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Forthcoming
With McCormick D, Chitere P, Orero R, Ommeh M. "Paratransit Business Strategies : A Bird’s Eye View of Matatu in Nairobi’ ." Journal of Public Transport. Forthcoming.
Bunyangha J, Majaliwa MJG, Muthumbi AW, Gichuki NN, Anthony Egeru. "Past and future land use/land cover changes from multi-temporal Landsat imagery in Mpologoma catchment, eastern Uganda." The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. Forthcoming.
Ongoro TN. "Place and Role of Asian Direct Investment in Africa." Eurasian International scientific-Analytical Journal. Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "The Place of Action Research in the Writing of Fiction: Reflections on Kovu la Moyoni.". In: Action Research conference MMUST(PROCEED).; Forthcoming.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "Politeness Among the Swahili of Mombasa:A Family Perpective." Burji Baraton University Journal. Forthcoming.
Awele BSJ&. Practising IP Law in Kenya and Africa. Lusaka, Zambia.; Forthcoming.
Wasamba P, Situma J. "Problematics of Plato's Aesthetic Theory in Contemporary Society." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. Forthcoming.
Mwaura L. "The Psychology of Gender and Human Sexuality." Intimacy and Sanctity of Sexuality. Forthcoming.
MARY DROMOSA. "P. Alila, D. McCormick & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Introduction. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "P.O. Alila, and Mitullah W, Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper.". In: Enhancing Lobbying Capacity of Women Street Vendors: The Challenges in the Kenyan Policy Environment. IDS Occasional Paper. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
MARY DROMOSA. "Place, F.; M. Adato; P. Hebinck & M. Omosa (Forthcoming) Agro-forestry-Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Practices and Poverty in Western Kenya. In: M. Adato & R. Meinzen-Dick [Eds.] Agricultural Research and Poverty: Economic and Social Impacts in Six C.". In: African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
Submitted
MWANGI EN, KAAYA GP, ESSUMAN S, KIMONDO MG. "Parasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology.". Submitted. AbstractParasitism of Amblyomma variegatum by a Hymenopteran Parasitoid in the Laboratory, and Some Aspects of Its Basic Biology

Unfed Amblyomma variegatum F. nymphs were experimentally infected in the laboratory with a hymenopteran parasitoid, Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard). The parasitoid was originally obtained from ticks collected from cattle in the Trans-Mara area of Kenya where it naturally infects 50% of A. variegatum nymphs. In the field, nymphs collected from cattle were found to be infected, but not those collected from grass. The optimum temperature for emergence of parasitoids from the nymphs in the laboratory was 28°C, but emerged parasitoids were more active and survived longer at 22°C. There was a higher proportion of parasitoid nonemergence from laboratory-infected than from the field-infected nymphs. This study is the first record of infection of A. variegatum in the laboratory with a parasitoid. Possibilities of mass rearing and use of the parasitoid as a biocontrol agent for ticks are discussed.

Onyambu CK. The pattern of chest radiographic findings in immunocompromised patients at the Kenyatta national hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

The pattern of chest radiograph findings were studied in 280 HIV positive individuals.
These were compared to 40 HIV negative patients who acted as controls. The
commonest disease seen was pneumonia 94 (33.9%), followed by pulmonary
tuberculosis 89 (3l.7%). Mixed infections were seen in 34 (12.2%) cases while PCP
occurred in 16(5.6%) cases. The pneumonia seen was more of bronchopneumonia than
lobar pneumonia in-patients with HIV (33.9) than HIV negative patients (23%).
The cases of pulmonary tuberculosis seen showed less upper lobe distribution than in
HIV negative patients. Most of the cases showed mid and lower zone distribution.
There are less cavitations than HIV negative patients. Also more cases with hilar and
mediastinal nodes were seen. There were 34 (12.2%) cases of mixed infection, which
constituted of 3 (1.1 %) cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These mainly presented
with hilar and mediastinal nodes. The clinical differentiating features were KS skin
nodules in-patients with pulmonary K.S.

Jani PG, Nyaga PN. "Peritonial Drains in Perforated Appendicitis without Generalised Peritonitis:A prospective RandomisedControlled Trail ." East and Central African Journal of Surgery (Online). Submitted;16(2).
Kilonzo BM. A Plastic Anaemia At The Kenyatta National Hospital During The Period 1973-1978.; Submitted. Abstract

A total of 54 patients were diagnosed and treated for plastic anaemia between July, 1973 to December 1978 at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The sex distribution was equal. Most of the age groups were affected with the majority of Cases occurring in the young age groups.
Most tribes in Kenya were found not to be free from a plastic anaemia and there was a predominance of the disease amongst the Kikuyu tribe who lived in and around Nairobi.
Very few factors associated with actiology could. Be elicited and this was partially due to adequate histoties taken at the time of admission by the various physicians. Even though great difficulties are encountered in establishing an aetiologic role for a given agent, so that in large proportion of patients remains unexplained.
The presenting clinical features were those of anaemic haemorrhages due to thrombocytopenia and infections resulting from leucopenia, all of which were observed in all the patients reviewed except for the 4 patients with pure red cell aplasia.
The other 50 patients had hypoplastic marrows. Confirmation of diagnosis was delayed due to initial blood transfusion given before peripheral blood film examination in most patients.
Massive blood transfusion was given to patients on remission. Although platelet concentrates are available and obviate the massive blood transactions, only very few patients received platelet infusions.
Corticosteroid and androgenic asteroids were administered but there was no laid down policy as to the protocol to be followed. Hence administration of these drugs was done in a haphazard manner with a big proportion of patients going without any steroid therapy. This may have accounted to a great extent, for the very poor remission rate noted.
Since it has been observed that pure red cell aplacia remits spontaneously, prolonged therapy of these patients should be pursued vigorously.
Most of the deaths encountered occurred during the first 4 months of admission and they were mainly due to complications of the disease process mainly infections, congestive cardiac failure and excessive haemorrhage.

Ikiara GK. "Political economy of cash transfers In Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

As a result of socio-economic and political challenges facing Kenya: 46% of the country‟s 38 million people are living below the poverty line; there are a rapidly growing number of orphans and vulnerable children - half of which have resulted from a HIV/AIDs pandemic which has hit the country in the last two decades; frequent droughts, and the recently unprecedented post-election violence following the disputed 2007 general elections, social protection programmes for the country‟s poor and vulnerable population have become increasingly important both economically and politically.
This study, using data and information obtained from government and donor representatives closely involved with Kenya‟s CT programmes and secondary data, examines Kenya‟s Social Protection Programmes with special focus on CT programmes.
Starting with a brief review of the prevailing poverty and economic conditions and challenges facing the country, the paper examines government attitude and attention towards Cash Transfer (CT) and non-cash social protection programmes; the evolution, coverage and other features of the existing CT programmes in the country; the roles of the government and development partners in the programmes; domestic and external influences in the establishment of the various social protection programmes; estimated costs of the required CT programmes and the affordability and sustainability of the programme in view of the prevailing economic conditions and capacities; and the political economy and the overall ownership of the implementation of CT programme in the country.
While Kenya has had a long history of implementation of non-cash transfer programmes, such as: food relief in the drought stricken areas; emergency and special programmes; school bursaries for needy children, and a wide range of other interventions, CTs are new, mainly in their pilot or early stages and have been in existence only in the last 5 years.
The existing CT programmes have a limited coverage of the targeted members in three programmes, viz the Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), the Elderly and the Hunger Safety Net programme. With the on-going discussions to finalise the country‟s Policy on Social Protection and the Social Protection Strategy (2009-2012) and a large increase in government‟s financing of the CT programmes through national budget, the national coverage of these programmes is expected to rise substantially by 2012.
There are high prospects of enhancing and institutionalising CT and non-CT social protection programmes in the country‟s budgetary system in view of the broad political support the programmes have received from a wide spectrum of political actors in the country. The liberalisation of the country‟s political system in 1992 which ushered in a highly vibrant and competitive multi-party political environment, has favoured introduction and expansion of social protection initiatives, both cash and non-cash.
A number of donors, notably UNICEF, DFID, World Bank and SIDA played key technical and financial roles in the establishment of CT programmes in the country creating the perception that the programmes were donor driven and that the government was more in favour of non-cash interventions. With increasing government and public appreciation of CT programmes as an appropriate tool for reaching more effectively a special group of the population the extremely poor or hard-core poor, who cannot participate in productive economic activities, the government participation in financing the programmes has risen dramatically, in the last two years. The government is expected to shoulder the bulk of the required resources for these programmes in the coming years but with supplementary resources from willing development partners.
There is considerable consensus among the stakeholders that the CT programmes are affordable and sustainable even without external donors, so long as the programmes are expanded gradually, taking into account the capacity of the national economy to support the programmes at various levels. The successful implementation of much larger non-cash social protection programmes such as the Free Primary Education for 8 million pupils and Free Day Secondary Education and the Constituency Development Fund are generally taken as good indicators of the ability of the country to sustain CT programmes as long as political will is there.
Most of the stakeholders were of the view the CT programmes are too socially and politically sensitive to be heavily dependent on external support which was often determined by exogenous factors beyond the government‟s control.
Kenya‟s draft National Social Protection Strategy, estimates that the country could escalate the Cash Transfer Programme nationally to cover all the extremely poor consisting of the People with Disabilities (PWD), Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC), and Households with Older Persons above 65 years, at a total cost of approximately Ksh 12 billion annually (about 3.3% of the national budget), at a monthly cash “transfer” of Ksh 1,000 per household.

Shiundu PM, Munguti SM, Williams KRS. "Practical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation.". Submitted. AbstractPractical implications of ionic strength effects on particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation

Modification of ionic strength of an aqueous or non-aqueous carrier solution can have profound effects on the particle retention behavior in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These effects can be considered as either advantageous or not depending on the performance criteria under consideration. Aside from the general increase in retention time of particulate material (latexes and silica particles), our experiments indicate improvement in resolution with increases in electrolyte concentration. Absence of an electrolyte in the carrier solution causes deviations from the theoretically expected linear behavior between the retention parameter l (a measure of the extent of interaction between the applied field and the particle) and the reciprocal temperature drop across the channel walls. A negative interaction parameter d of about 20.170 was determined for 0.105- and 0.220-mm polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in either a 0.25 or a 1.0 mM TBAPcontaining acetonitrile carrier and for 0.220 mm PS in 0.50 and 1.0 mM NaCl-containing aqueous medium. This work also demonstrates that optimum electrolyte concentrations can be chosen to achieve reasonable experimental run-times, good resolution separations, and shifts in the steric inversion points at lower field strengths, and that too high electrolyte concentrations can have deleterious effects such as band broadening and sample loss through adsorption to the channel accumulation surface. The advantages of using ionic strength rather than field strength to effect desired changes are lowered power consumption and possible application of ThFFF to high temperature-labile samples.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Mutahi WT, Thiong'o FW. "Prevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya.". Submitted. AbstractPrevalence and intensity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in irrigation and non-irrigation areas of central Kenya

OBJECTIVE: To compare the extent of intestinal schistosomiasis among school children attending school in an irrigation and non-irrigation area of Central Kenya. DESIGN: A cross sectional study. SETTING: Three separate parasitological surveys involving four primary schools in Mwea irrigation scheme, Kirinyaga District and two from a non-irrigation area in Machakos District. SUBJECTS: One thousand two hundred and twenty two children aged between five and nineteen years were examined for Schistostoma mansoni infection by Kato thick smear technique. RESULTS: High prevelances ranging from 73% to 94% were noted among children in all the participating schools. Overall 41% of the infected children had heavy infection (>400 eggs per gram), 27% had moderate infection (101-400 epg) and 32% had light infection (10-100epg). When data from the two areas were analysed seperately, peak eggs output were found in 5-9 year olds among children in Kirinyaga while this situation shifted to the 10-14 year olds in Machakos children. In Kirinyaga District, boys in the 10-14 years age group had a significantly higher output than girls (P<0.01), but this situation was reversed in the older children (P<0.05). Girls in Machakos District had consistently but non-significantly higher output than boys. CONCLUSION: Intestinal schistomiasis is more prevalent and with a higher intensity in the irrigated than in non-irrigated areas. There were also pronounced age and gender related differences in the pattern of infection between the two study areas.

Bolton P;, Neugebauer R;, Ndogoni L. "Prevalence of Depression in Rural Rwanda Based on Symptom and Functional Criteria.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

The authors' objective was to estimate the prevalence of major depressive disorder among Rwandans 5 years after the 1994 genocidal civil war. They interviewed a community-based random sample of adults in a rural part of Rwanda using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and a locally developed functional impairment instrument. The authors estimated current rates of major depression using an algorithm based on the DSM-IV symptom criteria (A), distress/functional impairment criteria (C), and bereavement exclusionary criteria (E). They also examined the degree to which depressive symptoms compromise social and occupational functioning. Three hundred sixty-eight adults were interviewed, of whom 15.5% met Criteria A, C, and E for current major depression. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with functional impairment in most major roles for men and women. The authors conclude that a significant part of this population has seriously disabling depression. Work on appropriate, feasible, safe, and effective mental health interventions should be a priority for this population.

Muma MK, Kimani K, Kariuki – Wanyoike MM, ILAKO DR, Njuguna MW. "Prevalence of Refractive errors among Primary School Pupils in Kilungu Division of Makueni District, Kenya.". Submitted. Abstract

To determine the magnitude and pattern of significant refractive errors in primary school children in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Design: A cross – sectional primary school based study. Setting: Eight (8) Primary school in Kilungu division of Makueni District, Kenya. Target population: 1439 Primary school pupils aged between 12 and 15 years. Results: The prevalence of significant refractive error was 5.2%, 75/1439, (95% CI) being responsible for 92.6 % of all causes of poor eyesight. Hypermetropia accounted for 3.2% (95% CI), myopia 1.7% (95% CI) and astigmatism 0.3% (95% CI) of refractive errors. Myopia was more likely to be present in the pupils aged 14 to 15 years than those aged 12 to 13 years with OR 2.9 (0.1 – 9.2) which was statistically significant (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of significant refractive errors in pupils aged 12 to 15 years in Makueni's Kilungu division at 5.2% (95% CI) was high enough to justify a regular school eye screening in primary schools in Kenya.

Akech M. "Privatization and Democracy in East Africa: The Promise of Administrative Law.". Submitted. Abstractprivatization_and_democracy.pdfWebsite

This book explores the role of democracy and Public Law in privatization processes in the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In particular, the book recommends the creation of strongly institutionalized Administrative Law frameworks to facilitate meaningful democratization of privatization processes in these countries. The book anticipates that such reforms would enhance the day-to-day accountability of, and public participation in, privatization processes in the three countries. The book seeks to contribute to the study of the relationship between Public Law, markets and democracy in African countries. Its particular contribution is the argument that privatization processes can only be efficient, fair and legitimate if they are democratic, that is, participatory and accountable.

PAUL PROFBAKI. "P. Baki, Contribution of Space Science in the Improvement of Quality of Life.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; Submitted.
JOHN DRYABS. "P.T.A - A Promising Market for Kenyan Manufactured Goods.". In: Business Journal, V.III No.12. SITE; Submitted. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Pathophysiology of {Diabetes} {Mellitus} : {Critical} {Care} {Nursing} {Quarterly}.; Submitted. Abstract

As we learn more about the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus, we find that there is more yet to be learned. This may sound like a trite statement, but in reality it is true. The following article reviews the basic pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus as...

M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Patrick M. Shem, Paul M. Shiundu, Nicholas K. Gikonyo, Ahmed Hasssanali and Rajinder K. Saini, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
CLAUDIO MRACHOLA. "Peak Revision Mathematics.". In: E.A.E.P. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "PEOPLE, LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: EXISTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN NAIBUNG.". In: Journal. EcologicalSociety for Eastern Africa; Submitted.
OBURU HILDAHBOCHERE. "PhD RESEARCH ON: ."; Submitted. Abstract
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ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis {NEGATIVE} {FEEDBACK} {MECHANISMS} {Control} of body temperature.; Submitted. Abstract

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Control of body temperature

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Planning and Management Control at the Enterprise Level." This article discusses the function of financial planning and management control in the process of implementing those plans.". In: Management: (Ibid) (pages 24-26).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Population policy Guidelines for the National Council on Population and Development (NCPD), GoK, April 1983 - (now Sessional Paper No. 4 of 1984) - was a Member of the Task Force.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available.
A. EO. "The Post-Colonial Historiography of Kenya." University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
WARUE MRSKARIUKICATHERINE. "Preliminary Suggestions on the implementation of the Land Section of Chapter five of the Constitution of Kenya through Research and Training.". In: African Journal of Ecology 46(1):22-29. uon press; Submitted. Abstract
The New Constitution of Kenya, Chapter five states that land in Kenya will be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable. The construction also sets out a number of principles, which will be implemented through a national land policy that developed and reviewed regularly by the government and through legislation. The National Land Policy for Kenya is Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2009, it presents the issues and policy recommendations that were identified, analyzed and agreed by stakeholders. The sessional paper forms the foundation upon which administrative and legislative framework will be built. This is the framework that will drive the critically required land reforms for Kenya. This paper gives a detailed outline of the training and capacity building and research requirements in land management and administration. Its main emphasis being the setting up of a Land Policy research Centre in the light of the new institutional framework suggested in chapter 5 of the Constitution of Kenya and the Sessional paper No.3 of 2009. A suitable land policy centre will undertake research and training for the National Land Commission, in the light of the suggested functions. The paper concludes by suggesting the training and research programmes fro governments and individuals in Kenya and within the continent on land.
L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Preparation (with others) of an Urban Development Plan for Ruiru Town.". In: Winrock International, Morrilton, U.S.A. EAMJ; Submitted. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

2021
• Matara SM, • Siriba DN, • Kiema JBK, • Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF).". In: FIG e-Working Week 2021. Netherlands; 2021.
Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JB, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF) .". In: Working eWeek. Netherlands; 2021.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Julius Oyugi, Musabyimana JP, Kinengyere AA, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenoviruses in East Africa Community partner states of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2007–2020)." PLOS ONE. 2021;16(4):e0249992-. Abstractjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfjournal.pone_.0249992.pdfWebsite

Background Viruses are responsible for a large proportion of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Human influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory-syncytial-virus, and adenoviruses are among the leading cause of ARTIs. Epidemiological evidence of those respiratory viruses is limited in the East Africa Community (EAC) region. This review sought to identify the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, and adenoviruses among cases of ARTI in the EAC from 2007 to 2020. Methods A literature search was conducted in Medline, Global Index Medicus, and the grey literature from public health institutions and programs in the EAC. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction. We used a random effects model to pool the prevalence estimate across studies. We assessed heterogeneity with the I2 statistic, and Cochran’s Q test, and further we did subgroup analysis. This review was registered with PROSPERO under registration number CRD42018110186. Results A total of 12 studies met the eligibility criteria for the studies documented from 2007 to 2020. The overall pooled prevalence of adenoviruses was 13% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6–21, N = 28829), respiratory syncytial virus 11% (95% CI: 7–15, N = 22627), and parainfluenza was 9% (95% CI: 7–11, N = 28363). Pooled prevalence of reported ARTIs, all ages, and locality varied in the included studies. Studies among participants with severe acute respiratory disease had a higher pooled prevalence of all the three viruses. Considerable heterogeneity was noted overall and in subgroup analysis. Conclusion Our findings indicate that human adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus are prevalent in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. These three respiratory viruses contribute substantially to ARTIs in the EAC, particularly among those with severe disease and those aged five and above.

Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):6. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constitute a major constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa, with East Coast fever (ECF) being the most devastating TBD of cattle. However, in Burundi, detailed information is lacking on the current prevalence of TBDs and on the associated economic losses from mortality and morbidity in cattle as well as the costs associated with TBD control and treatment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle across the major agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi.

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

"The Pacesetter in a Relationship." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(3):44-46.the_pacesetter_in_a_relationship.pdf
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

Karuma AN, JW N, PT G. "Pedology, A disappearing skill in Eastern Africa? A Review." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2021;24(2):65.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Isaiah BM, Onyari JM, Omosa LK. "Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2021;32(1):46-56. AbstractEuropean Journal of Medicinal Plants

Abstract

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Pollution in Urban and Rural Settings’ Ambient Air in Kenya: An Insight into Concentration Levels, Compositional Profile and Seasonal Variation." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Air samples were collected from three urban and one rural sites in Kenya with the aim of establishing pollution levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Forty-eight air Samples were collected by passive air sampling, Soxhlet extracted and analysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers residue in air ranged from≤ 0.9 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. The predominant congener was 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3 followed by 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.32±0.06 to 66.83±1.19 pgm− 3. Seasonal variations of the pollutants showed a high level of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in hot dry season in range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. Air samples from Dandora and Industrial area both from urban location recorded high concentrations of the analysed polybrominated diphenyl ethers compared with the air samples from the rural location.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Positive Stable Frailty Approach in the Construction of Dependence Life–Tables." s,Open Journal of Statistics. 2021;11( 1):506-523,.
Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Kulimushi SM, Muiru WM, Mutitu EW. "Potential of Trichoderma spp., Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the management of early blight in tomato." . Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2021;31(9):online.
Mutende R, Imonje RK, Akala W;. "Pre-service Science Teachers’ Integration of Constructivist Ideas in the Lecture Method." ; International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2021;20(6):277-298.
M.Cecilia O, Justine NM, Johanna W, Mats S, Piikki K. "Precision Agriculture for Resource Use Efficiency in Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review." Sustainability Journal. 2021;13:1158.
M.Justine N, Cecilia OM, Johanna W, Mats S. "Precision agriculture research in sub‐Saharan Africa countries: a systematic map." Precision Agriculture Journal. 2021.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021;2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Kosgei PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN. "Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2021.abstract3.pdf
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Muyodi MM, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Bhatt KM. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2021;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity

Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Principals promoting professional development on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):30-37.
Nankaya, J. GLBNCH. "Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation . 2021;30:761-780.
S A, GO O, E A, J K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):23-27. Abstractprofiles_of_vitamin_d_among_patients_with_ra_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
is an autoimmune, chronic debilitating
condition of undetermined cause. It
affects numerous extra- articular organ
systems. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone
synthesized in the skin by the action of
ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Active
vitamin D is important in the inhibition
of T cell proliferation and downregulation
of key inflammatory cytokines
responsible for the pathogenesis of RA.
There is growing evidence demonstrating
the association between vitamin D
insufficiency and higher incidence of RA
as well as increased severity of disease
and increased functional disability in RA
patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to determine serum vitamin D levels
among patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
and its association with disease activity
and functional disability.
Design: This was a descriptive crosssectional
survey.
Methods: The study involved subjects
with RA at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Consecutive sampling technique to
recruit patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
having met the 2010 American College
of Rheumatology/ European League
Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR)
classification criteria was selected. Ten
mls of peripheral blood was collected
from the recruited subjects to determine
serum vitamin D levels. Every participant
had their demographics, clinical history
and disease duration documented. Clinical
Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used
to assess disease activity and severity. It
comprised of number of tender joint out
of 28 joints (T-28), number of swollen
joints out of 28 (S-28) global health
assessment score by both the physician
and the patient. level of disability was
determined by the standard Modified
Health Assessment Questionnaire
(MHAQ). Data analyzed was correlated
to determine their association with serum
vitamin D levels. SPSS version 21 was
used to analyze the data collected and this
entailed descriptive statistics, chi-square,
ANOVA and students’-test to compare
and correlate vitamin D levels with age,
duration of disease, CDAI score and
modified HAQ score in RA.
Results: Eighty one patients with a mean
age of 48.7 (SD 13.9), median of 48.0
(IQR 40.0-59.0) were evaluated. The
female to male ratio was 4:1. The mean
serum 25-VD concentration was 34.9ng/
ml (SD11.6). Thirty five participants
(43.2%) had insufficient vitamin D levels
(<30ng/ml), whereas 46 study participants
(56.8%) had sufficiency of vitamin D.
Majority of the patients 54 (67.5%) had
low disease activity. Fourteen subjects
17.5% had high disease activity and while
2.5% were on remission. Functional
disability was assessed using the modified
health assessment questionnaire. Thirty
eight participants (46.5%) demonstrated
no disability, 33.8% had mild disability
while 9% had severe disability.
Correlation between vitamin levels with
age, duration of disease, CDAI and HAQ
did not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is
high among patients with rheumatoid
arthritis with no correlation with age,
duration of disease, functional disability
and disease activity.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis,
Vitamin D, Disease activity, Functional
disability, Cytokines
Introduction

S1 A, GO O, E3 A, J4 K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. 2021;1(1):23-27.
Wabwoba, C.N, Mugambi M, Okoth UA. "Promoting acquisition of English Language Among Pupils through the Lens of Active learning." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):18-33.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
2020
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness with TAM.". In: IST-Africa 2020. Uganda; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Perceived effectiveness of Occupational Health and Safety Ergonomics on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya. .". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Infrastructure and Property Development on Sites and in Contexts of Scarcity. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: Integrating IT Mindfulness Trust and Risk.". In:  Americas Conference of Information Systems . USA; 2020.
Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Tripathi L. "Phytochemical Analysis and Establishment of Embryogenic Cell Suspension and -mediated Transformation for Farmer Preferred Cultivars of West African Plantain ( spp.)." Plants (Basel). 2020;9(6). Abstract

Banana and plantain are among the foremost staple food crops providing food and livelihood to over 500 million people in tropical countries. Despite the importance, their production is hampered due to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant tissue culture techniques such as somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation offer a valuable tool for genetic improvement. Identification and quantification of phytochemicals found in banana and plantain are essential in optimizing in vitro activities for crop improvement. Total antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were quantified in various explants obtained from the field, as well as in vitro plants of banana and plantain cultivars. The result showed genotypic variation in the phytochemicals of selected cultivars. The embryogenic cell suspensions were developed for three farmer-preferred plantain cultivars, Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele, using different MS and B5-based culture media. Both culture media supported the development of friable embryogenic calli (FEC), while MS culture media supported the proliferation of fine cell suspension in liquid culture media. The percentage of FEC generated for Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele were 22 ± 24%, 13 ± 28%, and 9 ± 16%, respectively. Cell suspensions produced from FECs were successfully transformed by -mediated transformation with reporter gene constructs and regenerated into whole plants.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Ramke J, Kipturgo M, Kim M, Ng'ang'a M, Gichuhi S, Mutie D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Foster A. "Peer-support to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy: process evaluation of the DURE cluster randomized trial." Trop Med Health. 2020;48:1. AbstractWebsite

Background: There is limited evidence on how implementation of peer support interventions influences effectiveness, particularly for individuals with diabetes. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a peer-led health education package versus usual care to increase uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: Our process evaluation used a mixed-method design to investigate the recruitment and retention, reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, and context of implementation, and was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). We reviewed trial documents, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 10) and conducted four focus group discussions with participants in both arms of the trial. Three analysts undertook CFIR theory-driven content analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics relevant to the objectives of the process evaluation.

Results: The trial had positive implementation outcomes, 100% retention of clusters and 96% retention for participants, 83% adherence to delivery of content of group talks (fidelity), and 78% attendance (reach) to at least 50% (3/6) of the group talks (dose). The data revealed that intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, individual characteristics, and process (all the constructs of CFIR) influenced the implementation. There were more facilitators than barriers to the implementation. Facilitators included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics); awareness of the growing prioritization of diabetes in the national health policy framework (outer setting); tension for change due to the realization of the vulnerability to vision loss from DR (inner setting); a strong collective sense of accountability of peer supporters to implement the intervention (individual characteristics); and regular feedback on the progress with implementation (process). Potential barriers included the need to queue at the eye clinic (intervention characteristic), travel inconveniences (inner setting), and socio-political disruption (outer setting).

Conclusions: The intervention was implemented with high retention, reach, fidelity, and dose. The CFIR provided a valuable framework for evaluating contextual factors that influenced implementation and helped to understand what adaptations may be needed during scale up.

Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya.". 2020;20(1):703. Abstractkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfkivata_et_al-2020-bmc_infectious_diseases.pdfWebsite

Treatment of gonorrhea is complicated by the development of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) to the antibiotics recommended for treatment. Knowledge on types of plasmids and the antibiotic resistance genes they harbor is useful in monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance. In Kenya, studies on gonococcal antimicrobial resistance are few and data on plasmid mediated drug resistance is limited. The present study characterizes plasmid mediated resistance in N. gonorrhoeae isolates recovered from Kenya between 2013 and 2018.

Matara SM, Siriba DN, Kiema JBK, Musyoka SM. "Predicting Displacement Effects of Tectonic Movements on the Kenyan Geodetic Reference Frame Network (KENREF).". In: Architecture and Engineering Conference. University of Nairobi; 2020.
Segera D, Mbuthia M, Nyete A. "Particle Swarm Optimized Hybrid Kernel-Based Multiclass Support Vector Machine for Microarray Cancer Data Analysis.". In: Prime Archives in Medicine. Hyderabad (India): Vide Leaf; 2020.
Buyana K, Lwasa S, Tugume D, Mukwaya P, Walubwa J, Owuor S, Kasaija P, Sseviiri H, Nsangi G, Byarugaba D. "Pathways for resilience to climate change in African cities. Environ. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 073002.". 2020.2020_environmental_research_letters_journal.pdf
Opiyo R, Were A, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Olenja J, Bukania Z. "Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: How Can They Make Informed Nutritional Decisions?" Office of DVC Research, Innovation and Enterprise, University of Nairobi. 2020:39-40. AbstractWebsite

The Ministry of Health and partners should develop national standard operating procedures and IEC materials in renal nutrition counsellingfor harmonized messages. All patients with chronic kidney disease should get takeaway information leaflets with patient-specific simple nutrition messages to ensure the accuracy of nutrition information; All nutritionists and healthcare workers in renal units should participate in regular continuing nutrition education on most recent evidence-based nutrition information.

Kituku O, Osano SN, Mwea SK. "Performance Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities at Donholm Interchange along Outer Ring Road Nairobi, Kenya." Icastor. 2020;Vol. 13(Issue No. 1):1-15.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Gaithuma VW. "Phonological Influence of Kiamu dialect to Amu Learners of Standard Kiswahili - Expected." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). 2020.
Charles AO, Musembi RJ, Aduda BO, Ogacho A, Jain P. "Photo-thermal Conversion Efficiency of Textured and Untextured Aluminum Substrate Coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 Absorber." American Journal of Modern Energy. 2020;6(1):9-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

The possibility of obtaining thermal energy from the sun for household bathing and washing has resulted to growth in market for solar thermal applications with new types of solar absorbers currently being investigated either to compliment or to replace existing ones. This study focuses on CuFeMnO4 absorber paint by addressing aspects which have little attention regarding improvement of optical absorption for higher efficiency such as texturing the metal substrates on which to coat CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. In this study, texturing was done controllably in order to match the incoming solar radiation wavelength and the surface topography and morphology. Textured and untextured aluminum sheets coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint were used to fabricate prototype flat plate solar thermal collectors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was chosen here as binder to a spectrally selective CuFeMnO4 absorber paint. The TiO2-bound CuFeMnO4 absorber paint was applied by a simple, cheap and up-scalable dip coating method over the aluminum sheets. The aluminum sheets were electro-chemically textured to enhance optical absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency for both the textured and untextured prototypes were compared. The efficiency characterization of the prototype collectors was done by measuring the global solar irradiance, fluid inlet, fluid outlet and ambient temperature. Both instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies were determined mathematically, and it was found that the prototype collector whose absorber plates were textured recorded higher instantaneous and steady-state efficiencies compared to the collector fabricated from untextured aluminum plates.
Keywords: Aluminum, Texturing, Conversion Efficiency, Solar Energy, (TiO2)-bound, CuFeMnO4

and D.K. TKPK. "Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Titanium Dioxide: Role of Annealing Temperature and Morphology." and Journal of Applied Science Environment Management. 2020;24(1):5-12.
DK Inoti, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Maina JG. "Physical and chemical characteristics of limestone for use in layer feeds in Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):242-246.
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40(2020):148-155.chemistry_of_five_croton_species_phytolletters_2020.pdf
O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Kebba N, Mutie JM. "Possible impairment of surgical decision making and confounded outcome in Fontan surgery by Nakata Index." African Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Since cardiac structuring dimensions inform surgical decisions making, Z-score systematic error impairs surgical decision making and confounds outcome measurement, hence a similar error may affect the Nakata index. In this study, PubMed was searched using the terms: “pulmonary,” “artery,” “size,” “Nakata,” “Fontan,” and “outcome”. Studies that did not describe the outcome of the Fontan procedure and the size of the branch pulmonary arteries were excluded. Outcome measures of interest, in relation to BPA size, included: Operative mortality, Fontan “take-down”, length of ICU stay, pleural effusions and functional capacity. The results revealed that of 116 papers retrieved, 9 were included representing 1,042 patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Six out of 9 papers representing 645 (61.9%) patients reported that BPA size had no relationship with the outcome of the Fontan procedure; while 2 out of 9 papers representing 366 (35.1%) patients found that BPA size did affect the outcome. One paper representing 31 (3%) patients was unable to find any relationship. All the papers that concluded that there was no relationship labelled normal sized BPAs as small because of a systematic error introduced by the Nakata index. Papers that found a relationship did not use the Nakata index. Thus, Nakata index systematic error may impair surgical decision making and confound outcome measurement in Fontan surgery. In addition, continued use of the Fontan index may have similar implications for other congenital heart lesions.

BeboraLillyCaroline, OdongoMahacla. Practical Bacteriology and Mycology Manual for Veterinary Students. Mauritius: Lap Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Bogaerts J, Duffy S, Valkonen A, Heydenreich M, Avery VM, Rissanen K, Erdélyi M, Yenesew A. "Prenylated Flavonoids from the Roots of Tephrosia rhodesica." Journal of natural products. 2020;83(8):2390-2398. AbstractJournal of Natural Products

Description
Five new compounds—rhodimer (1), rhodiflavan A (2), rhodiflavan B (3), rhodiflavan C (4), and rhodacarpin (5)—along with 16 known secondary metabolites, were isolated from the CH2Cl2–CH3OH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia rhodesica. They were identified by NMR spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, X-ray crystallographic, and ECD spectroscopic analyses. The crude extract and the isolated compounds 2–5, 9, 15, and 21 showed activity (100% at 10 μg and IC50 = 5–15 μM) against the chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

Ebrahim YH. Preparation de la recherche universitaire et des theses (French) Preparation for academic research and theses: From undergraduate to postgraduate degree levels. Chisinau, Moldova: Editions Universitaires Europeennes, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ; 2020.
Ebrahim YH. Preparazione alla ricerca accademica e alle tesi (Italian) Preparation for academic research and theses: From undergraduate to postgraduate degree levels. Chisinau, Moldova: Edizioni Accademische Italiane, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
N A, N A, S M, S A, H H, S B, D M, A R, I K, O A-B, Y K, M R, V P, S C, K N, G G, A P, M F, A S, M M, A AA, D M, P P, J K, Y C, M D, J V, M A, J C, M N, I H, A V, A I, A K, E J, ME T. "Preparedness of dental academic institutions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic: a global survey." Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;2021; 18:1445(2021; 18:1445):2021; 18:1445.
W Awuor, Muthumbi AWN, Robertson-Andersson DV. "Presence of microplastics in benthic macroinvertebrates along the Kenyan coast." African Journal of Marine Science. 2020;42(4):405-411.
Umuhoza T, Bulimo WD, Oyugi J, Schnabel D, Mancuso JD. "Prevalence and factors influencing the distribution of influenza viruses in Kenya: Seven-year hospital-based surveillance of influenza-like illness (2007-2013)." PLoS One. 2020;15(8):e0237857. Abstractumuhoza_et_al_2020.pdfWebsite

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses remain a global threat with the potential to trigger outbreaks and pandemics. Globally, seasonal influenza viruses' mortality range from 291 243-645 832 annually, of which 17% occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of influenza infections in Kenya, identifying factors influencing the distribution of these infections, and describe trends in occurrence from 2007 to 2013. METHODS: Surveillance was conducted at eight district hospital sites countrywide. Participants who met the case definition for influenza-like illness were enrolled in the surveillance program. The nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from all participants. We tested all specimens for influenza viruses with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. Bivariate and multivariate log-binomial regression was performed with a statistically significant level of p<0.005. An administrative map of Kenya was used to locate the geographical distribution of surveillance sites in counties. We visualized the monthly trend of influenza viruses with a graph and chart using exponential smoothing at a damping factor of 0.5 over the study period (2007-2013). RESULTS: A total of 17446 participants enrolled in the program. The overall prevalence of influenza viruses was 19% (n = 3230), of which 76% (n = 2449) were type A, 21% (n = 669) type B and 3% (n = 112) A/ B coinfection. Of those with type A, 59% (n = 1451) were not subtyped. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 was found in 48% (n = 475), influenza A/H1N1/pdm 2009 in 43% (n = 434), and seasonal influenza A/ H1N1 in 9% (n = 88) participants. Both genders were represented, whereas a large proportion of participants 55% were

Muyodi MM, Bhatt KM, KAYIMA JK. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstractprevalence_of_and_factors_associated_with_ckd_in_osteoarthritis.pdf

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.

Muyodi MM, KAYIMA JK, Oyoo GO, Bhatt KM. "Prevalence of and factors associated with chronic kidney diseases is osteoarthritis patients at Kenyatta National hospital." East African Orthopaedic Journal. 2020;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2
and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity, overweight/obesity and use of more than one medication (NSAID/ACEI/ARB)
reduced the odds of CKD.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that osteoarthritis is associated with a high prevalence of CKD.
However, most of the patients are asymptomatic and in low and moderate risk category based on Kidney
Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) nomenclature. Osteoarthritis patients should be considered a
high-risk group for chronic kidney disease given their older age, chronic use of NSAIDs and high prevalence of
comorbidities e.g. hypertension, overweight/obesity which are known risk factors for CKD. Screening for CKD
in OA patients should therefore be done routinely as is the case in other high risk groups e.g. diabetes.
Key words: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), Osteoarthritis (OA), Cockrauft-Gault (CG), Estimated Glomerular
Filtration Rate (eGFR), Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme
Inhibitors (ACEI), Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB)

Gachuiri TT, Mwango GN, Muriithi IM, Mulama BM. "Prevalence Of Chest Radiograph Findings In Neonates With Respiratory Distress At Kenyatta National Hospital." EAMJ. 2020;97(11):3245-3251.Abstract
Mwango GN, Gachuiri TT, Muriithi IM, Mulama BM. "Prevalence of chest radiograph findings in neonates with respiratory distress at Kenyatta National Hospital." EAMJ. 2020;97(11):3245-3251.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum2 MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2020;10(2):144-118.
Mbindyo C, Gitao C, Mulei C. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Mastitis in Dairy Cattle in Embu and Kajiado Counties, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International. 2020;Volume 2020 |Article ID 8831172 | 12 pages (https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8831172):12 pages.
Edouard Singirankabo, Ngare P, Ogutu C. "Pricing Lookback Option Using Multinomial Lattices." Communications of Mathematical Finance, . 2020;9(1, ):1-12,.
Kitata M. "The Problematics of Naming in Kenyan Creative Narratives." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies. 2020;6(1):1-15. Abstract

There is a tendency in Kenyan literature, which can be defined as ahistorical ethnopolitanism. In this approach the writer chooses to use names of characters and places that indicate an attempt to see the Kenyan community from a distance. The result is that, in the push for inclusivity in works of literature, the very idea an authentic record of history and self-knowledge is lost: Real actors are alienated from the story of the history of the country; the background loses its referential significance; fantasy contexts are created to overlay and erase the real; and an atmosphere of namelessness is prioritised. This paper is a preliminary critique of these traits in contemporary Kenyan creative narrative. It seeks to highlight how such an approach – whose aim is to create a text that sidesteps ethnic politics – paradoxically undermines the writers’ efforts.

Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Scientific Research Publishing. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Ochieng JW. "Production Systems, Genetic Diversity and Genes Associated with Prolificacy and Milk Production in Indigenous Goats of Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review." Open Journal of Animal Sciences. 2020;10(4):735-749.
Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Morris Ogero, Rachel Jelagat Sarguta, Malla L, Aluvaala J, Agweyu A, English M, Onyango NO, Akech S. "Prognostic models for predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in resource-limited countries: a systematic review." BMJ open. 2020;10(10):035045. AbstractWebsite

Objectives
To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Design
Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals.
Data sources
MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019.
Eligibility criteria
We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC.
Data extraction and synthesis
This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included.

Rotich HK, Onwonga R, Koech OK, Mbau JS. "Projected Changes in Soil Organic Carbon over a 50-Year Period under Different Grazing Management Systems in Semi-Arid Grassland." Journal of Rangeland Science. 2020;10(4):357-369.
Mwangi IK(2020). "Proposing a Conceptual Model of Planning Methodology in Public Domain." Africa Habitat Review . 2020;Vol. 14, No.3,(ISSB 2519-7851).
"Proverbs and Enculturation: The Gender Convergence of Kiswahili and Ekegusii Proverbs ." Mwanga wa Lugha, Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika, Chuo Kikuu cha Moi. 2020;Juzuu 5, (Na.1, April 2020, ):19-36.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Othoo CO, Dulo SO, Olago DO, Ayah R. "Proximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planning." Journal of UOEH. 2020;42(3):237-249. AbstractProximity Density Assessment and Characterization of Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City: Implications for Public Health Planningjstage.jst.go

Access to water and sanitation remain a challenge in many developing countries, especially in pro-poor
urban informal settlements where socioeconomic livelihoods are generally low. The aim of this study was to characterise the water and sanitation facilities in the informal settlements of Kisumu City and to evaluate their effect on
community hygiene and health. The study focussed on the five urban informal settlements of Nyalenda A, Nyalenda
B, Manyatta A, Manyatta B and Obunga, and the three Peri-urban informal settlements of Kogony, Usoma and
Otonglo. Using descriptive techniques, the researcher surveyed 114 water sources and all sanitation facilities within
0-15m and 15-30m radii of the water sources. The findings revealed dominance of shallow wells and traditional pit
latrines as the primary water sources and sanitation facilities, respectively. Out of the water sources studied, 87.7%
(100) were shallow wells (mean depth 1.5 m), 9.6% (11) springs and 2.6% (3) boreholes. Most of these shallow
wells (83%) were within the urban informal settlements where uses range from washing and cleaning, cooking, and
even drinking (13.5%), despite the majority being unprotected. The analysis of the density of sanitation facilities
near the water points showed that 32.3% existed within a 15m radius of the nearest water sources, in violation of
the recommended safe distance of 30m. With an increased density of toilets near critical water sources and other
sanitary practices, public health is highly compromised.

Keywords : density, health, informal settlements, water-source, Sanitation technology.

Muchira JM, Gona PN, Mogos MF, Stuart-Shor E, Leveille SG, Piano MR, Hayman LL. "Parental cardiovascular health predicts time to onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring." European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2020. Abstract
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Kerry VB, Ahaisibwe B, Malewezi B, Ngoma D, Daoust P, Stuart-Shor E, Mannino CA, Day D, Foradori L, Sayeed SA. "Partnering to build human resources for health capacity in Africa: a descriptive review of the global health service partnership’s innovative model for health professional education and training from 2013-2018." International Journal of Health Policy and Management. 2020. Abstract
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Kivata MW, Mbuchi M, Eyase F, Bulimo WD, Kyanya CK, Oundo V, Mbinda WM, Sang W, Andagalu B, Soge OO, McClelland RS, Distelhorst J. "Plasmid mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2020;20. Abstract
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Kosgei DC, Mageto IG, Wagoro MC. "PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AMONG SURVIVORS SEEKING CARE AT GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CLINIC OF KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Medical and Clinical Practice. 2020;5:19-34. Abstract
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2019
Oredo J. "Personal Cloud Computing Adoption: The Effect of Individual IT Mindfulness.". In:  African International Business Management (AIBUMA) Conference . Nairobi; 2019.
Peter SG, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with infections in smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County, Kenya." Vet World. 2019;12(10):1599-1607. Abstract

Ehrlichiosis caused by is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in cattle production worldwide. Despite its economic impact, limited knowledge is available on its epidemiology in Africa, including Kenya. Suspected cases of infections have been reported in the recent past to the University of Nairobi's Veterinary Hospital, prompting the need to investigate their possible re-emergence. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of among smallholder dairy cattle in Nairobi City County and to assess potential risk factors. This knowledge may guide the development of appropriate control strategies of ehrlichiosis, subsequently reducing associated losses.

Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

Lokken EM, Richardson BA, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Mwinyikai K, Abdalla A, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Shafi J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Association Between Body Mass Index and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis." Sex Transm Dis. 2019;46(1):31-36. Abstract

Some studies suggest that higher body mass index is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis (BV), but results are conflicting.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Rono H, Bastawrous A, Macleod D, Wanjala E, Gichuhi S, Burton M. "Peek Community Eye Health - mHealth system to increase access and efficiency of eye health services in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial." Trials. 2019;20(1):502. AbstractWebsite

Globally, eye care provision is currently insufficient to meet the requirement for eye care services. Lack of access and awareness are key barriers to specialist services; in addition, specialist services are over-utilised by people with conditions that could be managed in the community or primary care. In combination, these lead to a large unmet need for eye health provision. We have developed a validated smartphone-based screening algorithm (Peek Community Screening App). The application (App) is part of the Peek Community Eye Health system (Peek CEH) that enables Community Volunteers (CV) to make referral decisions about patients with eye problems. It generates referrals, automated short messages service (SMS) notifications to patients or guardians and has a program dashboard for visualising service delivery. We hypothesise that a greater proportion of people with eye problems will be identified using the Peek CEH system and that there will be increased uptake of referrals, compared to those identified and referred using the current community screening approaches.

NDUNG’U GM, Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Onyango JF. "Paediatric Craniomaxillofacial Trauma at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya: A 6-months study of Occurrence Pattern." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2019;2 (6):14-20.
AM K. "Paediatric oral health and climate change." Edorium J Dent. 2019;2019; 7:(2019; 7:):2019; 7:.

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