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Ongecha-Owuor FA, Mburu J, Gakinya B, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Pyschoendocrinology."; 2006.
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "The Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids of Senecio Syringifolius and S. hadiensis from Kenya":, Phytochemistry, 32, 1595-1602.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
(
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Pyrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio hadiensis", J. Nat. Prod., 54, 491-9.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1992. Abstract
   
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Pyrexia of undetermined origin in children. East Afr Med J . 1991 Sep; 68 ( 9 ): 673-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 1797529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN.". In: East Afr Med J . 1991 Sep; 68 ( 9 ): 673-4 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1991. Abstract
No abstract available.
Z.M K, Narla RD, Waudo SW. Pyrethrum Wilt Caused by Fusarium Oxysporum in Kenya.; 1998.
Kinyua ZM;, Narla RD;, Waudo SW. "Pyrethrum wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Kenya."; 1998. Abstract

This article is about pyrethrum production in Kenya which is greatly constrained by a disease characterised by wilting and eventual death of pyrethrum plants. To date, Fusarium graminearum schwabe, F. solani (Mart.) Sacc., Rhizoctonia solani kuhn, Sclerotinia monor jagger, S. sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) have been associated with the wilt disease of pyrethrum. The study was carried out to determine the primary casual agent of the disease. Disease plant samples were collected from five pyrethrum growing areas, namely Kisii, Molo, Mwongoris, Sotik and Limuru for isolation and identification of pathogens associated with the disease.

Moriyasu, M. MPBC, et al. "Pyrenes and pyrendiones from Uvaria lucida." J. Nat. Med . 2012;66 ((3)):453-458 .
Moriyasu M, Takeuchi S, Ichimaru M, Nakatani N, Nishiyama Y, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Juma FD, ChaloMutiso PB. "Pyrenes and pyrendiones from Uvaria lucida.". 2012. Abstract

A chemical investigation of the chloroform extract of the roots of Uvaria ludida Benth. (Annonaceae), an important African traditional medicine, led to the isolation of six new compounds; three pyrenes, 2-hydroxy-1,8-dimethoxypyrene (1), 8-methoxy-1,2-methylenedioxypyrene (2), and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,2-methylenedioxypyrene (3), two pyrenediones, 2-hydroxy-1,8-pyrenedione (4) and 2-methoxy-1,8-pyrenedione (5), and a sesquiterpene, (-)-10-oxo-isodauc-3-en-15-oic acid (6), together with eight known compounds (7-14). The structural elucidation by spectroscopic studies of the compounds isolated is described. While pyrenes did not exhibit strong cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, pyrenediones showed strong cytotoxicity. The IC(50) of 4 was 70 ng mL(-1), which was close to that of etoposide (IC(50) = 60 ng mL(-1)).

Otedo AEO, Oyoo GO, Otieno JO, Otieno CF, Omonge EO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal. 2013;90(12):48-52.
AEO Otedo, GO Oyoo JOOCFOEOO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the large skeletal muscles presenting with muscle pain and swelling. It is commonly seen in the tropics but is being recognised more in end-stage HIV/AIDS. In HIV-associated pyomyositis, leukocytosis and bacteraemia is rare due to deranged immune response. Surgical drainage, antibiotic treatment and HAART are the mainstay of treatment.
Objective: To describe pyomyositis in HIV positive patients, their CD4+ cell counts, clinical stages of pyomyositis and anatomical sites affected.
Design: Cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, consecutive entry study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 to December 2007.
Subjects: Twelve patients with HIV infection and pyomyositis.
Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ cell counts, clinical stage and site of pyomyositis.
Results: Twelve patients (six males and six females) were enrolled with mean age of 39.3 years (24-52). Pyomyositis was localised in the following regions:two each in gluteal and calf, six in the thigh and one each in the right arm and abdominal wall. CD4+ cell counts were low with a mean of 166.8 cells/µl (1.0-433) (normal range is 355-1600 cells/µl), indicating severe immunosuppression. They also had leucocytopaenia with a mean white blood cell count of 3.67 ~ 103/µl (1.5-7.1 ~ 103/µl) with a mean neutrophil count of 62.7% (43-78). Random blood sugar and creatine kinase levels were all normal. The co-morbidities comprised one case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and five of oral candidiasis. Pus swab grew Staphylococcous aureus in eight instances and Streptococcous pyogenes in four.
Conclusion: Pyomyositis in HIV positive patients tends to occur at low CD4+ cell counts. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism.

S PROFOLIECHJOSEPH. "Pyogenic thyroiditis at KNH. E.A. Med. J. VOl. 56 No. 1, 1979.". In: E.A. Med. J. VOl. 56 No. 1, 1979. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; 1979. Abstract

No abstract yet SUMMARY.

Although pyogenic thyroiditis is rare,the four cases have been seen and treated at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over the last 10 years.This is a report of one of these cases detailing the clinical presentation and operative findings.
A middle aged female with a large painful shining anterior neck swelling of 4days duration.She had difficulty of swallowing,but no dyspnoea.She was febrile,with moderate anaemia, polymorph-leucocytosis (52%)and lymphocytosis(36%).Thyroid immunoglobulins were unavailable.131 iodine uptake studies was reduced,plain x-ray of the trachea/neck was unremarkable.
A thick suppurative pus from the left lobe grew on organisms.The discusses various forms of thyroid abcesses ,their causes and treatment.

Amiri S. "Pwaguzi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2004.
MARANGA DRMUSONYEMIRIAMWANGU. "The Puzzle A short story published in Perspectives, The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Nov, 2008.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. FARA; 2008. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
Musembi CN, Cornwall A. "Putting the ‘Rights-Based Approach to Development’ into Perspective." Third World Quarterly. 2004;25(8).
Kathurima I. "Putnam-Fuglede theorem for n-Power quasinormal and w-hyponormal operators." Far East Jnr of Appld. Maths.. 2014.
Kathurima I. "Putnam-Fuglede theorem for n-Power normal and w-hyponormal operators, ." Pioneer jnl of mathematics and mathematical sciences. 2014. Abstract

Reducibility implies direct sum decompositions of Hilbert space operators and any pair of operators
which satisfy the Putnam-Fuglede theorem is reducible. In this presentation, the familiar
Putnam-Fuglede theorem is firstly investigated for n-Power normal operators. Then, it’s assymetric
version is studied for n-Power normal and w-hyponormal operators. As a consequence,
more conditions implying normality, or even similarlity between these two operator classes, are
deduced via this theorem.

Mwaengo DM, Lawrence PO. "A putative DNA helicase and novel oligoribonuclease in the Diachasmimorpha longicaudata entomopoxvirus (DlEPV).". 2003. Abstract

Diachasmimorpha longicaudata entomopoxvirus (DlEPV) is a symbiotic entomopoxvirus (EPV) of the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. It has a double-stranded DNA genome of 250-300 kb and is >60% A-T rich. We describe ten ORFs (RI-35-1 to -10) contained within a 5.64 kb clone, RI-35, from a DlEPV EcoRI genomic library. Our goal was to identify unique motifs and compare them with others in the database, particularly those of poxviruses. Two ORFs (RI-35-1 and RI-35-7, respectively) encode putative proteins (113 aa and 219 aa) that are probably involved in regulating gene expression based on their predicted nuclear localization and the presence of SPxx motifs, leucine-zipper like sequences (113 aa), and a basic domain (219 aa). The largest gene (RI-35-3) is under the control of an intermediate/late promoter and is presumed to encode a cytoplasmic 480 aa DNA-dependent DNA helicase with conserved motifs that are characteristic of DExH helicases. Amino acid analysis of the DNA helicase sequence showed that DlEPV is close to but distinct from the Genus B EPVs. The DlEPV helicase is also distinct from that of the Diadromus pulchellus ascovirus 1a from the D. pulchellus parasitic wasp, with less than 10% amino acid identity. DlEPV encodes a 207 aa oligoribonuclease (RI-35-8) of the DEDDh family of exoribonucleases. The second largest ORF (RI-35-9) is under the control of a poxvirus early promoter and encodes a protein of 329 aa that is likely DlEPV-specific. Three ORFs (RI-35-4, -5, and -6) overlap (in the anti-sense strand) with ORFs encoding putatively important virus replication proteins (which were also under the control of intermediate promoters) and are presumably not expressed in DlEPV. These results support earlier reports that DlEPV is a member of the sub-family Entomopoxvirinae, most likely in Group C, and is the first symbiotic EPV described to date from a parasitic wasp.

Buoro IB, Nyamwange SB, Chai D, Munyua SM. "Putative avocado toxicity in two dogs.". 1994. Abstract

Two dogs were seen at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, both having histories of dyspnoea, progressively enlarging abdomens, anasarca, ascites, pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary oedema. One of the dogs had a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and proteinuria. Histopathological examination of the myocardium revealed some damage to myocytes and a mononuclear cellular infiltration involving the myocardium, liver and kidneys. The two dogs had a fondness for avocado fruits and, as the presenting syndrome is identical to that seen in goats, sheep and horses poisoned by avocados, a comparison is made and the probable manifestation of this poisoning presented.

Menger DJ, Bruno Otieno, Marjolein De Rijk, W Richard Mukabana, Joop JA van Loon, Takken W. "A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):119.
Berg CP, Rodden FA. "Purification of D-amino oxidase from Trigonopsis variabilis." Anal. Biochem.. 1976;71(1):214-22.
Tominaga Y, Tsujisaka Y. "Purification and some enzymatic properties of the chitosanase from Bacillus R-4 which lyses Rhizopus cell walls." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):145-55. Abstract

A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.

Osir EO, Abubakar L, Imbuga MO. "Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly Glossina longipennis.". 1995. Abstract

A blood-meal-induced lectin (agglutinin) with proteolytic activity was isolated from midgut extracts of Glossina longipennis by a two-step procedure involving anion-exchange chromatography. It is a glycoprotein [native molecular weight (M(r) 61,000 +/- 3000 da) composed of two noncovalently-linked subunits designated alpha (M(r), approximately 27,000 da) and beta (M(r), approximately 33,000 da). The trypsin activity and the glycosyl residues were present on the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively. The native protein was capable of agglutinating both bloodstream-form and procyclic trypanosomes as well as rabbit red blood cells. This activity was strongly inhibited by D-glucosamine and weakly inhibited by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Similarly, soybean trypsin inhibitor abrogated agglutination of bloodstream-form parasites, whereas the procyclics were unaffected. The agglutination activity was sensitive to temperatures above 40 degrees C but was unaffected by chelators of metal ions. Antibodies raised against the protein were used in immunoblotting experiments to show the presence of a similar protein in several members of the Glossina species. However, no cross-reactivity was detected with midgut extracts prepared from sandflies, mosquitoes, or stable flies. It is proposed that this molecule might play an important role in differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms.

"Purgative Drugs in Primary Health Care." Kenya J. Pharm. P7-8, 1980. 1980:7-8.
Irene M, swaleh. Pure non-gestational ovarian carcinoma.; 2019.
Ogutu SO. PURCHASING POWER RISK AND THE PERFORMANCE OF NON-LIFE INSURANCE COMPANIES IN KENYA. Otieno JAM, ACHOLA C, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
Konde AM, Gitau GK, Kiptoon J, Gakuya D. "Puppy morbidity and mortality among breeding kennels in Nairobi, Kenya." Jacobs Journal of Veterinary Science Research. 2015;1(4):019.
Kasau, Kaloki, J.W., Kitoo, B.M., Mutinda, Kalai, J.M. "Pupil Teacher ratio and its impact on academic performance in public primary schools in central division, Machakos county, Kenya. ." European Journal of Education Studies International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences . 2016;6(5):62-80.published_article_kalai_et_al_.pdf
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Punishment in Kenya: Theory and Practice'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Oniang'o CM. "Punishment and Terrorism in Africa."; 1976.
Karanja JG, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Mati JKG, Lequin RM. "Pulsitile release and diurnal rhythm of gonadotropins and prolactin in young healthy Kenyan men.". 1982.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Wasunna A, Whitelaw AG. "Pulse oximetry in preterm infants." Arch. Dis. Child.. 1987;62(9):957-8. Abstract

One hundred and twenty five measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (Stcao2) obtained with a transcutaneous pulse oximeter were compared with direct arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) in 13 preterm infants with predominantly fetal haemoglobin. Stcao2 of 86-92% corresponded to Pao2 of 5-13 kPa. Stcao2 above 92%, however, was sometimes associated with Pao2 above 13 kPa.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "PULSAION (poetry) E.A. Literature Bureau.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1970. Abstract

n/a

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Pulp and Paper Industry in Kenya.". In: paper prepared for ILO, Geneva. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1991. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Pulmonary Tumour and Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Horse. ." Kenya Veterinarian. 1992;16:13-17.
Bwangamoi O, Varma S. "Pulmonary Tumour and Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Horse." Kenya Veterinarian. 1992;16:13-17. Abstract
n/a
Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-91. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-391. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Ogeng'o JA, Obimbo MM, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Ong'era D. "Pulmonary thromboembolism in an East African tertiary referral hospital." J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2011;32(3):386-91. Abstract

Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a frequent cause of mortality in Kenya, but its characteristics are hardly reported in Subsaharan Africa. To describe the pattern of PTE among black Africans, in a Kenyan referral hospital. Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Kenya. Records of patients seen between January 2005 and December 2009 were examined for mode of diagnosis, comorbidities, age, gender, treatment and outcome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 and are presented in tables and bar charts. One hundred and twenty-eight (60 male; 68 female) cases were analyzed. Diagnosis was made by clinical evaluation, a Well's score of >4.0, high D-dimer levels and ultrasound demonstration of a proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT, 35.9%), lung spiral computer tomography (CT, 50%), multidetector CT (7.8%) and angiography (6.3%). Most frequent comorbidities included DVT (36%); hypertension (18.8%); pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, 12.5%); HIV infection (10.9%), pueperium, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking (9.4% each). Mean age was 40.8 years (range 5-86 years) with a peak between 30 and 50 years. Over 46% of patients were aged 40 years and less. Male:female ratio was 1:1.13. All the patients were treated with anticoagulants and thrombolytics with only one having embolectomy. Ninety-two patients (71.9%) recovered, 18.8% of them with cor pulmonale, while 28.1% died. PTE is not uncommon in Kenya. It affects many individuals below 40 years without a gender bias, and carries high morbidity and mortality. Associated comorbidities include venous thrombosis, lifestyle conditions and communicable diseases. Control measures targeting both are recommended.

Oyoo.G.O, Genga.E. "Pulmonary manifestations in scleroderma: a review.". In: ISSN.; 2014. Abstractpulmonary_manifestations1.pdf

Background: Scleroderma is a chronic
multisystem autoimmune disease of
unknown aetiology. Scleroderma is
characterized by widespread obliterative
vasculopathy of small arteries and is
associated with varying degrees of tissue
fibrosis and multiple organ involvement.
Pulmonary disease is an important
component of SSc. It is estimated that
80% of patients with SSc have some
evidence of pulmonary disease. Systemic
sclerosis has the poorest prognosis
amongst rheumatology diseases with
the highest case-specific mortality of any
of the autoimmune rheumatic diseases
as well as causing major morbidity.
Objective: This article will review
pathogenesis, diagnosis and
management of pulmonary disease in
scleroderma.
Data source: Literature review of
relevant published literature from both
Africa and the rest of the world.
Data synthesis: The pathogenesis of
lung disease in scleroderma involves
a variety of pathways, including
immunological/inflammatory activation
and vascular injury. The primary
cytokines responsible for the disease
are unknown but it is postulated that it
involves a complex interplay between
inflammatory, B lymphocyte antibody
production, oxidative stress and fibrotic
pathways. This leads to the activation
of lung fibroblasts by inflammatory and
fibrotic mediators. Lung fibroblasts play
a central role in the deposition of excess
intracellular matrix. This inflammatory
response leads to fibrosis and occurs in
the setting of vascular derangements.
The most common symptoms are dry
cough and dyspnea on exertion. The
high morbidity and mortality seen in
SSc is generally attributed to the two
major pulmonary manifestations of the
disease: interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, or
interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary
arterial hypertension. Exertional dyspnea
and dry cough are the most common
presenting symptoms in patients
with SSc who develop pulmonary
involvement Algorithm of diagnostic
procedures in these patients does not
Department of Clinical
Medicine and Therapeutics,
College of Health Sciences,
University of Nairobi, Kenya
Corresponding author:
Dr GO Oyoo. Email:
geomondi@hotmail.com
Review Article
differ considerably from the procedures
of any other interstitial lung disease. At
the current time, cyclophosphamide
remains the best studied therapeutic
agent although alternatives are actively
being evaluated. The pathogenesis of
pulmonary disease in scleroderma is
still an enigma and is being actively
researched. This will advance our
understanding of the disease and ability
to care for these patients.
Conclusion: Pulmonary complications
are common in SSc and are the leading
causes of death. Careful evaluation
by the clinician is warranted to detect
the presence of an ILD and to select
patients appropriately for consideration
of therapy. It is a major clinical challenge
largely due to the enigma of the disease
pathology as well as limited therapeutic
options available. This is compounded
by the perceived lack of evidence for
clinical effectiveness of those treatments
that are currently in use. Clinical trials
are underway and offer hope for novel
approaches to this mysterious and
often devastating manifestation of
scleroderma.

E. Genga, Oyoo GO. "Pulmonary Manifestations in Scleroderma: A Reveiw." Africa Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(1):4-12. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology. Scleroderma is characterized by widespread obliterative vasculopathy of small arteries and is associated with varying degrees of tissue fibrosis and multiple organ involvement. Pulmonary disease is an important component of SSc. It is estimated that 80% of patients with SSc have some evidence of pulmonary disease.Systemic sclerosis has the poorest prognosis amongst rheumatology diseases with the highest case-specific mortality of any of the autoimmune rheumatic diseases as well as causing major morbidity
OBJECTIVE: This article will review pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of pulmonary disease in scleroderma.
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world
DATA SYNTHESIS:The pathogenesis of lung disease in scleroderma involves a variety of pathways, including immunological/inflammatory activation and vascular injury. The primary cytokines responsible for the disease are unknown but it is postulated that it involves a complex interplay between inflammatory, B lymphocyte antibody production, oxidative stress and fibrotic pathways. This leads to the activation of lung fibroblasts by inflammatory and fibrotic mediators. Lung fibroblasts play a central role in the deposition of excess intracellular matrix. This inflammatory response leads to fibrosis and occurs in the setting of vascular derangements.The most common symptoms are dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. The high morbidity and mortality seen in SSc is generally attributed to the two major pulmonary manifestations of the disease: interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, or interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Exertional dyspnea and dry cough are the most common presenting symptoms in patients with SSc who develop pulmonary involvement Algorithm of diagnostic procedures in these patients does not differ considerably from the procedures of any other interstitial lung disease. At the current time, cyclophosphamide remains the best studied therapeutic agent although alternatives are actively being evaluated. The pathogenesis of pulmonary disease in scleroderma is still an enigma and is being actively researched. This will advance our understanding of the disease and ability to care for these patients.
CONCLUSION: Pulmonary complications are common in SSc and are the leading causes of death. Careful evaluation by the clinician is warranted to detect the presence of an ILD and to select patients appropriately for consideration of therapy. It is a major clinical challenge largely due to the enigma of the disease pathology as well as limited therapeutic options available. This is compounded by the perceived lack of evidence for clinical effectiveness of those treatments that are currently in use. Clinical trials are underway and offer hope for novel approaches to this mysterious and often devastating manifestation of scleroderma.

Sprung CL, Rackow EC, Fein IA. "Pulmonary edema; a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis." Chest. 1980;77:687-688. Abstract

Hemodynamic evaluation in two patients and analysis of pulmonary edema fluid in one patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pulmonary edema were performed. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in both patients were low or normal (1 and 9 mm Hg). In one patient the colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema fluid was 68 percent of the value of the serum. The serum colloid osmotic pressure-pulmonary arterial wedge pressure gradient in the second patient was markedly reduced. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces.

Makanya AN, Hlushchuk R, Djonov V. "The pulmonary blood-gas barrier in the avian embryo: inauguration, development and refinement." Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;178(1):30-8. Abstract

In vertebrates, efficient gas exchange depends primarily on establishment of a thin blood-gas barrier (BGB). The primordial air conduits of the developing avian lung are lined with a cuboidal epithelium that is ultimately converted to a squamous one that participates in the formation of the BGB. In the early stages, cells form intraluminal protrusions (aposomes) then transcellular double membranes separating the aposome from the basal part of the cell establish, unzip and sever the aposome from the cell. Additionally, better endowed cells squeeze out adjacent cells or such cells constrict spontaneously thus extruding the squeezed out aposome. Formation of vesicles or vacuoles below the aposome and fusion of such cavities with their neighboring cognates results in severing of the aposome. Augmentation of cavities and their subsequent fusion with the apical plasma membranes results in formation of numerous microfolds separating concavities on the apical part of the cell. Abscission of such microfolds results in a smooth squamous epithelium just before hatching.

S O, SK M, FJ G. "Pull-Out Resistance Of 3 Different Plant Species And Their Application In Slope Stabilization Works." Journal Of Engineering Indian Centre For Advanced Scientific And Technological Research ” (Icastor ) . 2012;Volume 5( No. 1 ).pull-out_resistance_of_3_different_plant_species_and.pdf
Osano, S.N., Mwea SK, Gichaga FJ. "Pull-out resistance of 3 different plant species and their application in slope stabilization works." Icastor Journal of Engineering. India.. 2012;5(1).
Ongeti KW, Ogeng’o J, Gakuu LN, Saidi H. "A Pulei Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc in an African Population: Kenyan Experience." East Afrcan Orthopedic Journal. 2012;6:12-15.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Pulei AN, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Döpfer D, Ersbøll AK, Evans R, Gettinby G, Gitau GK. "Publisher's Acknowledgement.". 2004.
Karthik S, Djukic T, Kim J-D, Zuber B, Makanya A, Odriozola A, Hlushchuk R, Filipovic N, Jin SW, Djonov V. "Publisher Correction: Synergistic interaction of sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis during zebrafish caudal vein plexus development." Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):4152. Abstract

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Published the M.Ed. Thesis with African Academy of Sciences (Kenya Office).". In: African Academy of Sciences (Kenya Office). Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1994.
WAYA PROFMICHIEKARATEMO. "Published several papers in local and international journals.". In: THE ICEMSSP PROGRAMME. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Published Photographs.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published an article in Eastern Africa Law Review: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled .". In: A Journal of Law and Development, Vols. 35-40, entitled. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
CAXTON MRNYAHELA. "Published an Article entitled "EPICURUNISM".". In: In the Kenya Journal of Adult Education. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: aulines Publications Africa, 2009 pp. 75-89. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 2008. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: Berlin: German Council on Foreign Relations, 2008 pp. 11-22. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Published a chapter entitled .". In: book entitled Rethinking Ecology and Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa, ACTS Press, 2007, forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

Zaja JO. "Publicizing the Private: Femini st Locution in Taarab Songs and performance .". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Scholars have for long deliberated and debated what is truly public and private in the articulation of feminist agendas in the world of Kiswahili artistic compositions. This is true for the various written literary texts in all genres as well as the diverse strands of taarab music/poetry compositions. The issues that are central in animating feminist locution in these art forms and which contribute to the incessant making and re-making of the feminist public and private spaces are neither fixed nor immutable—hence the shifting of these factors from time to time dictate the nature and essence of the contestations of what ought to be public and private. In other words, given that women’s voice in both are forms—song and written literature—are ever changi ng, so too is the discussion of what is rightly perceive d as public or private. Thus, what constitutes public and pr ivate in the myriad interests of feminist discourses and therefore what animates locution in such discourses is dependent on concrete material interests as well as the relations those interests evoke. These interests are central in informing disputations with other contending interests, occasioning either expressions of dissatisfaction or affirmation. Consequently, strategic and pragmatic political positioning, control schisms and schemes, ge nder relations and mate rial contestations ar e always constant and continuous themes that get critically nuanc ed in these disputati ons—hence the gist of these compositions. There has been much animated critiquing of feminist image presentations and gender articulation in Kiswahili writing, but there has not been sim ilar and thorough going interest shown in the Swahili taarab song. Yet it is a sphere that is predominantly and conspicuously female in terms of its subject matter, compositi on and performance, a sphere in which there is a subtle politicization and public ization of supposedly private feminist concerns. However, the few studies on the Swahili taarab song and pe rformance have indeed pointed out that the whole taarab discourse is an intimately fema le sphere that foster s and advances women’s voices (Fair, L. 2001, Askew, K. M. 2002). Taarab songs have a long a nd rich history as a medium of social commentary among the inhabitants of the East African coast. This is a hi story that dates back to the last quarter of the 19 th century (1870 onwards) during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Bargash in the Zanzibar Sultanate. Taarab at that time was essentially an elite court music sang in Arabic within the courts of the ruling Arab elite, the merchant cl ass as well as the land owing aristocracy. It was as such inevitably performed on imported E gyptian and Arabic music instruments. Its transition to Kiswahili and therefore, its movement away from the sultan’s courts to the general public is credited to Siti binti Saad a woman of sl ave ancestry (Askew, ibid), who having observed and internalized th e intricacies of taarab music, its artistry and potential as a 2 terrain for social articulation, started com posing and singing taarab songs in Kiswahili. Taarab songs are as such sung Swahili oral poetry, primarily by women as singers and performers and less often as composers. (It should be noted, however, many taarab songs have multiple composers in the sense that one pe rson will be credited with the poem, another with music arrangement and a nother with singing. It is not uncommon for one person to combine all the credits). Taarab, as Askew (102- 3) explains, takes its name from the Arabic tarabun meaning joy, pleasure, delight, rapture, amus ement, entertainment, music, or ecstasy, a complete engagement with music. It is impe rative to add that this “complete engagement with music” spanning poetic composition, music arrangement and performance, is not essentially a private affair but rather a publicly accessible ar t form whose rendition spans both private and public interests, and in which wh at is sung is not only open to multiple interpretations, but also constitutes social action deployed to ne gotiate socioeconomic relations. Both Fair and Askew are agreed that, taarab songs are composed as social commentaries in which women as “composers” respond to and tr ansform local debates about class, gender and social relations into vers e and weave personal and communal experiences into songs, sung as personal statements on mo rals, relations and pr obity. The taarab song lyrics are embellished poetic compositions, rich in literary devices through which the songs ridicule socially unacceptable and deviant beha vior, praise and insult, warn and admonish perceived or imaginary personal or collectiv e enemies. The messages in the songs are sometimes products of true life experiences, po pular beliefs and discer nible lifestyles. They also reflect the nature of relations to social institutions, modes of inte rrelations or material circumstances. They may also be protests to or affirmations of social morals/behaviors such as greed, idleness, gossip, rumour and all manner of abhorrent sexual misconduct. Furthermore, they are also expressions of j oy, elation and personal or collective triumph. In essence, the songs are intricate yet generalized responses to soci al realities, beliefs, traditions, material conditions and institutional dynamics normally projected as personal or collective needs, desires, losses, miseries— in a word, various forms of social, economic and political struggles. They are in essence subtle strategies deployed to question, analyz e and reshape material and social relations. They are strata gems set out to publici ze and politicize private struggles—thus bringing into the public domai n subjects routinely muted, yet important at pointing out marginalized social act ors and competing alliances. By using extracts from three popular taarab s ongs, this paper examines how the taarab song lyrics in performance are viable sphe res for publicizing private pillow business. 3 Analyses of both the songs and their performances show clearly that they intricately articulate desires either denied or unful filled, with nuanced enunciations where the private and the public mutually interconnect a nd interrelate. Consequently the songs are an exposé, depiction and a rendition of underlying interactions tied to multiple and variable feminist locutions. Primarily, this paper, demonstrates how such locutions considered private are enabled— literally aired—through the public performance, recording and airplay of taarab songs

WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
WAMBUGU DRSTANLEYNDIRITU, MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER, WAWERU DRGAKUYADANIEL, IKUSYA PROFKANUITITUS, GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "PUBLICATIONS 1. SN Wambugu, PM. Mathiu, DW. Gakuya, TI. Kanui, JD. Kabasa, SG. Kiama. Medicinal plants used in the management of chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 137, (2011) 945.". In: Journal of Etnopharmacology. Elsevier; 2011. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Migosi JA, Ndiku JM, Ndege TM. "Publication Output by Academicians in Kenyan Universities." Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2011;1(1):98-104.
Obosi OJ. "Public-Private Partnerships in Kenya’s Water Sector Management.". In: Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance . Springer; 2017.
Obudho RA. "Public Transport in Nairobi.". 2000.
Chitere PP. "PUBLIC SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS IN KENYA: Their characteristics and compliance with traffic regulations and prospects for the future." International Journal of Social Sciences. 2010;2(10):45-55. Abstract

Public Service Vehicles (PSVs) are the dominant mode of transport in Kenya. Majority of their drivers are younger having attained some secondary school education as well as some training in driving. The drivers, however, work for more days and hours per week and have no regular and reliable remuneration package. These poor conditions of work coupled with poor training and lack of discipline on roads have been found to account for their low level of compliance with traffic regulations and rules. Low compliance has in turn been found to explain the high rate of road crashes and associated fatalities and injuries of passengers and pedestrians. Between 2003-2004, the government made efforts to gazette and enforce traffic regulations and rules. Whereas there was slight reduction in road crashes, fatalities and injuries, the road safety situation soon reverted back to its earlier level. The study sought to find out reasons for persistence of drivers’ non-compliance and their characteristics that accounted for non-compliance and prospects for reduction of the problem on a sustainable basis. One hundred and twenty five (125) PSV drivers were sampled and interviewed in the cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu. Additional data was collected from key informants and desk reviews. It was found that despite enforcement by the police, there was high non-compliance of the drivers with the regulations. To improve compliance, there is need, among other things, for gradual transformation of the ownership and management of PSVs from individual investor- and association- to company ownership and management, improved basic and refresher training and road safety awareness efforts targeting various stakeholders.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Public Service Reform in Kenya: Lessons and Experience," in Kiragu, K., and Mutahaba, G., (eds.), Public Service Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Issues and Challenges, Dar es Saalam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2006. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Wanyande P, Odhiambo-Mbai C. Public Service Ethics in Kenya.; 2001.Website
Obosi J. The Public Service Delivery Challenge: A Public-Private Sector Partnership In Water Service Provision In The Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstractphd_thesis.-_joseph_okeyo_obosi_.pdf

The study investigated how public-private partnership arrangements have perfomed in the provision of water services in Kenya. This is with a view to explain the extent to which this increasingly preferred public service delivery approach has improved access to water in terms of coverage, affordability, quality of water and customer service.

The broad objective of the study was to investigate outcomes of the Private -Public Partnership policy for provision of water as a public good as a challenge in Kenya. Specific objectives are as follows: First, to analyze the nature and scope of Public- Private Partnership arrangements in the water sector; secondly, to examine the gains from organizational managerial strategies in the provision of water services, and finally, to analyse appropriate interventions adopted to enhance the accessibility of water services notably by vulnerable consumers.

The study used secondary data and primary data from a household survey of 288 respondents, seven (7) Focus Group Discussions, and 28 Key informant interviews from seven (7) WSPs (Mogombet, Chemosit, Boya, KIWASCO, SNWSCO, MIKUTRA and Nyasare) of the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board (LVSWSB) umbrella. The study was conducted under two mutually reinforcing theories: governance theory and public choice theory. We used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the data. The techniques included use of content analysis of secondary data, frequency tables and cross tabulations to measure the central tendencies and dispersions.

The main finding was that public institutions that have adopted more private sector participation have performed better than those that have not, hence the more the public private sector partnership, the better the quality of public service delivery.
Highlights of findings specificically include the following: that there are various stakeholders, both institutional and individual involved in water service provision either through interventions or as facilitators, for example, the government through WSTF provides funds to community water projects in the provision of water services.; there is more private participation independence as WSPs increasingly become less involved together with the government in service operations and management; the existing policy on organization of water resources management does not guarantee effective popular participation given the formal governance structure; community water projects with more public private sector participation implemented better, on average, the required managerial strategies such as Enterprise Design; Operational roles; Network management; and Human resource functions.

The study recommended first, a realignment of the national water regulatory agency (WSRB) to be in charge of both service provision and resource management. Secondly, the “Service Provider” role of the state should be changed to that of a regulator of services and facilitator. The idea is to make a shift which necessitates strengthening of institutions responsible for planning, implementation and management of water resources. Water service operation should be left to the community and private operators. Third, the Water Service Trust Fund (WSTF) funding level should be enhanced substantially to finance community or private water operators with viable proposals to provide water to the community without having to go through Water Service Boards.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Public Sector Retrenchment and Redeployment: The Case of Kenya.". In: An ILO Working Paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1992. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Public Sector Employment in Eastern Africa" Paper presented at a Workshop on Employment Issues in Eastern Africa.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1970. Abstract
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Preston Chitere, Dorothy McCormick, Risper Orero, Winnie Mitullah, Ommeh. M. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi, Kenya: A Case Study of the Potential for Their Conversion into a Hybrid Transport Mode.". In: Southern Africa Transport Conference. Pretoria, South Africa; 2012.
PRESTON CHITERE. "Public Road Transport Services in the City of Nairobi.". In: South African Transport Conference (SATC). Pretoria.; 2012.
Kamau, Paul OW. "Public Procurement Reforms: Lessons from Kenya,Tanzania and Uganda." OECD Technical Paper Number 208; 2004. Abstract
n/a
KURIA MRKAMAUPAUL. "Public Procurement Reforms: Lessons from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, (With W. Odhiambo) OECD Technical Paper Number 208, March 2003.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2003.
Obosi OJ. "Public Private Partnetships in the Privatization of Water Service Delivery in Kenya.". In: Current Issues of Water Management. Rijeka: Intech; 2011. Abstract

Key words: Public - Private Partnerships, Privatization, Water service delivery
The Government of Kenya has introduced several water reforms in the provision of
water services since independence in 1963. The Local Government Act Chapter 165
of the laws of Kenya granted local authorities powers to engage in water services
provision especially in urban areas (Republic of Kenya, 1986b). The Water Act of
2002 introduced far reaching reforms in the water sector in terms of management and
provision services. It commercialized the provision of water services by forming
Public Limited Companies (PLCs) owned by respective local authorities. It also
allowed private sector participation in the provision of services. Individual companies
and communities have also been permitted to seek license from Water Services
Regulatory Board (WSRB) to provide water services to the public. Among the
private sector actors are independent water service Providers in the form of
community water projects, Private bore-holes, Water tankers, and Water kiosks.
Community water projects request for funds for putting up water projects from a state
organ known as Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF), hence the Public –Private
Partnerships. The paper examines the effectiveness of the existing policy and
institutional framework for the management of privatized water service delivery.
The paper particularly examines institutional monitoring mechanisms in ensuring
clean quality water is supplied to the unsuspecting poor. Are there clear mechanisms
in which the public through the state institutions regulate the water service provision
by private actors, as a requirement, before water is released to the public? How can
the private sector be made accountable for offering public goods.
The study has drawn its data from secondary data of randomly selected ten (10)
independent water service providers registered under two of the eight (8) Water
Service Boards (WSBs) in Kenya, namely, Rift Valley Water Service Board
(RVVWSB), and Athi Water Service Board (AWSB). The data was drawn from the
existing secondary data and was analyzed through content Analysis.
The paper has utilized the World Bank framework for the provision of transaction
intensive services as its analytical framework where water is taken as a transactionintensive
service with ministry of Water Development and Irrigation being policy
maker. Provider organizations include Water Resource Management authority
(WRMA), Water Service Regulatory board (WSRB), and Water Service Boards
(WSBs) as water providers. Water Service Providers (WSPs) are agents of WSBs.
WSPs include PLCs registered by the respective local authorities, and independent
ones including Community Water projects, and Water Kiosks.
The paper is expected to among others, identify and explain some role overlaps
between WRMA and WSBs since both can set water tariffs and there are weak
institutional arrangements to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency in the
operations of the independent water service providers.

Obosi OJOO& A. "Public Private Partnerships as a redistributive strategy in in University Education in Kenya." International Journal Of Innovative Knowledge and Research . 2018;3(9):44-55.
x James Karenge GGWM &. "Public Policy Marketing Practices and Performance of Poverty Reduction Projects in the Agricultural Sector in Central Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Humanities . 2018;4(2).
Kanyinga K. "Public participation is not civic education, don’t confuse the two." Daily Nation, April 24, 2016.
Rego AB. "Public Participation and Environmental Education." Public Participation and Environmental Education. 1994.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Public Opinion and Press Coverage of US-Canadian Relations" Paper presented at the Inter-University Seminar on International Relations. Ottawa 1972.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1972. Abstract
n/a
Hansen R, Emborg J, Neergaard M, Dalsgaard S. "The public nature of private forestry.". 1997.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. Public land, historical land injustices and the new Constitution. . Nairobi: Society for International Development, Regional Office for East & Southern Africa; 2011.
Otieno VN, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "Public Involvement in Environmental Decision Making in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 10):pp 185-193.
Odote C. "Public Interest Litigation and Climate Change: An Example from Kenya.". In: Climate Change Law: International law and Global Governance. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Publishers; 2013.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Public interest and private benefit in land use policy: a case study of the Lake Victoria basin Authority"; in C.O. Okidi (ed.); Natural Resources and Development of the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya, IDS Occassional Paper No.34.". In: Paper for the Walter Rodney Seminar Series, African Studies Centre, Boston University, USA Decembe 8. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1980. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
E.N. PN. "Public health. Reducing HIV transmission in developing countries.". 2001. Abstract

Science. 2001 Apr 13;292(5515):224-5.
Public health. Reducing HIV transmission in developing countries.
Jha P, Nagelkerke JD, Ngugi EN, Prasada Rao JV, Willbond B, Moses S, Plummer FA.
Source
Economics Advisory Service, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
PMID:
11305312
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers, April.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, P SAOKE. "Public Health Consequences of small arms injuries.". 2004.
MUTUKU MRKISIMBIJOHNBOSCO. "PUBLIC FINANCE:- (DISTANCE LEARNING MODULE FOR KENYA METHODIST UNIVERSITY).". In: The TTMI project and the picnic model. Proc. of at both local and international levels a TTMI workshop April 1994 Nairobi, Kenya. (ISBNo 90-6754-403-5) pp136-146. University of nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
SIFUNJO DRKISAKAERASTUS. Public Finance, Open and Distance Learning Module,. University of Nairobi Press; 2009. AbstractWebsite

This study examined the RWH using the run tests, Ljung-Box statistics, and the unit root tests. The data covered the period starting January 1994 to June 2007 for the daily closing prices of the Ksh/UD dollar spot rate. The main finding of this study is that the RWH is strongly rejected at the 5% significance level. The results indicate that the rejections are due to autocorrelation in currency returns. The exchange rate tends to appreciate most of the time over the sample period. Therefore failure of the EMH could be due to exchange rate undershooting and overshooting phenomena. The unit root tests showed that the exchange rate data is non-stationary while returns are stationary. Therefore the evidence strongly suggested that the foreign exchange market is not efficient.

JAMES PROFODEK. ""Public Domain in Patentability after the Uruguay Round: Developing Country Perspective with Specific Reference to Kenya" Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1995. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Maluki P. "Public Diplomacy.". In: Role of the Media. Nairobi; 2010.
Mwega FM. "Public Debt Constraints to Financing Pro - Poor Growth.". In: Financing Pro - Poor Growth in Afri ca, AERC Senior Policy Seminar VI.; 2004.
Mwega FM, Rwegasira D. "Public Debt and Macroeconomic Management in Sub - Saharan Africa.". In: UNCTAD, Management of Capital Flows: Comparative Experiences and Implications for Africa, UNCTAD/GDS/MDPB/2003/1, 2003 .; 2003.
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "Public and Private Transfers.". In: NTA Meetings. University of Cape Town, South Africa; 2010.
WAMBUI JANE. "Public Administration in Kenya -." Concept paper presented at a conference of FAWE ; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Marco M, Deyou T, Gruhonjic A, Holleran JP, Duffy S, Heydenreich M, Fitzpatric PA, Landberg G, Koch A, Derese S, Pelletier J, Avery VM, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Pterocarpans and Isoflavones from the Root Bark of Millettia micans and of Millettia dura." Advances in Drug Discovery and Development. 2016: 1-8. Abstract

Pterocarpans and Isoflavones from the Root Bark of Millettia micans and of
Millettia dura
Makungu Marco1, Tsegaye Deyou1,2, Amra Gruhonjic2,5, John P. Holleran3, Sandra Duffy3,
Matthias Heydenreich4, Paul A. Fitzpatrick5, Göran Landberg5, Andreas Koch4, Solomon
Derese1, Jerry Pelletier6, Vicky M. Avery3, Máté Erdélyi2,7,* and Abiy Yenesew1,*
1Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Department of
Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Discovery
Biology, Eskitis Institute for drug discovery, Griffith University, Nathan Qld 4111 Australia; 4Institut für Chemie,
Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany; 5Sahlgrenska Cancer
Centre, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Biochemistry, McGill
University, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada and 7Swedish NMR Center, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box
465, SE-40530, Gothenburg, Sweden
Abstract: From the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia micans, a new pterocarpan,
(6aR,11aR)-7,8,9-trimethoxy-3-hydroxypterocarpan (1), named micanspterocarpan, was isolated. Similar
investigation of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia dura gave a further new pterocarpan,
3-O-prenylmaackiain (2) along with six known isoflavones (3-8) and a chalcone (9). All purified
compounds were identified by NMR and MS, and the absolute configuration of 1 was established by quantum
chemical CD calculation. The isolated constituents, calopogonium isoflavone B (3) and isoerythrin A-4'-
(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether (4) showed marginal activities against the 3D7 and the Dd2 strains of Plasmodium
falciparum (70-90% inhibition at 40

Derese S. "Pterocarpans and isoflavones from the root bark of Millettia micans and of Millettia dura." Phytochemistry Letters . 2017;21:216-220. Abstract

From the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia micans, a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3-hydroxy-7,8,9-trimethoxypterocarpan (1), named micanspterocarpan, was isolated. Similar investigation of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) extract of the root bark of Millettia dura gave a further new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-8,9-methylenedioxy-3-prenyloxypterocarpan (2), named 3-O-prenylmaackiain, along with six known isoflavones (3-8) and a chalcone (9). All purified compounds were identified by NMR and MS, whereas the absolute configurations of the new pterocarpans were established by chriptical data analyses including quantum chemical ECD calculation. Among the isolated constituents, calopogonium isoflavone B (3) and isoerythrin A-4′-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) ether (4) showed marginal activities against the 3D7 and the Dd2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum (70–90% inhibition at 40 μM). Maximaisoflavone B (5) and 7,2′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone (7) were weakly cytotoxic (IC50 153.5 and 174.1 μM, respectively) against the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. None of the tested compounds showed in-vitro translation inhibitory activity or toxicity against the HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cell line at 40 μM.

Ndetei DM, Mburu JM, Kathuku DM, Kangethe R, Owino SO, Hagengimana. "Psychotrauma Training of Trauma in Rwanda.". 1995.
Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, McManus S, Kiima D. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders."; 2012.
Jenkins R, Njenga F, Okonji M, Kigamwa P, Baraza M, Ayuyo J, Singleton N, Kiima D, McManus S. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya--prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders.". 2012. Abstract

There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 people. The psychosis screening questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the preceding twelve months. The response rate was 87.6%. The prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms in this sample size. Psychotic symptoms were evenly distributed across this relatively poor rural population and were significantly associated with presence of common mental disorders, and to a lesser extent with poor physical health and housing type. We conclude that single psychotic symptoms are relatively common in rural Kenya and rates are elevated in those with CMD, poor physical health and poor housing.

Kuria MW. "Psychotic Disorders Chapter 7.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Psychotherapy, (il)literacy and information communication and technologies: building bridges to literacy excellence." Journal of Education and Human Development. 2017;6(2):128-138.
Rono R, Onene T, Kilonzo G, editor Ndetei, D.M., Obondo A. "Psychotherapy."; 2006.
Muthami J. "Psychotherapeutic Techniques: Approaches to Counseling Techniques and Psychotherapy. ." 4. Psychotherapeutic Techniques: Approaches to Counseling Techniques and Psychotherapy. . 2012;1(1).
Kamau A, Bornemann R, Laaser U. "Psychosocial influences on adolescent sexuality and identity in rural Kenya." Health Sociology Review. 2006;15(3):305-316.
Wairire GG. "Psychosocial care for orphaned and vulnerable children in Kenya.". In: International Symposium for Practitioners and Policy Specialists on addressing the needs of Young Carers. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA. "Psychosocial and health aspects of drug use by students in public secondary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of family, psychosocial, health, demographic, and behavioral characteristics on regular drug use. All the students of 17 randomly stratified public secondary schools in Nairobi were required to complete self-administered sociodemographic and the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) questionnaires in a cross-sectional descriptive study. All the 1328 students, of whom 58.9% were male, responded to all the questions, giving a response rate of 100%. The mean age of the respondents was 16 years and 78.1% were in boarding school. One third (33.9%) scored positively for substance abuse. Significant correlations were found between several domains of substance abuse and school, class, mode of school attendance, age, and gender. Students abusing drugs have multiple comorbidity of medical, psychological, and social pathologies. There are evidence-based intervention entry points for drug abuse that go beyond mere impartation on knowledge about the harmful effects of drugs.

Ndetei DM, Kuria MW. "Psychosis – An African Perspective.". 2009.
Jaldesa GW, Qureshi ZP, Kigondu CS. "Psychosexual problems associated with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr. . 2010;22(1):1-6.
Mburu J, editor Ndetei, D.M., Kitazi N, Ongecha-Owuor F, Musisi S, Kilonzo G, Szabo CP, MB S. "Psychopharmacotherapy."; 2006.
Mburu J, editor Ndetei, D.M., Gakinya B, Ongecha-Owuor F, Musisi S, Kilonzo G, Szabo CP, Sebit MB. "Psychopathology."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya DA, Omar A, Gakinya B, Mwangi J. "Psychometric Properties of an Africa Symptoms check list.". 2006.psychometric_properties_of_an_africa_symptoms_check_list.pdf
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Psychology of Time Present and Time Past: An Analysis of Literary and Biographical Creations.". In: Journal of Poetry Therapy 18.3 (September 2005): 1-9. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

In this article the author argues that one

Mwaura L. "The Psychology of Gender and Human Sexuality." Intimacy and Sanctity of Sexuality. Forthcoming.
Muthami J. "Psychology of Adjustment: ." Psychology of Adjustment: . 2012;1(1).Psychology of Adjustment
Kariuki PW, C.O.N K, P.W G. "Psychology in Kenya .” Psychology International,." 18. 2007;Nr.1 (18).
Kosgei DC, Mageto IG, Wagoro MC. "PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AMONG SURVIVORS SEEKING CARE AT GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CLINIC OF KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." International Academic Journal of Medical and Clinical Practice. 2020;5:19-34. Abstract
n/a
Muthami J. "Psychological Contract: Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts." Psychological Contract: Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts. 2011;1(1).Psychological Contract Determinants and effects of Psychological Contracts
T
P
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients.". In: Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. MBA; 2005. Abstract
D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients. MBA; 2005. AbstractWebsite

D. M. Ndetei, D. M. Kathuku, O. W. Mwanda. Research proposal: Psychological aspects of the paediatric cancer patients in Kenyatta National Hospital . 2005

""Psychological Aspects of African Healing"." Hekima Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 2009;Vol.IV NUMBER 1.
Kariuki PW. "Psychological Adjustment to Changes that occur during menopause among Rural and Urban Women." In Journal of Family Therapy. 2011;20(No.7, ):38-51.
Kariuki PW. "Psychological Adjustment to Changes that occur during menopause among Rural and Urban Women." Journal of Family Therapy. 2011;20(7):38-51.
Rintaugu EG, Masiga M, Mwangi IM, Were H, Litaba SA, Kinoti J, Kubai JI. "Psycho-social attributes of Kenyan university athletes: social learning and motivational theories perspectives." American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2012;2(12):126-135.
Gitonga E, Bailasha NK, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attributes of elite African women volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):1-12.
Bailasha NK, Rintaugu EG, Toriola AL. "Psycho-social attribute of elite African Women Volleyball players." African journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation, sports andDance(AJPHERD). 2011;17(3):535-546.
Gakinya B, Mburu J, Ongecha-Owuor F, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Psycho-Neurological Investigations."; 2006.
Ongecha-Owuor F, Mburu J, Gakinya B, editor Ndetei, D.M. "Psycho-neurochemistry."; 2006.
M.OGUTU. "Psychic Distances as an explanatory variable for Kenyan Export Development. International Journal of Finance and Accounting Behaviour, 2009.". In: International Journal of Finance and Accounting Behaviour, 2009. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2009. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

Kuria MW. "Psychiatry of the Elderly Chapter 16.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Kuria MW. "Psychiatry Assessment Chapter 1.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
PIUS DRKIGAMWA. "Psychiatric morbidity and referral rate among medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital.Kigamwa A.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):383-8. EAMJ; 1991. Abstract
Psychiatric morbidity among 200 medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital was determined by a two-stage screening procedure, using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and standardized psychiatric interview (SPI). 44 (22%) of the total sample of 200 patients who were interviewed met the pre-established criteria for psychiatric morbidity; of these 59% comprised affective disorders. 4 (9%) of the psychiatric morbidity cases were referred for psychiatric evaluation. Referral seemed to be related to severity of illness and a previous history of psychiatric illness. There was no evidence in the notes that the psychiatric problems had been detected, treated or dealt with in any other way by the medical team in 34 patients out of 44 with psychiatric morbidity. Increase in the mental health input in the training of all health workers with emphasis on recognition and management of some of the commoner psychological problems is recommended.
Syengo-Mutisya CM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among sexually abused children and adolescents.". 2008.
Kanyanya IM, Othieno CJ, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among male sex offenders at Kamiti Prison, Kenya.". 2007.
Kamau JW, Kuria W, Mathai M, & LA, Kangethe R. "Psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected children and adolescents in a resource-poor Kenyan urban community, ." AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV . 2012;24:7: 836-842.
Kamau JW, Kuria W, Mathai M, Atwoli L, Kangethe R. "Psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected children and adolescents in a resource-poor Kenyan urban community.". 2012. Abstract

The course of HIV / AIDS in children has been transformed from an acute to a chronic one with the advent of Anti-Retroviral Therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity in HIV-infected children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age and the relationship between their socio-demographic factors, immune suppression and psychiatric morbidity. The study was conducted at a paediatric HIV clinic in Nairobi, between February and April 2010. One hundred and sixty-two HIV-infected children and adolescents aged between 6 and 18 years and their guardians were interviewed. Seventy-nine (48.8%) of the study participants were found to have psychiatric morbidity. The most prevalent Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th Edition TR psychiatric disorders were: Major depression (17.8%), Social phobia (12.8%), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (12.1 %) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (12.1 %). Twenty-five per cent of the study participants had more than one psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in HIV-infected children is higher than that found in children in the general population. There is therefore a need to integrate psychiatric services into the routine care of HIV-infected children.

Maru SM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi juvenile court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty-four males and twenty-six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60), and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: A socio-demographic questionnaire, reporting questionnaire for children (RQC), follow-up interview for children (FIC), present state examination (PSE) and clinical interview were administered to the subjects. International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: The crude psychiatric morbidity (CPM) rate was 44.4%. ICD-10 documented psychiatric disorders detected in those with CPM were conduct disorders 45%, mixed disorders of conduct and emotion 20%, emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood 20%, mood disorders 12.5% and hyperkinetic disorders 2.5%. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of psychiatric morbidity in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court. These juveniles need and would benefit from mental treatment as recommended in section 18 of Cap 141 of the laws of Kenya; The Children's and Young Persons Act

Maru HM, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya.". 2003. Abstract

To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi juvenile court, Kenya. DESIGN: A point prevalence survey. SETTING: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Ninety (sixty-four males and twenty-six females) children and young persons aged 8 to 18 years classified as criminal offenders, group I (60), and those for protection and discipline, group II (30), were selected. METHOD: A socio-demographic questionnaire, reporting questionnaire for children (RQC), follow-up interview for children (FIC), present state examination (PSE) and clinical interview were administered to the subjects. International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria were used. RESULTS: The crude psychiatric morbidity (CPM) rate was 44.4%. ICD-10 documented psychiatric disorders detected in those with CPM were conduct disorders 45%, mixed disorders of conduct and emotion 20%, emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood 20%, mood disorders 12.5% and hyperkinetic disorders 2.5%. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a high presence of psychiatric morbidity in children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi Juvenile Court. These juveniles need and would benefit from mental treatment as recommended in section 18 of Cap 141 of the laws of Kenya; The Children's and Young Persons Act

editor Ndetei, D.M., Ongecha-Owuor F, Mburu J, Gakinya B. "Psychiatric Interview."; 2006.
Kuria MW. "Psychiatric Emergencies Chapter 8.". In: Aid to Undergraduate Psychiatry. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Press; 2014.
Ovuga E, editor Ndetei, D.M., Nakasujja N, Musisi S. "Psychiatric Emergencies."; 2006.
Ndetei DM, Lule G, Mohit A, Mburu J, Atwoli L, Mucheru M. "Psychiatric and Mental Health Training."; 2006.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Pseudo-precocious puberty in a Kenyan African child: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed

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