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Kimiywe J, Namutebi A. "X-Ray Fluorescence Detected Variation in Nutraceutic-Implied Mineral Density in Underutilized Plants Mapped as Women-Operated Smallholder Units in the Lake Victoria Basin.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Indigenous plant biodiversity plays a key role in providing nutritional and medicinal (nutraceutical) need for smallholder farming communities. The objective of this paper was to relate farming decisions, farm landscape morphology, crop species placement points, and the nutraceutical-implied micronutrient mineral (NIMM) density. The Kisumu (Kenya), Iganga (Uganda) and Bukoba (Tanzania) lake basins were the three eco-regional environs studied and were treated as the primary hierarchical level. Two visited sites (secondary level) for reconnaissance/collection were nested within the primary level. Fifteen dominantly female households were further nested within sites (tertiary level). By means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, indigenous variant plants (accessions) encountered were collected for density. XRF analyses were backed by key informant interviews. Empirically, indigenous/traditional plant species and, by extension, their diversity in NIMM density, was a three-factor dependent variable in terms of: (a) the ethnobotanic-based farming decisions by which the NIMM indigenous/ underutilized plant bio-resources encountered were purposively grown; (b) choices that were dictated by the topographic soil surface characteristics (terrain upland, steep and valley land properties); (c) near residence-referenced sequent activity occupancy (NR-SACO) episodes; and (d) natural cum farmer-guided plant selections.

Negera A, Matthias H, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H, Sewald N, Yenesew A. "A xanthone and a phenylanthraquinone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens and the revision of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;9:67-73.
Butt F, Moshi J CM. "Xeroderma pigmentosum: a review and case series." Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2010;38(N/a):534-537.xp__oct_2010.pdf
Chindia ML, Owibingire S, Moshi JR, Butt FMA. "Xeroderma pigmentosum: a review and case series.". 2010. Abstract

Xeroderma pigmentosa (XP) is a condition inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin ageing and malignant tumour development resulting from the defect in DNA repair. The management of complications of XP, especially orofacial tumours entails an enormous surgical challenge to the clinicians. We present five cases of XP.

Grubb P, Oguge N 2004. "Xerus erythropus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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Grubb P, Oguge N. "Xerus rutilus." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
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Ndiba PK, Axe L, Jahan K, Ramanujachary V. XRF measurement of heavy metals in highway marking beads..; 2009.Website
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Varma V, Abbott K, Gramlich T, Hunter S. "Y chromosome loss in esophageal carcinoma: An in situ hybridization study.". 1993.
Varma V, Abbott K, Gramlich T, Hunter S. "Y chromosome loss in esophageal carcinoma: An in situ hybridization study.". 1993. Abstract
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KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Yabann, W.K., E.K. Biamah and A.J. Haji (1994). Environmental impact assessment of the Arid Lands Project (ALP), Kenya. Emergency Drought Recovery Programme, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation, Office of the President, Kenya. May, 1994.". In: Bloemfontein, South Africa. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

In semi arid Kenya, the occurrence of flush floods and soil erosion on agricultural watersheds is attributed to intense rainstorm events of short duration. Thus when agricultural watersheds have no erosion control structures in place, the generation of direct runoff would increase with cultivation. Of the two components of runoff namely, runoff volume and peak runoff discharge, the consideration of peak runoff discharge rate is critical to the design of effective hydraulic structures for controlling floods and soil erosion. In order to accurately predict a watershed's peak runoff discharge, it is important to select a model that is deterministic and yet simple to use. The model should be able to consider the time distribution of runoff response as influenced by Watershed characteristics. The time to peak runoff discharge is largely influenced by the time of concentration. The time of concentration depends on the shape, size and relief of the watershed. In Iiuni Watershed, the Nash model, a parsimonious deterministic model, was selected to predict peak runoff discharges. This model uses the instantaneous unit hydrograph principle to simulate the direct runoff hydrographs and estimate peak runoff discharge. The Nash model was applied using input parameters derived from the watershed's rainfall-runoff characteristics. The results obtained showed that the Nash model was good in predicting peak runoff discharges. This statistic of comparison, R2 (coefficient of efficiency) for the model was above 70% for the model which is indicative of good model prediction of peak runoff discharge (Nash and Sutcliffe, 1970). From this analysis, the Nash model is recommended for the estimation of peak runoff discharge from un-gauged agricultural watersheds in Kenya.

Absaloms HO. The Yagi-Uda Array. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1988.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Yanda, P., Wandiga, S., Kangalawe, R., Opondo, M., Olago, D., Githeko, A., Downs, T., Kabumbuli, R., Opere, A., Githui, F., Kathuri, J., Olaka, L., Apindi, E., Marshall, M., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Kirumira, E., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T., Sigalla, R. and .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-470-9 (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn, Jean-Marc Nicaud,. MS. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Grahamstown, South Africa; 2008.
Cris Theron, Khajamohiddin Syed, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Evodia Setati, Obiero G, Newlande van Rooyen, Limpho Ramarobi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Jacobus Albetyn,. J-M. Yarrowia Lipolytica as a host for heterologous expression of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase. Oviedo, Spain; 2008.
Yasinya ( Novel-Riwaya) . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2011.
Wamitila KW. Yatima.; 2006.Website
Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

Moroff G, Brandt KG. "Yeast glutathione reductase. Studies of the kinetics and stability of the enzyme as a function of pH and salt concentration." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):21-31. Abstract

1. The pH dependencies of the apparent Michaelis constant for oxidized glutathione and the apparent turnover number of yeast glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) have been determined at a fixed concentration of 0.1 mM NADPH in the range pH 4.5--8.0. Between pH 5.5 and 7.6, both of these parameters are relatively constant. The principal effect of low pH on the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction is the observation of a pH-dependent substrate inhibition by oxidized glutathione at pH less than or equal 7, which is shown to correlate with the binding of oxidized glutathione to the oxidized form of the enzyme. 2. The catalytic activity of yeast glutathione reductase at pH 5.5 is affected by the sodium acetate buffer concentration. The stability of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme at pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C in the absence of bovine serum albumin was studied as a function of sodium acetate concentration. The results show that activation of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at low sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on a reduced form of the enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the catalytic activity of the enzyme at high sodium acetate concentration correlates with an effect of sodium acetate on the oxidized form of the enzyme.

MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Yenesew, A. Wanjohi, J. M., Midiwo, J. O., Heydenreich, M. Peter, M. G., Brun, R., Maksimenka, K., Mutanyatta, J., and Bringmann, G. (2006). Joziknipholones A and B: The first axially chiral dimeric phenylanthraquinones from the roots of Bulbine frutescen.". In: Bulbine frutescens. SITE; 2006. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko J, Owino WO. "Yield and tissue calcium concentration of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit as influenced by calcium source and time of application." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019:1-12. Abstract
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Mwangi DM, Miriti JM, Heng LK, Esilaba AO, Gachene CKK. "Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize–cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P ≤ 0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop.Highlights ► We studied crop yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea under different tillage practices in semi-arid Kenya. ► Plant available water was highest in tied ridges, followed by ox-ploughing and least in the ripping tillage system. ► Tillage did not have significant effects on maize grain yield and but it had on crop water use efficiency. ► Cowpea yielded less under ripping than ox-ploughing. ► Maize yield was reduced by intercropping but was improved by manure application.

Ojwang J. D., R.O. Nyankanga, O.M. Olanya, and D.O. Ukuku, Imungi J. "Yield components of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars." Subtropical Agriculture and Environments. 2016;( 67:):1-12.Yield components of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars
J M, JN K, D K, GO A', J N. "Yield performance of potato seed tubers after long storage in diffused light store." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6 (1):21-28.yield_and_dls_storage.pdf
Njoroge K, M’ragwa LR, Ngure M. "Yield stability in F1 hybrid composite varieties of maize in semi-arid Kenya." Africa Crop Science Conference Proceedings. 1997;Vol.3:221-224.
N DRMBATIAPAUL. "Ynalvez, Marcus, Ricardo B. Duque, Paul Mbatia, R. Sooryamoorthy, Antony Palackal, and Wesley Shrum. "When do scientists adopt the internet? Dimensions of connectivity in developing areas" in Scientometrics Vol. 63 (1).". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Conference, September 1990 Kabete Campus. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Yoder, O and D.M.Mukunya, 1972. A host specific toxin metabolite produced by Phyllostica maydis. Phytopathology 62:799.". In: A seminar paper presented to the members of the institute of Botany and Physiology. July, 1976. Shangai, People. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1972. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Yole D.S. Gikuru S.K., Wango E.O. , Kithome Kiio, Kiarie S., and Limo M (2006) Influence of age of mice on the susceptibility to murine schistosomiasis infection. African J. Health Science 13: 47-54.". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
WANJIRU DRNGUGIROSE. "Yong Yoon; World economic booms and crisis, adjustment policies and the current account: A decomposition analysis for Kenya 1972-1993, University of Nairobi.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyans with mild to moderate hypertension. East Africa Med J.70: 696,199Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyan.". In: East Africa Med J.70: 696,1993. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
O PROFORINDADA, O PROFORINDADA. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA. Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Yonga, G.O., Oyuga, H.W.W., Njeru, E.K. Influence of Beta-blockade with Beta-1-selectivity or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity on some cardiorespiratory responses to exercise. East Afr. Med. J. 1993; 70:405-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jul;70(7):405-8. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Possession of beta-1-selectivity and intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) by beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been found to modify the effects of these drugs on heart rate, blood pressure and pulmonary airway resistance both at rest and during exercise. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, 21 healthy male volunteers took placebo, propranolol (non-selective with no ISA), metoprolol (beta-1-selective with no ISA) and pindolol (non-selective with ISA) on separate occasions prior to an exercise test using the same protocol each time. Heart rate, blood pressure and peak respiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured before exercise and at exhaustion. No significant differences in percentage increase in heart rate after exercise were detected between placebo and all the three beta-blockers. All three drugs were associated with significantly lower percentage increases in systolic blood pressure with exercise compared to placebo; with metoprolol and propranolol causing lower increases than pindolol. The index of myocardial oxygen consumption, MVO2, was highest with pindolol. PEFR was reduced most by propranolol. Possession of beta-1-selectivity and ISA by beta-blocking drugs modifies their effects on cardio-respiratory responses to exercise amongst indigenous Kenyans.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "YongaG.O OGOLA E.N Juma F.D Cardiovascular risk factor profiles in patients seen at Kenyatta National hospital with mild to moderate hypertension. East Africa J.70: 693,1993.". In: East Africa J.70: 693,1993. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "You Cannot Catch Old Birds with Chaff: The Woman.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "You Cannot Shake Hands with a Clenched Fist. Henry Indangasi and Masumi Odari (Eds) Daisaku Ikeda and Voices for Peace from Africa.". In: Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 119-23. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Kanyinga K. "You needed to get close to the man to understand diplomacy." Sunday Nation, August 19, 2018.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "You, Yourself and Your Portfolio.". In: Faculty of ADD, University of Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2005. Abstract

Designers, architects and artists have invariably relied on their portfolios to record their work and to exhibit their capabilities. Unfortunately there is very little reference from which to draw tips on how to effectively utilize a portfolio. Sometimes the attention given to the production of the work is not complemented with strong oral and visual, presentations. The continued failure to pay due attention to portfolio has led to loss of job opportunities. The portfolio can open doors and close them with equal speed. To people shopping for jobs, it's a calling card, the advance guard, the marketing tool, often the only opportunity to make an impression. Many companies do not hire people but rather hire portfolios. When a prospective employer requests for a portfolio it is because they are seeking certain attributes or traits that may be of service to them. Typically, the employer will say they are looking for somebody "creative". How does your portfolio show that you are creative? Is it in the way it is organized? The work you have put in it? Or is it the bag/booklet? The answer to this is "all of the above". It does not do good work justice if it's put together in a tattered envelope. Neither can a very expensive bag/booklet camouflage bad work. There must be a sense of your presence in the work you do, the way you do it, the way you present it and what you want to do with it. And, not to forget, what you want the work to do for you.

Inyega HN. "The young child's memory for words: Developing first and second language and literacy. Book Review." Journal of language and Literacy Education (on-line), 1(1) 32-34. 2005.
Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Karuri D, Githaiga JW. "Young patients with colorectal cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kenya, 1993–2005." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: The onset of colorectal cancer appears to be two to three decades earlier in developing countries. Data on whether colorectal cancer in the young has worse prognosis than in older patients is conflicting.
METHOD: Clinical charts of 70 patients ≤40 years old were reviewed to determine clinical and pathological patterns and treatment outcomes. Their data were compared with a
larger group of older patients treated between 1993-2005 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
RESULTS: The data retrieval was highest for sub-site distribution and lowest for pathology information. Patients ≤ 40 years of age comprised 27.3% of all colorectal cancer
cases treated over the study period. There were 41 males (58.6%) and 29 (41.4%) females patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (76.9%), change in bowel habit
(71.4%) and rectal bleeding (54.3%). The mean duration of symptoms was 24.6 ± 30 months. The rate of advanced colorectal disease (Duke C and D) was 73.5%. Mean follow-up time was 5.8 months with median survival of only 6.9
months. The Duke staging, histology, symptom duration, locations of tumours, follow-up and the complication rates were similar for young and older patients.
CONCLUSION: Younger patients form a significant proportion of colorectal cancer burden. Both the clinico-pathological
characteristics and treatment outcome correspond to older individuals. It is suggested that the concluded colorectal symptoms in younger patients should also be aggressively
evaluated including early endoscopy. A prospective follow-up study of patients with the disease will unravel the true survival picture.

H Saidi, EO Nyaim KJWGD. "Young patients with colorectal cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kenya, 1993–2005." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: The onset of colorectal cancer appears to be two to three decades earlier in developing countries. Data on whether colorectal cancer in the young has worse prognosis than in older patients is conflicting.
METHOD: Clinical charts of 70 patients ≤40 years old were reviewed to determine clinical and pathological patterns and treatment outcomes. Their data were compared with a
larger group of older patients treated between 1993-2005 at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.
RESULTS: The data retrieval was highest for sub-site distribution and lowest for pathology information. Patients ≤ 40 years of age comprised 27.3% of all colorectal cancer
cases treated over the study period. There were 41 males (58.6%) and 29 (41.4%) females patients. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (76.9%), change in bowel habit
(71.4%) and rectal bleeding (54.3%). The mean duration of symptoms was 24.6 ± 30 months. The rate of advanced colorectal disease (Duke C and D) was 73.5%. Mean follow-up time was 5.8 months with median survival of only 6.9
months. The Duke staging, histology, symptom duration, locations of tumours, follow-up and the complication rates were similar for young and older patients.
CONCLUSION: Younger patients form a significant proportion of colorectal cancer burden. Both the clinico-pathological
characteristics and treatment outcome correspond to older individuals. It is suggested that the concluded colorectal symptoms in younger patients should also be aggressively
evaluated including early endoscopy. A prospective follow-up study of patients with the disease will unravel the true survival picture

Ndetei DM, Khasakhala L, Mutiso V, Mbwayo A. "Your A-Z on Mental Health.". 2010.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "YOUSEF, M.K. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Thermoregulation in working ungulates. In: Stress Physiology in Livestock, Vol. 1, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 109-120.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Youth and Morality".". In: Presented paper to Secondary School Students of Kikuyu Day in Kikuyu Division in Kenya.-16 th October,1995. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1995. Abstract
  
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "Youth and Urban politics in Kenya'. In International Journal of Sociology. Vol. 5 No. 1: Nov. 2002.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Youth and Urban politics in Kenya'. In International Journal of Sociology. Vol. 5 No. 1: Nov. 2002.". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002.
R.M O. "Youth and Violence.". In: the Youth Initiatives on Peace and Democra cy (YIOPEAD - K). series of places; 1998.
Gakuru O. "Youth at the Periphery: The case of Youth in Kenya." GLCA, Indianapolis, USA; 2006.
Agwanda A. Youth Dialogue Tool submitted to Ministry of Youth Affairs . Kenya Country Office: UNFPA ; 2011.
Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
Kimani DN, Kariuki PC, Machio PM, Murigi MN, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MURANG’A COUNTY, KENYA.". 2016.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Youth Forum. A magazine for Young People.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
"Youth in Agriculture; Perceptions and Challenges for Enhanced Participation in Kajiado North Sub-County, Kenya." Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2017; 7 (8)( ISSN: 2276-7770):203-209.
MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "Youth participation in Environmental Planning and management in Malindi Municipality, October 2002.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Mutua E, Bukachi S, Bett B, Estambale B, Nyamongo I. "Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing." IDS Bulletin . 2017;48(3):95-108.
Kanyinga K. "Youth radicalisation: We made our bed, let us now lie in it." Daily Nation, July 4, 2015.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Book One: A guide to Family Life Education for Youth(Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Espicopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow book Two (Nairobi: Kenya Episcopal Conference).". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Youth Today and Tomorrow Recomended by KIE as teaching Material for Social Education and Ethics.". In: Kenya Episcopal Conference. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KYALO PROFNZIOKACHARLESB. "The Youth unemployment problem in Kenya In Omari, C.K and Shaidi, L.P (eds) Social Problems in Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-Es- Salaam: University of Dar-es-Salaam Press. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
M.Ngesu L, Gunga S, Wachira L, Kahigi C, Mutilu B. "Youth Violence in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Prevalence, Manifestations and Prevention." IJIRS. 2013;vol.2(Issue 12):199-211.
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWKMCB. "Youth Violence in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Prevalence, Manifestations and Prevention." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2013.
Wairire GG. "Youth Vulnerability to Drug Abuse in Kenya.". In: National Youth Consensus Workshop on Drug Demand Reduction. Nairobi; 1997.
Achola MA. "Youth, Poverty and Destitution in Nairobi: 1945-60.". In: Past and Past Perspective. IFRA and British Institute in Eastern Africa in Nyeri; 2006.
Mitei HK. "Youth, Technology and ‘Freedom Culture’ in Kenya: The role of Christian Educators in Advancing a Contextualized Theology." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2014;3(3):140-144.
MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, masantaka moriyasu, Atsushi Kato, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso ,S.G. Mathenge et al 2004. Quarterway isoquinoline alkaloids from xylopia parviflora.". In: Jour. Phytochemistry 65(2004)939 . University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
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MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, Momoyo Ichimaru, Atsushi Kato, Simon G. Mathenge, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso et al, 2000. Secondary and Tertiary Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Monodara junodii.". In: Jour. Natural Medicine 54(6( 338-34. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2000. Abstract
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MR. MUTISO PATRICKCHALOB. "Yumi Nishiyama, Patrick B. Chalo Mutiso, Simon G. Mathenge, Atsushi Kato et al, 2003, Isoquinoline Alkaloids from monodora grandidieri,.". In: Jour. Natural Medicines 57(2) 74 (2003). University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2003. Abstract
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Z
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Z. K. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some aspects of infant mortality in Kenya since 1948 The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January .". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine Vol. 19 No 2 January . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1997. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Z. Muganzi & E. K. Muchunga. Some determinants of infant and child mortality in Kenya. A historical perspective: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol.15 1st December, 1988. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1988. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Zablon O. Ochomo, Elisha Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, (Eds) Kizza J.M., Lynch K., Nath R.., & Aisbett J. (2010). Agent Based Model For Localized Secure Payment Systems Integration.". In: In Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development, 2010. Vol VI pp367- 377, ISBN 978-9970-25-015-8. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010.
Ngugi RW. "Zacchaeus Nicholas Vundi, Time Varying Risk Premium: An Empirical Investigation on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, University of Nairobi." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ZACHARIASSEN, K.E. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1989) Water balance of beetles as an indicator of environmental humidity.Fauna Norv. Ser. B 36, 27-31.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., ANDERSEN, J., KAMAU, J.M.Z. and MALOIY,G.M.O.(1988) Water loss in insects from arid and humid habitats in East Africa. Acta Entomology Bohemoslo 85, 81-93.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1988. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., ANDERSEN, J., MALOIY, G.M.O. and KAMAU,J.M.Z.(1987) Transpiratory water loss and metabolism of beetles from arid areas of East Africa. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 88A, 331-336.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "ZACHARIASSEN, K.E., KAMAU, J.M.Z. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1987) Water balance and osmotic regulation in the East African tenebrionid beetle (Phrynocolus petrosus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 86A, 79-83.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1987. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zalcman G, Jancovici R, Paraf F, Vilain C, Gontier C. A rare tumor of the mediastinum: benign hemangioma.Rev Pneumol Clin. 1990;46(1):31-4.". In: Rev Pneumol Clin. 1990;46(1):31-4. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Mediastinal hemangiomas are rare tumours occurring more often in children and young adults. A new case is reported in a 21 years old male who had an anterior mediastinal mass detected on a routine chest roentgenogram. Pre-operative investigations including CT, venous digital angiography, MRI did not aid in the right diagnosis. The mass was totally removed surgically although involving extensively adjacent structures. Histologic examination of the tumour showed it to be a benign venous hemangioma. Clinical, radiological, pathologic features of mediastinal hemangiomas are reviewed and discussed.

joshua Kivuva. "Zambia: Multiparty Politics in a Single Party Political Culture.". In: Democracy in Africa: Political changes and challenges. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press; 2012.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Zambian Munyoko survey. In Handbook of Indigenous fermented Foods, Ed. K.H Steinkraus, Mercel Dekker inc. pp 371, 1983.". In: AFS/UNU workshop on Development of Indigenous Fermented foods and food technology in Africa, 14 18 Octobe3r 1985. Douala Cameroon. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1983. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Jared Owiti Yugi, Ochanda H, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "Zea mays pollen for the optimization of colony rearing of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes under laboratory conditions." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2015;5.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER, STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zenone T, Heyraud JD, Gontier C. Bronchiectasis following colectomy for hemorrhagic rectocolitis. Rev Med Interne. 1993 May;14(5):326-7.". In: Rev Med Interne. 1993 May;14(5):326-7. uon press; 1993. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. Pulmonary disease is an uncommon extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. We report the case of a patient in whom colectomy for ulcerative colitis was followed by development of bronchiectasis. A discussion of the relation between ulcerative colitis and bronchial disease is presented.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Zenone T, Marti-Flich J, Heyraud JD, Gontier C, Beaulaton A. Pulmonary legionellosis disclosing HIV infection in a 75-year-old man.Rev Med Interne. 1995;16(5):370-1.". In: Rev Med Interne. 1995;16(5):370-1. uon press; 1995. Abstract

Service de Pneumologie, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees Desgenettes, Lyon. The authors report a case of acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia, a recently described entity of unknown etiology. The patients develop a rapidly progressive respiratory failure which is reversible following steroid therapy. The key to the diagnosis is an eosinophilia in the broncho-alveolar lavage or in the lung biopsy. Our observation of a favourable outcome in this case without steroid therapy is evidence perhaps of a less aggressive form of the disease.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Zimbabwe Economic Path: Lessons from the Kenyan Experience.". In: A paper presented at Zimbabwe Economic Symposium held in Harare, Zimbabwe. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1980. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Varma S. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association; 1985.
Varma S. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Nairobi: Kenya Veterinary Association; 1985. Abstract
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A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Zimmerman, R R and WAMOLA I.A. A case of Acinetobacterial menegitis. EAMJ Vol. 54 No. 3 (March 1977 pp. 152).". In: EAMJ Vol. 54 No. 3 (March 1977 pp. 152). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
Wamitila KW. Zimwi la leo.; 2002.Website
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Zingo la Bahari.". In: Vazi la Mhudumu na Hadithi Nyingine Kutoka Afrika Mashariki. Nairobi: EAEP; 2017.
Zinguo la Mzuka ( play) . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2011.
Debela, Hunde Feyssa; Njoka ZA; NJT; MM. Zizphus spina-christi (L.) desf. in semi-arid Ethiopia: Implications for food security.; 2013. Abstract

Quantitative ethnobotanical study of Ziziphus spina-christi was undertaken in six areas of east Shewa, Ethiopia. Both structured questionnaire and focus-group interviews were conducted with about 200 households. Arable land cultivation, and increased frequencies of drought are reducing areas under Z. spina-christi. The multi-purpose tree is highly nutritious, helps main soil fertility, and is an important source of income in the region. Research and policy support are needed to exploit the potential of this agroforestry tree species.

Ebrahim YH. Zmiana mikrotemperatury i forma zabudowy miejskiej (Polish) Micro-temperature change and urban built form. Chisinau, Moldova: Wydawnictwo Bezkresy Wiedzy, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
of Karisa Dadu; Slum/Shack Dwellers International(SDI) MST(MST) UN&. Zonal Planning for Mathare Valley, Nairobi.; 2012.
Macaques R, Ott-Joslin JE, Lasiey BL, Zucker EL, Miller TJ, Bennett B, Stover J. "Zoo Zoology.". 1987.Website
Peter SG. "Zoonotic Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infections and their Potential Reservoirs: A Review." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;9(1):1-9.
Kemunto N, Mogoa E, Osoro E, Bitek A, Njenga MK, Thumbi SM. "Zoonotic disease research in East Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18(1):545.
Muchemi, L., Maingi, N., Otieno, R.O, Mkoji. G.M., Mungai B. "Zoonotic helminth parasites recovered from dogs in Kisumu and their public health importance.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi Biennial Scientific Conference. Na1robi, Kenya; 2006.
Nthiwa D, Alonso S, Odongo D, Kenya E, Bett B. "Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Kenya." Ecohealth. 2019;16(4):712-725. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.

for History {C, Media} N. Zotero {Quick} {Start} {Guide}.; Submitted. Abstract
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Simanovskaia VK, Kadishaite DL, Lisok TP, Siminina AA, Goluveb DB. "[Characterization of biological properties and glycopeptide composition of influenza virus type A grown in different cell systems]." Virologie. 1978;29(4):275-81.
Mosin VI, Radbil' OS. "[Cyclic nucleotides and intestinal function]." Klin Med (Mosk). 1976;54(10):23-8.
Beck T, Höckel M, Friese K. "[Degree of placental maturity and histopathologic finding: clinical prospective studies of a sample of term births and premature births]." Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1988;192(1):24-32. Abstract

By analogy with Grannum et al.'s sonographic classification of the placenta (1979), macroscopic observation of the cut surfaces of the afterbirth enables the extent of placental segmentation to be determined and macroscopic maturity to be established in accordance with sonographic findings. Out of a total of 767 clinically-prospectively documented obstetrical cases, 674 were identified as term births and 93 as premature. For the purposes of comparison they were subdivided into two groups: term births with stage 0 to II and stage III maturity; and premature births with stage 0 to II and stage III maturity. Proceeding from this morphological classification and grouping, the clinical data, such as age of the mother, parity, gravidity, diseases during pregnancy, premature labour, type of delivery, fetal outcome, and biometric data of the newborn, as well as histologic findings regarding villous maturity, were recorded and statistically analyzed. The findings revealed no significant differences between term births with stage III maturity and those in the control group of placentas with stage 0 to II maturity and the same gestation time. Therefore, stage III maturity at term corresponds chronopathologically to a normal temporal development of fetomaternal flow units of the mature human placenta at term and does not imply any perinatological risk. Histopathologically, placentas with stage III maturity manifest a significantly advanced degree of villous maturity, with lower mean placental weight as the morphological correlate to threshold placental function, which is reflected in the clinical data of perinatological complications. Therefore, premature detection of a stage III placenta before term indicates a risk that should be kept in mind in the overall concept of prenatal monitoring parameters.

Rodineau P. "[Elementary respiratory care in the postoperative period]." Anesth Analg (Paris). 1978;35(4):677-84.
Temmerman M. "[HIV in pregnancy].". 2001. Abstract

Since the start of the HIV epidemic, over 36 million people have been infected with the virus worldwide. As the virus is predominantly transmitted through sexual contact, equal numbers of males and females are infected, mainly young people of reproductive age. Hence, there is a growing number of HIV positive children infected during pregnancy, delivery or through breastmilk. Untreated 20-40% of infants born to HIV infected mothers will be infected as well, whereas a combination of antiretroviral medication during pregnancy, elective Caesarean section and bottle feeding can reduce the risk of vertical transmission to below 2%. Although the above mentioned intervention are widely used in the industrialised world, implementation seems difficult in developing countries because of political, financial, logical and societal factors. Screening of pregnant women and identification of HIV positive mothers can result in violence, rejection and stigmatization, and has to be put in the balance of programmes aiming at reducing the number of infected children. Hence, further research in to affordable, feasible and locally acceptable interventions for the reduction of mother-child HIV transmission is a priority. In addition, primary prevention, mainly aiming at behavioural changes of youngsters, remains crucial

Sinelnikova EM, Dvoretskova TV, Kagan ZS. "[Intermediate plateaux in kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by biodegradative L-threonine dehydratase from Escherichia coli]." Biokhimiia. 1975;40(3):645-51. Abstract

It has been shown that for the reaction catalyzed by "biodegradative" L-threonine dehydratase from E. coli strains K-12 and 980 in 0.5 M phosphate-carbonate buffer, pH 8.4 and pH 9.5, the plots of initial reaction rate (v) versus the initial substrate concentration ([S]0 are characterized by several inflection points, i. e. an intermediate plateau. The plot of v versus the allosteric activator (AMP) concentration have very complicated shapes: there are several inflection points, and also the maximum at L-threonine concentration equal to 3-10(2) and 5-10(-2) M. High AMP concentrations inhibit the enzyme at high substrate concentrations. The reduced glutathion dose not influence the enzyme and does not alter the activating effect of AMP. On the basis of the data obtained it is proposed that the substrate and AMP shift the equilibrium between multiple oligomeric enzyme forms differing in catalytic activity and kinetic manifestations of allosteric interactions between the active and allosteric AMP-binding sites towards polymerization. Thus, the functioning the enzyme under study is discussed in the frames of the model of dissociating regulatory enzymes with multiple intermediate oligomeric forms.

Ostashevskiĭ II, Sungurov IA, Volchkov VA. "[Light scattering by cell suspensions in normal conditions and exposed to external factors]." Biofizika. 1975;20(5):853-8. Abstract

The characteristics of light scattering of cell suspensions in norm (pH 7,2, t=20degreesC) and upon external influences (change of pH and increase of tdegree). The turbidity tauapproximatelylambda-n and n=0,2--0,3 for cells in norm. After cell damage n increases. Dependence of n correlates with the increase of some injured cells determined by eozin test. Alterations of light scattering after cell damage were connected with the increase of deposit of intercellular structure in general scattering.

DR. CHRISTOPHER-OLUDHE, PROF. LABAN-OGALLO, MR. PETER-AMBENJE, MR. ZACHARY-ATHERU, MR. WILSON-GITAU. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2009"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2010;91(7):S154-S156.
DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR AMBENJE PETER, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, DR GITAU WILSON. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2011;92(6):S194-S196.
DR GITAU WILSON, DR OLUDHE CHRISTOPHER, PROF OGALLO LABAN, MR ATHERU ZACHARY, MR AMBENJE PETER. "[Regional Climates] Eastern Africa [in "State of the Climate in 2011"]." Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. 2012;93(7):S180-S182.
Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Scherberger RR, Kaess H, Brückner S. "[Studies on the action of an anticholinergic agent in combination with a tranquilizer on gastric juice secretion in man]." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1460-3. Abstract

A double-blind study with intra-individual comparisons was carried out to investigate the effects of 15 mg of (8r)-3alpha-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-1alphaH-tropanium bromide(+/-)-tropate (Sch 1000), 15 mg Sch 1000 + 10 mg oxazepam, 10 mg oxazepam and placebo with oral administration in randomized sequence on gastric juice volume, amount of acid, concentration and pH values in 12 healthy volunteers. The secretion parameters were measured during a 1-h basal period and a 2-h stimulation period. The gastric juice was obtained in 15 min portions via stomach tube. Stimulation was effected by 1 mug/kg/h pentagastrin via drip infusion. The Friedman test was used for the comparative statistical evaluation, and individual comparisons were carried out by means of the Wilcoxon test (pair-differences rank). The results show that Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were equal in effect on basal and stimulated secretion volume. As compared with placebo, it was not possible to establish an effect on secretion volume for oxazepam alone. Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam were found to be equipotent in reducing the amount of basal acid, while oxazepam reduced this quantity only during the first 30 min of basal secretion. None of the three active preparations was capable of inhibiting the stimulated acid, although both Sch 1000 preparations produced a clear trend towards lowered mean values. During the basal secretion period, all three test preparations had an inhibiting action on acid concentration, but none of them had a significant effect during the stimulation period. The pH value was savely increased only by Sch 1000 and Sch 1000 + oxazepam, and this even only during the basal period. The results are discussed.

Imamura K. "[Studies on the energy for sperm motility (author's transl)]." Nihon Funin Gakkai Zasshi. 1975;20(4):6-13.
Höhndorf H. "[The accident-injured foot in occupational life]." Beitr Orthop Traumatol. 1975;22(2):104-6.
Zheng JW, Qiu WL, Zhang ZY, Lin GC, Zhu HG. "[{Anatomical} and histologic study of the cervical vessels in goats]." Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology. 2000;9:39-41. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal anatomic relations and histologic features of the cervical arteries and veins of goat, with the aim of providing a basis for resection and reconstruction of the common carotid artery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgical dissection was performed on 15 healthy adult goats under general anaesthesia. The external diameters of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external jugular vein(EJV) were measured at their midpoints. 1 cm of the CCA and EJV was subject to light microscopic examination. Direct carotid angiography was performed on 2 selected goats to observe the course and branches of the carotid artery and normal blood flow mapping of the CCA was recorded using Laser Doppler Flowmeter. RESULTS:The average external diameter of the EJV was 5.4 mm for the left side and 5.3 mm for the right side. The average external diameter of the CCA was 3.8 mm for the left side and 3.6 mm for the right side. Histologic examinations found that the media of the carotid artery had 10-15 layers of smooth muscles. The EJV had valvulae, its wall was thin, only 1-2 layers of smooth muscle were contained in its medium. CONCLUSION:The CCA and EJV of the goat had a longer course in the neck, and a larger diameter (3-5 mm). Their histologic structures were similar to that of the human being, which makes it advantageous to be more often used as an animal model in experimental surgery.

Szumiński M, Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk A. "[{Assessment} of retinal ganglion cells thickness in high myopia]." Klinika oczna. 2012;114:180-183. Abstract

PURPOSE: Studies on glaucoma markers have shown that assessment of thickness macular ganglion cell complex plays an important role in diagnosis of early stage open-angle glaucoma. There are no available data on thickness in ganglion cell complex in high myopic patients. We investigate thickness of macular ganglion cell complex in children with high myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 38 children (aged from 9 to 19 years), with high myopia (over -6.00 D) underwent full ophthalmological examination, including SD-OCT of the macula and optic disc. The reference group consisted of 38 emmetropic or slightly hyperopic children aged from 8 to 18 years old. RESULTS: Superior and interior ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were significantly lower in high myopic group compared to reference group: p {\textless} 0.01, respectively for GCC Sup. median was 90 microm (range 67-108.5) and 95 microm (range 80-105.5); for GCC Inf. median was 91 microm (range: 67-109.5) and 98 microm (range 85-109). Positive correlation between GCC and Total RNFL was found. CONCLUSIONS: In children with high myopia thinning of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer of the optic disc was found. These changes may be responsible for higher suspectibility of developing open-angle glaucoma in high myopic eyes. macular ganglion cell complex, high myopia, spectral optical coherence tomography.

Szumiński M, Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk A. "[{Assessment} of retinal ganglion cells thickness in high myopia]." Klinika oczna. 2012;114:180-183. Abstract

PURPOSE: Studies on glaucoma markers have shown that assessment of thickness macular ganglion cell complex plays an important role in diagnosis of early stage open-angle glaucoma. There are no available data on thickness in ganglion cell complex in high myopic patients. We investigate thickness of macular ganglion cell complex in children with high myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 38 children (aged from 9 to 19 years), with high myopia (over -6.00 D) underwent full ophthalmological examination, including SD-OCT of the macula and optic disc. The reference group consisted of 38 emmetropic or slightly hyperopic children aged from 8 to 18 years old. RESULTS: Superior and interior ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were significantly lower in high myopic group compared to reference group: p {\textless} 0.01, respectively for GCC Sup. median was 90 microm (range 67-108.5) and 95 microm (range 80-105.5); for GCC Inf. median was 91 microm (range: 67-109.5) and 98 microm (range 85-109). Positive correlation between GCC and Total RNFL was found. CONCLUSIONS: In children with high myopia thinning of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer of the optic disc was found. These changes may be responsible for higher suspectibility of developing open-angle glaucoma in high myopic eyes. macular ganglion cell complex, high myopia, spectral optical coherence tomography.

Shou TD, Liu H, Xue JT. "[{Binocular} competitive mechanisms in the visual cortex in early developing kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture revealed by pattern visual evoked potential]." Sheng li xue bao: [Acta physiologica Sinica]. 1994;46:281-287. Abstract

Using contrast reversing square- wave gratings as stimuli the pattern visual evoked potentials (P-VEP) and pattern electroretinograms (P-ERG) were simultaneously recorded to determine the spatial frequency tuning curves for kittens of monocular deprivation (from 8th to 12th postnatal week) and reverse suture (from 12th to 15th postnatal week), as compared with those of normal kittens of the same age and adult cats. The results showed that in the range from spatial frequency 0.12 to 1.5 c/d the amplitudes of P-VEP responses driven respectively by the left and the right eyes in normal kittens were similar but clearly smaller than those driven binocularly. For kittens with one eye deprived, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the deprived eye decreased markedly. In contrast, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the undeprived eye increased significantly, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by simultaneous stimulation of both eyes were intermediate between the two monocular responses. For the reversely sutured kittens, the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the formally deprived eye recovered to some extent, while the P-VEP amplitudes driven by the reversely sutured eye decreased, and their amplitudes tended to be quite close. The P-VEP amplitude driven by both eyes was the biggest. Neither such shift of spatial frequency tuning curves of the P-VEP in adult cats, nor such functional competition between the two eye in P-ERG responses during early development of kittens of monocular deprivation and reverse suture was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ndoye JM, Ndiaye A, Dia A, Fall B, Diop M, Sow ML. "[{Cadaveric} topography and morphometry of the vermiform appendix]." Morphologie: bulletin de l'Association des anatomistes. 2005;89:59-63. AbstractWebsite
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Delić J, Savković A, Isaković E. "[{Variations} in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix]." Medicinski arhiv. 2002;56:5-8. Abstract

There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional choice. The position and relation between intestinum caecum and appendix vermiformis were determined by forensic medical and pathoanatomical autopsy. Place of origin of appendix vermiformis, from wall of intestinum caecum is determined by anatomical dissection. Intestinum caecum has a variable shape and it occurs in two forms: conical, which dominates (56%) and square (44%). It has constant position in fossa iliaca dextra in 100% of 50 investigated cases. Appendix vermiformis is fully variable organ as for position and the place of origin from the wall of intestinum caecum. Dominantly (52%) it has rising position, and two subtypes are present: retrocecal (more expressed-38%) related to the retrocolic subtype (14%). Very frequent position of appendix vermiformis is a falling one (32%), in which pelvic position is more frequent (26%) related to descendent position (6%). Appendix vermifirmis is located subcaecaly in 8% of total number of investigated cases, found in three subtypes. It is found out that ostium appendicis vermiformis has a variable position in the wall of intestinum caecum. It is predominantly placed in the middle of the lower pole of the intestinum caecum (58%), in medial wall it is present in 32%, of all investigated, and in the lateral wall in the least number case 10%. The results of these investigations point out how important is to know variable anatomies of appendix vermiformis, for the clinical image of acute appendicitis is undoubtedly caused by the variable anatomical relations.

J D, A S, E I. "[{Variations} in the position and point of origin of the vermiform appendix]." Medicinski arhiv. 2001;56:5-8. AbstractWebsite

Author: Delić J, Journal: Medicinski arhiv[2001/12], Abstract: There were investigated variations of appendix vermiformis in the place of origin and position. The investigations were carried out on 50 human preparations of adults of both sexes, unintentional...

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"`Development Ideals and Reality: Bridging the Kenya Gap Through Devolution’ ." Maseno University Journal. Forthcoming;(special issue dedicated to Prof. Atieno Odhiambo).
"`Development Theories in Africa: Signposts to Development or Mis-Direction?’ ." UNESCO (EOLSS) Anthology Publication. Forthcoming.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "`Local Political System of Nairobi.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

Mwega F, Mwangi N, Ochilo O. "`Macroeconomic Constraints and Medium-Term growth. A Three Gap Analysis of the Kenyan Economy'." African Journal of Economic Policy. 1994;1(1).
Mwega FM. "`Monetary Policy Issues in an African Contex.". In: African Centre for Monetary Studies Semina.; 1990.
Mwega F. "`The Incidence of Taxes and Transfers in Kenya: A General Equilibrium analysis'." Eastern Africa Economic Review. 1985;Vol 2(No 1).
"`Towards a Policy of Upgrading Informal Settlements and Site and Service Schemes in the City of Nairobi, Kenya' ." Journal of African Urban Quarterly February and May . 1992;vol 7 Nos 1 and 2,.
with others. `We Are the Government: a Handbook for Civic Education'. . Nairobi, CLARIPRESS.; Submitted.

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