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Mweseli M. "Teaching of Poetry.". In: Teaching of Poetry. Lodwar High School; 2005.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Teaching of Political Economy in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the Conference on the Teaching of Political Science in east Africa, Arusha, Tanzania January.; 1990. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. College Reading Association Year Book; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper introduces teacher educators to online literacy instruction and shares insights on course development by describing the process of developing on-line literacy courses using WebCT. Lessons learned are shared including how to develop an online community, how to decide what content can be in online courses, lessons learned related to logistics, and how to manage the time needed for online instruction. This paper is designed for those new to online instruction or who are just considering this format.
Inyega J. Teaching online courses: Lessons learned. College Reading Association Yearbook; 2007.
NASIMIYUH INYEGAHELLEN. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". 2013.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2.; 2007. Abstract1745-6215-11-932.pdf

Abstract Background: Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design: A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion: Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the practical issues encountered in conducting research in schools in Africa. Trial Registration: National Institutes of Health NCT00878007

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Teaching Oral Literature in Conditions of Theoretical Pluralism."In Reflections on Theories and Methods in Oral Literature. Eds. Okoth Okombo and Jane Nandwa. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
"Gunga SO", "Nzuki PK". "Teaching Practice Benchmarking Methodology: The Way to Teacher Education Professionalism in Kenya.". In: Teaching Practice Symposium. Tangaza College, Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Benchmarking in Teaching Practice (TP) is the process of identification of "best practice" in relation to quality of teachers produced. It involves assessment of the processes by which teachers are trained and posted to various institutions for Internship. The objective of benchmarking in TP is to understand and evaluate the current position of the organization of teacher education process in relation to "best practice", and to identify areas and possible means of performance improvement.
The purpose of this paper was to assess how Kenyan teacher education institutions in general and university of Nairobi in particular could position themselves compared to teacher education institutions globally, in the professional management of TP. The paper proposes a benchmarking methodology which the authors believe will be appropriate for professional teaching attachment and to which the various teacher education institutions in Kenya could adhere.
Key words:
Benchmarking, professionalism, Cooperating Teachers, supervision, placement

and Gatumu J.C., Inyega J.O. IHN. "Teaching Practice Experience: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." the Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2013;(ISSN 2079-3383).
Gatumu JC, Inyega JO, Inyega HN. "Teaching practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video cases in Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30. Abstract

Decline in quality education has become one of the major challenges facing the education sector as the Government tries to widen access to basic education. To address these challenges, the major thrust has been to develop feasible policies, objectives, strategies, programs and activities to guide the development of the sector. For instance, the strategies proposed by MPET for primary education included increasing access and participation as well as raising relevance and quality. However, the quality of education can not be improved without improving the teacher. Consequently, many primary school teachers went back to school and enrolled in degree courses at universities. This paper discusses the attempt to assess the extent to which the teacher who enrolled in the B.Ed. program of the University of Nairobi have been able to expand their knowledge and pedagogical skills in different subjects. Can these teachers contribute to improved efficiency and effectiveness with respect to the provision and delivery of education? In what ways have they contributed to increased in education at the primary level?

N. IH. "Teaching Practice experiences: Invaluable insights from video-cases in Kenya." The Fountain: Journal of Educational Research. 2011;V(1):11-30.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Teaching Practice in Kenya, Educational Research and Publications, 2002.". In: Educational Research and Publications, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Students Handbook. University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139.". In: University of Nairobi Press: Nairobi ,1990 pp. 139. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Teaching Practice: Theoretical Basis Models and Issues. Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa .". In: Proceedings of University of Nairobi Staff Development Workshop held at Diani Beach Hotel, Mombasa . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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O.O. DIGOLO. TEACHING PRACTICE: THEORY AND PRACTICE. NAIROBI: AFROVISION PUBLISHER; 2013.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Teaching the Law of Immovable Property: a personal assessment"; paper for the Faculty of Law, Staff Seminar Service University of Nairobi, Main Campus.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
N MJ. "Teaching Through Pictures in Theological Education by Extension Resources.". In: A Manual for Writers and Designers of Theological Education and Extension (TEE) Study Materials, The Writers Walking Stick,. Harare: Conference of African Theological Institutions; 1997.
Muasya, Juliet N. "Team work: My Experiences from St. Ann Jumuyia." Life After Sunday. 2019;1(5):22.
Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Mulei CM. "Teat lesions and their relationship to intramammary infections on small-scale dairy farms in Kiambu district in Kenya.". 1999. Abstract

Mammary gland quarters of 139 lactating dairy cows from small-scale dairy herds were examined visually and by palpation for teat lesions and by California mastitis test (CMT) and bacterial culture for subclinical mastitis. Teat lesions were observed in 97 teats. These included teat chaps (39.2%), teat papillomas (23.7%), teat erosions (22.7%), teat fistulae (5.1%), inverted teats (5.1%) and blocked teats (4.2%). According to the CMT, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 33.4% in all the mammary gland quarters, 71.0% in quarters with teat lesions and 24.5% in quarters without teat lesions. There was a significant (P < 0.01) association between teat lesions and the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The mammary gland quarters with teat lesions were 7.2 times more likely to have a positive CMT (P < 0.01) and 5.6 times more likely to have bacterial organisms (P < 0.01) isolated from them than those without any teat lesions. The bacterial organisms most frequently isolated from the CMT-positive milk samples from both the mammary gland quarters with teat lesions and those without teat lesions were Staphylococcus aureus (50.0%), Streptococcus spp. (34.8%) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (6.2%).

Kibui AW. TEC 108: Health and Safety for Preshcools. NAIROBI: Centre for Distance and Open Learning; 2012.
KINYUA GLADYSWANJIRU. TEC 204: Art and Craft for Early Childhood Education. NAIROBI: CENTRE FOR OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ; 2013.
Ritho CN, Mutoko MC, Benhin JKA, Mbatia OLE. "Technical and allocative efficiency gain form integrated soil management in maize farming system in Kenya." ournal of development and Economics. 2015;(7)4:143-152 .
Otieno, David J, Hubbard L, Ruto E. "Technical efficiency and technology gaps in beef cattle production systems in Kenya:A stochastic metafrontier analysis.". 2011. Abstract

In this study the stochastic metafrontier method is used to investigate technical efficiency and technology gaps across three main beef cattle production systems in Kenya. Results show that there is significant inefficiency in nomadic and agro-pastoral systems. Further, in contrast with ranches,these two systems were found to have lower technology gap ratios. The average pooled technical efficiency was estimated to be 0.69, which suggests that there is considerable scope to improve beef production in Kenya.

Wambugu A, Githuku SN. "Technical Efficiency in Kenya’s Sugar Production: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study measured technical efficiency overtime and explored sources of technical inefficiency of sugar mills in Kenya. A time varying translog stochastic production frontier was simultaneously estimated with inefficiency effects model based on panel data. The mean technical efficiency level of the five sugar factories was found to be 79.83%. This suggests that factories on average were 20.17% off the fully efficient frontier. The results also suggest that decreasing returns to scale (0.23) prevailed in the sugar processing industry. In addition, technical change was driving the sugar factories off the frontier at an annual rate of 1.25%. Finally, the results suggest that capital-labour ratio, market share, sucrose content in sugarcane delivered and factory age had significant impact on technical inefficiency of the sugar factories.

Irungu P, Wambugu A, Githuku SN. "Technical Efficiency in Kenya’s Sugar Production: a Stochastic Frontier Approach.". 2009. Abstract

This study measured technical efficiency overtime and explored sources of technical inefficiency of sugar mills in Kenya. A time varying translog stochastic production frontier was simultaneously estimated with inefficiency effects model based on panel data. The mean technical efficiency level of the five sugar factories was found to be 79.83%. This suggests that factories on average were 20.17% off the fully efficient frontier. The results also suggest that decreasing returns to scale (0.23) prevailed in the sugar processing industry. In addition, technical change was driving the sugar factories off the frontier at an annual rate of 1.25%. Finally, the results suggest that capital-labour ratio, market share, sucrose content in sugarcane delivered and factory age had significant impact on technical inefficiency of the sugar factories.

Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

Budjorova E, Mulwa, M R. "Technical Efficiency of Cotton Production in Uzbekistan.". In: In (Knierim, A., Nagel, U. J. and C. Shaefer Eds.), Managing Economic, Social and Biological Transformations: Proceedings of the First Green Week Scientific Conference. Margraf Publishers. ISBN 978-3-8236-1499-9: Pp 116-121.; 2007.
ODHIAMBO JUDITHANYANGO. "Technical Efficiency of Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2012.
Masu SM. "Technical evaluation process and challenges."; 2011. Abstract

Evaluation (Defined) This is the process by which the best evaluated tenderer is selected for award of a contract from among all the tenders received. It is done by the Evaluation Committee (otherwise known as the Technical Evaluation Committee) within a period of 30 (thirty) days after the opening of tenders. Where two separate committees (the Technical Evaluation Committee and the Financial Committee) are appointed, the technical evaluation shall be done within 30 days after the opening of Tenders and the Financial Evaluation shall be done within 5 days after the completion of the Technical Evaluation. The evaluation shall be done using the procedure and criteria set out in the tender documents. The committee is normally appointed by the chief executive of the procuring entity to carry out the Technical Evaluation.

Gitau A. N. Technical Manual - Nine-Seeded Hole Technique - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 6 4. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Agro Forestry Practices - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 1 9. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Certification of Organic Products - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 2 6. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Farmer Field School (FFS) Approach - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 4 0. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Groundnut Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 5 7. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau A. N. Technical Manual : Integrated Agriculture Systems - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 9 5. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
N. GA. Technical Manual : Organic Pineapple Production - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 7 1. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Gitau, A.N., K. N. Technical Manual : Soil and Water Conservation - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 8 8. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
"Technical Manual in Conservation Agriculture - ISBN: 978 9966 1533 0 2.". In: Conservation Agriculture. Nairobi: Sustainable Agriculture Information Initiative; 2010.
Field CB, Barros VR, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Opondo M, Poloczanska ES, Pörtner HO. "Technical summary Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment ….". 2014:35-94. Abstractpure.iiasa.ac.at

Human interference with the climate system is occurring. Climate change poses risks for human and natural systems. The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (WGII AR5) evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change and how risks can be reduced through mitigation and adaptation. It recognizes that risks of climate change will vary across regions and populations, through space and time, dependent on myriad factors including the extent of mitigation and adaptation.

Ndiritu JM. Technical trading support system (TTSS); A Stock Market Analyst Support System. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
K MRCHEPKONGAMIKE. "Technical Training and work experience in Kenya: A National Tracer Study of the leavers of Harambee Institutes of Technology and Youth Polytechnics.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
Varma S, Shartry AM. "A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves." Veterinary Record. 1980;106(a):127-128.
Varma S, Shartry AM. "A Technique for Partial Marsupialization of the Spleen in Calves." Veterinary Record. 1980;106:127-128. Abstract
n/a
Ngugi RW. ""Techniques, Methods and Procedures of Privatization" The context of Privatization in Kenya, edited by Professor Anyang Nyong'o.". The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001.
E. DROWAKAHFRANCIS. "Technocracy and Democracy: The Challenges to Development in Africa.". In: Thought & Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. Philosophical Association of Kenya/AJOL; 2009. Abstract
In this paper, we argue that the future of development in Africa lies in the shift from democracy in the conventional sense to technocracy, where the role of the expert is recognized and appreciated. We set out by presenting conceptualizations ofdemocracy and technocracy. Thereafter, we highlight the challenge posed by the demands of the information society to traditional concepts of democracy.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "The technological and functional properties of lactic microflora in fermentation of Mursik, a Nandi fermented milk product in Kenya. Submitted to the International Dairy Journal, Canada.". In: CTA Annual seminar on the . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Technological Change and Manufactured Exports.". In: Samuel Wangwe (ed.) Exporting Arica: technology and Industrial Development (United Nations Routledge, London. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
DHARMADHIKARY VM. "Technological_Curriculum & culture.". In: JSPM Pune. Kioko UM; 2008.
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, W A, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Mwang'ombe AW, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM, Francis J, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Clavel D, Verhagen J. "Technologie de réensemencement d'herbages graminacées comme moyen de réhabilitation des terres dégradées et d'amélioration des moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans la région semi-aride du Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

La dégradation du sol constitue un problème majeur dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique subsaharienne. La lutte contre cette dégradation du sol est capitale pour garantir une productivité durable et à long terme des terres semi-arides habitées. Le Cenchrus ciliaris (vulpin des prés africains), l'Enteropogon macrostachyus (seigle sauvage) et l'Eragrostis superba (Eragrostis Maasai) sont d'importantes graminées vivaces dans les zones semi-arides d'Afrique de l'Est. Une étude a été faite pour évaluer la contribution de ces herbages graminacées indigènes à l'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques du sol, la réhabilitation, la sécurité alimentaire et les moyens de subsistance des communautés agro-pastorales dans les districts semi-arides du Kenya. Les propriétés hydrologiques du sol ont été testées à l'aide d'un simulateur Kamphorst, à diverses hauteurs de chaume, pour donner une image de trois différentes intensités de pâturage (faible, moyenne, élevée). L'estimation de la couverture végétale s'est faite à l'aide de la méthode d'échantillonnage step-point. Une étude a également été réalisée dans 50 ménages agro-pastoraux pour évaluer les avantages multidimensionnels des herbages graminacées. La production de sédiments (comme fonction d'écoulement et capacité d'infiltration) était considérablement différente (P<0,05) à diverses hauteurs de chaume. Les estimations de la couverture végétale des herbages graminacées étaient également considérablement différentes (P<0,05). Le Cenchrus ciliaris avait le plus grand impact en matière d'amélioration des propriétés hydrologiques. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. L'Enteropogon macrostachyus avait la plus grande couverture. Le Cenchrus ciliaris et l'E. superba se classaient respectivement en deuxième et troisième positions. Ces résultats étaient dus à la croissance et aux caractères morphologiques des herbages graminacées. En général, une augmentation de la hauteur de chaume augmente la capacité d'infiltration et réduit l'écoulement et la formation de sédiments. Les résultats de l'enquête réalisée auprès des ménages révèlent que les herbages graminacées constituent une source de revenus par le biais de la vente de foin, de graines de graminacées et de lait, ce qui participe également d'un régime équilibré. Les herbages graminacées constituent également une source bon marché de matériel pour la confection de toitures de chaume et d'aliments pour le bétail. (Résumé d'auteur)

Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. ""Technology Acquisition for Sustainable Development in the South" paper presented at the Sumposium on Transfer of Technology for the sustainable Development of South, Mach 6th - 9th, Bad Ball, Stuttart, Germany.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1991.
Wanyoike MW. "Technology and Provision of Quality and Inclusive Education.". In: International Conference on “Uplifting the Poor”, Linkoping University and University of Nairobi February 15th -16th 2013. University of Nairobi; 2013.
Ikiara GK, Masai WS, Teitel S, Soifer R. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Masai WS, Ikiara GK, Soifer R, Teitel S. Technology and skills in Kenyan manufacturing:RPED Case Study Series.; 1994.Website
Meru AK, Ciambotti G, Ebong J, Kinoti MW, Mugendi-Kiarie RK. "Technology and Social Media in Customer Service.". In: Customer Service Management in Africa. Productivity Press; 2020. Abstract

The rapid transformation of technology in the business sector has brought unprecedented disruptions to traditional practices that relied heavily on human labour force. Technological advancement has made inroads in the entire supply chain with overwhelming ramifications on the firm-level customer interface. Over the years, the developed world and a few Asian countries have rapidly adopted multiple customer interfaces and integration to hasten provision of customer-centric information and services. Today, the same inroads are being witnessed in Africa, albeit at a slower pace. This is largely driven by rapid adoption of smartphones, artificial intelligence, cognitive computing and a myriad of other technologies. All the same, it is clearly emerging that, unlike the past technologies where African firms were deemed passive users, the trend is slowly changing the landscape and pointing to a slowly awakening continent.

Wasunna AE, Wyper DY. "Technology for health in the future.". 1998. Abstract

Developments in biogenetics, medical devices, information and communication technologies, and in environmental technologies will have a profound impact on health in the coming decades. However, there are major barriers to the appropriate and effective utilization of current and future technologies, particularly for developing countries. This paper intends to strike a balance between the exciting potential of technologies and the conditions that need to be fulfilled to ensure that technologies are utilized appropriately and effectively. It will emphasize the significance of knowledge associated with technologies, the importance of technology assessment and the need for a broad and comprehensive technology management policy.

Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Lelan JK, Ndurumo MM. "Technology in education of physically impaired children in inclusive settings.". The Management Digest: ISSN 2074-4730; 2011. Abstract
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Kinuthia BK. "Technology spillovers: Kenya and Malaysia Compared.". In: INSTITUTE OF RESEARCH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LIMITED (IRED).; 2015.
JOHN DRYABS. "Technology Transfer and Information Sector in Kenya. A Paper Jointly Prepared with P. Onserio for the IDRC. Seminar in Nairobi,.". In: Business Journal V, III No.7, Nairobi,. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1983. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developed World. Discovery and Innovation. Vol. 14 No. .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
W.O O. "Technology Transfer and the Innovative Process in Biomedical Sciences in the Developing World.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Technology transfer may be defined as the conveyance of either a man-made tangible or intangible know-how from those who posses it to those who do not. Although the technology transfer encompasses great a many different types of activities, the transfer process can be examined according to six major elements, namely, the transfer item, the technology donor, the technology recipient, the transfer mechanism, the rate of diffusion of technology and the absorptive capacity of the recipient. These are several ways in which technology can be transferred from donor to recipient. Some of these mechanisms include turnkey operations, the technological enclave, licensing, joint ventures, patents, in house transfers to foreign subsidiaries, SImple emulation of a product or a process, direct purchase of naked technology, embodied technology/technological services, education abroad, site-visits and on training, international co-operative research efforts, meetings and seminars. Scientists from the developing world are involved at various levels in the process of technology transfer. In the process of participating in all these activities the innovative process may come into play. Medical "technology" implies understanding of the equipment and paraphernalia of medicine and the art and skill in using it. The International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD) and Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Kenya Trypanosomiasis Institute (KETR!) amongst others have notably participated in the development of Bio-Medical technology at various levels. Contributions of various African Scientists in the development of techniques and methods of treatment and control of various diseases is outstanding and has been of great assistance to drug companies for the development of products. The output of Research and Development must be considered productive and may lead to development of new technologies or improvement or existing ones. Industries are the beneficiaries here as they produce products that are sold to final users, The patenting of such products or know-how should reflect the participation of third world Scientists. High level of technological awareness must therefore be created among researchers and scientists of the third world. A system that protects intellectual property rights that works must be created. Joint cooperative research projects between the third world scientists and scientist of the developed world should lead to the beginning of a breakthrough in the technological underdevelopment of these countries towards the year 2000 and beyond. While conferences, intensive seminars and workshops are to be encouraged even more, work well done must not end up in shelves as papers presented in high scientific conferences. Key words: Technology transfer, the innovative process, transfers item, technology donor, technology recipient. and technology diffusions

Djurfeldt AA, Dzanku FM, Isinika AC. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya.". In: Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2018.
Wambugu SK, Karugia JT, Oluoch-Kosura W. "Technology Use, Gender, and Impact of Non-Farm Income on Agricultural Investment: An Empirical Analysis of Maize Production in Two Regions of Kenya." Agriculture, Diversification, and Gender in Rural Africa: Longitudinal Perspectives from Six Countries. 2018;978-0-19-879928-3(ISBN):978-0-19-879928-3.
Kironchi G;, Mwang'ombe AW. Technology-Mediated Open and Distance Education (Tech-MODE) in Agricultural Education and Training in Kenya: Opportunities and Challenges.; 2008. Abstract

Open and distance learning (ODL) in Kenya, like in many other developing countries, is characterized by, and offered through, dual mode institutions. Most of these programmes are in humanities and social sciences. Currently, one private university is offering agricultural training at a distance using print medium. A few private organizations or NGOs carry out short duration informal agricultural capacity building programmes to farmer groups an d extension workers using technology- mediated open and distance education (Tech-MODE). The Government of Kenya placed emphasis on education and training in agriculture, because of the important role it plays in the country’s economy. Although great potential exists for the use of Tech-MOD E in agricultural sciences at primary, secondary, tertiary and informal levels in Kenya, its application still largely remains untapped. However, with the recent completion of the National ICT Policy (2006), the Ministry of Education, in consul tation with stakeholders, developed a comprehensive National ICT Strategy for education and training, with a view to guiding the implementation of informat ion and communication technology (ICT) initiatives in the education sector. This country report highlights the existing potential in Kenya that the project on Tech-MODE for agricultural education prop osed by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) could build on. It is suggested that consideration should be given to strengthening relations with the existing national, regional and international institutions and networks or programmes . Priority areas for training should be identified by all participating stakeholde rs for support in content development and institutional capacity building. This initiative offers opportunities for mu lti-institutional part nerships to prepare training content that would not only provid e locally relevant and practical knowledge, but also would be internationally recogniz ed. Tech-MODE for agricultural education would offer viable alternatives by lowering education costs, increasing professional retention and not taking trainees out of their professional roles and homes for extended periods. In addition, benefici aries would contribute to increased and sustainable agricultural production, develo pment in the country, poverty reduction and improved food security

Mulwa JK, Kimata F. "Tectonic structures across the East African Rift based on the source parameters of the 20 May 1990 M7.2 Sudan earthquake." Natural Hazards. 2014;73(2):493-506. AbstractWebsite

Earthquakes in Kenya are common along the Kenya Rift Valley due to the slow divergent movement of the rift and hydrothermal processes in the geothermal fields. This implies slow but continuous radiation of seismic energy which relieves stress in the subsurface rocks. On the contrary, the NW-SE trending rift/fault zones such as the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone and the Muglad-Anza-Lamu rift zone are the likely sites of major earthquakes in Kenya and the East African region. These rift/fault zones have been the sites of a number of strong earthquakes in the past such as the Mw = 7.2 southern Sudan earthquake of May 20, 1990 and aftershocks of Mw = 6.5 and 7.1 on May 24, 1990; the 1937 Ms = 6.1 earthquake north of Lake Turkana close to Kenya-Ethiopian border, and the 1913 Ms = 6.0 Turkana earthquake among others.

Source parameters of the May 20, 1990 southern Sudan earthquake shows that, this earthquake consists of only one event on a fault having strike, dip and rake of 315o/84o/-3o. The fault plane is characterized by left-lateral strike slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment Mo = 7.65 x 1019 Nm and moment magnitude, Mw = 7.19 (7.2). The fault rupture started 15 seconds earlier and lasted for 17seconds along a fault plane having dimensions of  60 km x 40 km. The average fault dislocation is 1.1 m and the stress drop, , is 1.63 MPa.

The distribution of historical earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5) from southern Sudan through central Kenya generally shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW-SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude Ml  4.0, except the 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ms = 6.9) in central Kenya. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters is consistent with the trend of Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further southwards into the Indian Ocean.

We therefore conclude that, the NW-SE trending rift/fault zones are sites of strong earthquakes likely to pose the greatest earthquake hazard in Kenya and the East African region in general.

Mulwa JK, Kimata F. "Tectonic structures across the East African Rift likely to pose the greatest earthquake hazard in Kenya.". In: 4th African Rift Geothermal Conference. UNEP (Gigiri), Kenya; 2012. Abstract

Over the last 5-10 years, there has been accelerated geothermal resources development for geothermal power generation in order to meet the country’s electricity demands and hence make Vision 2030 feasible. However, owing to the tectonic setting of Kenya, earthquakes are likely to pose a threat and subsequent challenge to attaining Vision 2030 despite the numerous efforts made by the power sector players.

Earthquakes in Kenya are common along the Kenya Rift Valley due to the slow divergent movement of the rift and hydrothermal processes within the geothermal fields. This implies slow but continuous radiation of seismic energy which relieves stress in the subsurface rocks. It is therefore unlikely that the Kenya rift poses significant earthquake hazard in Kenya.

On the contrary, the NW-SE trending rift/shear zones such as the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone and the Muglad-Anza-Lamu rift zone are the likely sites of major earthquakes in Kenya and the East African region. These rift zones have been the sites of a number of strong earthquakes in the past such as the Mw = 7.2 southern Sudan earthquake of May 20, 1990 and aftershocks of Mw = 6.5 and 7.1 on May 24, 1990; the 1937 Ms = 6.1 earthquake north of Lake Turkana close to Kenya-Ethiopian border, and the 1913 Ms = 6.0 Turkana earthquake among others.

We have attempted to determine the source parameters of the May 20, 1990 southern Sudan earthquake by inversion of teleseismic body-waves, and the implications of this earthquake on the seismotectonics of southern Sudan, as well as the central and southern parts of Kenya. The results of teleseismic body-waves inversion show that the best solution for the May 20, 1990 southern Sudan earthquake consists of only one event on a fault having strike, dip and rake of 315o/84o/-3o. The fault plane is characterized by left-lateral strike slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment Mo = 7.65 x 1019 Nm and moment magnitude, Mw = 7.12 (7.2). The fault rupture started 15 seconds earlier and lasted for a duration of 17 seconds along a fault plane having dimensions of length  60 km and width  40 km. The average dislocation along the fault is 1.1 m and the stress drop, , due to this earthquake is 1.63 Mpa.

The distribution of historical earthquakes from southern Sudan through central Kenya generally shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW-SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude Ml  4.0, except the 1928 Subukia earthquake (Ms = 6.9) in central Kenya. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters is consistent with the trend of Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further southwards into the Indian Ocean.

We therefore conclude that, the NW-SE trending rift/shear zones are sites of strong earthquakes likely to pose the greatest earthquake hazard in Kenya and the East African region in general.

OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "Tectono-Magmatic emplacement and Evolution of the Archaean greenstone Associations from western Kenya (Extended Abstract).". In: 16th International Colloquium of African Geology, Ezulwini, Swaziland) pp264-268. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 1993. Abstract
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KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Ted Groenewegen, R. Githige and J. Mugambi, Christian Religious Education Book 1, Nairobi: Longman.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

omoni DG. Teenage Motherhood in North Kisii District, Kenya. Plant PA, ed. Perth: Curtin University of Technology; 2005. Abstract

Teenage pregnancy affects millions of girls every year worldwide and is extremely common in Africa. Teenage pregnancy reflects a pattern f sexual activity which not only puts teenagers at risk of pregnancy but also of infection by the human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The subject of sexual behaviour is complex. It is an interplay of several factors - social, biological, economic and psychological.

Teenage pregnancy has been widely studied, but attention in relation to Africa has been largely limited to its prevalence. In particular, little work has been done on the consequences of teenage motherhood. The present study focuses on factors that pre-dispose a girl to teenage pregnancy, the effects of pregnancy on physical and mental health, and the socio-economic consequences of teenage motherhood.

The initial part of this study used qualitative research methodology. Focus group discussions were conducted with ten unmarried teenage mothers and a comparison group of ten teenage in-school girls aged between 10-19 years. Content analysis of the ensuring data was carried out to identify factors that predisposed teenage girls to unwanted pregnancy, and to determine the level of awareness about sexuality and sexually transmitted infections among teenage mothers and in-school teenage girls. The key themes that emerged as factors that predispose teenagers to unwanted pregnancy were: early sexual initiation, peer pressure, perception that other teenagers had sexual intercourse, knowledge deficit about their sexuality, sex-for-money, multiple partners, parental poverty, coerced sexual intercourse, and rape. Teenage mothers listed the following as consequences of their premature pregnancy: dropping out of school, abandonment or mistreatment by parents, desertion by their boyfriend, loss of friends, being scorned by relatives, contemplation of abortion, attempted abortion, depression, complications during or following delivery, sleep deprivation after delivery, and disillusionment about their future.

The second part of the study was a quantitative survey which aimed to compare the experiences of teenage mothers and in-school girls. Of major concern was depression among teenage mothers, an area that has received little attention in the literature. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) instrument was used to assess depression. There were 198 teenage mothers and 188 in-school girls who took part with their consent and/ of their parents. Analysis was by quantitative methods, including both bivariate statistical procedures and some multivariate methods.

Results show that of the teenage mothers, 65.2% had sexual intercourse before age 15, compared to 29.8% of the in-school girls. In the study, 12.1% of the teenage mothers and 3.5% of in-school girls suspected that they had ever had a sexually transmitted infection, while 6.1% of teenage mothers and 2% of in-school girls indicated that they had a confirmed and treated STI.

During pregnancy, abortion was contemplated by 25.3% of the teenage mothers. However, most of them were vague in their knowledge about available methods. About half of the teenage mothers (49.5%) in the study indicated having contemplated committing suicide, while only 17% of the in-school girls in the control group had contemplated committing suicide.

Teenage mothers were more depressed than in-school girls; the average depression score for teenage mothers being moderate to severe depression compared to mild to moderate for the in-school girls. The respondents who reported having consensual sex were examined along the three traits of early/non-early sexual initiation, multiple/single sexual partners, and sex-for-money. In each category, the teenage mothers were more significantly depressed than in-school girls, with the average depression scores being moderate to severe for teenage mothers and mild to moderate for the in-school girls in all the groups. For those who reported having coerced sex (those raped or teacher-seduced), there was no significant difference in the state of depression of the teenage mothers and the in-school girls - the average depression score being mild to moderate fort he raped, and teacher-seduced respectively.

The study explored the predictors of depression in teenage mothers, through multiple regression analysis. The models derived found the following four variables to be significant predictors: age at 1st sexual initiation, the teenage mother's own level of education, father's level of education, and whether the teenage mother had experienced rape.

In conclusion, this study suggests that being a teenage mother at such a young age is a difficult journey. The study adds to growing knowledge about depression among teenage mothers and suggests this is a significant problem which needs to be addressed. It is anticipated that health professionals, ministries such as the Ministry of Culture and Social Services and the Government of Kenya will use this knowledge to improve the services of its youth in general.

omoni DG. "Teenage mothers in Kenya: seduced, coerced and at risk of HIV." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2009;3(1):24-29. Abstract

Teenage mothers in Kenya: seduced, coerced and at risk of HIV
Grace M Omoni

African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, 16 Feb 2009, pp 24 - 29

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is affecting the sub-Saharan Africa more severely than other parts of the world, with 60% of global AIDS cases occurring in Africa. This article explores predisposing factors for teenage pregnancy which have implications for the spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs among adolescents in Kenya.

In a recent study in one district, four factors were found to be prominent in predisposing teenage pregnancy: having multiple partners, sex for money, seduction by teachers, and coercion by friends and relatives. In-depth interviews of a sub-group of the subjects revealed some issues that are of great concern in the context of the current efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Attention so far has been on creating awareness but risk behaviours in adolescents are common, with the attendant dangers of unintended pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other STIs. This article seeks to highlight some of the factors
that affect risky behaviours even in fully aware teenagers. It highlights a need for specific interventions beyond awareness creation.

R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Tekelye Bekele, E. Burns, O.B. Kasali and Mutiga, E.R. 1993. The effect of endoparasites on the reproductive performance of on-farm sheep in the Ethiopian highlands. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 63 (1) : 8-12.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1993. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
Ndungu MN. "Teknolojia ya Kompyuta na Ufundishaji wa Kiswahili.". In: CHAKITA: Kiswahili na Utandawazi. KICD; Submitted.
Maranga MM, Barasa VN, Muchiri J. "Television Theatre as an Alternative Peace and Conflict Intervention Tool in Contemporary Kenya: An analysis of Vioja Mahakamani." International Journal of Research and Scholarly Communication. 2018;1(3).
Otieno SPV, Ngei J. Tell Us The Truth. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2009.
Masumi OH. "Telling the Truth to Children to Create a Better Society." Canon Literature Media, 2010. 2010;(003).
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Ali FM, Ndinya-Achola J, Moses S, Plummer FA, Piot P.Rapid increase of both HIV-1 infection and syphilis among pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1992 Oct;6(10):1181-5.". In: AIDS. 1992 Oct;6(10):1181-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and syphilis antibodies in a population of pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1989 and 1991. METHODS: As part of an ongoing prospective study on the effect of HIV-1 infection and sexually transmitted diseases, 4883 pregnant women were screened for HIV-1 and syphilis antibodies in one health-centre in Nairobi. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence increased from 6.5 to 13.0% (P < 0.001) and syphilis seroreactivity from 2.9 to 5.3% (P = 0.002), while there was no change in gonococcal infection rates. The most rapid increase in HIV-1 prevalence was observed in women aged less than 25 years. There was no evidence of demographic fluctuations in the population during this time, or of changes in sexual behaviour, except that fewer women enrolled in 1991 reported having more than one sex partner, compared with women enrolled in 1989 (39.1 versus 20.0%; P = 0.0001). HIV-1-seropositive women were more likely to be seroreactive for syphilis than HIV-1-seronegative mothers (7.7 versus 3.2%; odds ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.8; P < 0.001), but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of gonorrhoea prevalence. CONCLUSION: These data confirm an association between HIV-1 and syphilis infection, and indicate that both are spreading rapidly among women in Nairobi outside high-risk groups. Increased efforts to control both infections are urgently required.

PIP: Between January 1989 and December 1991, health workers took blood samples from 4883 pregnant women attending the Nairobi City Commission's Langata Clinic in Nairobi, Kenya to determine demographic factors and indicators of sexual behavior to explain the increase in HIV-1 infection and syphilis among these women of low socioeconomic status. HIV-1 seroprevalence stood at 8.8%. Syphilis seroreactivity was 3.6%. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were 2.5 times more likely to also test positive for syphilis than were HIV-1 seronegative mothers (7.7% vs. 3.2%; p.001). There was no significant association between HIV-1 seropositivity and gonococcal infection rate (7.3% vs. 8.9%), however. Women who tested HIV-1 positive tended to be from western Kenya (60.1% vs. 39.1%; p.0001). Between 1989 and 1991, annual HIV-1 seroprevalence rates increased from 6.5% to 13% (p.001) as did annual syphilis seroreactivity rates (2.9-5.3%; p=.02). The HIV-1 seroprevalence rates remained high, but did not rise significantly among syphilis seroreactive women between 1989 and 1991 (17.9-20.7%). They did rise among syphilis seronegative women (6.9-12.5%; p.0001), however. The HIV-1 infection rate increase was greater among 25-year old women (5.6-13.2%; p.001) than it was among 25-year old women (6.8-12.7%; p=.09). Indeed the annual incidence rate for 25-year old women was 3-4%. Between 1989-1991, there was a decrease in the percentage of both HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women who had had 1 sex partner during the last 2 years (39.1% vs. 20%; p=.0001). Demographic factors remained the same throughout the study period. These results verified the link between HIV-1 infection and syphilis and their rapid rise among women in low risk groups. Thus there was a pressing need to improve HIV-1 and sexually transmitted disease prevention programs.

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501.". In: Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen HIV-1-seropositive women and 311 HIV-1-seronegative controls were followed until delivery. Seropositive women were younger at sexual debut and reported more lifetime partners and more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the seronegative controls. The seropositive women had higher rates of genital ulcer disease (4.7 versus 2.0%; P = .08), genital warts (4.9 versus 2.0%; P = .03), and positive syphilis serology (7.9 versus 3.2%; P < .001), but there were no differences between the groups in isolation rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6.8 versus 7.1%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5 versus 9.0%). Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with significantly lower birth weight (2913 versus 3072 g; P = .0003) and with prematurity (21.1 versus 9.4%; P < .0001), but not with small for gestational age size (4.2 versus 3.2%; P = .7). The stillbirth rate was higher in seropositive women, yet not statistically significant (3.8 versus 1.9%; P = .2). Women with a CD4 count lower than 30% had a higher risk of preterm delivery (26.3 versus 10.1%; P < .001). Postpartum endometritis was more common in HIV-1-infected women than in seronegative controls (10.3 versus 4.2%; P = .01) and was inversely correlated with the CD4 percentage. No histopathologic placental abnormalities attributable to HIV-1 were detected. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with prematurity and postpartum endometritis, but not with fetal growth retardation. There was a trend toward a higher stillbirth rate in HIV-1-seropositive mothers.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P.Maternal human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection and pregnancy outcome.Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501.". In: Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Apr;83(4):495-501. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 1991, 406 HIV-1-seropositive and 407 HIV-1-seronegative age- and parity-matched pregnant women from Nairobi, Kenya, all at less than 28 weeks' gestation, were recruited into a prospective study of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women and their offspring. Both groups were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Three hundred fifteen HIV-1-seropositive women and 311 HIV-1-seronegative controls were followed until delivery. Seropositive women were younger at sexual debut and reported more lifetime partners and more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than the seronegative controls. The seropositive women had higher rates of genital ulcer disease (4.7 versus 2.0%; P = .08), genital warts (4.9 versus 2.0%; P = .03), and positive syphilis serology (7.9 versus 3.2%; P < .001), but there were no differences between the groups in isolation rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (6.8 versus 7.1%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (11.5 versus 9.0%). Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with significantly lower birth weight (2913 versus 3072 g; P = .0003) and with prematurity (21.1 versus 9.4%; P < .0001), but not with small for gestational age size (4.2 versus 3.2%; P = .7). The stillbirth rate was higher in seropositive women, yet not statistically significant (3.8 versus 1.9%; P = .2). Women with a CD4 count lower than 30% had a higher risk of preterm delivery (26.3 versus 10.1%; P < .001). Postpartum endometritis was more common in HIV-1-infected women than in seronegative controls (10.3 versus 4.2%; P = .01) and was inversely correlated with the CD4 percentage. No histopathologic placental abnormalities attributable to HIV-1 were detected. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with prematurity and postpartum endometritis, but not with fetal growth retardation. There was a trend toward a higher stillbirth rate in HIV-1-seropositive mothers.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA, Coppens M, Piot P.Maternal human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection and pregnancy outcome. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994.". In: Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 83:(4): 495 - 501, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Chomba EN, Piot P.HIV-1 and reproductive health in Africa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1994 Feb;44(2):107-12. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 7911092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Fonck K, Bashir F, Inion I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Kirui P, Claeys P, Fransen L Declining syphilis prevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi since 1995: another Success story in the STD field?Int. jorn. STD and AIDS 10: 405-8, 1999.". In: STD and AIDS 10: 405-8, 1999. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
Untreated maternal syphilis during pregnancy will cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in more than 60% of the infected women. In Nairobi, Kenya, the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women of 2.9% in 1989, showed a rise to 6.5% in 1993, parallel to an increase of HIV-1 prevalence rates. Since the early 1990s, decentralized STD/HIV prevention and control programmes, including a specific syphilis control programme, were developed in the public health facilities of Nairobi. Since 1992 the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women has been monitored. This paper reports the findings of 81,311 pregnant women between 1994 and 1997. A total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996 and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. In conclusion, a marked decline in syphilis seroprevalence in pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96 (P<0.0001, Chi-square test for trend) in contrast to upward trends reported between 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. PIP: This study presents the trend in syphilis prevalence among 81,311 pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya, from 1994 to 1997. Clinic nurses performed syphilis serology using a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test in 10 NCC clinics and Chi square; these were used to study trends over time. Results showed that a total of 4244 women (5.3%) tested positive with prevalence rates of 7.2% (95% CI: 6.7-7.7) in 1994, 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7) in 1995, 4.5% (95% CI: 4.3-4.8) in 1996, and 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6-4.0) in 1997. Thus, a significant decrease in syphilis seroprevalence among pregnant women in Nairobi was observed since 1995-96, by contrast with the rising trend in syphilis prevalence reported in 1990 and 1994-95 in the same population. This decline was attributable in large part to the syphilis control program initiated in Nairobi in June 1992, which focused on sexual behavior modifications, changes in health care seeking behavior and improved health care services.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Trans Inf 2000;76:117-21.". In: Sex Trans Inf 2000;76:117-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J.Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya.Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya. METHOD: Women who came to deliver to Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) between April 1997 and March 1998 were tested for syphilis. Reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were titrated and confirmed with treponema haemagglutination test (TPHA). Equal numbers of RPR and TPHA negative women were enrolled. Antenatal syphilis screening and treatment history were examined from the antenatal cards. RESULTS: Of 22,466 women giving birth, 12,414 (55%) were tested for syphilis. Out of these, 377 (3%) were RPR reactive of whom 296 were confirmed by TPHA. Syphilis sero-reactive women had a more risky sexual behaviour and coexistent HIV antibody positivity; 26% were HIV seropositive compared with 11% among syphilis negative mothers. The incidence of adverse obstetric outcome defined as low birth weight and stillbirth, was 9.5%. Syphilis seropositive women had a higher risk for adverse obstetric outcome (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.2). Antenatal treatment of RPR reactive women significantly improved pregnancy outcome but the risk of adverse outcome remained 2.5-fold higher than the risk observed in uninfected mothers. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the adverse effect of syphilis on pregnancy outcome. This study also shows the efficacy of antenatal testing and prompt treatment of RPR reactive mothers on pregnancy outcome.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "TEMMERMAN M, GICHANGI PB, FONCK K, APERS L, CLAEYS P, van RENLERGHEN L,KIRAGU D, KARANJA JG, NDINYA-ACHOLA J,BWAYO J. Effect of syphilis control program on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999.". In: Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We compared 12-month continuation rates, menstrual bleeding patterns and other aspects of acceptability between users of Cyclofem and users of Depo-Provera. METHODS: The life-table method was used to calculate quarterly continuation rates. In all, 360 Kenyan women were randomly assigned to one of the two contraceptives. User-satisfaction questionnaires were administered at 6 and 12 months or at discontinuation, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: The 1-year continuation rate was 75.4% for Depo-Provera users versus 56.5% for Cyclofem users (p<.001). Main reasons for discontinuation included difficulty making clinic visits (45.1% for Cyclofem vs. 40% for Depo-Provera), menstrual changes (14.1% vs. 12.5%) and nonmenstrual problems (15.5% vs. 12.5%). None of the Depo-Provera users and 8.5% of the Cyclofem users claimed frequency of visits as the main reason for discontinuation. In all, 70.6% of the Depo-Provera users were amenorrheic after 12 months, as were 20.8% of the Cyclofem users. CONCLUSIONS: The 1-year continuation rate was higher for Depo-Provera than for Cyclofem. There was no important difference in discontinuation rates because of menstrual problems; the difference mainly reflected the frequency of visits required.
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "TEMMERMAN M, GICHANGI PB, FONCK K, APERS L, CLAEYS P, van RENLERGHEN L,KIRAGU D, KARANJA JG, NDINYA-ACHOLA J,BWAYO J. Effect of syphilis control program on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999.". In: Sex Transm Inf 75: 0-4, 1999. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Laga M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Paraskeva M. Microbial aetiology and diagnostic criteria of Post-partum endometritis in Nairobi, Kenya, Genitourin. Med. 64: 172 -5, 1988.". In: Genitourin. Med. 64: 172 -5, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Temmerman M, Lopita MI, Sanghvi HC, Sinei SK, Plummer FA, Piot P. The role of maternal syphilis, gonorrhoea and HIV-1 infections in spontaneous abortion.Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Nov-Dec;3(6):418-22. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as risk factor for spontaneous abortion was investigated in a case-control study in Nairobi, Kenya. Cases (n = 195) were women admitted with clinical signs and symptoms of spontaneous abortion, before 20 weeks of gestation. Patients with induced or clinically septic abortion were excluded. Controls were unselected pregnant women in their second or third trimester (n = 195). Spontaneous abortion was independently associated with maternal HIV-1 antibody (14.4% versus 6.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.8), with maternal syphilis seroreactivity (6.8% vs 2.1%, adjusted odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.6), and with vaginal colonization with group B streptococci (15.6% vs 5.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.7). No significant association was found between maternal infections with gonococci and genital mycoplasmas, and spontaneous abortion.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, Moses S, Kiragu D, Fusallah S, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. Impact of single session post-partum counseling of HIV infected women on their subsequent reproductive behaviour. Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990.". In: Aids Care vol. 2 (3), 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
During an ongoing study investigating the impact of maternal HIV infection on pregnancy outcome at a large maternity hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, asymptomatic HIV positive women who had recently delivered were informed of their HIV sero-status and counselled by a trained nurse regarding contraception and reproductive behaviour in a single session. Both HIV infected women and a comparison group of uninfected women matched for pregnancy outcome were followed up after an interval of one year. Contraceptive use, condom use and pregnancy rates were similar in both groups. Only 37% of HIV infected women had informed their partners of their sero-status. The single session of counselling for the HIV positive women did not seem to influence decisions on subsequent condom use or reproductive behaviour. More intensive approaches to counselling need to be developed and evaluated, but may be difficult to implement in the busy maternity and antenatal clinics commonly found in developing countries.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Nagelkerke N, Bwayo J, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Piot P. HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy: a comparison between HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60.". In: AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ghent, Belgium. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte profiles during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum, and to determine whether HIV-1 infection affects the normal profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 416 pregnant HIV-1-infected women and an age and parity-matched HIV-seronegative group of 407 pregnant women were enrolled into a prospective study on the impact of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy. Maternal blood was obtained for lymphocyte subset determination at enrollment, delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Whole blood sample drawn in EDTA-containing tubes were used to determine T-helper/inducer (CD4) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) cells by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No relationship was found between gestational age and any immunological variable. The CD4 percentage was lower postpartum than antenatally, in both HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women, but this was not true for absolute CD4 counts. CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher postpartum than antenatally. The differences between HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women in changes over pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support a short-term synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on the immune function as determined by T-lymphocyte subsets. PIP: The impact of HIV-1 on pregnancy was investigated in a prospective case-control study of 416 pregnant HIV-infected women and 407 age- and parity-matched pregnant HIV-seronegative women from Nairobi, Kenya. No relationship existed between gestational age (14-30 weeks) and any hematologic or immunologic variable studied. In both cases and controls, the CD4 percentage (but not absolute count) was lower postpartum than during pregnancy, while CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher in the postpartum period. The differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in changes during pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio were not statistically significant. These findings fail to provide support for a synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on immune function. Further studies are needed, however, to assess the long-term effects of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, to determine the impact of pregnancy at different stages of HIV disease, and to establish normal and HIV-1-related T-lymphocyte subset profiles during the entire course of pregnancy in African women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Nagelkerke N, Bwayo J, Chomba EN, Ndinya-Achola J, Piot P.HIV-1 and immunological changes during pregnancy: a comparison between HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women in Nairobi, Kenya.AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60.". In: AIDS. 1995 Sep;9(9):1057-60. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte profiles during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum, and to determine whether HIV-1 infection affects the normal profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 416 pregnant HIV-1-infected women and an age and parity-matched HIV-seronegative group of 407 pregnant women were enrolled into a prospective study on the impact of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy. Maternal blood was obtained for lymphocyte subset determination at enrollment, delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. Whole blood sample drawn in EDTA-containing tubes were used to determine T-helper/inducer (CD4) and T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) cells by direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No relationship was found between gestational age and any immunological variable. The CD4 percentage was lower postpartum than antenatally, in both HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women, but this was not true for absolute CD4 counts. CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher postpartum than antenatally. The differences between HIV-1-seropositive and seronegative women in changes over pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio, were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support a short-term synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on the immune function as determined by T-lymphocyte subsets. PIP: The impact of HIV-1 on pregnancy was investigated in a prospective case-control study of 416 pregnant HIV-infected women and 407 age- and parity-matched pregnant HIV-seronegative women from Nairobi, Kenya. No relationship existed between gestational age (14-30 weeks) and any hematologic or immunologic variable studied. In both cases and controls, the CD4 percentage (but not absolute count) was lower postpartum than during pregnancy, while CD8 absolute counts and percentages were significantly higher in the postpartum period. The differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in changes during pregnancy in CD4 and CD8 cells and their ratio were not statistically significant. These findings fail to provide support for a synergistic effect of HIV-1 and pregnancy on immune function. Further studies are needed, however, to assess the long-term effects of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, to determine the impact of pregnancy at different stages of HIV disease, and to establish normal and HIV-1-related T-lymphocyte subset profiles during the entire course of pregnancy in African women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Ndinya-Achola J, Ambani J, Piot P.The right not to know HIV-test results. Lancet. 1995 Apr 15;345(8955):969-70.". In: Lancet. 1995 Apr 15;345(8955):969-70. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
Large numbers of pregnant women in Africa have been invited to participate in studies on HIV infection. Study protocols adhere to guidelines on voluntary participation after pre-test and post-test counselling and informed consent; nevertheless, women may consent because they have been asked to do so without fully understanding the implications of being tested for HIV. Our studies in Nairobi, Kenya, show that most women tested after giving informed consent did not actively request their results, less than one third informed their partner, and violence against women because of a positive HIV-antibody test was common. It is important to have carefully designed protocols weighing the benefits against the potential harms for women participating in a study. Even after having consented to HIV testing, women should have the right not to be told their result. PIP: During January 1989-March 1992 in Kenya, health workers at two prenatal clinics in Nairobi tested 7893 pregnant women for HIV infection. They invited the HIV-positive women to participate in a study of HIV infection among pregnant women. The women gave informed consent to participate in the study, which included counseling before and after the test on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). More than 80% were in a stable marriage. During the first 2 years of the study, more than 90% of the 5274 pregnant women returned to the clinic to learn their test result. 6.1% tested HIV positive. About 25% of the HIV-positive women dropped out of the study before counseling. Only 27.2% told their partner their HIV status. 8.6% returned to the clinic with their partner for HIV testing and counseling. 5.9% of all HIV-positive women suffered violence after HIV counseling. 13 of 19 of these women had communicated their test result to their partner. The high rate of violence forced the staff to change its counseling policy. During the next 2 years of the study, they continued to provide information on HIV and STDs, but they did not set up an appointment for the HIV test results. They informed the 2619 women that they could come any morning for their results or collect them at their next prenatal visit. 11.9% tested positive. Only 35% of the HIV- positive women inquired about their test result. Violence against HIV positive women happened in 1.9% of cases. HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women requested the results of the HIV test at the same rate, suggesting that they did not consider themselves at special risk. These findings show that, even after informed consent, participants in a study of perinatal HIV transmission and intervention should have the right to not be informed about the HIV test results, since the risk of increased violence and loss of security may outweigh the benefits of the study.
NJAGI DRCHOMBAEPHANTUS. "Temmerman M, Njagi E, Nagelkerke N, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Meheus A. Mass antimicrobial treatment in pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a population with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40(3):176-.". In: J Reprod Med 1995 Mar;40. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Among 446 sera from prostitutes in Nairobi, the prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rose from 4% in 1981 to 61% in 1985. None of 118 men with chancroid seen in 1980 had antibody to HIV compared with 15% of 107 such men in 1985. Among pregnant women, 2.0% were seropositive in 1985 versus none of 111 in 1981. Seropositive prostitutes and women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) tended to have more sex partners and had a higher prevalence of gonorrhoea, and in women with STDs, significantly more seropositive women practiced prostitution. Pregnant women and men with STDs who were born in the most-western region of Kenya were more likely to have antibody to HIV than were such groups from other geographic areas. Our results indicate that the AIDS virus was recently introduced into Kenya, that HIV can rapidly disseminate in a high-risk group of heterosexuals, and that prostitutes may have significantly contributed to the spread of the virus.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Temmerman M, Njagi E, Nagelkerke N, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA, Meheus A.Mass antimicrobial treatment in pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a population with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases.J Reprod Med. 1995 Mar;40(3):176-8.". In: J Reprod Med. 1995 Mar;40(3):176-80. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Temmerman M, WAMOLA I.A and Piot P. A review of the impact of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection pregnancy outcome in Nairobi. J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991.". In: J. Obs Gynae. East Africa 9: 54, 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital. PIP: Between March 1987-January 1988, physicians enrolled 60 pediatric patients with a fever who were admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya for various clinical conditions in a study to determine the types, frequency, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates. Most of the patients were 13 months-4 years old (45%). 31.7% of the patients had positive blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the 2nd most common bacteria (15.8%) among these patients. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella typhimurium in most patients (63%). In fact, during the same period, the Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory at the hospital identified Salmonella species in 48% of all isolated bacteria and 35% of these were S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium tended to be present in children with gastroenteritis (41.8%) or a fever of unknown origin (33.3%). S. typhimurium was very sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, but resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Health workers in Kenya have frequently administered ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but not amikacin and cefotaxime. 67% of the strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to gentamicin and 33% to chloramphenicol. These results along with those of other reports from this hospital indicated a dramatic rise in Gram negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Therefore physicians should no longer consider gentamicin as a 1st line antibiotic in treating suspected septicemia patients.
Scott AA, Misiani H, Okoth J, Jordan A, Gohlke J, Ouma G, Arrighi J, Zaitchik BF, Jjemba E, Verjee S, Waugh DW. "Temperature and Heat in Informal Settlements in Nairobi." PloS one. 2017;12(11). AbstractPLOS One

Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or “slums” are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity. We show how temperature, humidity and heat index differ in several informal settlements, including in Kibera, the largest slum neighborhood in Africa, and find that temperature and a thermal comfort index known colloquially as the heat index regularly exceed measurements at the Dagoretti observation station by several degrees Celsius. These temperatures are within the range of temperatures previously associated with mortality increases of several percent in youth and elderly populations in informal settlements. We relate these changes to surface properties
such as satellite-derived albedo, vegetation indices, and elevation.

Wang Y, Shang B, Hu X, Peng B, Deng Z. "Temperature Control of Mussel-Inspired Chemistry toward Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Oil/Water Separation." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2017;4:1600727. Abstract
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KAMAU DRGACHIGI. ""Temperature Dependence of Phase Stability in La3+, Ca2+ and Ti4+ Modified PbZrO3 Ceramics", Proceedings of the 9th International Meeting on Ferroelectrics (IMF-9), Seoul, S. Korea, Aug. 24-29th, 1997.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Temperature Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Grog Modified Kenyan Kaolinte Refractory.". In: Africa Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, 5(1), 6-14. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kimani JN, Aduda BO. "Temperature Dependence of the Thermal conductivity of Grog Modified Kenyan Kaolite Refractory." Africa Journal of Science and Technology. 2004;1(5):6-14. Abstract

Thermal conductivity values, in the temperature range 300 – 1200 K, have been measured in air and at
atmospheric pressure for a Kenyan kaolinite refractory with 0% - 50% grog proportions. The experimental
thermal conductivity values were then compared with those calculated using the Zumbrunnen et al [1] and the
Litovsky and Shapiro [2] theoretical models. The experimental values for samples prepared without or low
percentages of grog increased with temperature as predicted by both the theoretical models. On the contrary,
the conductivity values for the sample containing ³ 40% decreased with increase in temperature in a manner
consistent with the Eucken law.

and R. J. Musembi, M. Rusu MAFMCL-SJMBO. Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PBS/PEDOT:PSS ETA solar cell. 13-15 October 2009, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2009.
Musembi RJ, B. O. Aduda, Mwabora JM, M.Rusu, Fostiropolous K, Lux-Steiner MC. "Temperature dependent characterization of TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta Solar Cell.". In: International Conference on Nanoscience and technology . Stockholm, Sweden.; 2007. Abstract

Temperature dependent current - voltage measurements have been used to characterize an highly structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell, which under AM1.5 had the following parameters: Voc = 0.249V, Jsc = 9.24mA/cm2, a fill factor FF = 0.339 and an efficiency of 0.78%. The current voltage characterizations have been done in the dark as well as under illumination. Diode ideality factor A under illumination has been found to be between 1 < A < 2 while in the dark A > 2. Recombination mechanism of the charge carriers has been found to be dominated by tunneling in the dark, while under illumination the charge carrier recombination is thermally activated. In this device, the type and place of the dominant recombination mechanism has been found to depend on illumination.

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Temperature Fluctuations in Stored Potatoes. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. August 3-5, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Aganda AA. Temperature profiles in a wood packed bed heated by hot combustion gases .; 2001. Abstract

Axial and radial temperature profiles are presented for the initial sensible heating stage of wood carbonisation process in a packed bed. These profiles are important in promoting greater understanding of the heat transfer processes during the sensible heating stage and the mechanics of the gas flow through the bed. These data are also useful as an aid to the design of wood carbonisation retorts. Gas temperatures were measured in a cylindrical retort within which a randomly packed bed of green wood was heated by hot inert combustion gases. The bed dimensions were 0.62m in diameter and 1.28m in height. The temperatures were measured by thermocouples mounted at 0.46m, 0.8Sm and 1.28m heights and transversed across the bed diameter. The bed was heated by combustion gases fed from a charcoal combustion chamber. It was discovered that gas temperature drops through the bed were as much as 86% of the inlet temperature, and that the most significant temperature gradients occurred in the first one third of the bed; this has significant implications in the retort design. Other interesting features observed were that there was a strong local variation in temperature throughout a given horizontal section of the bed and a symmetrical radial temperature profiles across the bed. Furthermore, gas temperatures were significantly lower close to the retort wall than the centre. These phenomena were explained in terms of gas channelling and a wall effect which increased the resistance to flow there. A two-phase mathematical model was used to predict axial temperature variation, while an empirical equation was fitted to the radial temperatures. This same model although a one-dimensional axial one, was used with a number of simplifying assumptions, to estimate the radial temperature profiles. In general there was good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results. The maximum deviation was -20% but 90% of the predictions were within t7.SX. This good agreement implies that the mathematical nodel is physically sound, a significant finding since there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that a two-phase model exists that can predict both axial and radial temperature profiles simultaneously in a packed bed.

Johansen, K; Maloiy GGMO; H. Temperature regulation in the naked mole rat.; 1976.
Ebrahim YH. Temperature Template Software (Baseline data). May 2018 ed. Ebenergy Enterprises; 2018.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Johansson T, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S, Mwangi EM, Ambale J. "Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane." PloS one. 2017;12(3):e0173590.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Temperley M, Mueller DH, Njagi JK, Akhwale W, Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Estambale BB, Brooker S.Costs and cost-effectiveness of delivering intermittent preventive treatment through schools in western Kenya.Malar J. 2008 Sep 30;7:196.". In: Malar J. 2008 Sep 30;7:196. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Awareness of the potential impact of malaria among school-age children has stimulated investigation into malaria interventions that can be delivered through schools. However, little evidence is available on the costs and cost-effectiveness of intervention options. This paper evaluates the costs and cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) as delivered by teachers in schools in western Kenya. METHODS: Information on actual drug and non-drug associated costs were collected from expenditure and salary records, government budgets and interviews with key district and national officials. Effectiveness data were derived from a cluster-randomised-controlled trial of IPT where a single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and three daily doses of amodiaquine were provided three times in year (once termly). Both financial and economic costs were estimated from a provider perspective, and effectiveness was estimated in terms of anaemia cases averted. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the impact of key assumptions on estimated cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: The delivery of IPT by teachers was estimated to cost US$ 1.88 per child treated per year, with drug and teacher training costs constituting the largest cost components. Set-up costs accounted for 13.2% of overall costs (equivalent to US$ 0.25 per child) whilst recurrent costs accounted for 86.8% (US$ 1.63 per child per year). The estimated cost per anaemia case averted was US$ 29.84 and the cost per case of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia averted was US$ 5.36, respectively. The cost per case of anaemia averted ranged between US$ 24.60 and 40.32 when the prices of antimalarial drugs and delivery costs were varied. Cost-effectiveness was most influenced by effectiveness of IPT and the background prevalence of anaemia. In settings where 30% and 50% of schoolchildren were anaemic, cost-effectiveness ratios were US$ 12.53 and 7.52, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that IPT administered by teachers is a cost-effective school-based malaria intervention and merits investigation in other settings.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Meteorological Droughts in East Africa. Third WMO symposium on Meteorological aspects of Tropical droughts.". In: WMO/TN No. 353. International Journal of Climatology; 1990. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "The Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Meteorological Droughts in East Africa. Third WMO symposium on Meteorological aspects of Tropical droughts.". In: WMO/TN No. 353. International Journal of Climatology; 1990. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
"Temporal changes of sediment dynamics within the Nairobi River Subbasins between 1998 -2006 time scale, Kenya." Temporal changes of sediment dynamics within the Nairobi River Subbasins between 1998 -2006 time scale, Kenya. 2010.
kITHIIA SM, Wambua BN. "Temporal changes of sediments dynamics within the Nairobi River sub-basins between 1990-2006 time scale, Kenya." Annals of Warsaw University of Life Science-SGGW, Land Reclamation No 42 . 2010.
Kithiia SM, Wambua BN. "Temporal changes of sediments dynamics within the Nairobi River sub-basins between 1998 - 2006 time scale, kenya." Annals of warsaw University of life sciences(SGGW) land reclamation. 2010;42(42(1)):17.
Mweu MM, Fournié G, Halasa T, Toft N, Nielsen SS. "Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110:379-387. Abstractsna_paper.pdf

Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.
Network analyses of data involving all cattle movements in Denmark registered during the period of interest were performed. A total of 50,494 premises participated in 4,204,895 individual movements during the 10-year period. The results pointed to a predominantly scale-free structure of the network; though marked by small-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should be the focus of control efforts.

Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ngaina JN. The temporal cycles of carbon monoxide and Ozone and their impact on air quality over Nairobi. Kenyatta National Hospital Campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya: Colledge of Health Sciences; 2011. Abstract

This paper seeks to describe the determination of urban air quality of a certain area through monitoring of CO and O3. The diurnal variation of meteorological variables (temperature and wind), their interaction and effects on the diurnal cycles of carbon monoxide and ozone over is discussed.
Hourly data for CO and O3 (surface ozone) the month of December (2011) and daily wind and temperature for the same period from Chiromo Environmental Monitoring station was used in this study. Time series analysis was used in this study to obtain the diurnal cycles of pollutants and the meteorological variables. Graphical method was useful particular in the physical representation of diurnal variation of the variables throughout the entire study period. The relationship between ozone and carbon dioxide and their interaction with wind temperature was determined with the use of correlation analysis method.
Minimum ozone concentrations are observed between 0630h and 0730h and between 2030h and 2130h when highest CO concentrations are observed. During the early daylight and evening hours, pollutant concentration rises mainly due to the increase in traffic and acts as catalyst in the breakdown of O3. At midday (between1300h and 1400h) maximum ozone concentrations are observed whereas CO depicts low-level concentrations. During this period the atmosphere experienced a lot of conversion due to the thermal heating. Changes in day-to-day weather, is seen as a factor affecting the diurnal variation of CO and O3 as weather determines how quickly pollutants are dispersed away from an area. Weather also determines the thickness of the atmospheric layer, where the emissions are diluted in a vertical direction. The average concentrations of ozone were found to be 18.0+8.0ppb.Although O3 concentrations levels within the city of Nairobi are below the threshold levels set by WMO of 51ppb, the health impacts can be aggravated during midday compared to early mornings and evenings.

Kyuma RK, Wahome RG, Kinama JM, Wasonga VO. "Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora invasion and livestock numbers in the drylands of Magadi, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2016;10:129-140. Abstract
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Kyuma RK, Wahome RG, Kinama JM, Wasonga VO. "Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora invasion and livestock numbers in the drylands of Magadi, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2016;10(4):129-140.
Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Gachene CKK;, Gicheru PT;, Mbuvi JP. "Temporal variability of crust strength and thickness as influenced by tillage methods and soil management practices in semi arid areas of Kenya, p. 59-76."; 2003. Abstract

Studies were conducted in a semi arid area of Kenya to determine the effects of tillage methods and soil management practices on crust strength and thickness during the 1998/1999 cropping seasons. Conventional and minimum tillage methods, surface mulch, incorporated mulch and goat manure were studied. Crust strength and thickness were measured at sowing, mid season and harvest. The results obtained indicate that there were large seasonal changes in the field measurement of crust strength and thickness over the two seasons. There were significant differences in crust strength and thickness between sampling times within the treatments. There was a good relationship between crust strength and thickness at R2 = 0.46. All the soil management practices and tillage methods resulted into a decrease of crust strength and thickness with time. Minimum tillage however had stronger crusts than conventional tillage at. Crust thickness was significantly influenced by tillage methods and the soil management practices.

Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
"Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basin." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(1).
Akama MK, F.G. M, chindia ML, Muriithi JM, Malupi E, Sang LK. "temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

Sang LK, Mulupi E, Akama MK, Muriithi JM, Macigo FG, Chindia ML. "Temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

Sang LK, Mulupi E, Akama MK, Muriithi JM, Macigo FG, Chindia ML. "Temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

Sang LK, Mulupi E, Akama MK, Muriithi JM, Macigo FG, Chindia ML. "Temporomandibular joint dislocation in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

Despite the diverse conservative and surgical modalities for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the controversy that surrounds them, very little has been done within the East-African setup in terms of highlighting and provoking greater interest in the epidemiology and management of TMJ dislocation. OBJECTIVE: To audit the pattern of occurrence, demographics, aetiology and enumerate the treatment modalities of TMJ dislocation at the oral and maxillofacial surgery division (OMFS) of the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) from January 1995 to July 2005. RESULTS: Twenty nine patients had been diagnosed and managed for TMJ dislocation. Twenty (69%) were females and nine (31%) were males. Their ages ranged from 10-95 years with a mean of 42 years. The cases managed were primarily chronic in nature. The most common form being anterior TMJ dislocation, accounting for twenty-five (86.2%) cases. Trauma was implicated as an aetiology in only five (17%) of the cases while the remaining majority of twenty four (83%) cases were spontaneous. Amongst the causes of spontaneous TMJ dislocation, yawning was the most common accounting for fourteen cases (48.3%). Dislocations caused by trauma were found to be 12.6 times more likely to be associated with other injuries than spontaneous dislocations. Anterior TMJ dislocations were found to be 1.3 times more likely to be associated with absence of molars than posterior TMJ dislocations. Anatomical aberrations, as predisposing factors, were not a significant finding in this research. Eight (28%) of the cases were managed conservatively. Twenty one (72%) of the cases were managed surgically. The eminectomy was the most common technique with a 75% success rate. The highest incidence of TMJ dislocation occurs in the 3rd-5th decade with a female preponderance with bilateral anterior TMJ dislocation being the most common. Most of the cases were managed surgically with eminectomy being the preferred technique with the highest success rate. A study needs to be undertaken to determine reasons' why conservative modalities are least employed in the management of TMJ dislocation in our setup and what can be done about it.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Temptation,.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2003. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "The Ten Day Rule and its implementation at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983.". In: Dissertation for the award of the degree of Masters of Medicine University of Nairobi, 1983. University of Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
Magoha GAO. "Ten years experience with chronic prostatitis in Africans. ." East African Medical Journal. 1996;73:176-178. Abstract

This is a prospective study of seventy three patients with chronic prostatitis over a ten year period (1984-1994. The study was carried out at various hospitals in Lagos Nigeria and Nairobi Kenya. The mean age was 39.3 years. Chronic bacterial prostatitis was diagnosed in 15 patients (20.5%) of which 11 patients (73.3%) had Escherichia coli as the causative pathogen. Four of these patients (36.4%) were symptom and culture free after 12 weeks therapy with trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. Four of the other seven patients not responding to trimethoprim (57.1%) became symptom and culture free after four weeks therapy with ciproflaxacin. Non bacterial prostatitis including prostatodynia was diagnosed in 58 patients (79.5%). Only 15 of these patients (25.8%) reported some subjective relief of symptoms on emperic therapy with doxycycline with complete relapse on discontinuation of therapy. Further therapy with non steroidal anti-inflammatory ibuprofen and anticholinergic oxybutinin chloride proved effective in alleviating symptoms in 40 patients (68.96%), but all relapsed on discontinuation of therapy emphasizing the ineffective and unsatisfactory nature of the present emperic treatment regimens as the cause of non bacterial prostatitis remains unknown.

MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "A ten-year review of human hydatid cases seen at Kenyatta National Hospital (Kenya). Discovery and Innovation 2: 41 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1990. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
HURIA PROFNDERITUJOHN. "Tende, R. M., J. H. Nderitu, Mugo, S., J. M. Songa, F. O. Olubayo and D. Bergvinson (2005). Screening for development of resistance by the spotted stem borer(Chilo partellus) to Bt maize.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proc. Kampala, 5-9 December 2005. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of occurrence of dental injuries in the 0-15 year-olds. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Five hundred and five patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 505 patient records with dental injuries were retrieved and analysed. Most of the injuries were recorded in the year 1999 (22.2%). Boys were more affected (63.0%) than girls (37.0%). The main presenting complaint recorded was pain (75.8%).The majority of the patients (69.5%) presented for treatment during the same day or the day after trauma. Falls were the leading cause of injuries (73.5%). Most injuries involved two teeth (47.1%) and the maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth both in the primary (67.5%) and permanent (64.0%) dentitions. Luxation injuries were the most common type of dental trauma with 47.5% occurring in the permanent teeth and 77.3% in the primary teeth. The main radiographic investigation performed was intraoral periapical views (52.9%) following which dental extraction (34.4%) was the main treatment modality offered. CONCLUSION: Prospective cross-sectional studies to determine the prevalence of dental injuries are needed. Furthermore improving the knowledge of dental practitioners through continuing dental education programmes would help in updating them on current trends in managing these injuries.
Wasamba P. Tender Touch. Nairobi; 2013.tender_touch.pdf
Museve GK. "Tendon transfers in radial nerve palsy with fractures of humerus." E.A .Ortho.J.. 2010;4(1.March):28-30.
Ondieki DEO. "Tenement Housing in Nairobi: it's growth and quality.". In: University of Tokyo, Discussion. Tokyo, Japan; Forthcoming.abstract-_tokyo.pdf
Ondieki EO. "TENEMENTS IN NAIROBI’S URBAN GROWTH.". In: Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) Convention. Pride-Inn Paradise Beach Resort, Mombasa; 2018.
Odero EO. Tense and Aspect in Ekegusii: A Minimalist Analysis. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2013.Website
Kanyinga K, Okello D. Tension and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development and Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi; 2010.
Kaviti LK. "Tensions between Children's Rights and Culture: The Case of Child Participation in Kenya. .". In: Human Rights, African Values and Traditions: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Haki Book Series No. 1-sponsored by the Danish Institute of Human Rights (DIHR) . Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Tenure Options for Slum Upgrading.". In: French Institute for Research in Africa Conference. Alliance Francaise, Nairobi; 2011.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tenure issues in drylands development: tenue of land or tenure of ecological resources? Paper for the UNDP working on Drylands development, Nairobi, February 28- 2 March.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2005. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tenure issues in spontaneous settlement"; a paper for UNCHS International Seminar on Spontaneous Land Settlements in rural Regions; issues and Opportunities, November 11-20. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1986. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tenure of tress or tenure of land?"; in John Bruce and R. Raintree (eds.) Proceedings of an International Conference on Research in Agro Forestry.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1987. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Tenure regimes and land use systems in Africa: the challenge of sustainability"; in Towards Sustainable Land Use: Furthering cooperation between people and institutions. Edited by Blume. H.P. Eger et. Al Advances in GEO Ecology 3 (Catena Verglag AMBH).". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1998. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Beukering V. "Tenure security and ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature's Wealth: The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge University Press; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, Linderhof V, Kruseman G, Atieno R. "Tenure Security and Ecosystem service provisioning in Kenya.". In: Nature’s Wealth. The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Poverty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2013.
KABUBO-MARIARA J, V. LINDERHOF. "Tenure Security and Incentives for Sustainable Land Management: A Case Study from Kenya. Chapter 4(51-63).". In: Bluffstone R. and G. Köhlin (Eds.). Agricultural Investments, Livelihoods and Sustainability in East African Agriculture. Washington D.C. : Resources for the Future (RFF) Press; 2011.
Ndirima ZK, Nyariki DM. "Tenure, livelihood and sustainable development: Rangelands as systems for multiple land use and livelihood support.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

Conventional rangeland management has focused on optimisation of secondary production. Yet rangelands provide multiple goods and services at local and landscape scales. The diversity of resources available from rangelands underpins the livelihood security of developed and underdeveloped rural communities across all continents. This diversity of resources, and consequent livelihood options, is receiving greater recognition in management and research fora, whilst simultaneously offering greater opportunities for new and innovative uses of rangelands for subsistence and commercial needs. The session will appraise the diversity of rangeland resources used by rural communities and examine the viability and sustainability of different livelihood options within rangelands.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J, Syuto B, Ochanda JO, Kubo S.Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7.". In: Infect Immun. 1985 May;48(2):312-7. East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
The toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813 (C-6813) was purified 1,009-fold from the culture supernatant in an overall yield of 30%. The specific toxicity was 1.1 X 10(7) mouse minimum lethal doses per mg of protein. The toxin had a molecular weight of 144,000, composed of the light and heavy chains with molecular weights of 52,000 and 92,000, respectively, linked by one or two disulfide bond(s). The purified C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains reacted strongly with anti-type D heavy chain immunoglobulin G and anti-type C1 light chain immunoglobulin G, respectively. The amino acid compositions of C-6813 toxin heavy and light chains were more similar to those of type D heavy chain and type C1 light chain than to those of type C1 heavy chain and type D light chain, respectively. These results suggest that in the toxin produced by the type C strain at least two subtypes exist.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Terajima J., B. Syuto and S. Kubo: Purification and characterization of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C 6813. Infect. Immun. 48, 312-317.". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; 1985. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.

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