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and David M. Maina1, Lydia W. Njenga2 JO2 BK1MN. "Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012. 2012;3:617-623. Abstract

Dietary quality is vital in maintaining sound nutritional status. The ecological conditions thus influence the type of diets and their nutritional quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the trace element/mineral content of some of the commonly consumed diets in Machakos, Kitui, Makueni and Mwingi districts. Decorticated maize, beans and finger millet flour samples were purchased from the local markets. For each category, a total of ten samples were collected from each district. The samples were put in plastic bags, sealed and transported to the laboratory in the Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology, University of Nairobi for preparation and analysis. The cooking of the samples was carried out according to local traditional methods. In the decorticated samples, mean copper concentrations were observed to be below 20 g g-1; mean zinc concentrations ranged from 34 to 63 g g-1 and mean manganese concentrations were in a similar range of 34 to 78 g g-1. The mean iron concentrations were significantly high with a range of 161 g g-1 to 287 g g-1. A similar trend was observed in the beans where the mean copper concentrations varied from 11 to 33 g g-1, mean zinc concentrations ranged from a low value of 24 g g-1 to a high value of 35 g g-1, mean manganese concentrations varied from 33 g g-1 to 98 g g-1 and the mean iron con-centrations ranged from 227 g g-1 to 647 g g-1. The cooked Muthokoi samples from Machakos district had relatively high mean trace element concentrations: manganese – 109 g g-1; iron – 280 g g-1; copper – 19 g g-1; and zinc – 41 g g-1. The only exception was mean iron concentrations which were extremely high in samples from Mwingi District where the concentrations varied from 73 g g-1 to 1597 g g-1. In finger millet flour, the mean manganese concentrations varied from 95 to 290g g-1, whereas the mean iron concentrations ranged from 127 g g-1 to 259 g g-1. In contrast, the mean copper and zinc concentrations were low in comparison to the manganese and iron concentrations. As a whole, the mean copper concentrations in the diets are significantly low compared to the other three trace elements. However, the total content is not necessarily a reflection of the amount assimilated in the body. Finger millet was found to be an excellent source of manganese and iron whereas beans were observed to be good sources of iron. All the food crops were observed to poor sources of copper.

Keywords: Trace Elements, diets, semi-arid, Kenya.

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element studies in traditional Kenyan diets.". In: Journal. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Trace elements in fluorites from Kerio Valley, Kenya.". In: Neues Jb. Miner. Mh. H.7. 298-307. Wiley Interscience; 1978. Abstract
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Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. Trace elements in PM {sub 2.5} in Gothenburg, Sweden. osti.gov; 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 {mu} m (PM {sub 2.5}) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only …

Boman J, Wagner A, GATARI MJ. "Trace elements in PM2. 5 in Gothenburg, Sweden." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic …. 2010. AbstractWebsite

Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only connected to …

Boman, Johan; Wagner A; GMJ. "Trace elements in PM2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden.". 2010.
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . University of Nairobi.; 2005.
J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL, M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace Elements in some selected dietary staples in Kenya.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Trace Gas Emission Budgets from Domestic Biomass Burning in Kenya.". In: PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Kamau IN. Trace Gas Emissions for Biomass Cookstoves in Kiambu and Bungoma Districts. (A Pilot Study). Wandiga PS, Kithinji DJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019;(Available online 10 June 2019). Abstract

Direct diagnosis and characterization of cancer in tissue via trace biometals analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is challenging, as it requires sensitive detection and accurate quantitative analysis of the appropriate cancer biomarkers. The EDXRF spectrometry technique is not directly applicable due to the complexity of the tissue biopsy samples that are of limited size and irregular geometry, enhanced scatter from the sample dark matrix and extreme matrix effects as well as spectral overlaps and prominent Bremsstrahlung that masks the subtle biomarker analyte peaks. We report on the direct determination of biometals namely Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn; Mg, Co and Na and associated speciation (for Cu, Mn, Fe) in soft body tissue in the context of disease diagnostics utilizing a robust chemometrics enabled energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometric method. The EDXRFS method exploits, in addition to multiple fluorescence spectral signatures, scatter profiles associated with the trace metals and dark matrix to determine through hybridized multivariate chemometrics calibration models, the biometals in thin (10 μm) tissue sections. Wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were used for spectral preprocessing towards model optimization using con-jointly artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) based on paraffin wax ‘standards’ spiked with the cancer biomarker trace metals. Results obtained from applying oyster tissue standard validated models (to ≤6% accuracy) to dog tissues (used here as human body tissue analogues) show that both prostate and mammary malignant tissues have significantly high concentration of Zn i.e. 301 ± 4 μg/g and 301 ± 4 μg/g respectively when compared to benign tissues i.e. 160 ± 3 μg/g and 171 ± 10 μg/g. The same is the case for Fe and Cu. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg in malignant (mammary) as compared to benign tissues occur in the ratios 3:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 2:1. On the other hand, for prostate malignant compared to benign tumor the corresponding ratios are 5:2, 2:1, 2:1 and 2:1 respectively. Prostate cancer was found to be characterized by strong positive correlation between Cu and Mg (0.999) and Mn and Fe (0.999) while mammary cancer is characterized by strong negative correlations between Cu and Mg (−0.994), Mn and Fe (−0.974). ICA and PCA were further used to successfully discriminate the dog tissue to 97% accuracy as either cancerous or non-cancerous based on validated pattern recognition PCA-ICA models for the determination of speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn in soft body tissue. For both mammary and prostate cancer malignancy was characterized by higher speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn (i.e. Cu2+, Fe3+, and Mn7+) compared to the benign. The results of this study demonstrate that robust chemometrics enabled EDXRFS spectrometry not only determine directly and rapidly but also accurately in a diagnostics manner cancer biomarker trace metals in soft body tissue. The technique has an additional advantage in that it has inbuilt multivariate capability to model the determined levels, their ratios and correlations as well as alterations in the speciation of the biometals to detect and characterize cancer (according to severity) as well discriminate among different types of cancer in the same tissue in a simple methodology that has potential for clinical applications.

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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Angeyo, H.K, Mukhono, P.M, Musyoka, D., Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Trace Quantitative and Exploratory Analysis by Multivariate Chemometric Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry Applied to Malaria and Radiogeothermic Diagnostics.". In: RIAO/OPTILAS 2013 VIII Iberoamerican Conference on Optics and XI Latin-american Meeting on Optics, Lasers and Applications. 22; 2013. Abstract
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and Gathumbi, J.K. KKSG. "Traces of opiates in Shisha collected in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: National Conference on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Kasarani stadium; 2013.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Trachoma control using the who adopted "safe with azithromycin". East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. PMID: 17600982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Karimurio J, Ilako F, Gichangi M.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):127-35. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
{ Community Eye Health Training, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To report on and share the experiences, accomplishments and lessons learnt by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Sight Savers International (SSI), University of Nairobi (UON) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) during implementation of a three year Shompole trachoma control pilot study using azithromycin. The target of the project was to reduce the prevalence of active and potentially blinding trachoma by 50% by the year 2005. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Shompole location, Magadi division, Kajiado district of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and twenty six randomly selected households from 166 manyattas (bomas/ homesteads) proportionately distributed in all the 13 villages of the four sub-locations of Shompole location were visited. Nine hundred and ninety eight children (1-9 years) and 898 adults (215 years) were examined for active trachoma (TF) and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children has dropped from 46.4% in 2002 to 16.0% in 2006 and that of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) from 4.5% to 1.7% in the same period. Women have more TT than men. Out of the 15 cases of TT reported in the survey, only two were recurrences. The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) is higher in boys than girls
Karimurio J, Ilako F, Gichangi M. "Trachoma control using the who adopted “safe with azithromycin”.". 2007. Abstract

To report on and share the experiences, accomplishments and lessons learnt by African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), Sight Savers International (SSI), University of Nairobi (UON) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) during implementation of a three year Shompole trachoma control pilot study using azithromycin. The target of the project was to reduce the prevalence of active and potentially blinding trachoma by 50% by the year 2005. Design: Community based survey. Setting: Shompole location, Magadi division, Kajiado district of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Subjects: Five hundred and twenty six randomly selected households from 166 manyattas (bomas/ homesteads) proportionately distributed in all the 13 villages of the four sub-locations of Shompole location were visited. Nine hundred and ninety eight children (1-9 years) and 898 adults (≥15 years) were examined for active trachoma (TF) and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) respectively. Results: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children has dropped from 46.4% in 2002 to 16.0% in 2006 and that of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) from 4.5% to 1.7% in the same period. Women have more TT than men. Out of the 15 cases of TT reported in the survey, only two were recurrences. The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) is higher in boys than girls, p=0.044. The proportion of children with clean faces has not changed but the proportion of children with many (>5) flies has drastically reduced from 48.0% in 2002 to 6.0% in 2006. The community holds strong negative believes about pit latrines. The project is sustainable. Conclusions: This project has positively influenced eye care policy locally and globally. The targets for “SA” components of SAFE were achieved while “FE” components were partially achieved. Recommendations: The ongoing scale up of the project to cover the whole of Kajiado district is justified. Formative study and review of the project’s health promotion strategy is necessary. Collaboration and joint planning with neighbouring endemic districts of Kenya and Tanzania should be encouraged because of the nomadic nature of the Maasai who are the project beneficiaries.

Karimurio J. "The Trachoma Surveys by Segment and “TT40” methods in seven districts in Kenya.". In: IAPB 9th General Assembly, India 17-20 September 2012. Hyderabad, India; 2012.dr._jefitha_karimurio_2012_iapb_poster.pdf
Kibet S, Nyangito MM, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism, Research Policy & Practice. 2016;6(1):16-29.
Kibet S, Nyangito MM, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016;6(1):16.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Maasai Group Ranches, Kenya." Pastoralism. 2016;6(1):16.
Ondieki EO. "Tracing Vulnerability: An Assessment of the Impact of Interventions in Housing and Road Infrastructures in Nairobi, Kenya." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2018;Vol:12 - 2018(Issue 2, 2018):SBE Publication- UoN. (Page 1401-1420).
Oria PA, Alexandra Hiscox, Jane Alaii, Margaret Ayugi, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana, Takken W, Cees Leeuwis. "Tracking the mutual shaping of the technical and social dimensions of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2014;7(1):523.
Nelson V, Martin A, Ewert J, Hasan AA, Opondo M, Flint M, Hartog M, Priebe J. "Trade and Global Value Chains Initiative: Mid-Term Evaluation Report.". 2016. Abstractgala.gre.ac.uk

The Trade and Global Value Chains Initiative seeks to test whether investments in social upgrading (better working conditions and access to better work) can lead to business and development gains, and also ensure that better skilled, younger workers enter the sector and work more productively. Previous research indicated that companies do not invest in social upgrading because they lack both sufficient incentive to act on their own and convincing evidence of the benefits. Investment with other stakeholders in social upgrading could deliver business benefits and help to ensure the longer-term profitability and sustainability of corporate supply chains. A catalytic fund is the delivery mechanism (a modified challenge fund with technical advice provided to grantees), making public funds available to successful coalition applicants and leveraging private sector investment. The aim is to facilitate corporate behavioural change, benefitting workers/smallholders (social upgrading) and suppliers and retailers (economic upgrading). The TGVCI focuses on Ready Made Garments, Bangladesh, and horticulture in South Africa and Kenya.
This report presents the Mid-Term Evaluation (MTE) of the TGVCI conducted by the Evaluation Management Unit (EMU). Twenty projects have been funded in two rounds. The Round 1 projects are nearing completion and Round 2 projects are still on-going. This slightly delayed implementation means that the evidence available and the analysis feasible at this stage are necessarily limited. The projects do nevertheless allow reasonable conclusions to be drawn on relevance, effectiveness and plausible impacts, provide initial findings on cost-effectiveness and indications on sustainability.

KIRITI-NG'ANG'A T. "Trade Discourse in Kenya: Topical Issues, Vol. 2.". In: WTO and School of Economics WTO Chairs Program.; 2014.
Njeri KM. "Trade justice: The case of bonded small scale farmers in eastern and southern Africa.". In: Environment, Society and Development in East and Southern Africa. Bay press; 2012.
Mwega FM, Oyejide A, Ndulu B, Gunning J. "Trade Libe ralization, Credibility and Impacts: A Case Study of Kenya, 1972 - 94.". In: Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in Sub - Sahara Africa: Country Case Studies.; 1999.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Trade Liberalization in Kenya in the 1980s.". In: The International conference on Trade Liberalization, Trade Balance Evolution and Industrial Strategies, held in Paris. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1990. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Mbithi ML. "Trade Openness in COMESA.". In: Implications for Intra-regional Trade in Food Staples. Nairobi; 2012.
Nyangito HO, Nzuma J, Ommeh H, Mbithi M. "Trade Reforms and Food Security in Kenya.". In: Trade Reforms and Food Security. Country Case Studies and Synthesis. Rome: Food and agriculture organization of the united nations; 2006.
DK M, Bigsten A, Mwabu G. "Trade union membership and earnings in Kenyan manufacturing firms." Applied Economics . 2005;37:1693-1704.
Ateto OP, Chepkonga DS. "Trade Union Officials' Perception of their Effectiveness in Industrial Dispute Resolution." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):15.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Trade Unionism and Colonial Authority; A Case Study of Sierra Leone, 1930-1945.". In: Transafrican Journal of History, Vol VII Nos. 1and 2, 1979.; 1979. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

KURIA KAMAU, Kate Bird WO. "Trade-Poverty Linkages in Kenya.". Overseas Development Institute; 2004. Abstract
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Hashim A. "Tradition and Innovation: Muslim Personal Law in Kenya and Tanzania." Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 2005;25(3, December):449-459.tradition_and_innovation.pdf
W MRWAMBUAABRAHAM. ""Traditional African and Christian Approaches to Marital Counselling".". In: A Chapter published in Amani Counselling book. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2004. Abstract
"
Muyila W. Traditional African communalism and the neocomunal spirit in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2004.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "Traditional and Emerging Roles of Pastoral Women in Natural Resource Based Conflicts and Effects on Women's Positions in Different Levels of Society (upcoming publication; funded by IMPACT/CIDA-).". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. ""Traditional and Emerging Roles of Pastoral Women in Natural Resource based Conflicts and Effects on Women's Positions in Different Levels of Society" (upcoming publication; funded by IMPACT/CIDA-) 2006.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya.". In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131 (2010) 256. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.

Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;131:256-267.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

AIM OF THE STUDY:
This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya.

METHODS:
Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey.

RESULTS:
The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae),
Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria.

CONCLUSIONS:
The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID:20600756
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG. "Traditional Antimalarial Phytotherapy Remedies Used by the South Coast Community, Kenya. J." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010; 131(2): 424-32.
C PROFANYAMBATOMTEBESI, Adebayo AA. "Traditional Architecture; Settlement Evolution and Built Form.". In: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Nairobi; 1995.
Paschalia Mbutu, Dr. Wanjiru Gichuhi DGN. "Traditional Birth Attendants and Childbirth in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub County." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6(5):1-18.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "traditional cereal (maize) processing and preservation practicesl suing fermentation technology in Kenya: - A case study of Western Privince. In proceedings of workshop on .". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1999. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
Ondicho TG. "Traditional Families and Social Networks in Kenya.". In: The Palgrave Handbook of Kenyan History, eds. Wanjala, SN., Amutabi, MN., & Falola, T. Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 69-83; 2023.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Traditional Foods and eating habits of the people of Murang'a District, Republic of Kenya. Murang'a District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WEKESA MRMALOBA. "TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR.". In: 4th CHOTRO Conference on Language, Literature and Visual Arts for the Indigenous: Theme - Imagining the Intangibe. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This book is designed to address a course unit under the open and distance learning programme. The book specifically addresses basic issues of classical grammar. Students of Linguistics will realize later in their studies that the title of this book is rather ambitious considering the volume of work under Traditionalist linguistics even as this book has specific interest to Syntax. Syntax examines the rules for sentence structure in languages. To understand sentence structure, the book is packaged in a two step way that would help even non linguists to grasp some seminal issues under Syntax within Traditional linguistics.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Traditional green leafy vegetables of Kenya. In Chweya J.A. and Eyzaguirre, P.B. Eds. The Biodiversity of Traditional Leafy Vegetables pp. 51-83. IPGRI, Rome, Italy.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Mbwayo AW, Ndetei DM, Mutiso V, Khasakhala LI. "Traditional healers and provision of mental health services in cosmopolitan informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstracttraditional_healers.pdf

The study aimed to investigate the types of mental illnesses treated by traditional healers, and their methods of identifying and treating mental illnesses in their patients. METHOD: In urban informal settlements of Kibera, Kangemi and Kawangware in Nairobi, Kenya, we used opportunistic sampling until the required number of traditional healers was reached, trying as much as possible to represent the different communities of Kenya. Focus group discussions were held with traditional healers in each site and later an in-depth interview was conducted with each traditional healer. An in-depth interview with each patient of the traditional healer was conducted and thereafter the MINIPLUS was administered to check the mental illness diagnoses arrived at or missed by the traditional healers. Quantitative analysis was performed using SPSS while focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were analysed for emerging themes. RESULTS: Traditional healers are consulted for mental disorders by members of the community. They are able to recognize some mental disorders, particularly those relating to psychosis. However, they are limited especially for common mental disorders. CONCLUSION: There is a need to educate healers on how to recognize different types of mental disorders and make referrals when patients are not responding to their treatments

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Traditional healers and the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya. Kusimba J, Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Otido JM, Habbema JD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2003. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Traditional healers and the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya. Kusimba J, Voeten HA, O'hara HB, Otido JM, Habbema JD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ. Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201. The Kenya Medical Association; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Health care-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is important in STD/HIV control. GOAL: The goal of this study was to describe the proportion seeking care, patient delay, and choice of provider among men and women with STD-related complaints in Nairobi, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based questionnaire was administered in 7 randomly selected clusters (small geographic areas covering approximately 150 households each). RESULTS: Of the 291 respondents reporting complaints, 20% of men versus 35% of women did not seek care, mainly because symptoms were not considered severe, symptoms had disappeared, or as a result of lack of money. Of those who sought care, women waited longer than men (41 vs. 16 days). Most men and women went to the private sector (72% and 57%, respectively), whereas the informal sector was rarely visited (13% and 16%, respectively). Relatively more women visited the government sector (28% vs. 15%). Because women were mostly monogamous, they did not relate their complaints to sexual intercourse, which hampered prompt care-seeking. CONCLUSION: Women should be convinced to seek care promptly, eg, through health education in communities.
Jenkins R, Shah A, Kigamwa P, Ayuyo J, Kiima D, Njenga F, Okonji M. "Traditional health practitioners and mental health in Kenya.". 2008.
Mwangi JW, Mungai NN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Traditional herbal medicine in national healthcare in Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Herbal medicine is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. There are studies suggesting that herbal therapies can be effective in mating certain conditions. This has been confirmed by the classic randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind well-designed clinical trials. With reliable information on herbal medicine, it is easier to integrate these therapies with tbe mainstream medicine. It is, unlikely that patients will completely abandon use of era I medical interventions but rather in a more pragmatic manner will choose to integrate other interventions as a part of their overall armamentarium of medical interventions. Can herbal medicine be integrated with mainstream medicine in Kenya and what are the challenges? This paper discusses these and other questions in respect of herbal medicine.

J.W. M, Mungai NN, Thoithi, G.N., Kibwage IO. "Traditional Herbal Medicine in National Healthcare in Kenya. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):22-26.
J.W. M, Mungai NN, Thoithi, G.N., Kibwage IO. "Traditional Herbal Medicine in National Healthcare in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):22-6.
Maina, kamuiru. "Traditional Jewellery of Agikuyu of Central Kenya: Materials and Use." Africa Design Review Journal. 2019;1(1):124-160.
Mbaria JM. "Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Indigenous Peoples in Coping with Diabetes.". In: Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development organized by International Diabetes Federation and World Diabetes Foundation. Copenhagen, Denmark ; 2012.
Sihanya B. "Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions in Kenya." Law Society of Kenya Journal . 2016;12(2):1-38.
Nyarwath O. Traditional Logic: An Introduction, 2nd edition. Nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy; 2010.
Odote C, Aywa FA. "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Management." Nairobi, Legal Education Foundation; 2002. Abstract
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COLLETTE PROFSUDA. "Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Isiolo District, Eastern Kenya: Implications for Rural Poverty.". In: International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, Volume 40 .No.2, October 2003, .pp 281-294. European Psychiatric Journal; 2003. Abstract

Conflict results from a combination of factors, which are intertwined and often deeply rooted in cultural traditions both within and between nations. Poverty is one of the underlying causes of conflict and also one of its consequences. The pastoralists in Isiolo struggle to survive on a fragile ecosystem, which is ravaged by drought, poverty, insecurity and seemingly endless conflict over resources. Given its deleterious effects on development, conflict in Isiolo continues to undermine the underlying resource base for sustainable production systems and the pastoralists' capacity to broaden their livelihoods thereby exacerbating rural poverty. All the actors involved in the Isiolo conflict prevention and resolution and poverty reduction strategies at different levels will underpin their efforts by strengthening governance and helping the local communities to diversify their livelihoods. To be sustainable, the various peace initiatives must be accompanied by a broad range of preventive development strategies, which promote increased access to productive resources by vulnerable groups, recognize the role of women in peace building and encourage peaceful settlement of disputes

SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "Traditional medicine among the Abaluyia.". In: In Traditional medicine in Africa, pp. 117-128. I. Sindiga, C. Nyaigoti-Chacha and M.P. Kanunah (Eds.). Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Gakuya DW, Okumu MO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu PM, Nguta JM. "Traditional Medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges and the way forward." Scientific African . 2020:pp. 1-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360.
Gichangi P. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):212-214.
P G. "Traditional medicines and their potential teratogenic effects. ." Anatomy Journal of Africa, . 2014;3:212-214.
Kokwaro JO. "Traditional methods of treating skin diseases in Kenya through the use of plants." Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 1988;25:363-372.
WASIKE MRWEREISAAC. "The traditional pottery: A case study of the Pokot pottery and people of West Pokot District.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "Traditional Products and Cultural Identity.". In: Conference Proceedings Powai, India. University of Nairobi Press; 1986. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Traditional Quantum Mechanics vs. Local Hidden vs, Local Hidden Variables.". In: Nuovo Cimento. 8. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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Anonymous. "Traditional remedies for tick-borne cattle diseases in Kenya.". In: A field manual of traditional animal health care practices. Nairobi: ITDG and IIRR; 1996.
Odong PO, Ekkehard D, Okullo I, Odhiambo WA, Steffen F, Ogwal-Okeng J. "Traditional removal of Canine tooth buds as Practiced by various Communities in Eastern Africa.". 2008.
4 Ochanda N. "Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam." Traditional settlements, Pastoral migrations and the Turkwell Dam. 1987.
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "Traditional Social and Political Institutions of the Mount Kenya Peoples" in Hadith IV, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.". In: In Hadith III, E.A Publishing House, Nairobi.; 1970. Abstract
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Onwonga RN, Freyer B, Lelei JJ. "Traditional soil fertility management strategies: Do they conform to recommendations in organic farming? A case study of the smallholder farmers of the Central Rift Valley Province of Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

The low input nature of organic farming (OF) is often likened to the traditional soil fertility management practices (TSFMP) of smallholder farming systems in developing countries. There are however no concrete studies to support this assertion. The present study aims at comparing the TSFM practices with recommendations in OF specifically recycling of organic wastes of crop and animal origin and maintenance of long-term fertility of the soil. These were monitored through resource flow mapping and calculation of nitrogen balances, at crop production level, using NUTMON toolbox. The study was conducted in Gilgil, Lare and Molo divisions of the Rift Valley Province of Kenya. Crop residues and manure were the principal organic resources recycled within the smallholder farming systems. The calculated N balances were negative; -70.9, -80.2 and -99.8 kg/ha/year for Gilgil, Lare and Molo, respectively. The organic resources recycled within the farm were therefore insufficient to sustain soil fertility. This is contrary to recommendations in OF, in which the long-term soil fertility should be maintained and/or enhanced. There were however opportunities; composting, biomass transfer and improved use of external and internal farm boundaries, enhanced livestock manure handling and integration of agroforestry trees, for improving the TSFMP to expectations of OF

Kinyamario JI, Mworia JK. "Traditional strategies used by pastoralists to cope with la nina induced drought in Kajiado, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Pastoralists traditionally relied on herd mobility to cope with drought. In the pastoral areas of Kajiado, Kenya this strategy is now threatened by increased individual land ownership as compared to communal access. Drought frequency as related to El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is predicated to increase with climate change. The aim of the study was investigate the use of herd mobility strategy in the ENSO related 1999/2000 la Nina induced drought under different land tenure types and varying household cattle wealth. The study found that despite changes in land tenure, herd mobility was used as a coping strategy. Households rich in livestock applied the herd mobility strategy more than the poorer ones by moving a larger proportion of their herds. Poorer households applied the strategy of keeping drought resistant animals more than richer ones by having a higher proportion of goats and sheep than cattle. Institutional land units of Kiboko Range Research Station and Chyulu National Reserve which had higher herbaceous biomass were the most favored refuge areas for livestock during the drought. In conclusion poorer families are likely to be impacted more from increased incidents of ENSO droughts due inability to use the herd mobility option.

T.N. Mudimba. "Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Carpobrotus edulis: A global perspective. ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2019;Volume 8 Issue 3, 2019 (pp. 33-40):pp. 33-40.
Muluka B, Gona G. "Traditional/Cultural Methods of Conflict Resolution among Selected Communities in the Rift Valley." Traditional/Cultural Methods of Conflict Resolution among Selected Communities in the Rift Valley. 2010.
Mwangi JW, Mungai NN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Traditional/Herbal Medicine in National Healthcare in Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2005;8:22-26.
Kinney PL, Gichuru MG, Volavka-Close N,... "Traffic impacts on PM2. 5 air quality in Nairobi, Kenya." Environmental science & …. 2011. AbstractWebsite

Motor vehicle traffic is an important source of particulate pollution in cities of the developing world, where rapid growth, coupled with a lack of effective transport and land use planning, may result in harmful levels of fine particles (PM 2.5) in the air. However, a lack of air …

Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru MG; V-CN; NN; NPLA; GA;K; G. "Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
Kinney, Patrick L; Gichuru MG; V-CN; NN; NPLA; GA;K; G. "Traffic Impacts on PM2.5 Air Quality in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012.
Mukaria SM, Wahome KKRG, Thenya T, Michael Gatari. "Traffic Police Knowledge Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Motor Vehicle Pollution City of Nairobi-Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5(3):111-116.
Mukaria SM, Wahome KKRG, Thenya T,... "Traffic Police Knowledge Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Motor Vehicle Pollution City of Nairobi-Kenya." Journal of Environment …. 2017. AbstractWebsite

People's knowledge of awareness, attitudes and practices towards motor vehicle emissions that are dangerous and a requirement is paramount for reducing exposure among people, their impact and response of interventions that are aimed at encouraging behavioral …

Mukaria SM, Wahome KKRG, Thenya T, Michael Gatari. "Traffic Police Knowledge Awareness, Attitude and Practice on Motor Vehicle Pollution City of Nairobi-Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2017;5:111-116. Abstract
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Wasamba P. "The Train.". In: Echoes across the Valley. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2000.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Training And Capacity Building For Performance Improvement , A Paper Presented In The Training Workshop For Members Of Ministerial Service Reform Committee And Works Improvement Team For The Ministry Of Planning And National Development.". In: The 2nd Bi-Annual Research Symposium Of The VLIR Institutional University Co-Operation And The University Of Nairobi Held At The Diani Sea Resort , South Coat , Kenya. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Otieno-Omutoko L. Training and Curriculum Development. Nairobi, Kenya: CODL; 2011.
Mbwesa J, OTIENO LILIAN. Training And Curriculum Development. NAIROBI: Center for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi; 2012.
Mwenda JN, Ngau PM, Mattingly M. "Training and human capacity building in the land sector in the context of implementation of new land policies and reforms in land administration systems: some reflections from Kenya.". In: XXV FIG Congress 2014: Engaging Challenges, Enhancing Relevance. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2014.
"Training by Armatures: Is Kenya." The Independent Review, VOL.1., No. 1, pp. 95 - 103; 1996. Abstract
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"Training Course on Household Surveys.". In: Training Course on Household Surveys.; 2019. Abstract

“to answer questions that have been raised, to solve problems that have been posed or observed, to assess needs and set goals, to determine whether or not specific objectives have been met, to establish baselines against which future comparisons can be made, to analyze trends across time, and generally, to describe what exists, in what amount, and in what context.” (Isaac & Michael, 1997, p. 136)

(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "Training ECD In-service teachers in ICT skill: First foot forward.". In: Academic Conference in the School of Continuing and Distance Education. University of Nairobi, Kikuyu Campus; 2013.
NdirituW, GikonyoN M. "Training ECD In-service teachers in ICT skill: First foot forward.". In: SCDE. Kikuyu; 2013.
Anne N, David M, Naomi G, Grace N. "Training ECD in-service Teachers in ICT skills:First foot forward.". In: Utilization of open and distance learning in addressing educational challenges in kenya towards fulfilment of the vision 2030. University of Nairobi, kenya; 2013. Abstract

Kenya government developed vision 2030 with the aim of transforming Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country. This vision is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya invests in education and training. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. ICT has been correlated with enhanced human development and a major driving force of national growth. Kenya government has invested a lot of funds in the development of ICT infrastructure. This investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. Support for the pre-school education from the government is a recent phenomenon especially in curriculum development. This is because this level of education has been taught by untrained teachers for a long time therefore resulting to poor quality of education. The first effort noted towards this end was the experimental preschool education project that was carried out by the Ministry of education Science and Technology and the Bernard Van Leer Foundation between 1972 and 1982. A later development was on the National Early Childhood Development Policy Framework of 2006 which provided coordination of the different stakeholders in ECD at all levels. As the government continues to support this level of education, it is important to find out the part that it is playing in ensuring that this education is relevant to the changing needs of the students. This will only be possible if the government ensures that teachers have effective techniques, tool and assistance that can help them develop ICT activities that are able to improve student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children in selected Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that only (39.17%) of the teachers had any knowledge in ICT. Most of the teachers (86.99) reported that there they had not attended any government sponsored ICT workshop during their teaching professions. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. They also expressed their interest in availing themselves for ICT training should an opportunity arise. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: information and communication technology (ICT), pre-school children, Pre-school teachers, Teacher training

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Training for Enhanced Regional (Sub-national) Development Systems: Case Study of Kenya. A paper presented at an Experts Group Meeting on Institutional Arrangements for Regional (Sub-national) Development Planning: A new Agenda for Research and Training. U.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1987. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

PROF. SIBOE GEORGEM. "Training for Fungal and Invertebrate Taxonomy for the Utilization and Conservation of Biodiversity.". In: In Jones, T., & Gallagher, S (eds), Identifying & Understanding the Worlds Biodiversity,pp193 - 194. Bionet-International, Egham, U.K. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Training for participation and development.". In: Proceedings of one weeks councilors seminar held at Kakameg,a, May 1981 compiled and edited by S. Kichamu Akivaga. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
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NJAMBI MSKINYUNGUALICE, WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Training in Land Economy .". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2003. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Otto JL, Baliga P, Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Gray GC, Grieco J, Lescano AG, Mothershead JL, Wagar EJ, Blazes DL, Achila R, Baker W, Blair P, Brown M, Bulimo W, Byarugaba D, Coldren R, Cooper M, Ducatez M, Espinosa B, Ewings P, Guerrero A, Hawksworth T, Jackson C, Klena JD, Kraus S, Macintosh V, Mansour M, Maupin G, Maza J, Montgomery J, Ndip L, Pavlin J, Quintana M, Richard W, Rosenau D, Saeed T, Sinclair L, Smith I, Smith J, Styles T, Talaat M, Tobias S, Vettori J, Villinski J, Wabwire-Mangen F. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005)." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S5. AbstractWebsite

Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, IHR (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military's role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described.

Bulimo W, JL O, P B, JL S, MC J, GC G, J G, AG L, JL M, EJ W, DL B, Group AFHSC-GEISTW, R A, W B, P B, M B, W B, D B, R C, M C, M D, B E, P E, A G, T H, C J, JD K, S K, V M, M M, G M, J M, J M, L N, J P, M Q, W R, D R, T S, L S, I S, J S, T S, M T, S T, J V, J V, F W-M. "Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for IHR (2005).". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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D. DRONGORE. "Training Manual for Care of AIDS Patients in the Community for STD/HIV Control Project - Co-author.". In: Co-author. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
Mbatia, NP; Nderitu NCP; J; J. "A Training Manual for Church Leaders."; 2004.
D. DRONGORE. "Training Manual on STDs/HIV for Kenya Medical Training Colleges, Kenya -.". In: Co-author. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Reports of osteopaenia/rickets of prematurity are on the increase due to improved survival rates of low birthweight infants. OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of rickets of prematurity by the age of six months in premature infants born at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Newborn unit and paediatric outpatient follow up clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Successive surviving infants of birthweight less than 2000 g residents in Nairobi. RESULTS: Incidence of rickets of prematurity by six months of age was 58.8%. Rickets appeared more commonly in male infants compared to female infants. CONCLUSION: Rickets of prematurity is a common problem in the premature infants seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. Routine vitamin D supplements to premature infants in adequate doses of at least 400iu per day should be adopted in our centre.
KANINI MRMBWESAJOYCE. "Training Needs analysis: Steps in the Needs analysis; Essential components of a training assessment: Sources of information for training needs analysis; Methods of collecting data for need analysis; Work places as Learning organizations; Evaluation of tra.". In: The Training Workshop or Members Of Ministerial Service Reform Committee And Works Improvement Team For The Ministry Of Planning And National Development 1st - 5th November 2004 Nairobi, Kenya. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Mageto IG, Omoni, G. M., Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing in Kenya." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 2017;2(1):54-63.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing practice in Kenya." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery . 2017.
Mageto IG, Omoni GM, Cabelus NB, Inyega JO. "Training needs assessment for forensic nursing practice in Kenya. ." Kenyan Journal of Nursing and Midwifery . 2017.
Kimani G.N., S. C. "Training Needs Assessment of Secondary School Headteachers in Financial Management in Nandi North District." Journal of Management University of Africa. 2012;(ISSN 2074 – 4730):318-321.kimani_12.pdf
S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Training of a surgeon (Editorial) Medicom Vol. 2:25, 1980.". In: Medicom Vol. 2:25, 1980. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1980. Abstract
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OLIECH JS. "Training of a urological surgeon.". 1982.
DAVID PROFMACHARIA. "Training of Adult Educators: Institutions, Programmes and Target Groups: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi,December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators,Inter.". In: A paper presented to the Conference on Training of Adult Educators in Eastern Africa (Nairobi, December 2005), published in Capacity Building and the Training of Adult Educators, International Perspectives in Adult Education, DVV, No 52, Bonn 2006). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract
Human Capital Externality and Returns to Education in Kenya
Gichaga FJ. "Training of Engineers in a Developing country.". In: UNESCO International Group Meeting. Cairo.; 1978.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ, ODHIAMBO MRMATINIA. "Training of Equipment Maintenance Personnel Matini A.O., Gatari M.J.". In: Presented, NUSESA Maintenance of Equipment for the Advancement of Science Regional Conference, Sheraton Hotel, Kampala, Uganda, 3-4 December 2001. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2001.
AJ RODRIGUES, CA MOTURI. Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi. New Delhi, India : Tata McGraw Publishing Company ; 1992. Abstract

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, A. MRMOTURICHRISTOPHER. "Training of information analysts at the Institute of Computer Science, University of Nairobi.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992. Abstract
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C.K. 45. M. "Training of Pharmacists." Kenya J. Pharm.. 1978;1(1):19.
MULIMBA JOA. "Training of Surgeons for Primary Health Care. South African Journal of Surgery 35 (3) 142, August 1997.". In: South African Journal of Surgery 35 (3) 142, August 1997. Springerlink; 1997. Abstract

It has been the view of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa (ASEA) that, like primary health care, there is primary surgery. The unit of provision of primary surgery is the district hospital. The training of surgeons for district hospitals starts at the undergraduate level, leading to the attainment of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B. Ch.B.) degree. After internship the doctor works in a district or provincial hospital for 2-3 years, then trains for the degree of Master of Medicine (M. Med. (Surg.)) for a period of 3 years. The training involves rotation through all branches of surgery, so that the surgeon should be able to handle all aspects of routine surgery in a district hospital. To equip the surgeon further, a period in an outside setting is considered advisable. There are arrangements for regional surgical colleges to standardise the form of surgical training in the ASEA region. To keep surgeons in touch with the outside world, specialist training is done outside the region, but arrangements are being made for localised specialised units to offer this training.

Magoha GA, Ngumi ZW. "Training of surgeons in Kenya at the University of Nairobi teaching hospital.". 1999. Abstract

To determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, since its inception in 1967. DESIGN: This was a retrospective (1975-1987) and prospective study (1988-1999). SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a National Referral Hospital and University of Nairobi Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: All surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi for postgraduate MMed in general surgery, anaesthesia, ENT surgery and ophthalmology from 1975 to March 1999. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five surgeons with Master of Medicine degree were trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi between 1975 and March 1999. They included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons; 46 (16.14%) anaesthetists; 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists and 23 (8.07% ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons. One hundred and seventy-six, (61.75%) were from retrospective studies; 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies while 15 (5.26%) were from both retrospective and prospective studies. Two hundred and thirty-two (81.40%) surgeons were Kenyans while 53 (18.60%) were foreigners. The majority, 42 (79.24%) of the foreigners were from other African countries. Thirty one (58.50%) were from neighbouring Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Zambia. There was also one PhD in anaesthesia and one MD in urology during the same period. CONCLUSION: The University of Nairobi, Department of Surgery based at Kenyatta National Hospital has played a very significant and leading role in the training of surgeons for Kenya and even other African and foreign countries since its inception. Of the forty surgeons who constitute the academic staff in the Departments of General Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery and Ophthalmology of the University of Nairobi, thirty-five surgeons (87.50%) have been trained by the Faculty of Medicine at KNH. PIP: This study was carried out as a retrospective (1975-87) and prospective study (1988-99) to determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya, since its inception in 1967. Over the 25-year period (1975-99), the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi trained a total of 285 surgeons with a Master of Medicine degree. These included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons, 46 (16.14%) anesthetists, 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists, and 23 (8.07%) ear, nose, and throat surgeons. 176 of the dissertations (61.75%) were from retrospective studies, 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies, and 15 (5.26%) were from combined prospective and retrospective studies. 53 (18.60%) of these surgeons were foreigners, with the majority (79.24%) coming from other African countries. The neighboring countries of Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Zambia accounted for 31 (58.50%) of the foreign surgeons. There was also one Doctor of Philosophy in anesthesia and one Master's Degree in urology during the same period.

Magoha GAO, Ngumi ZW. "The training of surgeons in Kenya at the University of Nairobi, Kenyatta National Hospital. .". In: East African Medical Journal, 76: 462-464, 1999. EAMJ; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, since its inception in 1967.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective (1975-1987) and prospective study (1988-1999).
SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a National Referral Hospital and University of Nairobi Teaching Hospital.
SUBJECTS: All surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi for postgraduate MMed in general surgery, anaesthesia,
ENT surgery and ophthalmology from 1975 to March 1999. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-five surgeons with Master of Medicine degree were trained by the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi between 1975 and March 1999. They included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons; 46 (16.14%) anaesthetists; 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists and 23 (8.07% ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons. One hundred and seventy-six, (61.75%) were from retrospective studies; 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies while 15 (5.26%) were from both retrospective and prospective studies. Two hundred and thirty-two (81.40%) surgeons were Kenyans while 53 (18.60%) were foreigners. The majority, 42 (79.24%) of the foreigners were from other African countries. Thirty one (58.50%) were from neighbouring Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Zambia. There was also one PhD in anaesthesia and one MD in urology during the same period.
CONCLUSION: The University of Nairobi, Department of Surgery based at Kenyatta National Hospital has played a very significant and leading role in the training of surgeons for Kenya and even other African and foreign countries since its inception. Of the forty surgeons who constitute the academic staff in the Departments of General Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery and Ophthalmology of the University of Nairobi, thirty-five surgeons (87.50%) have been trained by the Faculty of Medicine at KNH.
PIP: This study was carried out as a retrospective (1975-87) and prospective study (1988-99) to determine the number of surgeons trained by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya, since its inception in 1967. Over the 25-year period (1975-99), the Department of Surgery of the University of Nairobi trained a total of 285 surgeons with a Master of Medicine degree. These included 181 (63.51%) general surgeons, 46 (16.14%) anesthetists, 35 (12.28%) ophthalmologists, and 23 (8.07%) ear, nose, and throat surgeons. 176 of the dissertations (61.75%) were from retrospective studies, 94 (32.98%) were from prospective studies, and 15 (5.26%) were from combined prospective and retrospective studies. 53 (18.60%) of these surgeons were foreigners, with the majority (79.24%) coming from other African countries. The neighboring countries of Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Zambia accounted for 31 (58.50%) of the foreign surgeons. There was also one Doctor of Philosophy in anesthesia and one Master's Degree in urology during the same period.

Training of Trainers workshop on content development for e-learning. Machakos Garden Hotel: VLIR-ODL project; 2003.
Training on Learner Support Systems. Merica Hotel, Nakuru: VLIR-ODL project; 2003.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Training on Local and Regional Development and Planning, (7th - 9th Nov. 1998) sponsored by UNCRD, UNDP and the Government of Japan.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1998.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Training on Photovoltaic Application and Installations.". In: PV TRAINING AND INSTALLATION. Department of Physics, University of Nairobi: Elsevier; 2011. Abstract

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Training on Research Methods. Merica Hotel, Nakuru: VLIR-ODL project; 2003.
Gichaga FJ. "Training Professionals for Infrastructure Development: The Troika of Government, Industry and Academia.". In: Transformative and Effective Infrastructure Conference Report. Nairobi; 2010.
Ngau PM, Mwenda JN. "Training Providers in Capacity Development for Major Land Reforms and Land Policy Implementation at Country Level.". In: FIG Working Week 2016 (Recovery from Disaster). Christchurch, New Zealand; 2016.
S K, Nafukko FM, Ombega JN, Muriuki G. "Training Techniques that work for Professionals." Pharmacotherapy and Drug Information Journal-E.A. Edition. 2000;II(5).

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