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ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "" Computerization and the efficiency of the Nairobi stock exchange", a conference paper in Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (1993), published by Vedams Books International.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1993. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Munyoki JM. " Consumer Challenges in the 21st century, Professional Management. ICPSK Journal.". University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Onifade TB, Wandiga SO, Bello IA, Jekanyinfa SO, Harvey PJ. " Conversion of lignocellulose from palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit fibre and physic (Jatropha curcas) nut shell into bio-oil Conversion of lignocellulose from palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit fibre and physic (Jatropha curcas) nut shell into bio-oil." African Journal of Biotechnology,. 2017;16(46):2167-2180. Abstractdoi. org

Harmful gases are released into the atmosphere through burning of residues which is commonly practiced in Nigeria and can be attributed to climate change issues. Agricultural residues have the potentials to be used as energy and chemical source and meet its deficit in the country. This paper focuses on utilization of lignocellulosic materials obtained from two agricultural residues through renewable technology to produce bio-energy and chemical feedstock. The lignocellulosic materials were extracted from palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) fibre and physic nut (Jatropha curcas) shell, and pyrolyzed under low temperature and pressure at various particle sizes. The main properties of solid (lignocellulosic) materials were tested and the bio-oil produced was analyzed using GC-MS. Results show proximate analyses (volatile, ash and fixed carbon contents) and ultimate analysis (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc). The pH value of the bio-oil from both residues increased with increase in temperatures. The density, viscosity and calorific value of the palm and physic residue oil are 831.99 and 947.5 kg/m3, 0.695 and 1.58 cPa at room temperature, 22.33 and 14.169 kJ/g, respectively. Aromatics and other compounds are major dominant compounds in the palm fruit fibre oil which is characterized for bio-fuel production. Physic nut shell oil contains aromatic ethers, cyclic ethers, secondary amides and organic halogen compound which are important chemical feedstock. Conversion of these residues to useful products will alleviate the energy supply deficit, improve social and economic development, promote clean and healthy atmosphere of the nation and significantly contribute to global climate change mitigation.

Abade OE, Kawaguchi N. " Design and Implementation of an XCAST6 Routing Engine.". In: at the 79th Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting. Beijing, China; 2010.
MUNYAO ML, S.Nyamwange, G. Wayoike. " Design for Environment: A survey of Mobile Phone handsets Disposal in Kenya.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract

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The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures.
Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya

Agwanda AO, Magadi M. " Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Published African Population studies. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract

African Journal of Reproductive Health   (Accepted)

Langat S, Mbuge DO, Mutai EBK. " Determination of the Parameters for Design of Flexible Plastic Tank." AJST. 2010;Vol. 11(No. 2):37-45.
Developmental Defects of Enamel  . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011.
Disaster Management : HighLights  . Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2003.
R.K. K. " Economic Issues of Women of Africa for the Africa and Global Beijing Platform." - UN 1995 Decade for Women a UNWomen publication. 1995.
Uwizeyimana, D., SM M, Karuku G, G K. " Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research.. 2018;6(3):21.
KIPKEMOI TOWETTPHILEMON, Kanui TI. " Effects of Pethidine, Acetylsalicylic acid and Indomethacin on pain and behaviour in the naked mole-rat." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour . 1993;45:153-159. AbstractScienceDirect

The antinociceptive and behavioral effects of pethidine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (200, 400, or 600 mg/kg) and indomethacin (20, 40, or 50 mg/kg) in the naked mole-rat was studied in the hot-plate test. Instead of inducing analgesia, pethidine caused a dose-dependent reduction in response latency. Sensorimotor impairment and aggressive behavior were also observed following administration of pethidine (20 or 30 mg/kg). All animals recieving pethidine (30 mg/kg) died following fighting when kept in colony cages. Aggressive behavior and death was prevented by naloxone or by keeping animals in single cages. Acetylsalicylic acid (600 mg/kg) and indomethacin (40 or 50 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in response latency. It is concluded that in the mole-rat pethidine elicits aggression, sensorimotor impairment, and apparent hypergesia.

Kipyegon AN, Mutembei HM TVTT. " Effects of Ripe Carica Papaya Seed Powder on Testicular Histology of Boars." international journal of veterinary science. 2012;1(1):1-4.
NZUVE SNM. Elements of Organizational Behaviour; Revised edition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2007.
O M’ligeyoS. " Emerging alternatives to autologous blood transfusions. ." East African Medical Journal . 2002;78(1):561-563.
Olali T. "" English Drama Get Lost! A Concise History and Exploration of the Development of the Kiswahili Drama since 1957 to 2014".". In: Rethinking Diversity in African Socities and Cultures: Beyond Homogeneous Boundaries. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul; 2016.
Manyonyi, G. JBLMFNOOWKWKS, M., Fowke KAKRO. " Enhancing capacity of research ethics review committees in developing countries: The Kenyan example." South African Journal Of Bioethics And Law. 2014;7(2), 59-63. :doi:10.7196/sajbl.308.
Ochoro WE. " Environmental Management and Integrated Rural Development in the Eastern and Southern Africa Sub - region.". In: Regional Office for Africa and UNESCO M AB Paris regional seminar. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1983.
Joselyne NM, Waweru M, Gitau AN, Alphonse U, Patrick M. " Evaluating Anaerobic Digestion Technology in Reducing the Quantity of Solid Waste: Case of Kigali Dumpsite. ." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2020;8(ISSN: 2327-4344):204-220.
Benit-Gbaffou C, Dubresson A, Fourchard L, Ginisty K, Jaglin S, Olukoju A, Owuor S, Vivet J. " Exploring the role of party politics in the governance of African cities. In S. Baker & L. Fourchard (eds.), Politics and Policies: Governing."; 2013.
A AS. Export Marketing: A Case Study of Handicraft Exporters. . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1988.
Wandiga SO. "The future of atmospheric chemistry in Africa ." Journal of the Science Policy Foundation. 1982;32(3):339-345.

Carbon dioxide brings global warming God may have promised man He would not destroy the earth by flood, but has man promised himself that he will not destroy the earth? It is now fairly agreed by scientists that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased over the last century. There is also a general consensus that the current concentration is likely to double sometime during the next century, a doubling caused mainly by the amount of fossil-fuel burning, deforestation, and firewood burning. This increased C02 brings with it a global warming known as the 'greenhouse effect', a phenomenon associated with the absorption of infra-red light by C02 so that the absorbed energy does not escape but is radiated back to warm up the earth. Recent studies indicate that carbon dioxide is causing a warming with the mean global temperature predicted to increase by 1 to 4.5 °C by the end of the next century.1 A predicted global warming of 2.5 °C would have the following consequences. First, a shift in the rainfall patterns, creating a hot, dry climate in most western and eastern African countries. Some of these areas such as the Sahel regions already have reduced rainfall. The drought experienced in these areas may become a permanent feature in the next century. Second, the West Antarctic ice-sheet is likely to melt, the ice-pack of the Arctic Ocean probably disappearing completely in summer, although possibly reappearing in winter. If the West Antarctic ice-sheet were to slide into the sea the sea-level would rise some 5 to 7 metres. Consequently, the inland water-bed levels may also rise. The shape of the African continent would change with the following countries having either part or large sections of their land flooded: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Egypt, Somalia, Kenya, Mozambique, Gabon, Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Spanish Sahara and Madagascar. Finally, melting polar ice would open up the long-sought North-west Passage, the target of explorers since Verrazano.

Wachira AW. " German in Africa." Dakar, Senegal; 2010.
Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E& R. " Growth monitoring and promotion during early childhood. .". In: Primary health care manual for medical students and other health workers (3rd edition). UNICEF; 2010.
Samanta P, Seshaman. Growth of the non - copper Industrial Sector in Zambia. University of Zambia; 1985.
Musonye MM, Ndivo L. Heart to Heart: Reflective Poetry from Kenya. . Nairobi: Centre for Research, Publications and Consultancy – Daystar University; 2012.
"" Holistic Healing: An Analytical Review of Medicine-Men in African Societies." Thought and Practice a Journal of the philosophical Association of Kenya. 2012;Vol.IV NUMBER 1.
Bambach M.R., Jama H. ZGX-L & R. " Hollow and Concrete Filled Steel Hollow Sections Under Transverse Impact Loads." Engineering structures. 2008;30(10):2859-2870.
Bambach M.R., Jama H. ZGX-L & R. " Hollow and Concrete Filled Steel Hollow Sections Under Transverse Impact Loads." Engineering structures. 2008;30(10):2859-2870.
Bambach M.R., Jama H. ZGX-L & R. " Hollow and Concrete Filled Steel Hollow Sections Under Transverse Impact Loads." Engineering structures. 2008;30(10):2859-2870.
Ngugi RW, Murinde V, Green C. " How emerging market respond to the revitalization process: Evidence on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, in Africa Finance Journal." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002.
Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Biesalski HK. " .". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Certain indigenous foods commonly consumed by Kenyan vulnerable groups (the malnourished; children under 5 years of age; pregnant and lactating women; malnourished adults in cases of vitamin or mineral deficiencies, TB, diabetes, cancer, AIDS; refugees; orphans the elderly and the disabled) are not yet evaluated for phenolic content and health relevant functionality. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed food ingredients. The total phenolic contents of the cereals, legumes, oil seeds and vegetables were ranged from 0.41 to 3.00 g/100 g DM. Amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the other samples. The methanolic extract of the investigated samples showed promising levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity (81–89%); ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 44–744 mmolL−1 Fe[II]/g extract DM); α-amylase (10–45%) and α-glucosidase (13–80%) inhibition activities. The food ingredients with high phenolic content exhibited relatively higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The results indicate that soaking + cooking is the mild processing method to preserve the phenolic compounds and their health relevant functionality in the presently investigated cereal, legume and oil grains, while cooking is suitable treatment for vegetables.

Mwangi, I.K NJ, In Kumssa, A. William J(eds)JH & JF. " Human Security and Conflict in Africa: Kenya in Perspective. New York.". In: Research Methodology. New York: Palgrave Macmillian; 2011.
Olali T. "" I regret the death of the Swahili esoteric novel: Is it real, evolving or in a perpetual oscillation?"." International Journal of Foreign Studies. 2015;Vol.8(2):23-38.
CA Omwandho, SE Gruessner FMAGT-OHRTTKRJE. " Immunoglobulin G bound to ovine placenta is eluted by surgical cannulation and acid perfusion in situ.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Sep;82(9):468-72.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To elute placental bound immunoglobulin G (IgG) in situ. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department, The University of Newcastle Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Twelve pregnant ewes 10 to 15 days before the onset of natural parturition. RESULTS: Placental eluates were rich in IgG, and IgG2. The relative molecular weight of placental IgG was estimated at 158kDa by gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of eluate by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27kDa respectively together giving a relative molecular weight of 168kDa. CONCLUSION: Placental bound IgG may be crucial in immunology of pregnancy and together with the cognate antigen thereof may be useful as models for the study of maternal-fetal interaction in human pregnancy and in the development of experimental immunotherapy to immunologically compromised pregnancies in humans and livestock.

Kibaru EG, Nduati R, D Wamalwa KN, Kariuki N. " Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;(12:26). Abstract

HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily. HIV infected children aged 5-144 months were enrolled if they had received antiretroviral drugs for at least 6 months with available and complete laboratory results.

Medical records of 337 children meeting enrollment criteria were included in the study. The median age was 63 months with equal male to female ratio. Following 6 months of HAART, prevalence of anemia (Hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl) declined significantly from 35.9 to 16.6 % a nearly 50 % reduction in the risk of anemia RR = 0.56 [(95 % CI 0.44, 0.70) p < 0.001]. There was significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and platelets above the baseline measurements (p < 0.0001) and a significant decline in total white blood cell counts >11,000 cell/mm(3) but a none significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC). Pre-HAART, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 and 4 was associated with a ten-fold increased likelihood of anemia. Chronic malnutrition was associated with anemia but not wasting and immunologic staging of disease.

Hematological abnormalities changed significantly within 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with significant increase in hemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and platelet and decrease in WBC and RBC.

Changes of hematological parameters; Hematological abnormalities; Paediatric HIV infection

Nyalwal G. " Implementing knowledge Management practices in University libraries in Kenya.". In: 1st Regional conference on Knowledge management .; Submitted.
Samanta P. " Indian Public Finance over the last two decades.". In: Bengal Economic Association.; 2002.
Dorothy MC, Kuzilwa J,(eds) TG-E. " Industrialising Africa in the Era of Globalisation.". In: Challenges to Clothing and Footwear. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2009. Abstract


DK M, Mutegi R, Kipruto S, Muriithi M, Oleche OM, Mwabu G, YOUNGER SD. " Inequality trends and diagnostics in Kenya," Working Paper, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics."; 2020.
M KP. " Influence of Legal Framework in Enhancing Democratic Governance Process in Kenya." Journal of Public Policy & Governance . 2017;1(2):43-57.
Muigua K. " Institutionalising Traditional Dispute Resolution Mechanisms and other Community Justice Systems." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution. 2018;6(1):84-168.
Awiti J, Mutua J, Nyaga R, Muthaka D. " Institutions and Service Delivery: The Case of Services Funded the Constituencies Development Fund in Kenya .". In: African Economic Research Consortium.; 2011.
Branthomme A, Bunning C, Kamerlaczyk S, Rodas R., Anyango SO, Situma C. Integrated Natural Resources Assessment Kenya: field manual . Rome: FAO; 2009.
Munyoki JM, Nzuki PK, C.M.Gakuu. " International Marketing. An unpublished student manual, Department of Educational Studies., University of Nairobi.". University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Ongoro TN. " International Migration of Capital: Theory and Practice.". In: International Economic Relations (NEW EDITION).Chapter XVII. Pp. 460-502. Moscow: “Prospect”; 2013.
JA O'o, MK M, NM O'o, PM M, IK C, JW W. " Intima-media thickness of the common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Age, Gender and Geometric Factors." Glob J Hum Anat Physiol Res. 2016;3:1-7. Abstractintima-media-thickness-of-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-in-a-black-kenyan-population-correlation-with-morphological-features-2161-0940.10001631.pdf Licensee Synchro Publishe

Abstract: Femoral artery intima - media thickness is a reliable surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and is important for prediction of coronary and peripheral vascular disease, but is seldom reported among black Sub Saharan African populations. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the intima - media thickness of the femoral artery in relation with age, gender and some of its geometric factors. Materials for this study were obtained during autopsy from 208 adult black Kenyans (154 males, 54 females, mean age 36.4 years) who had died of non cardiovascular causes. Those with history of cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Femoral artery was exposed by dissection. Terminal branching pattern was recorded, and length and bifurcation angle measured. Materials for determination of intima - media thickness were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome, examined with light microscope and pictures taken. The images were digitized and intimal and medial thickness determined according to the protocol by Nakashima et al. [1]. The mean intima - media thickness was 0.76 ± 0.016 mm. It increased with age and was higher in males than females; for trifurcations (0.95 ± 0.032 mm) and also short arteries and those with wide bifurcation angles. Age and gender differences and those between arterial trifurcation and bifurcation attained statistical significance. In conclusion, the mean femoral intima-media thickness of the black Kenyan population studied is higher than those reported for Caucasian populations, increases with age and is higher in males and cases of trifurcation. This suggests that the study population is susceptible to atherosclerosis and that variant terminal branching pattern constitutes a geometric risk factor for atherosclerosis. We recommend ultrasound screening for those at risk.

KONGERE TO. "" Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective",.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1996. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

NZUVE SNM. Introduction to Manpower Management. New Dheli: Veena Publishers India; 1992.
Dindi EW, SWAIN CJ. " Joint three-dimensional inversion of gravity and magnetic data from Jombo Hill alkaline complex, Kenya.". 1987. Abstract


Jombo alkaline complex is the largest of the alkaline complexes in Kenya. It has been the subject of several geological and geochemical studies. However, the surface geology puts few constraints on the subsurface shape of the intrusion which we here attempt to determine by simultaneous inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data.
The major feature of the gravity map is an elliptical high >800g.u. in amplitude centred near Jombo Hill. When the filtered magnetic map is reduced to the pole and pseudo—gravity transformed, a strikingly similar anomaly is revealed, suggesting a common source. Using an iterative |east~squares technique, joint inversion of the gravity and unfiltered magnetic data for a three—dimensional model established that both data sets can be adequately modelled by a thick slab tapering upwards from c. 29 km depth and striking approximately E—W. Only the upper c. l8 km is magnetized which we interpret as an indication of the depth to the Curie isotherm. The body is predicted to be of ultramafic composition capped by the exposed syenites and ijolites. Received March 24, 1987.

Mbithi LM, Okelo JA, Kiriti-Nganga TW. " Jounce of the African Women Studies Centre, Vol. 2.". In: WTO chair vol 2: Trade discourse in Kenya: Some topical issues V ol. 2.; 2012.
Wamalwa D, Lehman DA B-NGGSM, Benki-Nugent S, Gasper M GR, Maleche-Obimbo E, John-Stewart G OJ. " Long-term Virologic Response and Genotypic Resistance Mutations in HIV-1 Infected Kenyan Children on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 28. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012. Abstract

HIV-infected children may require the use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) into adulthood. However, regimens are limited to first- and second-line in many African settings. Therefore, understanding the long-term rate of virologic failure and drug resistance during prolonged antiretroviral treatment is important for establishing treatment strategies in African pediatric cohorts.
Children ages 18 months to 12 years initiated first-line cART and were followed every 1-3 months, for up to 5.5 years. Treatment was switched to second-line based on clinical and immunologic criteria according to national guidelines. Virologic failure was determined retrospectively as defined by ≥2 viral loads >5000 copies/mL. Drug resistance was assessed during viral failure by population-based sequencing.
Among 100 children on first-line cART followed for a median 49 months, 34% experienced virologic failure. Twenty-three (68%) of the 34 children with viral failure had detectable resistance mutations, of whom 14 (61%) had multi-class resistance. Fourteen (14%) children were switched to second-line regimens and followed for a median of 28 months. Retrospective analysis revealed that virologic failure had occurred a median of 12 months prior to the switch to second-line. During prolonged first-line treatment in the presence of viral failure, additional resistance mutations accumulated, however, only 1 (7%) of 14 children had persistent viremia during second-line treatment.
Virologic suppression was maintained on first-line cART in two-thirds of HIV-infected children for up to 5 years. Switch to second-line based on clinical/immunologic criteria occurred ∼1 year after viral failure, but the delay did not consistently compromise second-line treatment.

Maina AN;, Mbuthia PG, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC. " Maina, A.N; Mbuthia, PG; Ngatia, TA; Waruiru, R; Bebora, L.C ."; 2004.
Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo F;, Kimenju JW. " Major insects of crops in Kenya.". In: 9th Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch, 31st October .; 2004.
Ebrahim Y. " Micro-temperature change in relation to urban built form: diagnosing, remedial action and retrofitting techniques to sick building syndrome (SBS) in upland climates. .". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2011.
Bwihangane A, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Tareken G, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Svitek N. " Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo." Livestock research for rural Development. 2018;30(1).
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Mureithi SM, Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Karuku G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi, S.M., Mvuyekure SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. " Modelling surface runoff using the soil conservation service-curve number method in a drought prone agro-ecological zone in Rwanda. International Soil and Water Conservat." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019;7 (1):9-17.
HEDIMBI M, KAAYA GP, CHINSEMBU KC. " Mortalities induced by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to different ticks of economic importance using two formulations." International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2011;2:141-145.
JA O'o. " Neuro protective and antiatherogenic potential of Launaea taraxacifolia (wild lettuce)." Anat J Afr;. 2016;5(1):i -ii. Abstractneuro_protective_and_antiatherogenic_potential_of_launaea_taraxacifolia.pdf

Histological and biochemical studies reveal that Launaea taraxacifoliadisplays chemoprotective effects against druginduced oxidative stress, neuronal death and alteration of brain microanatomy (Oweoye et al., 2015). In this issue of the Anatomy Journal Africa,Oweoye and Onwuka(2016)report further structural and chemical evidencethat extracts of this plant ameliorate lead induced neurotoxicity and postulate that theseneuroprotective effectsare due to its antioxidant activity. Anti oxidants protect against oxidative stress induced tissue damage. This suggests that extracts of this plant may affectmultiple organs. Readers of Anatomy Journal of Africa arethereforeencouraged to learn more about such plants and their potential effects.Launaea taraxacifolia,known as wild lettuce, is a leafy vegetable of the family of Asteraceae found in several African countries (Adebisi, 2004). The leaves are eaten fresh as salad or cooked as sauces. They are potential sources of nutrients because they are rich in flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tarpenoids, tannins, steroids, saponins, cardemolides, β-catotenes; valuable minerals like copper, iron, zinc, sodium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, potassium and phosphorus; essential vitamins such as ascorbic acid, riboflavin, tecopherol; proteins; essential fatty acids and fibre (Adinortey et al., 2012; Gbadamosi et al., 2012; Olugbenga et al., 2015).The antiatherogenic effects of this plant are derived from its chemical composition which confer antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic and free radical scavenging properties (Adewale et al., 2013; Adejuwon et al., 2014;Koukoui et al., 2015; Sanoussi et al., 2015). I advocate for more research on the compositin and therapeutic effects of this plant

Ngeso na Kit Mikayi ( children literature) . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2014.
O MS. " Pain management in Kidney Diseases. ." Health Line.. 2002;6(4):56-60.
 Mbau JS, Nyangito MM, Gachene CKK, Kathumo VM, Worden J. " Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: The Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Southern Kenya. .". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 3, pp. 35-53.; 2015.
Mutiso SK, Kibett K, Obara J. " Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers toward the Integration of Adaptation Strategy Topics on Climate Change in Secondary School Agriculture Syllabus in Machakos County, Kenya." International Organization of Scientific Research- Journal of Research Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;4(5):1-15.Website
Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Mabeya JM;, and Nderitu JH, Wambua EW. " Pesticide use and implications in horticultural export crops in Kenya.". In: Proc. Of the Second horticultural Conference on Sustainable horticultural production in the tropics. Nairobi; 2002.
Surapunt S, Nyamai CM, Hino M, Itagaki K. " Phase relations and Distributions of minor elements in the Cu-Zn-S, Cu- Fe-S and Cu-Pb-S Systems at 1473K. ." Metallurgical Review of MMIJ. 1995;12(2):84-97.
Olali T. "" Pilgrimage, Ceremony and Carnival: The Hybridization of the Lamu Maulidi Festival"." International Research Journal. 2015;9(40):69-75.
H. MWIZERWA, GO A, K. MS, MW O, P. GACHERU, M. MUIRU, B. OBURA, B VILJOEN. " Profiling of microbial content and growth in fermented maize-based products from western Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science . 2018;6(2):509-519.
Ogeng'o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Pulei A. " Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc In An African Population: Kenyan Experience." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2012;6. Abstractprolapsed_intrevertebral_disk_in_an_african_population__kenyan_experience.pdf

Background: Characteristics of Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc (PID) in Africa, reports are scanty and
often disparate.
Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of PID by location, age, gender and predisposing factors among
African patients at our hospital, the largest regional referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
Patients and Methods: Six hundred and three cases (267 males, 336 females) of prolapsed intervertebral
disc over 11 years between January 1997 and December 2007 were analyzed for location, number of
prolapsed disks, gender, age and predisposing conditions.
Results: Of the determined locations L4/5 was the commonest (42.3%), followed by L5/S1 (25.5%).
Seventy seven (20.9%) of the patients had multiple prolapsed disks. 1.4% were in the cervical region,
and only one in the thoracic. PID was commonest in the 31 – 50 year age group females (M: F is 1:1.26,
p=0.00), with mean age 40.90+13.80 years, (range between 11- 85 years).
Conclusions: PID in Kenya is commonest in the lower lumbar region of young people more in females
and is associated with trauma.

with Kanji N, Braga C. Promoting Rights in Africa: How do NGOs make a difference? . London: iied.; 2002.
Kathurima I. " Putnam’s inequality for n-Power normal, n-Power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators, ." Pioneer jnl of mathematics and mathematical sciences. 2014. Abstract

Every reducible operator can be decomposed into normal and completely non-normal operators.
Unfortunately, there are several non normal operators which are irreducible. However, every
operator whose self-commutator is bounded, is reducible. Putnam’s inequality implies boundedness
of the self-commutator for hyponormal operators. In this paper, the Putnam’s inequality is
studied for n-Power normal, n-power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators.

" Quality primary education in Kenya: Implications of teachers’ characteristics. ." European Journal of Education Studies. 2017;3(8):635-650.
Munyoki JM. " Quantitative Methods. A first course. Supreme Enterprises, Nairobi." University of Nairobi; 2002. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Mwega FM. Recent Economic Shocks, their Impacts and Policy Responses in Kenya.. London.: International Development Institute (ODI),; 2012.
Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Were S,; Olubayo, F.; Nderitu KKJH; D;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A;. " Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller). ). .". In: UON Agro 2011. C.A.V.S; 2011.
Ngugi RW. " Response of Emerging Stock Markets in Africa to the Reform Process, in Journal of African Business." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
Opiyo R, Muketha S, Omollo W, Mwaniki D. " Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi.". In: Smart Environment for Smart Cities. Singapore: Springer; 2019.
Aloyo A, Kinuthia DA, sine KA, Mulaku M, A G. " Risk factors for Insulin Prescription Errors in a Public Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drug Safety ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;41(14):14.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "The Role of Stakeholders in Land Reform.". In: National Land Policy Workshop . Kakamega Golf Hotel; 2011.
Sauti kutoka Kuzimu na Hadithi Nyingine. . Kenya Literature Bureau; Forthcoming.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Williams M, Waters CN, Barnosky AD, et al. " Scale and diversity of the physical technosphere: A geological perspective." The Anthropocene Review. 2017;4(1):9-22. AbstractFull Text

We assess the scale and extent of the physical technosphere, defined here as the summed material output of the contemporary human enterprise. It includes active urban, agricultural and marine components, used to sustain energy and material flow for current human life, and a growing residue layer, currently only in small part recycled back into the active component. Preliminary estimates suggest a technosphere mass of approximately 30 trillion tonnes (Tt), which helps support a human biomass that, despite recent growth, is ~5 orders of magnitude smaller. The physical technosphere includes a large, rapidly growing diversity of complex objects that are potential trace fossils or ‘technofossils’. If assessed on palaeontological criteria, technofossil diversity already exceeds known estimates of biological diversity as measured by richness, far exceeds recognized fossil diversity, and may exceed total biological diversity through Earth’s history. The rapid transformation of much of Earth’s surface mass into the technosphere and its myriad components underscores the novelty of the current planetary transformation.

3. Clive O. Ondari, Eva Njenga LG. " Single dose therapy for uncomplicated Gonococcal Utheritis with Amoxycillin and Probenecid. ." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya, . 1995;5(1):30-33.
G GC, Nyaga P N. " Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels (camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. ." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 1997;52(4):141-148. Abstractpub_25_gitao_and_nyaga_1997.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

Olali T. "" Some Impediments in the Adoption and Use of Computer Technology at the University of Nairobi" ." International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2014;1(11):38-44.

In this paper, p-splitting, p-admissible, s-splitting and s-admissible topologies on the sets p−C(Y, Z) and s−C(Y, Z) are defined and their properties explored. exponential functions are introduced in function spaces and s-splitting and s-admissible topologies defined on s-C(Y, Z) compared using these mappings

Ndohvu JB, Miencha K. Student reference Module CPP 101: An Introduction to Philosophy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
W AEM, C. M, S.B.B O, P. A. " Sustainable environmental management for poverty alleviation in the Lake Victoria basin.". In: Workshop proceedings. ISSN 1028 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2002. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Y E. " Sustainable Materials and Construction Technology.". In: AAK Mombasa Chapter: Seminar. Royal Court Hotel, Mombasa; 2006.
Mweseli M. " Teaching of Poetry to form IV students .". In: Teaching of Poetry. Kibisi Secondary School; 2005.
Bigsten A, Kimoyo P. " Technical Efficiency and Productivity.". In: Structure and Performance of Manufacturing in Kenya.; 1998.
" The blind and low vision child.". In: ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. Naivasha,Kenya; 2015.the_blind_child-_njambi-_coecsa_-2015.pdf
and with Kibwana ECK, Wanjala S, Mute: L. " The Case for an Ombudsman in Kenya. ." Nairobi. CLARIPRESS; 1998.
F.N. K. " The Impact of Print Communication of the Adoption of Innovations by Kenyan Farmers”." Nairobi Journal of Management, University of Nairobi. 1996;1(2):183-193.
Mwega FM, Weil D, Mbiti I. The Implications of Innovations in the Financial Sector on th e Conduct of Monetary Policy in East Africa.. International Growth Ce ntre Tanzania Country Programme; 2012.
Agwanda A, Odipo G. " The Issue of non-numeric Responses to Questions on Desired family Size.". In: Population Association of Kenya. Garden Hotel Machakos Kenya: E Afr Med J; 2002. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

NZUVE SNM. The Supervisory Function in Transition and its Dilemmas. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
Munysa; A, Kabutbei JL,.; Chemingwa GN;, Kimani PM;, and Mburu MW, Nderitu JH. " Thumbnail Evaluation of drought tolerance mechanisms in Mesoamerican dry bean genotypes .". In: agro 2011. Vol. 1.; 2011.
Jacquiline Kisianan Kenana, James Mucunu Mbaria CKKPOO. " Toxicological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Uvariodendron kirkii. (2019)." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine.. 2019.
Olali T. "" Trends and Development of the Swahili Drama Since 1957 to 2014"." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education. 2015;2(10):1-7.
N. M, Mwangi I, Mbatiah M. Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima Na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali.. nairobi: Focus Books. ISBN 9966-01-224-1; 2014.
Syagga, PM; Kiamba JM. " Urbanization and Housing Problems in Africa.". 1991.
Olali T. "" Using Idiomatic Expressions as Rhetoric: A Strategy Towards Acculturation by Kenyan Students in China"." International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2014;1(11):38-44.
M SM, AA A, CK O, IM M, TM M. " Utility of sonohysterography in evaluation of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding." Obstet Gnecol Rep. 2018; 2: DOI(10.15761):OGR.1000127.
Too KV, Mutai EBK, Mutua JM, Mutuli DA, Mbuge DO. " Vicoelastic Properties of Bulk Groundnuts." Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Technology. 2012;Vol. 4 (No. 10 ISSN 2041-3238). Abstract


Anyango SO. " Water pollution and management status of rivers in the greater Nairobi area .". In: Regional workshop on remote sensing and GIS technologies . Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
JW A, J N-M, EM M, CM M. " Welfare of dairy cattle in smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and it's environs. ." Livestock Prod. for Rural Development. 2012;24(9): .
Opwora AS, Laving AM, Nyabola LO OJM. " Who is to blame? Perspectives of caregivers on barriers to accessing healthcare for the under-fives in Butere District, Western Kenya. ." BMC Public Health. 2011 May 3;11:272. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-272. 1.. 2011. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival.
Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs).
Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers.

Caregivers' actions were thought to influence children's progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality.

Oduori, M; Mbuya T. " Wire Rope Selection for Manual Winch Application.". 2009. Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of analytical decision making during the selection of engineering entities in an engineering design setting. The paper develops a quantitative method for wire rope selection and uses handbook data to demonstrate the use of the method in selecting a suitable type and size of wire rope for the hoisting/hauling mechanism of a hypothetical manual winch. Wire rope data can be processed into forms that are more readily useable in a quantitative selection method. Moreover, computer software such as Microsoft Excel may be used in the selection process, so long as the data are in suitable form. The selection of engineering entities often occurs in engineering design processes. An information processing approach to wire rope selection has been developed and demonstrated. The method demonstrated in this paper should be applicable in other situations in which a need for the selection of engineering entities arises.

musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A,. RK. " Women’s Knowledge of vesicovaginal fistula. ." African journal of midwifery and womens Health. 2010;Vol. 4 number 4 (Oct-Dec ).

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