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kITHIIA SM, Wambua BN. "Temporal changes of sediments dynamics within the Nairobi River sub-basins between 1990-2006 time scale, Kenya." Annals of Warsaw University of Life Science-SGGW, Land Reclamation No 42 . 2010.
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"Evelyne A", undefined. "Truth-seeking in Kenya: Assessing the Effectiveness of the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya." Africa Nazarene University Law Journal. 2013;1(1):133-164.
"Gunga SO", "Nzuki PK". "Teaching Practice Benchmarking Methodology: The Way to Teacher Education Professionalism in Kenya.". In: Teaching Practice Symposium. Tangaza College, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Benchmarking in Teaching Practice (TP) is the process of identification of "best practice" in relation to quality of teachers produced. It involves assessment of the processes by which teachers are trained and posted to various institutions for Internship. The objective of benchmarking in TP is to understand and evaluate the current position of the organization of teacher education process in relation to "best practice", and to identify areas and possible means of performance improvement.
The purpose of this paper was to assess how Kenyan teacher education institutions in general and university of Nairobi in particular could position themselves compared to teacher education institutions globally, in the professional management of TP. The paper proposes a benchmarking methodology which the authors believe will be appropriate for professional teaching attachment and to which the various teacher education institutions in Kenya could adhere.
Key words:
Benchmarking, professionalism, Cooperating Teachers, supervision, placement

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(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "A Take and Give to Develop Communities." The FIGTree . 2013;1(1):16.
(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "Training ECD In-service teachers in ICT skill: First foot forward.". In: Academic Conference in the School of Continuing and Distance Education. University of Nairobi, Kikuyu Campus; 2013.
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Temperature Fluctuations in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. ""The Scope of Land Re-Settlement in the Kenya Highlands"- publication in the Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the East African Academy, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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14. Gichaga FJ, Mbeche OO. "Transportation for Low Income People in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu.". In: IULA large Cities Forum. Nairobi; 1982.
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4 Ochanda N. "Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam." Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam. 1987.
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and 6. Nishiyama, Y. MISIKJMMMMM. "Topane alkaloids from Erythroxylum emarginatum." J. Nat. Med. . 2007;61((1)): 56-58.
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A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA. Cellular and molecular interactions in HIV infections: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):249-53. w.; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the cellular and molecular interactions between HIV and the host immune system that lead to full-blown AIDS. DATA SOURCES: Published reports on HIV/host interaction during a fifteen year period beginning from 1987. STUDY SELECTION: Only those studies involving humans and non-human primates were selected. The studies included original articles and state-of-the-art reviews covering in vivo and in vitro findings. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: This article presents a critical review of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV infection and their relationship to the onset of AIDS. CONCLUSION: HIV has elaborated diverse and somewhat complicated mechanisms for the subversion and evasion of the host immune defence strategies. These include escape through mutation, prolonged latency of the infection, masking of the viral envelope proteins, down-regulation of MHC-I and up-regulation of the Fas-ligand on infected cell surfaces. This review enhances our understanding of HIV/AIDS disease and presents a basis on which management strategies could be developed.

A MRKABURIAHF. "Tuna fish infection with protozoa, subphylum mycosporeay as aesthetic case. Bull. Anim. Hlth and Production Afric. 1993.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1993. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Tumbo-Oeri AG, Omwandho CA, Muchiri JM. Possible immunological basis for recurrent spontaneous abortions: a review.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Nov;78(11):586-9. .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A N, NM G. "Transformational leadership for School Principals as victims of Covid 19 Pandemic.". In: 4TH ANNUAL FORENSIC VICTIMOLOGY AND VICTIM SUPPORT CONFERENCE, KENYA. Nairobi, Kenya; 2021.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Trends in auditors Legal Liability in Kenya: A Professional Under Siege Journal of ICPAK, July-September.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1998. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The External Bachelor of Education Degree, College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi. A Case Study. Presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on "Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education".". In: Presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on "Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education". Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. A review of the impact of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection pregnancy outcome in Nairobi. J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991.". In: J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital. PIP: Between March 1987-January 1988, physicians enrolled 60 pediatric patients with a fever who were admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya for various clinical conditions in a study to determine the types, frequency, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates. Most of the patients were 13 months-4 years old (45%). 31.7% of the patients had positive blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the 2nd most common bacteria (15.8%) among these patients. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella typhimurium in most patients (63%). In fact, during the same period, the Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory at the hospital identified Salmonella species in 48% of all isolated bacteria and 35% of these were S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium tended to be present in children with gastroenteritis (41.8%) or a fever of unknown origin (33.3%). S. typhimurium was very sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, but resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Health workers in Kenya have frequently administered ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but not amikacin and cefotaxime. 67% of the strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to gentamicin and 33% to chloramphenicol. These results along with those of other reports from this hospital indicated a dramatic rise in Gram negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Therefore physicians should no longer consider gentamicin as a 1st line antibiotic in treating suspected septicemia patients.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The Role of External Degree Studies in National Development in Kenya".". In: College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi seminar 1988. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988. Abstract
   
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Tharao MK, Saidi H, Kitunguu P, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Taxation for Environmental Conservation: A Nomadic Survey of Determinative Factors fr Kenya: The African Centre for Technology Studies.". In: The Scottish Law Gazette Vol. 52, No. 4: 119. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The Role of External Degree Studies in National Development in Kenya".". In: College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi seminar 1988. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, Moses S, Kiragu D, Fusallah S, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. Impact of single session post-partum counseling of HIV infected women on their subsequent reproductive behaviour. Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990.". In: Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
During an ongoing study investigating the impact of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcome at a large maternity hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, asymptomatic HIV positive women who had recently delivered were informed of their HIV sero-status and counselled by a trained nurse regarding contraception and reproductive behaviour in a single session. Both HIV infected women and a comparison group of uninfected women matched for pregnancy outcome were followed up after an interval of one year. Contraceptive use, condom use and pregnancy rates were similar in both groups. Only 37% of HIV infected women had informed their partners of their sero-status. The single session of counselling for the HIV positive women did not seem to influence decisions on subsequent condom use or reproductive behaviour. More intensive approaches to counselling need to be developed and evaluated, but may be difficult to implement in the busy maternity and antenatal clinics commonly found in developing countries.
A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Transition from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere summer of zones of active convection over the Congo Basin.". In: Meteorol. and Atmos. Phys., 84, 255-265. Kenya Met Soc; 2003. Abstract
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A. O. ""The Quest for Cooperation in the Nile Water Conflicts: The Case of Eritrea,”." African Sociological Review. 2007;Vol. 11(1).
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""The Origins and Valuation". Seminar paper presented t o the Department of Land Development, University of Nairobi, 2nd June, 1988.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The Board of Adult Education Mandates and Goals".". In: The Dissemination Seminar for Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) Strategic Plan". At Machakos Garden Hotel. Kenya. 14 th to 16 th April 2003. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract
Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Tuberculosis of the Thoracic Spine Managed by Trans-thoracic Decompression, Rib-grafting and Chemotherapy.". In: The African Journal Of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
A. DRBUKACHISALOMER, K. PROFNYAMONGOISAAC, SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda." Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220.. 2009;103(2):1-11. AbstractWebsite

Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.

A. K, SG. D. "Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry.". In: Text Book of Paediatric Dentistry. New Dehli: Arya (Med) Publishing House; 2017.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The Board of Adult Education Mandates and Goals".". In: The Dissemination Seminar for Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) Strategic Plan". At Machakos Garden Hotel. Kenya. 14 th to 16 th April 2003. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract

Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""The Markets for Coffee: A Feasibility Study", a research consultancy for Likoni Coffee Plaza Limited, September, 1988.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""The External Bachelor of Education Degree, College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi. A Case Study. Presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on "Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education".". In: Presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on "Towards Academic and Professional Excellence in Higher Education". Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract
   
A. HASHIM. Theologies of Hope: An Islamic Perspective. London: The Centre on Religion and Global Affairs; 2016.theologies_of_hope_an__islamic_perspective.pdf
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Thoracospinal Tuberculosis With Paraplegia .". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
A. A. Ogacho, and B. O. Aduda, Nyongesa FW. "Thermal Shock Behaviour of a Kaolinte Refractory prepared using a natural organic binder." Journal of Material Science. 2006;41:8276-8283.
A. Ogacho, and B. O. Aduda, Nyongesa FW. "Thermal conductivity of a kaolinite refractory: effect of a plant-derived organic binder." J. Mat. Sci. 2003;38 :2293-2297.
A.N K’iri, P.M K, R.D. N, R.K M. Transmission and control of purple blotch in onions .; 1994.
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
ABDALLAH DRAL-ASARAYMAMIBRAHIM. ""The Role of the Narrator in Swahili Plays", faculty fo languages and Translation studies, Al-Azhar University, Issue 33. and also published in African perspective, second volume, Issue 8, winter 2001-2002, state Information Service.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2002. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Tohamy SA, Abdel Malek AK, Hassan FZ, Abdel Baky A. 1990. Anthropometric characteristics of the mentally retarded children. New Egypt J Med. 4(1):241-244.". In: New Egypt J Med. 4(1):241-244. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1990. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
Abea FBO. "Transfer Pricing." KASNEB Newsline. 2011;October - December(Issue No. 4):Pg. 3-12.
Abea FBO. "Transfer Pricing." KASNEB Newsline. 2011;,October - December(No. 4):3-12.
Abinya NAO, l.Wanyama, S.DOLA, Wellde BT, Chumo DA, Reardon MJ. "Treatment of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Kenya.". 1989.
ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two isoflavanones from stem bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.". In: Phytochemistry, 55, 457-459.; 2000. Abstract
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ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Two prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark of Erythrina burttii.". In: Phytochemistry, 63, 445-448.; 2003. Abstract
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ABIY PROFYENESEW, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB, O PROFMIDIWOJACOB. "Three isoflav-3-enes and a 2-arylbenzofuran from the root bark of Erythrina burttii.". In: Phytochemistry, 59, 337-341.; 2002. Abstract
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Abou-awad, B. A, El-Banhawy EM. "Toxicity of the organophosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, and the systemic fungicide fenarimol to the adult and egg stages of the datura mite, Eriophyes datura (Acari : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsigadi S.A., Abuom T.O. and Mbugua S. (2006). Hypospadia in a dog.". In: KVA conference 2006.Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
ABUOM DROKUMUTEQUIERO. "Tsuma, V. T., Mbai, K., Gitonga, P. N., Abuom, T. O., Ndurumo, S. M.,Bwanga, C. O. (2006). Fertility of zero-grazed dairy cattle following hormone treatment and fixed-time artificial insemination.". In: KVA conference 2006,Mombasa. ELSEVIER; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. Towards semantic integration of heterogeneous sensor data with indigenous knowledge for drought forecasting. Vancouver, BC, Canada : ICM; 2015. Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, various heterogeneous ubiquitous devices would be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly, irrespective of the domain. Semantic representation of data through detailed standardized annotation has shown to improve the integration of the interconnected heterogeneous devices. However, the semantic representation of these heterogeneous data sources for environmental monitoring systems is not yet well supported. To achieve the maximum benefits of IoT for drought forecasting, a dedicated semantic middleware solution is required. This research proposes a middleware that semantically represents and integrates heterogeneous data sources with indigenous knowledge based on a unified ontology for an accurate IoT-based drought early warning system (DEWS).

Adhiambo C, Forney JD, Asai DJ, LeBowitz JH. "The two cytoplasmic dynein-2 isoforms in Leishmania mexicana perform separate functions." Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.. 2005;143(2):216-25. Abstract

Eukaryotic organisms with cilia or flagella typically express two non-axonemal or "cytoplasmic" dyneins, dynein-1 and dynein-2. Interestingly, we find that Leishmania mexicana is unusual and contains two distinct cytoplasmic dynein-2 heavy chain genes (designated LmxDHC2.1 and LmxDHC2.2) along with a single dynein-1 heavy chain (LmxDHC1). Disruption of LmxDHC2.2 resulted in immotile parasites that had a rounded cell body. Although they assume amastigote morphology, immunoblot analysis of these cells demonstrates protein expression consistent with the promastigote stage. Ultrastructural analysis revealed non-emergent flagella that lacked the paraflagellar rod and an axoneme with deficiencies in several components. We confirmed the absence of paraflagellar rod proteins PFR1 and PFR2. These results show that LmxDHC2.2 is required for flagellar assembly and also participates in the maintenance of promastigote cell shape. In contrast to the results with LmxDHC2.2, we were unable to generate homologous disruptions of LmxDHC2.1. This result suggests that, unlike LmxDHC2.2, LmxDHC2.1 is an essential gene in Leishmania. Together, these findings demonstrate that the two dynein-2 heavy chain isoforms in Leishmania perform distinct functions. The observation that the genomes of Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma brucei also contain two dynein-2 isoforms suggests that this unusual aspect of cytoplasmic dynein is a conserved feature of the kinetoplastids.

ADUDA JO. "Test for Investor Rationality for Companies Listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, Vol 7, No. 8, 827-840. David Publishing Company; 2011.test_for_investor_rationality_for_companies_listed_at_the_nse.pdf
Adwok JA. "Treatment of thyroid cancer.". 1994. Abstract

The management of differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. A consecutive series of 234 thyroidectomies done by one surgeon in various Nairobi Hospitals from July 1990 to June 1993 were studied. 18 patients were operated on for thyroid cancer. The procedures ranged from lobectomy to total thyroidectomy. Young adults from 20-40 years of age were mainly affected, with a male/female sex ratio of 8:1. The immediate and subsequent morbidity of the operation of total thyroidectomy, in our opinion, overweighs its advantages of improved disease control. This is particularly so when low socio-economic standards lead to lack of compliance with replacement therapy.

Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Agwanda A, Bocquier. "To What Extent did Economic Downturn in Kenya influence Entry into Parenthood in Nairobi City? .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference . Tunis, Tunisia; 2003.
AJ RODRIGUES, CA MOTURI. Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. New Delhi, India : Tata McGraw Publishing Company ; 1992. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

Akama MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK. "temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Towards a Revamped Housing Policy in Kenya: Discovery and Innovation Vol 14 Nos. 3/4.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2002.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Training on Local and Regional Development and Planning, (7th - 9th Nov. 1998) sponsored by UNCRD, UNDP and the Government of Japan.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1998.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""The establishment of Mobile laboratory to Monitor Waste Effluent from Industries and Urban Centres. Annex XIII, pp 95.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""The State of the Art of Participatory Local Development" S.O. Akatch Sub-National Planning in Kenya, Centre for Urban Research. 1998.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1998.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""The Development of Effective Fishermen Cooperative Societies in Lake Victoria (Kenya)' Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex I, pp45.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Tiffen, M., Mortimore and A. C. Ackello-Ogutu (1993). From Agro-Pastoralism to Mixed Farming: The Evolution of Farming Systems in Machakos, Kenya, 1930 - 1990. ODI Network Paper No 45.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
Akimanya A, Midiwo JO, Matasyoh J, Okanga F, Masila VM, Walker L, Tekwani BL, Muhammad I, Omosa LK. "Two polymethoxylated flavonoids with antioxidant activities and a rearranged clerodanediterpenoid from the leaf exudates of Microglossa pyrifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2015;11:183-187.
Akimanya A, Midiwo JO, Matasyoh J, Okanga F, Masila VM, Walker L, Tekwani BL, Muhammad I, Omosa LK. "Two polymethoxylated flavonoids with antioxidant activities and a rearranged clerodane diterpenoid from the leaf exudates of Microglossa pyrifolia." Phytochemistry Letters. 2015;11:183-187.akimanya_et_al.pdf
Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia in 3 Canines, a Challenge to Management (2010). Kipyegon, A.N., Abuom, T.O., Aleri, J.W. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Actinobacillosis due to Actinobacillus lignieresi, has been reported in domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, horses and dogs (Carmalt et al., 1999; Kennerman et al., 2006; Muhammad et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007). The causative agent is a gram-negative aerobic rod and a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants (Radostits et al., 2007; Smith, 2009). The most frequent clinical presentation is granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesion of the tongue or subcutaneous tissues in the head and neck region. A typical manifestation of the disease have been reported affecting other body tissues / organs usually associated from lacerations, dehorning, nose-rings, intravenous injections and lymphadenitis (Aslani, et al., 1995; Holzhauer and Roumen, 2002). Outbreaks of the disease have also been reported (Campbell et al., 1975; Nakazawa and Azuma 1977). This paper outlines an atypical case of actinobacillosis of soft tissue swelling of the head in a cow without any exudation from the lesion, which is a challenge to confirming the etiological agent and treatment.

Aleri JW, Thaiyah AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "A Typical Actinobacillosis in an Adult Friesian Cow (2012). AG Thaiyah, JW Aleri, TO Abuom, CM Mulei.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012); 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Tick-borne diseases a threat in the kennels (2011). Aleri, J.W. and Muiruri, M.N.". In: Kennel club Annual Newsletter March 2011. Kennel club; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Amayo AA, Wambua JV ODAO. "Therapeutic Drug monitoring – The Kenyan experience." Proc XVI ICC . 1996:109.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Towards the Definition of a British Colonial Labour Policy, Makerere Historical.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Trade Unionism and Colonial Authority; A Case Study of Sierra Leone, 1930-1945.". In: Transafrican Journal of History, Vol VII Nos. 1and 2, 1979.; 1979. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Troubled to Death in Religion and Health by Kinot, H.W. and Getui, M. (eds.) Transafric Press, Nairobi.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

ANDETO WANAMBISITHOMAS. TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE ON THE FAMILY AS A UNIT. NAIROBI: JKUAT; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of this research is to get to the knowledge of how divorce affects the family according to the Kenyan society. It looks at the family’s life, living habits and through this, point out a few highlights of how the family is affected by divorce.
The target population is the whole Kenyan society regardless of race, religion and sex.
The data gathered will be analyzed using tables, pie charts, graphs among others. The results from this study will provide an insight on divorce among Kenyans.

Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Angeyo, H.K, Mukhono, P.M, Musyoka, D., Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Trace Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis by Multivariate Chemometric Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Applied to Malaria and Radiogeothermic Diagnostics.". In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2013 VIII Iberoamerican Conference on Optics and XI Latin-american Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications. 22; 2013. Abstract
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Anne N, David M, Naomi G, Grace N. "Training ECD in-service Teachers in ICT skills:First foot forward.". In: Utilization of open and distance learning in addressing educational challenges in kenya towards fulfilment of the vision 2030. University of Nairobi, kenya; 2013. Abstract

Kenya government developed vision 2030 with the aim of transforming Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country. This vision is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya invests in education and training. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. ICT has been correlated with enhanced human development and a major driving force of national growth. Kenya government has invested a lot of funds in the development of ICT infrastructure. This investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. Support for the pre-school education from the government is a recent phenomenon especially in curriculum development. This is because this level of education has been taught by untrained teachers for a long time therefore resulting to poor quality of education. The first effort noted towards this end was the experimental preschool education project that was carried out by the Ministry of education Science and Technology and the Bernard Van Leer Foundation between 1972 and 1982. A later development was on the National Early Childhood Development Policy Framework of 2006 which provided coordination of the different stakeholders in ECD at all levels. As the government continues to support this level of education, it is important to find out the part that it is playing in ensuring that this education is relevant to the changing needs of the students. This will only be possible if the government ensures that teachers have effective techniques, tool and assistance that can help them develop ICT activities that are able to improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children in selected Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) of the teachers had any knowledge in ICT. Most of the teachers (86.99) reported that there they had not attended any government sponsored ICT workshop during their teaching professions. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. They also expressed their interest in availing themselves for ICT training should an opportunity arise. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: information and communication technology (ICT), pre-school children, Pre-school teachers, Teacher training

and Anne Hellum IIPK-M. "TURNING THE TIDE: ENGENDERING THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION." IELRC. 2015:32-80.
Anonymous. "Traditional remedies for tick-borne cattle diseases in Kenya.". In: A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Nairobi: ITDG and IIRR; 1996.
Anthon S, Lund JF, Helles F. "Targeting the poor: taxation of marketed forest products in developing countries.". 1982. Abstract

In this article, we investigate whether taxation of households’ production of marketed forest products in developing countries is likely to assist in achieving the general development objectives of resources conservation and poverty alleviation. Based on an empirical study on such taxation in a village in Tanzania, we develop and solve a theoretical analytical model to analyse taxation, when households’ access to alternative income generating opportunities is heterogeneous. Findings are that taxation adversely affects income equality and has an ambiguous effect on the level of resource utilisation.

Anyamba TTC. "Trends in Low Cost Housing in Africa."; 1993.
AOSA E. "'The Influence of the Linkage Between Strategy and Budgeting on Implementing Strategic Decisions.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

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AOSA E. "'The Role of Government in Business''. In Kibera F. (Ed.) Introduction to Businees: A Kenyan Perspective. Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol. 3. January/April. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

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APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "test.". In: Vol 2 (2) pages 024-031. eamj; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of stavudine at the two dose levels in patients attending HIV Comprehensive Care Centre, in the largest public hospital in Kenya. Data on CD4 cell counts, drug adverse events and opportunistic infections were collected retrospectively from the records of 810 adult patients distributed in three study groups: patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 40 mg BD stavudine; patients weighing ≥ 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine; and patients weighing < 60 kg receiving 30 mg BD stavudine. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients weighing ≥ 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg stavudine in the same weight category (4.2 % vs 16.7 %, p < 0.001). Patients weighing < 60 kg were more likely to experience drug toxicity than those ≥ 60 kg when given 30 mg stavudine (12.8% vs 4.2 %, p<0.001). Occurrence of any adverse drug reactions was also significantly associated with age greater than 45 years (HR = 2.16, CI:1.41-3.31, p<0.001), co-morbidities (HR = 2.16, CI:1.06-4.38, p < 0.001), treatment with isoniazid (HR = 2.07, CI:1.09-3.96, p<0.001) and severe (WHO stage IV) immunosuppression (HR=1.45,CI:0.86-2.45, p<0.001). The onset of drug related toxicities, for all study arms, was principally in the first year of commencing therapy, for example 76 % of all cases of peripheral neuropathy were diagnosed within 12 months of treatment. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability
ASIAGO DORCAH, GATHII ALICE, Ngesu LM, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C, Nyaga VK, Oundo MB, Kamoyo JM, ADEGBORO JS, others. "TEACHERS’PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PRACTICES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LIMURU DISTRICT.". Submitted. Abstract
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ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Transition from the Standpoint of Oral Literature in East Africa in Transition. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2002.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. ""The Role of Oral Literature in the Preservation of the Environment.". In: A KOLA publication. Elsevier; 2006.
Ateto OP, Chepkonga DS. "Trade Union Officials' Perception of their Effectiveness in Industrial Dispute Resolution." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):15.
Atieno R. ""The Role of Rural Access Roads on the Development of Private Trade: Some Evidence From Maize Marketing in Kenya".". In: 9th World Congress on Transport Research. Seoul, Korea; 2001.
Awino ZB. "Top Management Team Diversity, Quality Decisions And Organizational Performance In The Service Industry .". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, Muchara M, Oeba LK. "To tal Quality and Competitive Advantage of Firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management.. 2011.
Awino ZB, Maina M, Ogutu M, Oeba LK. "Total Quality and Competitive advantage of firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(4):521-532.
Awori MN, Leong W, Artrip JH, O'Donnell C. "Tetralogy of Fallot repair: optimal z-score use for transannular patch insertion." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;43:483-486. Abstracttetralogy_of_fallot_repair_optimal_z-score_use_for_transannula.pdf

Transannular patching is used to relieve significant pulmonary annular stenosis during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Although recent literature has focused on the deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation, inadequate relief of stenosis may increase postoperative mortality and the re-intervention rate. Patching criteria based on pulmonary annular z-scores are ambiguous because of the use of varied z-score data sets. This study aimed to generate data that could be used to optimize z-score use for patch insertion. A retrospective review was made of medical records of patients who had a valve-sparing repair of tetralogy of Fallot between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010. In a selected group in which the residual gradient was confined to the pulmonary valve, the post-repair peak pressure gradient was determined by trans-thoracic echocardiography and was correlated with the intra-operative pulmonary valve annulus (PVA) diameter z-score. Regression analysis was used to examine this relationship. Data from 46 patients with valve-sparing repair were reviewed; the median age and median weight were 6.5 months and 6.6 kg, respectively; the 30-day mortality was 2.2%. Analysis of these data implies that 25% of the time, all patients with a PVA z-score of -1.3 would have a PVA gradient ≥30 mmHg. Criteria that recommend a transannular patch insertion only when the PVA diameter z-score is significantly smaller than -1.3 (e.g. -3) may result in a significant number of patients with an unacceptable post-repair PVA gradient.

Aymara Llanque, Johanna Jacobi TTSMCSATLFF. "Transformations towards food sustainability using the participatory Food Sustainability Assessment Framework ." Social Innovation. 2021;695(5):2021-03-04.
Ayonga DSODJ&. "Theoretical Underpinnings of Urban Sprawl; In search of a Universal Theory of the 21st Century Urban Management Challenge.". In: Africa Habitat. Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal; 2009. Abstract

Urban sprawl is a phenomenon which characterizes all urban spaces both in MDCs and LDCs. Managing the problems associated with urban sprawl, especially in LDCs, is, however, mind boggling, hence, the very reason why the theme of the world urban forum held in 2008 in Beijing city, China, read: cities without sprawl. In order to manage urban sprawl in a sustainable way, there is need to understand the factors which bring it about. In an effort to contribute to that understanding, this paper seeks answers to the questions: Do patterns of urban sprawl occur the same way in every city both in MDCs and LDCs? In other words, can urban sprawl be explained by use of a single and universal theory? The review of literature has established that patterns of peri-urban formation vary depending on the city-rural relationship at the rural-urban interface. In countries where the urban land use system is integrated with that of the rural, peri-urban formation takes the form of invasion and succession along the city-rural continuum. In countries where the rural and urban land use systems are dichotomized, peri-urban dichotomy. It is concluded, however, that there is no single theory to explain all forms of urban sprawl. The general consensus; however, is that urban sprawl is undesirable. A framework to predetermining desirable/ optimum patterns of peri-urban formation is conceptualized in this paper. What constitutes a universal theory that informs a desirable/optimum model is also conceptualized in this paper and termed here in as the integrated politico-social-economic optimizing model.

Key words: theoretical underpinings, urban sprawl, universal theory, management challenge, urban fringe.

Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
B
B N, Kibui A, Mwanda S. "Teaching as Communication.". In: TRAINING N IN PEDAGOGY VOL 1. NAIROBI: CODL; 2014.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Temperley M, Mueller DH, Njagi JK, Akhwale W, Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Estambale BB, Brooker S.Costs and cost-effectiveness of delivering intermittent preventive treatment through schools in western Kenya.Malar J. 2008 Sep 30;7:196.". In: Malar J. 2008 Sep 30;7:196. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Awareness of the potential impact of malaria among school-age children has stimulated investigation into malaria interventions that can be delivered through schools. However, little evidence is available on the costs and cost-effectiveness of intervention options. This paper evaluates the costs and cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) as delivered by teachers in schools in western Kenya. METHODS: Information on actual drug and non-drug associated costs were collected from expenditure and salary records, government budgets and interviews with key district and national officials. Effectiveness data were derived from a cluster-randomised-controlled trial of IPT where a single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and three daily doses of amodiaquine were provided three times in year (once termly). Both financial and economic costs were estimated from a provider perspective, and effectiveness was estimated in terms of anaemia cases averted. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of key assumptions on estimated cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The delivery of IPT by teachers was estimated to cost US$ 1.88 per child treated per year, with drug and teacher training costs constituting the largest cost components. Set-up costs accounted for 13.2% of overall costs (equivalent to US$ 0.25 per child) whilst recurrent costs accounted for 86.8% (US$ 1.63 per child per year). The estimated cost per anaemia case averted was US$ 29.84 and the cost per case of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia averted was US$ 5.36, respectively. The cost per case of anaemia averted ranged between US$ 24.60 and 40.32 when the prices of antimalarial drugs and delivery costs were varied. Cost-effectiveness was most influenced by effectiveness of IPT and the background prevalence of anaemia. In settings where 30% and 50% of schoolchildren were anaemic, cost-effectiveness ratios were US$ 12.53 and 7.52, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that IPT administered by teachers is a cost-effective school-based malaria intervention and merits investigation in other settings.
Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG, Wanderi PM. "Teacher- Trainee attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya." Education Research and Review,. 2012;7(27):585-588.
BALA M, KAUSHAL S, PASSI DK. "Trifurcation of basilar artery." Int J Anat Var (IJAV). 2013;6:199-200. AbstractWebsite
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BALA M, KAUSHAL S, PASSI DK. "Trifurcation of basilar artery." Int J Anat Var (IJAV). 2013;6:199-200. AbstractWebsite
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Barasa L. "Teacher Quality and Mathematics Performance in Primary Schools in Kenya." African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 2020;24(1):53-64.
Beatrice" "KA-, P" "K, M" "T, J' "A, Okoro" "D, E" "CJ, S" "M, J." "K, P" "N. "Title: Role of reproductive health clinical officers in provision of safe motherhood at Kangundo District Hospital .". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 37th Conference. Sirikwa, Eldoret; 2013.
Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Beima-Sofie KM, Bigham AW, Lingappa JR, Dalton Wamalwa, Mackelprang RD, Bamshad MJ, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. "Toll-like receptor variants are associated with infant HIV-1 acquisition and peak plasma HIV-1 RNA level." AIDS. 2013;27(15):2431-9. Abstract

We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs with infant HIV-1 acquisition and viral control.

Bett RC, Johansson K, Zonabend E, Malmfors B, Ojango J, Okeyo M, Philipsson J. "Trajectories of Evolution and Extinction in the Swedish Cattle Breeds.". 2010. Abstract

An assessment of the current status and possible future dynamics of the domestic animal species is a critical step in the management of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR). Permanent extinction of livestock breeds is considered to be the main reason for the loss of genetic diversity (Scherf, 2000). So far, the pace of the extinction process of livestock breeds has outstripped the creation of new breeds leading to a remarkable loss of genetic diversity (Gandini et al., 2004). The FAO’s Global Databank for AnGR predicts the loss of breeds at one breed per month (DAD-IS web). In this paper, the terms evolution and extinction are defined and illustrated using examples from the Swedish cattle breeds. Thereafter, the dynamics of the Swedish cattle breeds mentioned in DAD-IS and the status given as regards their endangerment/extinction are described. In addition, an analysis on the actual situation was conducted, to verify whether the breed is really endangered, extinct or has just evolved in one way or another for sustainable use.

Bishop RP, Thomas T Dolan, Rosemary B Dolan RSPSAD. "THEILERIOSIS IN MOUNTAIN BONGO REPATRIATED TO KENYA: A CLINCAL AND MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2019;50(2):342-349.
Bishop RP, Odongo DO, Mann J, Pearson TW, Sugimoto C, Haines LR, Glass E, Jensen K, Seitzer U, Ahmed JS, Graham SP, de Villiers EP. "Theileria.". In: Genome Mapping and Genomics in Animal-Associated Microbes. Berlin Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 2009.
Bjerregaard B, Okoth-Olende CA, Gatei D, Bal IS, Jensen H. "Tumours of the nose and maxillary sinus. Ten year survey from Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

Between 1976-1985, 127 cases of malignant tumours of the nose and maxillary sinus were seen at the Department of Human Pathology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Cancer of the nose and maxillary sinus was a common diagnosis accounting for 0.8 per cent of all malignancies. Despite this, the incidence was low probably because the rural Kenyans have difficulty in gaining access to the oncology facilities in Nairobi. Incidence rates standardized to world population per 100,000 persons-years were 0.16 for males and 0.12 for females. Clinical information showed that malignancy should be expected in patients with swelling of the cheek and involvement of the orbit. Compared with Denmark the proportion of undifferentiated carcinomas was significantly higher in Kenya. The well known fact that anaplastic carcinoma of the postnasal space is causally associated with the Epstein Barr virus makes it tempting to suggest that anaplastic carcinoma of the nose and maxillary sinus may also be of viral aetiology.

Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. Trace elements in PM {sub 2.5} in Gothenburg, Sweden. osti.gov; 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 {mu} m (PM {sub 2.5}) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only …

Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. "Trace elements in PM2. 5 in Gothenburg, Sweden." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only connected to …

Boman, Johan; Wagner A; GMJ. "Trace elements in PM2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden.". 2010.
Bosire RM, and(eds) KANACG. "Tanzania: Multilateralism and National Interests in the Nile River Basin Question.". In: Cooperative Diplomacy, Regional Stability and National Interests: The Nile River and the Riparian States. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa; 2011.
Budjorova E, Mulwa, M R. "Technical Efficiency of Cotton Production in Uzbekistan.". In: In (Knierim, A., Nagel, U. J. and C. Shaefer Eds.), Managing Economic, Social and Biological Transformations: Proceedings of the First Green Week Scientific Conference. Margraf Publishers. ISBN 978-3-8236-1499-9: Pp 116-121.; 2007.
Bukachi S, Nyamongo IK, Wandibba S. "The treatment pathways followed by cases of human African trypanosomiasis in western Kenya and eastern Uganda.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Wiley Interscience; 2009. Abstract

Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.

Bulimo W, P V, ' N{'}ang, W B, R B, J O, de EP V. "TparvaDB: a database to support Theileria parva vaccine development.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Bulimo W, JL O, P B, JL S, MC J, GC G, J G, AG L, JL M, EJ W, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISTW, R A, W B, P B, M B, W B, D B, R C, M C, M D, B E, P E, A G, T H, C J, JD K, S K, V M, M M, G M, J M, J M, L N, J P, M Q, W R, D R, T S, L S, I S, J S, T S, M T, S T, J V, J V, F W-M. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005).". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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Bulinda DM. The theoretical narrative in Educational Administration. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
Bundi PK;, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "Topography and distribution of ostia vena hepatica in the retrohepatic inferior vena cava." Ann Afr Surg; : . 2009;4:13-17.
Bwire J. F., Awino Z.B., R.K. K. "Top Management Team Demographics, Corporate Strategy And Performance of Public Organizations." The Global Journal of Education. 2018.
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C M, Z.B A, J N. "Top Management Team, Diversity Management Strategies And Performance Of Commercial Banks In Kenya ." DBA Africa Management Review. 2014;4(2):23-31.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Adebayo AA. "Traditional Architecture; Settlement Evolution and Built Form.". In: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Nairobi; 1995.
C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "This Is The Time: Make Peace Happen." Peace Builders, International Peace Support Training . 2010;(01 July – 31 September, 7. ).18._make_peace_happen.pdf
C.K M, et GAT, Kamau JA. "Toxicite D’ Adenia Vollensii (Kiliambiti). Identification et evaluation du principe toxique." Bulletin Des Epizooties in Afrique. 1974;XX(2):165-168.
C.K. M, S. T. "Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Kenya." Kenya J. Sci and Tech . 1981;2(1):35-37.
C.K. 45. M. "Training of Pharmacists." Kenya J. Pharm.. 1978;1(1):19.
C.M K, I.W M, L.M N, P.W K. TFD 301: Sociology of Education. Nairobi: University of Nairobi-ODEL; 2011.
C.W.Mbuli, Waqo E, Owiti PO, Tweya H, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Trends of reported outpatient malaria cases To assess The Test, Treat and Track (T3) policy in Kenya ." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
CHAGA MRSMWALIWAHANNAH. ""The Veil and morlal integrity in Islam"- a dissertation for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of Bachelor of Arts degree in Religious studies at the University of Nairobi. 1997.". In: High Ridge Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya for Ministry of Education, Kenya. University of Birmingham; 1997.
CHAIRMAN PROFJOHNHURIANDERITU, MEMBER DRRONALDMAATHAI, MEMBER DRJOHNSHIUNDU, MEMBER MADAMBIBIANNEWANJA, MEMBER DRKIMAMOGITHUI, MEMBER DRPAMELAOCHIENG, MEMBER DRFRANCISMUREGI, PERSON MRMULATINYUKURIRESOURCE, PERSON PROFPAULOKEMORESOURCE, PERSON PRORAPHAELWAHOMERESOURCE, SECRETARY MRAFUBWAMUSUMI. TASKFORCE REPORT ON MKU POSTGRADUATE TRAINING . Nairobi: MKU; 2012.report_on_postgraduate_training_at_mku_updated.pdf
CHEGE GITAOGEORGE. ""The main health problems of poultry rearing in the peri-urban areas of Nairobi.". In: VIIIth International Conference of Association of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine (AITVM), . 175-179 Berlin, Germany: D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1995. Abstractpub_29_gitao_1995.pdf

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

Chen B, Restaino J, Norris L, Xirasagar S, Qureshi ZP, McKoy JM, Lopez IS, Trenery A, Murday A, Kahn A, Mattison DR, Ray P, Sartor O, Bennett CL. "A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.". 2012. Abstract

Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

Cheryl R;L, Shirley W;, Flatt MS;, La Jolla CA;, Karanja N;, Cynthia T;, Nancy SE. "Two-Year Results From a Multi-Site Randomized Trial of a Commercial Weight Loss Program."; 2010. Abstract

Commercial weight loss programs may contribute to efforts to reduce the prevalence of obesity, although evidence of efficacy and effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is critical in evaluating the likelihood of sustained benefits. The Jenny Craig (JC) program involves individualized diet and exercise counseling (provided either in-person at community-based sites or by telephone), prepackaged foods and a low-energy density diet. The aims of this study are (1) To test, in a multi-site randomized controlled trial, whether the JC Centre-based and/or JC Direct (telephone-based) interventions promote greater weight loss and maintenance of that loss in overweight or obese women over a 24-month period compared to usual care (UC) conditions; and (2) To describe the effect of the program (vs. UC conditions) on selected biochemical factors, cardiopulmonary fitness, quality of life (QOL) and eating attitudes and behaviors. At randomization, participants (n=442) were 44(10) (mean[SD]) yrs, with BMI 33.8(3.4) kg/m2, weight 92.1(10.7) kg, and waist circumference 108.6(9.6) cm. Two-year data are available for 91% of study participants (n=406), and weight loss is - 8.1(8.6), -6.7(9.3), and -2.2(7.4) kg for the JC Centre- based, JC Direct, and UC groups, an average weight reduction of -8.7%, -7.3%, and -2.4% of initial weight, respectively. The proportion of women at highest risk (CRP>3 mg/L) in the JC arms decreased significantly from 53% at enrollment to 33% at two years, but was unchanged in the UC arm. Interim analysis also shows the JC intervention to promote favorable changes in lipid, leptin and carotenoid levels, and improved cardiopulmonary fitness

Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Chunge CN, Kangethe S, Pamba HO, Owate J. "Treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis among adult women using oral nitroimidazoles.". 1992. Abstracttreatment_of_symptomatic_trichomoniasis_among_adult_women_using_oral.pdf

Successful treatment of infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is difficult because of many confounding factors such as poor abstinence from sex during chemotherapy, lack of standardised chemotherapy, difficulties in understanding transmission patterns and low detection rates among infected individuals. The purpose of this study was to establish the present efficacy of the available drugs at their recommended single or double dosages for Kenya. Adult symptomatic females (age 17-39 years) with positive High Vaginal Swabs but without pregnancy were recruited into the study; and asked to swallow one of the following medicine: nimorazole 2G (Naxogin Farmitalia Carlo Erba, Italy), nimorazole 4G in two equally divided doses 24 hours apart (2GBD), nimorazole 3G, tinidazole 2G (Fasigyn, Pfizer Ltd) and ornidazole 1.5G (Tiberal, Roche, Switzerland). All patients were reviewed 48 hours after the drugs administration and 24 hours after the last dose for the group which received nimorazole 2GBD. 153 patients were recruited into the study. 121 came for follow up out of which 49 were dropped from the study for involvement in sexual intercourse leaving only 72 for the final analysis. Clinical cure was 100% for the group receiving nimorazole 2GBD and nimorazole 3G. Parasitological cure was highest for the group on nimorazole 2GBD (100%) and lowest for the group on tinidazole (50%). Instruction to avoid sex during treatment were withheld from patients. This made it easier during the follow up to pick out and drop from the study those who had had sexual contact

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Teaching of Africa Literature in the 21st Century (In Press: University of Nairobi Press).". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The development of Women's Studies in Kenya' in Women's Studies Around the World.Women's Press.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1994. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'The Theme of Regeneration in Robert Serumaga's Return to the Shadows' in Africa Thought and Practice Vol. 4 No. 1.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1982. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Clark OH, Duh Q-Y, Kebebew E. Textbook of endocrine surgery. WB Saunders Company; 2005. Abstract
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Coles GC, Mutahi WT, Kinoti GK, Bruce JI, Katz N. "Tolerance of Kenyan Schistosoma mansoni to oxamniquine." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1987;81:782-785.
COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, October 2003, .pp 281-294. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

Cosmas M. Muiva, Santhiaraj S, Mwabora JM. "Thermal and Compositional defects in Chemical Spray Pyrolysed Indium Selenide (In2Se3) Thin Films: Effects on film properties." Journal of Non Crystalline Solids . 2011;357:3726-3733 .
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D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Towett PK, Kanui Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). Brain Res Bull. 2006 Dec 11;71(1-3):60-8. .". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat.
D. DRONGORE. "Three Chapters in: Guidelines to Rational Drug Use. Fr.von Wassow, J.K.Ndele and R.Korte MacMillan Publications 1997.". In: MacMillan Publications 1997. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.

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