; 1982.
Lesan WR. Some Aspects Of Solubility Of Silicate And Glass Ionomer Cements A Laboratory Study.; 1982. Abstract

Three aspects of the in-vitro solubility of silicate and glassionomer
dental cements were studied.
a) The solubility of silicate cements was studied using the "weight
of evapourated eluate method. It was shown that the dissolution
of these cements depends on the volume of solution in which they
are immersed and also the frequency in which this was changed.
It was seen that these cement~ were capable of taking up fluoride
ions from concentrated solutions while releasing the same ions
in more dilute solutions. Studies with samples of varying surface
area:volume ratios confirm that dissolution is not only dependent
on the surface area but that matter is also lost from the bulk
of the specimen.
b) The release of organic materials from glass ionomer cements
immersed in water or phosphate solution was studied using a total
organic content (T.O.C) analyser. It was seen that upto 0.l0mg
of organics could be detected in such solutions. The concentration
of detected organic species rises with increasing time, then
falls off again. This is explained in terms of re-adsorption
of the organic species by the cement.
c) Thermogravimetric analysis studies glass ionomer cement samples
with various histories were made. Weight loss (presumably of
water) was shown to be related to the history of the samples
as well as to the thermogravimetric conditions. The thermogravimetric
conditions used in this study were air and Nitrogen
atmospheres. The results are used to assess the merits of the

sample-weight loss" method for investigating solubility.
This method, in view of the simultaneous water loss or uptake
by the sample, is not recommended.

Kimani M.  Effect of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya. Mosley H, Oyuke C, eds. Nairobi: Nairobi; 1982.
Oburra HO. Empyema Thoracis In Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1981. Abstract

This is a combined prospective and retrospective
review 'study of empyema thoracis. Twenty patients admitted
to Kenyatta National Hospital wards between November, 1980
and April 1981 were studied prospectively. Seventy nine patients admitted between January 1975 and October 1980 were
studied retrospectively. Both groups have been reviewed
to highlight various aspects of this disease, particularly
its potentially crippling effect on the respiratory system
and the fact that this is a preventable situation which is
not yet fully appreciated in our country.
Pulmonary disease was the most prevalent underlying
aetiology in this series. Mycobacteria and Staph. Aureus
were the most frequent causative organism followed by
various gram negative bacteria. Culture was negative in 21%
of all cases reviewed. The tendency of children under
10 years of age to have staphylococcal and multibacterial
infection was noted.
The ever increasing pneumonectomy rate on the background
of inadequate initial. treatment coupled with
scarcity of surgical beds and theatre time is highlighted.
Finally paediatric age and presence of underlying disea were shown to have positive relationship with increased
mortality, while traumatic and tuberculous aetiologies
were found to have a higher risk of eventual pneumonectomy.

Kokwaro GO. The Formulation Of Stable Adrenaline Eye Drops For Use In The Management Of Glaucoma.; 1981. Abstract

The different factors affecting the stability of adrenaline
in solution have been examined with a view to producing a
pharmaceutically active eye drop prep~ration of adrenaline. It
was important that such a formulation should be simple enough to

enable preperation using the available facilities in this country_
A preformu1ation screening of antioxidants in the
absence of adrenaline showed that at low/values (around pH 3.0)
sodium sulphite was superior to either sodium metabisu1phite or
ascorbic acid. Accelerated stability studies showed that the
pH of maximum stability for aqueous solutions of adrenaline was
approximately pH 3.7. Accelerated stability tests at this pH

confirmed the superiority of sodium sulphite over a combination
of sodium metabisu1phite and ascorbic acid as antioxidants.
Accelerated stability studies also confirmed the
important role of boric acid in enhancing the stability of adrenaline
in aqueous solutions.
An investigation of four sterilization procedures
showed that the immediate loss of adrenaline was negligible
after either sterilization by filtration or by heating at 980c
for 30 minutes. Higher sterilization temperatures caused
substantial loss of adrenaline and discolouration of the solut
ions ,
For reasons of comfort to the patient on instillation
- 131 -
into the eye and for clarity of the solution in presence of the
preservative used (Benzalkonium Chloride), a final formulation of
adrenaline eye drops was prepared in borate buffer at pH 5.8,
with sodium sulphite as the antioxidant. Accelerated stability
studies and long term storage studies at ambient temperatures
showed that the final preparation was reasonably stable. Clinical
testing of the preparation on hospitalized glaucoma patients
showed that the preparation compared favourably with commercial
and other preparations used in the management of raised intraocular

Dr Kayima JK. Platelet functions, plasma fibrinolytic activity And coagulation screen findings in africans with nephrotic syndrome without uraemia, as seen at the kenyatta national hospital (kne.; 1981. Abstract

In a nine months period,from March 1987 to November

1987, inc1usiv€, studies on p1ac21et functions, pla$ma fibrinolytic activity and coagulation screen were carried out in 40 patients (30 males and 10 females) with the nephrotic syndrome and 40 matches controls at the Kenyatta
National Hospital. The age range was S-Sl years, mean + SD


patients had unchanged platelet counts and clot retraction compared to controls (p>O.OS), whereas platelet adhesiveness and platelet agg~egation to adenosine diphosphate U",DP) were significantly reduced among patients (P0.05) as well as between plasma fibrinogen concentration and total cholesterol (r=0.25, P>0.05).
It is concluded that our patients have a degree of hype-rcoagulability. Whether the factors for and against hypercoagulabiJ .ity compensate f cr each other in the causation of complications need to be verified. A larger populatibn and more detailed haemostatic study will in future be needed to cover more nephrotic patients in different areas of the country. It is also necessary to folIo w up ou r pat ient s f or complicat ions resul ting from
this hypercoagulable state, like thromboembolic events and

is.c!haemic heart diseas.e to find ou.t.. their pre...lence .


contr.ibutionto morbidity and mortality among Africans with

nephrotic syndrome.

Oluoch AJ. A Comparative Study Of Needle Aspiration Biopsy With Histology In The Diagnosis Of Enlarged Prostate.; 1980. Abstract

Forty one patients with enlarged prostate were studied
as regards their acid phospatase estimation, clinical findings
on rectal examination and needle aspiration biopsy. The results
of this study were compared with histological diagnosis after
surgery. It was found that combined needle aspiration biopsy,
rectal examination plus acid phosphatase estimation gave a
reliable diagnosis of pathological state of prostate gland in
terms of malignancy in 82 per cent of the cases.
Since the disease in consideration is early cancer, the
combined diagnostic approach as above can be quite useful in
contemplating early surgery to eradicate early cancer with hope of
cure. On the other hand, those who believe in hormonal therapy
and want to avoid operation can start the hormonal treatment quite

Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. The influence of Ca2+ on size and light scattering properties of the Casein Micelles. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1980.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. Law, Morals and the Individual in Kenya .; 1980.
Rajula CM. The Survival After The Cardiac Arrest At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1980. Abstract

The records of 450 patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the period 1974-1980 are reviewed. All suffered cardio-pulmonary arrest, and the results of treatment are expressed in terms of length of survival. One hundred fifty nine patients (35.6%) responded to the cardio-pulmonary resuscitation initially. Out of this, 115 patients (72.33%) died in the hospital later; 44 (8.9%) who were hospitalised for another one month, after cardio-pulmonary arrest, and then discharged, were considered long survivors.
The chances of successful resuscitation were greater in patients with ischaemic heart disease (20% survived); undergoing anaesthesia (20% survived); and those with drug
overdose (15.5% survived). Patients with ventricular fibrilation as the primary electro-cardiographic finding had better prog~osis as compared to those with asystole.
Resuscitation in patients with progressive metabolic and respiratcry failure, and multiple episodes of cardiac arrests, was associated with poor prognosis. Low survival rates were
also found in children under ten years of age.
About eleven percent of all the survivors developed residual brain damage with marked intelectual impairment, including 2 patients with psychiatric problems.

Munyua JK, Larsson-Razinikiewicz. M. Chemical and physical effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Skim-Milk and isolated Casein Micelles.. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1979.
OCHILO. The Role of the Mass Media in National Development. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Gichaga FJ. Structural Behaviour of Flexible Pavements in Kenya.. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1979.
Mbindyo JM. Planning for effective rural communication and development in Kenya,. Institute for Communication Research, Stanford University; 1978.
Munyua JK, Almlof E, Larsson M, Razinikiewicz, Lindqvist I. Fractionation by size of Casein micelles on controlled pore size glass. Stockholm: University of Uppsala; 1977.
MULIMBA JAO. A histological microbiological and immunological study of patients undergoing tonsillectomy for recurrent Sore throats at the Kenyatta national hospital..; 1977. Abstract

A histological, microbiological, virological and immunological study of tonsils removed from patients Buffering recurrent attacks of sore throat was done. The study was done on patients seen in Ear., Nose and Throat (E. N. T.) Clinic and wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.) over a period of three months, September to November, 1977. The
patients' ages ranged between 2 years and 38 years. First 29 tonsils were examined histologically, no specific diagnostic features were demonstrable in any. Of 54 throat swabs taken in the clinic only 9 grew pathogens i.e. 6%. Of the 63 tonsils and
63 throat swabs iros same patients examined microbio-logically, 40 tonsils grew pathogens as compared to only 17 throat swabs. No fungi were isolated in any
specimen although they were looked for.67 specimens of tonsillar arid adenoid mater ial were cuItured for viruses, only 9 grew adenoviruses types 1, 2 and 5. 25 tonsillar and adenoid materials were examined immunologically for lymphocyte activity the result
of which was compared w ith lymphocyte activity in the peripheral blood of the same patients. Serum globulin levels were determined in 30 patients. These levels were generally low. The results were analysed, the literature on the various aspects of management of recurrent attacks of sore throat was examined; and this was followed by
discussion. COG81usions wsre drawn based on the above views expresseJ by many authors of articles on this issue

Gatuma AK. A Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical And Pharmacological Investigation Of The Poisonous Principle(s) Of Elaeodendron Buchananii (Loes.) Loes.; 1977. Abstract

A pharmacognostical investigation of Elaeodendron buchananii
(Loes.) Loes. has been undertaken. Phytochemical and pharmacological
properties of the active (poisonous) principles of the plant
have also been studied.
The pharmacognostical investigation of the plant involved identifying
features of the different parts of the plant using photographic
and macroscopic methods .
Results of the screening tests of the different parts of the
plant for the active constituents indicated the presence of chemical
compounds with a, b-unsaturated 6- lactone ring, possibly cardiac
glycosides. Investigation of a suitable solvent system for the extraction
of these compounds was undertaken. Of the different parts
of the plant examined for active principles , the leaves were found
to contain the highest percentage of the chemical compounds with <,
(3- unsaturated 0-- lactone ring. Isolation and purification of the
active principle(s) from the original crude plant extracts involving
the removal of pigments, tannins! resins and excess lead has been
described. Crystellisat ion of the isolated gycoside from a suitable
solvent system and the subsequent study of some of the physical l and
chemical properties of the isolated compound has been described.
From the elemental analysis and the molecular weight of the
isolated compound the molecular formula of t he compound has been
determined as C32H47011. Using the infra-red, ultraviolet, nuclear
magnetic resonance and mass spectra$ a partial molecular structure
has been suggested.
The isolated compound has been reacted with Kedde reagent and
the resulting coloured complex has been examined to see whether it
obeys Beer - Lambert law. The calibration curve obtained has been
used to determine the percentage recovery of the isolated compound
in the leaves of the plant.
The pharmacological study of the isolated compound has also
been undertaken. This study involved the investigation of the
effects of the isolated compound on the blood pressure of anaesthetised
rat and the effect of the compound on the isolated perfused
rabbi t heart.
Suggestions for further work as regards pharmacognostical investigation
of the plant together with ascertaining the exact structural
formula of the compound has been proposed.

Varma S. Tissue Reaction to Surgical Sutures in Infected Wounds. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1976.
Varma S. Tissue Reaction to Surgical Sutures in Infected Wounds. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1976. Abstract
Mbindyo BS. Snake Bites in Kenya.; 1975.
Macoco DK. Construction of a Gravity Map, .; 1973. Abstract

To display more clearly the gravity anomalies caused by geologic bodies in the upper parts of the crust, a new colored isostatic residual gravity map of the conterminous United States has been prepared using the gravity data set compiled for the Gravity Anomaly Map of the United States (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 1982). The new isostatic residual gravity map is based on an Airy-Heiskanen model of local compensation, in which the surface load requiring compensation is defined by 5-min topographic and bathymetric data sets. A colored first-vertical-derivative map of isostatic residual gravity further enhances the short-wavelength anomalies produced by bodies at or near the surface and emphasizes the regional fabrics and trends in the gravity field. For the purpose of displaying gravity anomalies caused by shallow bodies of geologic significance, the nature of the isostatic model and the values of its parameters are of lesser importance than the application of an isostatic correction of some sort. Most isostatic models result in residual gravity maps that appear nearly identical in their main patterns and features. Anomalies on isostatic residual gravity maps should not be casually interpreted in terms of “undercompensation” or “overcompensation” because large-amplitude anomalies can be produced by crustal bodies in complete local isostatic equilibrium. Many isostatic residual gravity anomalies less than several hundred kilometers wide can be related to known geologic bodies. We present here a classification scheme that attempts to categorize such anomalies on the basis of tectonic environment. In general, highs correlate with intruded or accreted mafic material or with upthrusted crustal sections, whereas lows occur over low-density sedimentary or volcanic sections, felsic intrusive bodies, or down-warped crustal sections. Although some longer-wavelength anomalies, such as the broad gravity high centered over Montana, could be manifestations of density contrasts deep in the mantle, many such anomalies can also be modeled by geologically reasonable density contrasts that are isostatically compensated and confined to depths of less than several hundred kilometers, so that their source bodies need not be deep. The fact that certain of these broader anomalies have well-defined boundaries which correlate with near-surface geologic features increases the likelihood that their sources lie entirely within the lithosphere. If so, then the density contrasts required to explain the gravity data imply fundamental anomalies in chemical composition or thermal state for the crustal and upper mantle columns under these regions. We have investigated spectral analysis as a method to quantitatively characterize regional anomaly patterns. Contoured plots of normalized amplitude spectra were prepared for various areas of the isostatic residual gravity field of the United States. These Fourier domain representations show characteristic patterns that can be interpreted in terms of the trends and wavelengths of anomalies and may help to more objectively distinguish geologic basements with different origins or tectonic histories.

Infection and Suture Tolerance. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1973.
Infection and Suture Tolerance. Colorado: Colorado State University; 1973. Abstract
wandia Mwangi MM. God in the Philosophy of George Edward Moore. Rome: Pontifical Urbaniana University ; 1972.
Bailasha NK, Nteere JS, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. Motivation orientation in sports - A study of athletes in Kenya .; Forthcoming.
Seth D. Goldstein, MD1; Dominic Papandria MD2; ALMDMPH3;, ani Georges Azzies, MD4; Eric Borgstein FRCS5; CMD6; SFMDMPH7; PJMBCB;RG, Mary Klingensmith, MD9; Mohamed Labib10 FLMD; MMMD11; EO’F12; RRMDMPH7;A, Fizan Abdullah, MD PD1. “Innovative approaches to educating the global surgical worldforce: A pilot camparison of online curricula for use in low and middle income countries”.; Submitted.
Matula PD, Sikalie D. Cross- Cultural Management..; 2018.
Hutchinson DM, Andika DD, Kioko DE, Mulwa DR, Isutsa PD, Musieba MF. Role of AIVs in Climate Smart Agriculture. 2016; 2016.role_of_aivs_in_climate_smart_agriculture.pdf
Masinde M. Open Access4D: Battle not won.; 2015. Abstract

The trend is still: “transferring of Northern designs to Southern realities” While 41% of the world’s household have access to the Internet, Africa is lagging far behind at 9%. Africa has abysmal penetration rate for landline telephone, the number of fixed-broadband subscriptions Internet has increased the digital divide.... Africa is slow to take up technological innovation as most have to be imported from elsewhere..” Liam (2009)

Evans W, Nderitu, J., Cheminingwa. management bean pests. Nairobi; 2015.mgt_of_snap_beans_pests.pdf
Gikunju M. Open Access Resources .; 2015.
Gikunju M. Open Access Initiatives .; 2014.
Mutiga J. VALUE ADDITION AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN LANGUAGE REVITALIZATION: THE CASE OF KITHARAKA. Nairobi; 2014. Abstractvalue_addition_and_attitude_change.pdf

Many studies, including Anchimbe (2007), Whiteley (1974) and UNESCO (1953) have sought to establish that language loyalty or the lack of it does relate to the presence or death of linguistic identity. Further, it has been claimed that it is within the context of language contact that people become aware of the status of their language against another’s language. People may also observe a greater degree of loyalty to the language of an ethnic group to which they do not belong, because of value they may attach to it compared to their own language and the benefits they may deem to accrue by this allegiance. If this state of affairs is left unchecked, the resultant language shift may lead to the death of the less prestigious of the languages in question. A purposeful value addition and attitude change according to Paulston (1994:16-17) will regenerate and reverse the loss and “give new life to a dead language” especially if there is increased use of the language, as a result of change of attitude and increased functions for general communication, literacy and education.
In this chapter I will highlight factors that led to the marginalization of Kitharaka. Further, I will give examples of other currently or formally marginalized languages of Kenya. I will then narrow down to specifically examine and illustrate the role played by literacy and on-going mother tongue education programme in the revitalization of Kitharaka.

Makworo" "NK, O.Ogoy" "D, Mukabana" "RW, Ochieng" "VO. A comparative efficacy study of commercially available insecticides against Anopheles gambiae.; 2013. Abstract

Efficacy of commercially available insecticides from Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa were tested against Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Non-blood-fed, 2-5 day old female mosquitoes were liberated into Peet-Grady chambers sprayed with 0.3±0.1g of insecticides. KT50, KT95 and mortality rates of the mosquitoes were noted 24hrs post-spraying. Field efficacy studies were carried out by spraying insecticides in houses with near uniform resting densities of An. gambiae complex mosquitoes. Mosquitoes entering the houses were collected using hand held aspirators, counted and the means calculated. An. gambiae complex mosquitoes were identified using species diagnostic primers. Laboratory results showed Ridsect and Mortein doom ultrafast to be fast acting with KT50 of 0.412 and 0.1983 minutes and KT95 of 4.339 and 5.947 minutes, respectively, among the Kenyan products. Baygon and Mobil had a fast knock down effect with KT50 of 0.415 and 0.551 and KT95 of 3.022 and 3.877 minutes, respectively, among the Nigerian samples. Mortein odorless had a faster knockdown effect with a KT50 of 0.632 and KT95 of 2.576 while Mortein ultrafast had aKT50 of 0.780 and KT95 of 2.654 minutes among the South African Samples. On mortality rates, Mortein doom ultrafast and Ridsect from Kenya achieved 100% mortality, Mortein PowerGard and Raid from Nigeria resulted to 99% mortality and Mortein odorless and Mortein ultrafast from S. Africa had 100% and 99% mortality. The field efficacy tests showed that the most effective products from Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa were Ridsect, Mobil and Mortein Ultrafast, respectively. Molecular identification assays revealed that the wild mosquitoes consisted of 66.34% (71/107) An. arabiensis and 33.66% (36/107) failed to amplify hence could not be identified. Reconstitution of the insecticides with different active ingredients, substitution and optimization of others is recommended. More research on the biology of the malaria vector will help in improving the reconstitution of the insecticides
Key Words: Anopheles gambiae complex, House resting density, KT50 and KT95

Isutsa PDK, Hutchinson DMJ, Otiato DDA, Kioko DE, Muthoka DPN, Mulwa PRMS, Matofari DJ, Musieba MF, Joseph W. KAPAP Vegetables VC proposal 2ND PHASE- 30-10-2013. Nairobi; 2013.kapap_vegetables_vc_proposal_2nd_phase-_30-10-2013.pdf
Nderitu, J., Evans W, Cheminingwa. Management of thrips. Nairobi; 2013.mgt_of_thrips119.pdf

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