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Awino ZB, Maina M, Ogutu M, Oeba LK. "Total Quality and Competitive advantage of firms in the Horticultural Industry in Kenya ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(4):521-532.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Total Quality Management and Value Management" (TQM) This article is the abbreviated abstraction of the substance of the paper presented to the fourth annual seminar of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda on the challenges of TQM on t.". In: The Uganda Accountants Newsletter of The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda. December 1999 (pages 11 - 12). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1999. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Total Quality Management and Value Management" (TQM) This article is the abbreviated abstraction of the substance of the paper presented to the fourth annual seminar of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda on the challenges of TQM on t.". In: The Uganda Accountants Newsletter of The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda. December 1999 (pages 11 - 12).; 1999. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

Mwanda OW, Mukuria JC, Kanduma EG. "Total Sialic acid (TSA) and Hanganutziu and Deicher (HD) antibody in malignant and healthy sera.". 2007. Abstract

To determine the levels of both TSA and HD antibody in sera of patients with various malignancies and evaluate their potential role as diagnostic and/ or prognostic markers. DESIGN: Laboratory based analysis. SETTINGS: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Medical Research Institute and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 909 serum samples, 420 from cancer patients recruited at Kenyatta National Hospital and 509 from normal blood donors recruited at Nairobi Hospital. RESULTS: The mean age for the patients and controls was 36 and 37 years respectively. Carcinoma patients constituted 54%, sarcoma 12.1%, lymphoma 16.4% and 17.4% had other types of tumours. The mean TSA in patients was 0.86 mg/ml +/- 0.026 compared to 0.82 mg/ml +/- 0.014 in controls. The TSA level was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (Student's t-test p = 0.031 at 0.05 confidence level). The TSA increased with age in both study groups. In patient sera, both gender gave the same mean of 0.83 mg/ml while it was 0.82 mg/ml and 0.83 mg/ml in control females and in males respectively. Sarcomas had the highest amount of 0.93 mg/ml but there was no significant statistical variation between tumour types (p = 0.076). The HD antibody mean readings were 0.004 in pathologic sera compared to 0.011 in controls. The values were significantly elevated in patients (p = 0.03) with females giving a higher value for both study groups (p = 0.628). HD antibody readings was significantly higher in carcinomas (p = 0.017) compared to those of sarcomas and lymphomas. There was no association between antibody readings and age of patient (p = 0.601). CONCLUSION: Both TSA and HD antibody values were significantly elevated in patients compared to clinically healthy controls and while TSA levels increased with age and was independent of gender, HD antibody levels were independent of age, gender and also tumour type. The study demonstrates that although TSA is normally elevated in malignancy, most of the sialic acid shed is of N-acetyl type as some patients do not express HD antibody directed to the N-glycolyl sialic acid. The reason why some tumours would express Neu5Gc at any one time needs further evaluation.

Ondicho, TG. "Tourism and Maasai of Kenya.". In: S. Wakana, S. Siraishi & T. Ondicho (Eds) Re-finding African Local Assets and City Environments: Governance, Research and Reflexivity. Tokyo: ILCAA & JSPS Pp. 61-75; 2016.7._ondicho_no_keywords_revised.pdf7._ondicho_no_keywords_revised.pdf
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Conditions and problems.". In: Publications in Annuals of Tourism Research. East African Social Science Research Review 16 (2): 49-70; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Ondicho TG. "Tourism Development in Kenya: Constraints and Opportunities." African Anthropologist. 2003;10(1):4-22.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism development in Kenya: Constraints and opportunities.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. The African Anthropologist, 10(1): 4-22.; 2003. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism in Kenya: Past, present and future challenges.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. New Castle: Athenaeum Press; 2000. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
Ondicho TG. "Tourism in Kenya: Past, Present and Future Challenges. In M. Robinson, N. Swabrooke, N. Evans, P. Long & R. Sharpley (eds).". In: Reflections on International Tourism: Motivations, Behaviour and Tourist Types. New Castle: Athenaeum Press; 2000.
O. OL. "Tourism in the Kenyan Economy and Culture." Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting; 1988. Abstract
n/a
Ondicho TG. Tourism, Power and Politics among the Maasai. Chisinau: Scholars Press; 2022.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Tourism, power and politics: The challenges of Maasai involvement in tourism development.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. PhD Dissertation, Massey University; 2010. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
I. O, E. O. "Towards > > the development of a citizen-centric framework for evaluating the impact > > of > > eGovernment: A case study of developing countries.". 2014;(14528816 ). AbstractTowards the development of a citizen-centric framework for evaluating the impact of eGovernment: A case study of developing coun

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.
Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-side with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks developed by Bhatnagar and Singh and Verdegem et al due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.

Nganga W. "Towards a Comprehensive, Machine-readable Dialectal Dictionary of Igbo." In: Guy De Pauw GHJ, De Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010), European Language Resources Association (ELRA).; 2010:. Abstract

Availability of electronic resources, textual or otherwise, is a first step towards language technology research and development. This paper describes the acquisition and processing of a multi-dialectal speech and text corpora for the Igbo language. The compiled corpus provides the key resource for the denition of a machine-readable dialectal dictionary for Igbo. The work centres around an online portal that facilitates collaborative acquisition, denition and editing of the dialectal dictionary. The complete dictionary, which includes features such as phonetic pronounciation, syllabication, synthesized pronounciation as well as GIS locations, is then made available via a website.

M B, N PV, J RM, A C, D L, JP S, A.M G. "Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis: results of a systematic review and expert consultation ." Reproductive Health . 2017;14(67). AbstractWebsite

Background
There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis definitions and identification criteria and to report on the results of an expert consultation to develop a new international definition of maternal sepsis.

Methods
All original and review articles and WHO documents, as well as clinical guidelines providing definitions and/or identification criteria of maternal sepsis were included. A multidisciplinary international panel of experts was surveyed through an online consultation in March-April 2016 on their opinion on the existing sepsis definitions, including new definition of sepsis proposed for the adult population (2016 Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock) and importance of different criteria for identification of maternal sepsis. The definition was agreed using an iterative process in an expert face-to-face consensus development meeting convened by WHO and Jhpiego.

Results
Standardizing the definition of maternal sepsis and aligning it with the current understanding of sepsis in the adult population was considered a mandatory step to improve the assessment of the burden of maternal sepsis by the expert panel. The literature review and expert consultation resulted in a new WHO consensus definition “Maternal sepsis is a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, child-birth, post-abortion, or post-partum period”. Plans are in progress to validate the new WHO definition of maternal sepsis in a large international population.

Conclusion
The operationalization of the new maternal sepsis definition requires generation of a set of practical criteria to identify women with sepsis. These criteria should enable clinicians to focus on the timely initiation of actionable elements of care (administration of antimicrobials and fluids, support of vital organ functions, and referral) and improve maternal outcomes.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Towards a Deployment Model for eMonitoring of Geriatric Persons in Rural Developing Countries: Case of Kenya.". In: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317291029. Vol. 1. Namibia; 2017. Abstract

The United Nations and the African Union considers a person aged 65
years and above as a geriatric person. The graying population over the past decades
is showing an exponential growth rate compared to the declining fertility rate. This
population in the developing countries is not boastful of active ageing (successful,
independent ageing) as they are challenged by various health issues and
psychosomatic conditions. They require constant care and in some cases, specialized
care in familiar environments (their homes with relatives) or nursing homes (called
Nyumba za Wazee in Kenya). The researchers with support from literature believe
that technology can offer this specialized care (E-monitoring). This would be offered
in the comfort of their homes through continuous assessment of the geriatric person
relaying information to both the formal and informal caregivers. The objective of this
paper is to explore, summarize and analyse the various technologies in gerontology,
acceptance and adoption models, with the aim of identifying a suitable deployment
model that could be adopted in the context of a developing country.

J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, N MRRUHIUSAMUEL. "Towards a framework for ICT Uptake in Developing Countries.". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery in children with non-tumour hydrocephalus at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: A retrospective survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi between January 1982 and December 1991. SUBJECTS: Three hundred and forty five patients who underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty five patients underwent V-P shunt placement for non-tumour hydrocephalus. There were 107 infection episodes involving 85 patients. The ages of these patients ranged from three months to 12 years. Most of the patients had congenital hydrocephalus. The infection rate was high (24.6%) although comparable to infection rates reported for clean surgery in the hospital. Fever, septic wounds and features of shunt malfunction were the main presenting features. Bacteriological studies confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci as the two most commonly isolated micro-organisms. CONCLUSION: This study emphasises need to reduce infection rate in ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Definitive surgical treatment for hydrocephalus was in most cases delayed and this problem was also observed during revision of infected shunts. Late presentation was often due to ignorance and the fact that many patients went for traditional forms of treatment first before going to hospital.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY, N MRRUHIUSAMUEL. "Towards a framework for ICT Uptake in Developing Countries.". In: Ph.D Colloquium) Proceedings of the 1st Annual (International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 244-256. 2003; 2005. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Siriba DN. "Towards a GNSS Data Accuracy Standard for Georeferencing." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2021;2021:5.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards a Liability and Redness System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System, East African Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Towards a Matatu Epistemology of International Relations: African Perspectives'.". In: Review eassy African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No.2. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No. 3, (Cirino Hiteng)
Gor SO. "Towards a New Road Management and Financing Initiative in Kenya; An Agenda for Reform.". In: Institute of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 1998.
J DRCHWEYALUDEKI. ""Towards A Power Balance Among Institutions of Governance.". In: Paper presented at the Conference of NGO Council, Pan Africa Hotel, Dec 9 - 10. ISCTRC; 2003. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Oduor J. "Towards a Practical Proposal of Multilingualism in Education in Kenya." Springer Open Journal: Multilingualism and Education in Africa: the Reality on the Ground . 2015.
Odhiambo JO. "Towards a rainwater model village.". 2004.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Towards a Regional Security Architecture in the IGAD Region in African Regional Security in the Age of Globalization.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy Vol. 3. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This book provides an incisive discussion and analysis of the major issues and dynamics in diplomatic practice. It analyses documents and the process of diplomacy, the process and documents of diplomatic negotiations and mediation, and in the third part discusses some of the issues in diplomatic practice, such as reporting, manageemnt of the foreign service and legal and social problems of diplomatic missions.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Towards a Revamped Housing Policy in Kenya: Discovery and Innovation Vol 14 Nos. 3/4.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2002.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Towards a strategy for changing Attitudes to indigenous African Languages.".". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1998. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "Towards a Stylistic Study of Modern Kiswahili Poetry: A case of Kahigi and Mulokozi's poetry. In KISWAHILI Vol . 62 Institute of Kiswahili research , university of Dar es Salaam.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Kinyanjui Sarah. "Towards Achieving Penal Institutional Reforms." Best Practices in Prisons in Kenya . 2014.
Idowu TE, R. W, Lasisi, K H, Kiema JBK. "Towards achieving Sustainability of Coastal Environments: Urban Growth Analysis and Prediction of Lagos, State Nigeria." South African Journal of Geomatics. 2020;9(2):149-162.
Moturi C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D. "Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs." International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Mutuli DA, Okoth MW. "Towards agro-industrial sustainability in Kenya through energy conservation and other technologies.". 2001. Abstract

Meeting the nutritional needs of people in a .world where the 'population is increasing, the natural resource base is limited and fragile, and unsustainable production and consumption patterns are proliferating presents a major challenge for engineers as we enter the 21st century. Sustainability issues concern the entire food and fibre production and supply chain, from agricultural production and processing to packaging, distribution and final consumption. To make agricultural food production sustainable, urgent measures are needed to address concerns about land and water use, productivity, consumption patterns,energy and waste management. Resource. efficiency means using less to produce more and is a, concept that aptly captures the sustainability issue. This, paper: therefore, attempts to explore some of the ways in which this can be achieved through greater resource efficiency and the application of conservation tcchnologies This takes the form of a 'review of literature focused on studies that have been undertaken on the subject. There is a lot of room for improvement in the efficiency with which the agro-industrial sub-sector is managed, even if only currently available technologies arc considered. Increased use of approaches such as cleaner production techniques all along the production and consumption chain, energy saving measures. packaging reduction and more efficient distribution can eliminate environmental impacts and lower production costs.

WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Towards an African Church: A Critical Assessment of Alternative Forms and Structures.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Tocho JA, Waema TM. "Towards an e-waste management framework in Kenya." info. 2013;15(5):99-113.Website
Muigua K. "Towards an Overarching Policy: Understanding Kenya’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Landscape and Culture.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, ; 2018.towards_an_overarching_policy-ncia_conference_paper-ncia_conference_conference_paper_6th_june_2018_kariuki_muigua_ph.d.pdf
ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". With Benjamin Okech and Winnie Mitullah. IDS Working Paper Number 534.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Towards an Understanding of the Informal Housing Markets: A Review of Literature in W.H.O. Olima andV. Kreibich (eds.) Urban Land Management in Africa, Dortmund: University of Dortmund (2002).". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Over the last six years there has been a tremendous development of infrastructure projects in virtually all corners of Kenya. This has taken the form of Road Improvement Project, Water and sewerage improvement project and the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project as envisioned in the Kenya Vision 2030. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the principles of compulsory land acquisition and way leaves in the three sectors in Kenya by looking at the current legislative framework governing the entire process of acquisition. In considering the process, the paper explores the various provisions of the relevant act which governs the particular utility envisaged for improvement project component in the Kenya Vision 2030. A critical evaluation of the procedures adopted is outlined in each case and the general public apprehensions towards such acquisitions. The second part of the paper focuses on suggestions on the choice of valuation methodology in making claims for compensation for land for various infrastructure projects in Kenya. This is borne out of the fact that there appear to be very little standardization in the methods adopted by the various bodies. The paper cites several cases under the Electricity Transmission Improvement Project where a large proportion of way leaves are dealt with at local level, with little consistency. Coupled to this is the public concern that electricity lines have potentially serious health effects that continue to attract research and media interest. The paper concludes with a description of the various cases on how to improve compensation paid to those affected by compulsory acquisition in cases of land and way leaves.
Mambo SR, Moturi CA. "Towards Better Detection of Fraud in Health Insurance Claims in Kenya: Use of Naïve Bayes Classification Algorithm." East African Journal of Information Technology. 2022;5(1):244-255. AbstractWebsite

The extent, possibility, and complexity of the healthcare industry have attracted widespread fraud that has contributed to rising healthcare costs hence affecting patients’ health and negatively impacting the economy of many countries. Despite putting up various technologies and strategies to fight fraud such as planned, targeted audits, random audits, whistle-blowing, and biometric systems, fraud in claims has continued to be a challenge in most of the health insurance providers in Kenya. This paper explored the application of data mining in detecting fraud in health insurance claims in Kenya. Classification algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree and K-Nearest Neighbour) were used to build predictive models for the knowledge discovery process. After conducting several experiments, the resulting models showed that the Naïve Bayes works well in detecting fraud in claims with 91.790% classification accuracy and 74.12% testing hit rate. A prototype was developed based on the rules extracted from the Naïve Bayes model, which, if adopted, will save costs by detecting fraud as it is committed. Fraud detection in health insurance claims is much needed in many countries so as to help reduce loss of money and in return improve service delivery to patients.

KITHURE DRKINDIKI. ""Towards Constitutional Protection of Socio-Economic Rights in Kenya: Any Lessons From the South African Expereience?.". In: In Volume 14 Lesotho Law Journal pp. 51-75. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

Muthama JK, Mutai BK, Ngaina JN. Towards Developing an Indicator for Indoor Air Pollution in Nairobi Using Atmospheric Stability Indices. Safari Park Hotel & Casino, Nairobi, Kenya. 10th & 11th May 2012: Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff School of Health Sciences; 2012. Abstract

The quality of indoor air inside offices, schools, other workplaces and homes is important not only for human comfort but also for their health. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been tied to symptoms like headaches, fatigue, trouble concentrating, and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Also, some specific diseases have been linked to specific air contaminants or indoor environments, like asthma with damp indoor environments. Many factors affect IAQ. These factors include poor ventilation (lack of outside air), problems controlling temperatures, high or low humidity, recent remodeling, and other activities in or near a building that can affect the fresh air coming into the building. The quantification of IAQ is therefore necessary.
Hourly data for CO and O3 and daily wind and temperature from Chiromo Environmental Monitoring station was used in this study. Stability Indices were obtained using the Hysplit Model. Time series analysis was used to obtaining the temporal variation of pollutants, meteorological variables and atmospheric stability. The relationship between pollutants, their interaction with meteorological variables and atmospheric stability was determined through correlation analysis.
Minimum concentrations are observed between 0630hrs and 0730hrs and between 2030hrs and 2130hrs when highest concentrations are observed. During the early daylight and evening hours, pollutant concentration rises mainly due to the increase in traffic and acts as catalyst in the breakdown of O3. At midday (between 1300hrs and 1400hrs) maximum ozone concentrations are observed whereas CO depicts low level concentrations .During this period the atmosphere experienced a lot of conversion due to the thermal heating. Changes in day to day weather, is seen as a factor affecting the diurnal variation of indoor CO and O3 as weather determines how quickly pollutants are dispersed away from an area.

E. M, K.C C. "Towards effective SMS model for disseminating healthcare information .". In: 3rd National M/E Best Practice Conference. Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi; 2016.
W MRWAMBUAABRAHAM. ""Towards Effective Utilisation of Religion in the Battle Against STD's and HIV/AIDS".". In: Published in the proceedings of the Third Inter Faculty Collaboration Programme Conference on Health and Behaviur, held a Garden Hotel, Machakos. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1996. Abstract
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Irandu EM(2008). "Towards Efficient Management of Public Transportation in the City of Nairobi through Application of Intelligent Transport Systems." JOURNAL OF WORLD REVIEW OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH. 2008;Vol.2, No.1: 72-83.
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Towards english-swahili machine translation." Research Workshop of the Israel Science Foundation. 2011. AbstractFull Text

Even though the Bantu language of Swahili is spoken by more than fifty million people in
East and Central Africa, it is surprisingly resource-scarce from a language technological
point of view, an unfortunate situation that holds for most, if not all languages on the
continent. The increasing amount of digitally available, vernacular data has prompted
researchers to investigate the applicability of corpus-based approaches to African language
technology. In this vein, the SAWA corpus project attempts to collect and deploy a parallel

Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Muhoro H. "Towards entrepreneurial universities through marketing and entrepreneurship: A comparative study of selected public and private universities in Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management. 2019;10(36):189-203.
Muigua, K. and Kariuki F. "Towards Environmental Justice in Kenya." Journal of Conflict Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;1(1).towards_environmental_justice_in_kenya_kariuki_muigua__francis_kariuki.pdf
N MUTHAMAJOHN. "Towards estimating Ultraviolet Radiation using Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer." J. Afric.Met.Soc.. 2003;6(1):43-49. AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Mwisukha. A, Gitonga E, P.M. W. "Towards gender equality in sports." Insights into the underrepresentation of women in sports leadership in Kenya. 2011;2(1).
MOCHACHE DRJASONMOSOMI. "Towards Gender Sensitive Urban and Regional Planning Strategies, Paper presented at the Seminar Effects of Structural Adjustment Policies on Women in Kenya, Outspan, Nyeri, March 1992. Forthcoming in the African Urban Quarterly Journal, University of Nair.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 1983. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Towards Greater Access to Justice in Environmental Disputes in Kenya: Opportunities for Intervention, Submitted on request to the Indian Journal of Environmental Law.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2004. Abstracttowards_greater_access_to_justice.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Towards Improvement of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting Through Model Output Statistics (Mos) Downscaling of Echam Forecasts Over Tanzania.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; 2008. Abstract
Many economic activities such as agriculture and hydroelectric power generation are dependent on the availability of water. The main source of water in Tanzania is rainfall. The seasonal rainfall over Tanzania is highly variable both in time and space. Hence there is need for a forecasting model. The main objective of the study was towards improvement of seasonal rainfall forecasting through model output statistics (MOS) down scaling of the ECHAM forecast over Tanzania. ECHAM is a numerical weather prediction model developed at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, that has a comprehensive parameterization package developed at Hamburg. The data used in the study consists of monthly rainfall for 15 stations over Tanzania and wind and rainfall output from ECHAM for the period 1971-2004. The observed data was first subjected to quality control to ensure that it was homogenous and consistent. The ECHAM was forced with observed sea surface temperature. The analysis of the results indicated that the model was capable of simulating the observed climatological circulation and the annual rainfall pattern over Tanzanian. The skill of simulation was highest during the October to December (OND) rainfall season where the model explained as high as 74% of the variance at some locations while during March to May (MAM) the variance explained over most locations was less than 40%. This result was consistent with the previous studies that have shown high (low) correlation between the OND (MAM) rainfall and the SST. Moreover, the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are observed to be stronger during the OND season. The results from the study showed that the use MOS for down scaling improves the simulation skill.
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
Abate A;, Wanyoike MM;, Badamana MS;, Abate AN. Towards Improving Animal Production In The Rangelands..; 1989.Website
Riechi ARO. Towards improving Kenya's primary education: suggested policy interventions. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research; 2006. Abstract
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Njoka E, Riechi A, Obero C, Kemunto W, Muraya D. "Towards Inclusive and Equitable Basic Education System: Kenya’s experience." ADEA Working Document. 2011. Abstract
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K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "Towards indegenizing policy debate, IPAR workshop report.". In: Institute of Policy Analysis and Research/Action Aid, 1997 with Alois B. Ayako. uon press; 1997. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate", A Chapter in Ng'ethe (Editor). From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract
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G WG. "Towards indigenized social work education and practice in East Africa: The missing links.". In: Joint World Conference on Social Work, Education and Social Development 2014. Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, Melbourne ; 2014.
Michieka RW, Othieno H, Ruigu G, Said AN. "Towards intensive food production in Kakamega and Kiambu districts [of Kenya]: field survey results. Intensive food production and utilization project.". 1987. Abstract

A report giving the findings of a survey on food production systems conducted in Kiambu and Kakamega districts of Kenya. Looks into four principal areas such as crop and livestock production, socio-economic aspects and the adaptation of appropriate technology innovations. Gives some recommendations on the improvement of various aspects leading towards intensive food production in the two heavily populated districts.

Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Zhang X, Zhu H. "Towards intrinsic phonon transport in single-layer MoS2." Annalen der Physik. 2016;528:504-511. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Zhang X, Zhu H. "Towards intrinsic phonon transport in single-layer MoS2: the diffusive limit of thermal conductivity." arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.03435. 2015. Abstract
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Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. "Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model.". In: LADM 2013: 5th FIG International Land Administration Domain Model Workshop. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2013.
Siriba DN, Mwenda JN. Towards Kenya’s Profile of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG); 2013.
Nganga W. "Towards Machine Translation of African Languages: Requirements, Challenges and Achievements.". In: Proceedings of the 24th West African Linguistics Conference.; 2004. Abstract
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Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Mwalichi IJ, Owuor OA. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting. 2018;6(1). AbstractOMICS International

In order to map suitable areas for weather modification in East Africa Community (EAC), investigations were performed to determine spatio-temporal variability and relationship of aerosol, clouds and precipitation during March- April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) were used. Identification of near homogeneous zones of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Cloud Top and 3B42 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) yielded 13 (14), 20 (18), 11 (10) and 16 (17) significant Principal Components (PCs) for MAM (OND) with explained variance greater than 57%. Aerosols and clouds had positive relationship with precipitation in areas with strong factor loadings. MRA indicated independence of variables used and normality in the model residuals. Backward trajectory analysis indicated differences in origins of transported particles in the atmosphere with strong vertical mixing inlands with mixed aerosols resulting due to mountain blocking systems accounted for enhanced rainfall. Enhanced rainfall was attributed to highly varied AOD and unaffected FMF in the atmosphere. Locations east and west EAC with mean temperatures greater than -10°C were unsuitable for cloud seeding while central EAC region along the great rift-valley and coastal Tanzania exhibited optimal temperatures suitable for cloud seeding. Successful precipitation enhancement will increase available fresh water sources and thus alleviate existing and projected water stress.

Ngaina J.N., Muthama N.J., Ininda, J., Opere AO. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." J Climatol Weather Forecasting . 2018;6:1 DOI: 10.4172/2332-2594.1000217; https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-379-37-2018.
Oucho JO. "Towards Migration Research Networking in Eastern and Southern African Sub-regions." International Migration. 1993;XXXI(4):625-645.
Ongaro J. Towards Plane Hurwitz Numbers, Licentiate Thesis in Mathematics at Stockholm University. Stockholm University, Department of mathematics; 2014. Abstract

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Ndurumo MM. "Towards Policy Formulation for Academic Excellence in Deaf Education.". African Annals of the Deaf (Online Journal. ISSN 1996-0905); 2008. Abstract
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Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Ininda JM, Oprere AO, Mutai BK. "Towards precipitation enhancement through cloud seeding in Kenya." Global Meteorology. 2014;3(4986).
Ngaina J, Muthama N, Ininda J, Opere A, Mutai B. "Towards precipitation enhancement through cloud seeding in Kenya." Global Meteorology. 2014;3:7-13. Abstract

The study investigated potential of enhancing precipitation through cloud seeding during October-November-December (OND) season. Rainfall, cloud top temperature (CTT), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and wind data were used. Short-Cut Bartlett correlation, composite wind and time series analysis, and HYSPLIT backward trajectory analysis were used to achieve
the objectives of study. Precipitation showed decreasing patterns with peaks between pentad 65 and 68. Delineated dry years (18) exceeded wet years (9). Low level winds were predominantly north-easterly during dry years characterized by continental trajectory. AOD values increased in all stations during dry year with aerosol load being higher in areas characterized by depressed rainfall. Pollutants suspended 1000 above mean sea level (AMSL) originated from Arabian and India subcontinent and pollutants suspended below 1000 AMSL were predominantly south easterly during wet years originated from Western Indian Ocean and characterized by maritime trajectory. Mean CTT during dry/wet years were positve over coastal areas while central, Rift-valley and Lake Victoria basin
showed negative values, indicating presence of seedable conditions and thus potential cloud seeding to enhance rainfall and alleviate existing water stress.

Ngaina J, Muthama N, Ininda J, Opere A, Mutai B. "Towards Precipitation Enhancement through Cloud Seeding in Kenya." Global Meteorology. 2015;3(1):7-13. Abstracttowards_precipitation_enhancement_through_cloud_seeding_in_kenya.pdfGlobal Meteorology

The study investigated potential of enhancing precipitation through cloud seeding during October-November-December (OND) season. Rainfall, cloud top temperature (CTT), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and wind data were used. Short-Cut Bartlett correlation, composite wind and time series analysis, and HYSPLIT backward trajectory analysis were used to achieve the objectives of study. Precipitation showed decreasing patterns with peaks between pentad 65 and 68. Delineated dry years (18) exceeded wet years (9). Low level winds were predominantly north-easterly during dry years characterized by continental trajectory. AOD values iincreased in all stations during dry year with aerosol load being higher in areas characterized by depressed rainfall. Pollutants suspended 1000 above mean sea level (AMSL) originated from Arabian and India subcontinent and pollutants suspended below 1000 AMSL were predominantly south easterly during wet years originated from Western Indian Ocean and characterized by maritime trajectory. Mean CTT during dry/wet years were positve over coastal areas while central, Rift-valley and Lake Victoria basin showed negative values, indicating presence of seedable conditions and thus potential cloud seeding to enhance rainfall and alleviate existing water stress.

Otieno-Omutoko L, Ndunge K, Macharia P. "Towards Quality Assurance in Higher Education – Management Digest." Journal of Management University of Africa, Management University of Africa. Nairobi. 2012;4:110-118.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Sanja L, Mbuthia E. "Towards Re -defining the Institution of Marriage: New Historicism Approach to Kiswahili Prose." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science. 2014;2(7):115-123.
Ekaya WN. "Towards Realistic Mitigation.".; 2003.
Iribemwangi, Sanja M. "Towards Redefining the Institution of Marriage; The New Historicism Approach of Kiswahili ." International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science.. 2014;Volume 2 number 7. 2014:115-123 .
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Kong'ani LNS. "Towards Replacing Kerosene with Bioethanol in Developing Countries: A Review.". In: Conference on the Status of African Women. University of Nairobi; 2019.
Kiptoo. Towards road traffic information system using multi-agents. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Adeyinka K Akanbi MM. Towards semantic integration of heterogeneous sensor data with indigenous knowledge for drought forecasting. Vancouver, BC, Canada : ICM; 2015. Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, various heterogeneous ubiquitous devices would be able to connect and communicate with each other seamlessly, irrespective of the domain. Semantic representation of data through detailed standardized annotation has shown to improve the integration of the interconnected heterogeneous devices. However, the semantic representation of these heterogeneous data sources for environmental monitoring systems is not yet well supported. To achieve the maximum benefits of IoT for drought forecasting, a dedicated semantic middleware solution is required. This research proposes a middleware that semantically represents and integrates heterogeneous data sources with indigenous knowledge based on a unified ontology for an accurate IoT-based drought early warning system (DEWS).

Kinyanjui Sarah, Akech M. "Towards Structured Sentencing in Kenya: A Case for Reform’." African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies . 2016;9(1).
Titus A, Nicholas G, Penn L, Callistus O. "Towards sustainable gamebird management by rural communities in Laikipia, Kenya: a guineafowl case study." Discovery and Innovation. 2008;20:155-161. Abstract
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MO O. "Towards Sustainable Shelter Provision Strategies for Africa: Kenyan Experience." International Refereed Scientific Journal Discovery and Innovation. 2005;17(1/2).
Odada EO, Abuodha P, Nyanja J, Omuombo CA. Towards sustainable tourism along the kenyan coast. Yantai, China: LOICZ; 2011.
Mwinzi DJM. "Towards the Africanization of Teacher Education: A Critical Reflection.". In: Kenya Scholars and Studies Association- KESSA-Multimedia University Joint International and Inter Disciplinary Conference. Nairobi; 2016.
Mwega FM. "Towards the Convertibility of the Kenya Shilling.". In: ADB, African Development Report, 1995 - 6.; 1995.
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Towards the Definition of a British Colonial Labour Policy, Makerere Historical.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Dillon R. "Towards the definition of a framework and grammar for game analysis and design.". 2014. Abstractfull text link

The present paper defines an original approach to game analysis and design able to
characterize a given game in a simple, yet efficient, way. Inspired by models widely used
across the gaming industry, the proposed framework named AGE is built by defining and
layering different concepts: core player Actions, resulting Game-play and emotional
Experience of players. These are all linked to each other by the game's own rules and goals
to form a cohesive unit that can help in exposing the inner workings of any game. The …

Otieno I, Omwenga EI. "Towards the Development of a Citizen-Centric Framework for Evaluating the Impact of E-government: A Case Study of Developing Countries." Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences. 2016;7(3):147-153. Abstractjournal_vol7no3_4_citizencentricframework_io_eio.pdfJournal website

E-government has emerged as one of the innovative ways of providing information and delivering services to citizens. It is providing governments with new opportunities of bringing services closer to the citizen in cost-effective, efficient and transparent ways. In spite of the implementation of e-government, there is little research that has been conducted in the context of developing countries to benchmark and appraise the impact of e-government on the target groups. Assessment of impact is important to justify public fund expenditure and inform future projects. Most studies on assessment of e-government have been done in developed countries where the context is different from that of developing countries. Therefore, there is need to develop frameworks that are suitable in the context of developing countries.Studies on assessing impact have been done at macro, meso and micro levels. These studies are largely based on supply-side and a few on demand-sides with little focus on outcomes and impact. In this paper, we perform an analysis of various proposed e-government assessment frameworks with the aim of identifying and recommending the adoption of a framework that is suitable in the context of a developing country. We propose the adoption of a hybrid framework that amalgamates the frameworks proposed earlier due to their contextual suitability and citizen-centric approach. This is an exploratory study that lays foundation for further research in the development of an appropriate framework using the proposed approach.
Keywords: E-government, impact, evaluation, developing countries, citizen-centric

Gichuru EK;, Combes MC;, Mutitu EW;, Ngugi ECK;, Omondi CO;, Bertrand B;, Lashermes P. Towards the development of sequence based markers for resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae).; 2009. AbstractWebsite

Coffee Berry Disease which affects green Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) berries is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum kahawae and is a major problem in Arabica coffee production in African countries. Breeding for resistance to this disease is therefore to a major priority in these countries avoid intensive chemical usage for its control. Recently, microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) markers for a gene conferring resistance to the disease were identified and mapped onto the chromosomal region carrying the gene. To improve the repeatability of the AFLP markers, four of the marker bands were selected for cloning and sequencing to facilitate specific primers to be designed. Three of the resultant primers did not amplify products that exhibited polymorphism characteristic of the parent AFLP bands; but one primer pair amplified a product that dominantly identified the presence of the parent AFLP marker at an optimum temperature of 62°C followed by electrophoresis in agarose. The reliability of the designed primers was confirmed by analysis in 95 plants from a F2 population previously used to map the chromosomal fragment carrying the resistance. The importance of the results in enhancing the utility of the parent AFLP marker in relation to analytical costs and position on the chromosomal fragment is discussed.

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Towards the Establishment of the Global Networking in African Studies: Modalities and Support for Strengthening Institutional Linkages - African Perspective, Paper presented at the International Symposium on Global Mobilisation of Intellectual Resources f.". In: Reflections on Management of Drainage Basins in Africa, IDS Occasional Paper No.51. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
MR. WILSON-GITAU. "Towards the stabilization of price and income from agricultural products.". In: Weather Risks and Actuarial Valuation workshop. SPS Boardroom, Chiromo Campus, Nairobi, Kenya: International Journal of Climatology; 2003.
Mwaura F. Towards Total Ecosystems Management in Kenyan Watersheds. Some Opportunities in the small man-made reservoir approach. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Conservation and Management of Lakes, November 11-16.; 2001. Abstract

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion

JAMES PROFODEK. "Towards TRIPS Compliance: Kenya's Legislative Reforms, in Trading in Knowledge-Development Perspectives on TRIPS, Trade and Sustainability in Christophe Bellman, Graham Dutfield and Ricardo Melendez-Ortiz (eds) Earthscan Publications, London 2003 at pg. 2.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2003. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
OLEWE PROFNYUNYA. "Towards Understading U.S. - African Relaitons During the Cold War Era: From Indendepence to the End of the Cold War.". In: New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, New Delhi. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1995. Abstract
East African Publishers, Ltd.
Muthama NJ, Githaiga. J. "Towards using seasonal rainfall forecasts for the 2005 management of human wildlife conflicts in Kenya." International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 2004;15(1 & 2):36-45.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Towett PK, Kanui Stimulation of mu and delta opioid receptors induces hyperalgesia while stimulation of kappa receptors induces antinociception in the hot plate test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). Brain Res Bull. 2006 Dec 11;71(1-3):60-8. .". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S43-7. UN-HABITAT; 2006. Abstract
The antinociceptive effects of highly selective mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE) and kappa (U-50488 and U-69593) opioid agonists were evaluated following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in the naked mole-rat. A hot plate test set at 60 degrees C was used as a nociceptive test and the latency to the stamping of the right hind paw (response latency) was used as the end-point. DAMGO (5-10 mg/kg) and DPDPE (2.5-5 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant decrease in the mean response latency. Subcutaneous injection of naloxonazine (20 mg/kg) 24h prior to the administration of DAMGO (5 mg/kg) also blocked the reduction in the response latency observed when DAMGO was injected alone. On the contrary, U-50488 (2.5-5 mg/kg) or U-69593 (0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg) caused a naloxone-reversible significant increase in the mean response latency. These results showed that activation of mu or delta receptors caused hyperalgesia, whereas activation of kappa receptors caused antinociception in the hot plate test in naked mole-rat. This suggests that mu and delta receptors modulate thermal pain in a different way than kappa receptors in the naked mole-rat. It is not possible at the moment to point out how they modulate thermal pain as little is known about the neuropharmacology of the naked mole-rat.
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS. "Towett, P.K. and Kanui, T.I. Effects of pethidine acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin on pain and behaviour in the naked mole-rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour 45 (1993) 153-159.". In: Winter Meeting of the Norwegian Physiological Society, 1993 P2 (Abs), Gulo. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Towett, P.K., Kanui, T.I. Hyperlgesia following administration of morphine and pethidine (Tachoryctes splendens). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and therapeutics 18 (1995) 68 .". In: Proceedings of a refresher course and annual scientific conference organized by Kenya Society of Anaesthesiologists, World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and Society of Anaesthesiologists of East Africa 1996 IP (Abs). Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Marchiafava PL. "The toxic effect of light on retinal photoreceptors, its mechanism and the protection by endogenous indolamines." Archives Italiennes de Biologie. 2012;149:161-166. AbstractWebsite

Light absorption by the outer segment of retinal rod photoreceptors initiates visual sensory stimulation, but it may as well induce, once these cell segments are detached from the main cell body, a less well known but fatally toxic oxidative stress which we monitored by the use of the oxidation-sensitive probe Rhodamine 123. The molecular mechanism of the light induced oxidative damage is initiated by an intermediate of activated rhodopsin without requiring the presence of GTP-dependent proteins. Since no oxidative damage is produced when light is falling on outer segments as part of intact cells, we postulated the existence, within the photoreceptors inner segment of a molecular mechanism contrasting the toxic prerogative of light, thus protecting photoreceptors. It is known that photoreceptors synthesize indoleamines capable of antioxidant activity, and we investigated whether such endogenous substances would actually provide a protective role. This possibility was suggested by our earlier finding that the application of exogenous melatonin and its precursor N-acetyl serotonin effectively protected the photoreceptors outer segment from the light-induced damage. Subsequently, by either inhibiting or stimulating the synthesis of endogenous melatonin within rod receptor cells of adult Rana pipiens, we verify whether endogenous indoleamines could afford protection of the whole photoreceptor against the visible light-induced damage. It was found that by inhibiting melatonin production, a dose-dependent increase in oxidant generation and membrane damage was observed in intact rods. On the contrary, the stimulation of photoreceptor’ synthesis of melatonin almost completely abolishes the oxidative stress and damage induced by visible light. Conclusions: Our results provide the first direct evidence that endogenous indoleamines protect photoreceptors from oxidative stress and damage induced by visible light.

KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "TOXIC EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE IN RATS EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT FLUORIDE SOURCES.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1992. Abstract
{      Toxicological information on fluoride is obtained mainly from studies conducted in laboratory animals and rat is the species used most frequently. The objectives of this study were to identify some of the toxic effects which may occur in rats exposed to graded doses of fluoride in form of sodium fluoride and also from some of the commercial cattle salts known to contain high fluoride levels in Kenya. A total of 100 female wistar weaner rats were obtained and randomly divided into 10 groups namely, A (n=10), B (n=10), C (n=10), D (n=10), E (n=10), F (n=10), G (n=10), H (n=10), I (n=10), and J (n=10). Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were fed on 1, 5, 10, 30, 60, 80 mgF/L (or 0.087, 0.42, 0.823, 2.667, 5.45 and 7.804 mgF/Kg) sodium fluoride in de-ionised water, respectively. Group G, H, I and J were fed on 2 % Magadi salt solution, deionised water (control), 2 % commercial mineral salt solution and 2 % tea infusion, respectively. The dose levels were chosen on the basis of the fact that 1 and 5 mg/l represents low fluoride concentration, while 10 and 30 mg/l represents moderate level which may be toxic and 60 and 80 mg/l represents highly toxic levels of fluoride (Whitford, 1991). The oral route of administration was used on voluntary intake. Bodyweight,organ/bodyweight ratio, organ histopathology and clinical observations were made on each group of rats. Any deaths were recorded immediately. Faecal samples were collected.       There were no deaths observed from groups, A (0.087 mg/kg), B (0.042 mg/kg), C (0.823 mg/Kg), H (control), and J (2 % tea). Ten rats died from groups D
Mbaria JM. "Toxicants of Birds of Prey and Poultry. .". In: Workshop on Forensic Science and Welfare of Birds of Prey and the Interface with Poultry and Other industries. University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology.; 2013.
C.K M, et GAT, Kamau JA. "Toxicite D’ Adenia Vollensii (Kiliambiti). Identification et evaluation du principe toxique." Bulletin Des Epizooties in Afrique. 1974;XX(2):165-168.
and Emily Muema, Peter Kinyanjui JMJNSCJKNOAN. "Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study. ." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol 4(3) pp. 061-070 DOI: http//doi.irg/10.15580/GJEPH.2016/3/102116188. 2016.
Muema E, Mbaria J, Onkoba N, Chepkwony S, Kamau J, Nyachi A, Nguta J, Kinyanjui P. "Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health,. 2016;4(3) :061-070.
Muema E, Kinyanjui P, Mbaria J, Nguta J, Chepkwony S, Kamau J, Onkoba N, Nyachieo A. "Toxicity and Safety of Khat (Catha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) as experimental models: A Prospective Randomised Study." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health. 2016;4(3):61-70.
Maitai CK, Gondwe AT, Kamau JA. "Toxicity of Adenia volkensii (Kiliambiti)." Bull Epizoot Dis Afr. 1974;22(2):157-60.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.Gathumbi PK, Mwangi JW, Mugera GM, Njiro SM.Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.
Gathumbi PK, J.W. M, Mugera GM, Njiro SM. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem-bark in rats: Gross and histopathological lesions." Phytotherapy Research . 2001;15:1-4.
G WR, TA N, AN M. "Toxicity of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Surface Lipid To Skin and Regional Lymph ." Journal of Commonwealth Veterinary Association . 2008;24:5-9.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Toxicity of fentrifanil, selective acaricide, to the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli and its prey, Tetranychus desertorum. IV Conf. Pest Control NRC. Cairo: 855 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1978. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Toxicity of the orange peel and lemon grass oil to the spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis with effects on the development and reproduction. African J. Agric., 20: 95 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. 7. Amer, S. A. A., Abou-Awad, B. A. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1993. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Abou-awad, B. A, El-Banhawy EM. "Toxicity of the organophosphate, methamidophos and pyridaphenthion, the synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, and the systemic fungicide fenarimol to the adult and egg stages of the datura mite, Eriophyes datura (Acari : Eriophyidae). Bull. Ent. Soc. Egypt,.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1985. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Maitai CK. "The toxicity of the plant Catha edulis in rats." Toxicon. 1977;15(4):363-6.
Kenana JK, Mbaria JM, Kaingu CK, Okumu PO. "Toxicological and Phytochemical Evaluation of Uvariodendron kirkii.". 2019;130:1487-1504.
Okoth S, Nyongesa B, Ayugi V, Kang’ethe E, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Toxigenic Potential of Aspergillus Species Occurring on Maize Kernels from Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Kenya." Toxin. 2012;(4):991-1007. Abstract

Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the L-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur.

NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli river water isolates.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene detection tests using the colony hybridization technique revealed that nine (22.5%) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin gene, seven(17.5%) to the heat labile(LT) toxin gene and two (5%) to both genes. Using the agar disk diffusion technique, eighty percent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty percent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.
K.W S, P.B G, M.N K, L.W K, J.N O. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli river water isolates.". 1998. Abstract

To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and to assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene production tests using the colony hybridisation technique revealed that nine (22.5 %) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin, seven (17.5 0/0) to the heat labile (L T) toxin and two (5 0/0) to both. Using the Agar Disk Diffusion technique, eighty per cent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty per cent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.

Simiyu KW, Gathura PB, Kyule MN, Ombui JN. "Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli river water isolates.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and to assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed. Results: None of the isolates could be specifically serotyped using the available antisera. Toxin gene production tests using the colony hybridisation technique revealed that nine (22.5 %) of the strains were positive for heat stable (ST) toxin, seven (17.5 0/0) to the heat labile (L T) toxin and two (5 0/0) to both. Using the Agar Disk Diffusion technique, eighty per cent of the strains were susceptible to all four antibiotics, while twenty per cent of the strains showed multiple resistance. None of the strains was resistant to all four antibiotics while no strain showed resistance to kanamycin. Conclusion: None of the E. coli isolates was serotypable and it was therefore not possible to determine whether serologically identical strains of ETEC were haboured by man or animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals. Toxin gene tests results showed that there is some risk of infection by diarrhoea causing ETEC to man and animals if they consume this water untreated and there is evidence to show resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, hence appropriate health measures should be adhered to.

Zhang H, Thekisoe OMM, Kyan H, Yamagishi J, Inoue N, Nishikawa Y, Zakimi S. "Toxoplasma gondii: Sensitive and rapid detection of infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.". 2009. Abstract

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method amplifies DNA with high specificity, sensitivity and rapidity. In this study, we used a conserved sequence in the 200- to 300-fold repetitive 529 bp gene of Toxoplasma gondii to design primers for LAMP test. Detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay with the primers is 1 pg/μL of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. Furthermore, LAMP and conventional PCR methods were applied for amplification of the T. gondii DNA extracted from the lymph nodes taken from pigs which were suspected to be Toxoplasma infection. As a result, 76.9% (70/91) and 85.7% (78/91) of the samples were positive on PCR and LAMP analyzes, respectively. Therefore, the LAMP has a potential to be applied as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool for detection of T. gondii infection from veterinary samples. This is the first study, which applies the LAMP method to diagnose Toxoplasma from veterinary samples.

Visendi P, Ng'ang'a W, Bulimo W, Bishop R, Ochanda J, de Villiers EP. "TparvaDB: a database to support Theileria parva vaccine development." Database. 2011;2011. AbstractWebsite

We describe the development of TparvaDB, a comprehensive resource to facilitate research towards development of an East Coast fever vaccine, by providing an integrated user-friendly database of all genome and related data currently available for Theileria parva. TparvaDB is based on the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) platform. It contains a complete reference genome sequence, Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) expression tag data and related information from both public and private repositories. The Artemis annotation workbench provides online annotation functionality. TparvaDB represents a resource that will underpin and promote ongoing East Coast fever vaccine development and biological research.Database URL: http://tparvadb.ilri.cgiar.org

Bulimo W, P V, ' N{'}ang, W B, R B, J O, de EP V. "TparvaDB: a database to support Theileria parva vaccine development.". 2011. AbstractWebsite
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J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "Trace element analyses of pollen bee tissue and honey by total reflection and radioisotope exciled x-ray fluorescence spectrometr.". In: Journal Of Trace Microprobe Techniques 18(2). 303 . University of Nairobi.; 2000.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Trace Element Analysis by Sliding Spark Spectrometry.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
MANGALA MJ, Korir KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Trace element analysis of mineral and tap water samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). osti.gov; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Results of trace element analysis by TXRF of tap water and various brands of bottled mineral water samples which are representative of local and imported brands sold in Nairobi are reported. The variation in elemental concentrations in water samples analyzed were as …

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: X-Ray Spectrometry, 34:118-123. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005.
Gatari M, Boman J, Maina D. "Trace element categorization of pollution sources in the equator town of Nanyuki, Kenya." X‐Ray Spectrometry: An …. 2005. AbstractWebsite

An air pollution campaign was carried out in the town of Nanyuki at four different sites during July and August 1999. Nanyuki is situated on the equator on the northwestern slope of Mount Kenya at about 1930 m above sea level. The intention of the project was to …

David M. Maina, Lydia W. Njenga, John M. Onyari, Kyalo BN. "Trace Element Concentrations in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Selected Parts of Eastern Province of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2012;3.

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