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kITHIIA SM. "Problem of Water Supply and Sanitation Provision in Makueni County.". In: Food Security, Renewable Enargy and Water, Insights on Sustainability. Nairobi: Next Generation Researchers Team and Printed by KLB; 2018.
raham SM, Rajwans N, Tapia KA, Jaoko W, Estambale B, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Liles WC. "A prospective study of endothelial activation biomarkers, including plasma angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, in Kenyan women initiating antiretroviral therapy.". 2013. Abstracta_prospective_study_of_endothelial_activation.pdf

HIV-1-related inflammation is associated with increased levels of biomarkers of vascular adhesion and endothelial activation, and may increase production of the inflammatory protein angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), an adverse prognostic biomarker in severe systemic infection. We hypothesized that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation would decrease endothelial activation, reducing plasma levels of ANG-2. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive Kenyan women with advanced HIV infection were followed prospectively. Endothelial activation biomarkers including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, and plasma ANG-2 and angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) were tested in stored plasma samples from 0, 6, and 12 months after ART initiation. We used Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests to compare endothelial activation biomarkers across time-points, generalized estimating equations to analyze associations with change in log10-transformed biomarkers after ART initiation, and Cox proportional-hazards regression to analyze associations with mortality. RESULTS: The 102 HIV-1-seropositive women studied had advanced infection (median CD4 count, 124 cells/muL). Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels decreased at both time-points after ART initiation, with concomitant increases in the beneficial protein ANG-1. Higher ANG-2 levels after ART initiation were associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA, oral contraceptive pill use, pregnancy, severe malnutrition, and tuberculosis. Baseline ANG-2 levels were higher among five women who died after ART initiation than among women who did not (median 2.85 ng/mL [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.47--5.74 ng/mL] versus median 1.32 ng/mL [IQR 0.35--2.18 ng/mL], p = 0.01). Both soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels predicted mortality after ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers of endothelial activation decreased after ART initiation in women with advanced HIV-1 infection. Changes in plasma ANG-2 were associated with HIV-1 RNA levels over 12 months of follow-up. Soluble ICAM-1 and plasma ANG-2 levels represent potential biomarkers for adverse outcomes in advanced HIV-1 infection.

"
&
& Origa JO, Gatumu JC. "Philosophical and Psychological Issues in Transition from Pre-school to Primary School." Kenya Institute of Education. 2002.
(
co-authored with and(ed) DRADAMSOLOOKKDO. "Party Mobilization and Membership.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions. The Kenya 2007 General Elections. NAIROBI: SID/IDS ; 2010.
and(Eds.) ATJS. "Pathways to Real Access to Land-Related Resources for Women: Challenging and Overturning Dominant Legal Paradigms.". In: Women and Law: Innovative Regional Approaches to Teaching, Researching and Analysing Women and Law. Harare: Weaver Press; 2011.
-
- Karere, G.M. OKMMSNOJP. "Primates population size and distribution in the lower Tana river forests, Kenya." International Journal of Primatology 25 (2): 351-365; 2004. Abstract
n/a
.
. AAA, Ayot.M.R. Principles of Teaching and Communication. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairobi ; 2007.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Grain Affecting Silo Pressures. Proceeding of the 1 Oth International Symposium on Agricultural Engineering, Beijing, China. September 12 - 14.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Proposed New Curriculum in Engineering for Agriculture and the Environment at the University of Nairobi. Proceedings of the International Conference on Agricultural Engineering Curriculum and Employment Profile, Lusaka, Zambia, 28 - 30 June.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction Equations for Loads in Grain Silos. Proceedings of the NSAE/CIGR Symposium. September 4-10 Hlorin, Nigeria.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1988. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction of Temperatures in Naturally Ventilated Potato Storage. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-9 October, Nairobi Safari Club, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1998. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Coffee. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 89-6109.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Prediction of Bulk Potato Temperature During Free Natural Ventilation Storage. Agricultural Engineering in South Africa. 32(1)93 - 104.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. ""Problems of Nilotic Migrations" - paper presented in Kisumu Arts Festival Lectures, Dec. 1968 published in the Journal of the Kenya Museum Society, 1972.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1972. Abstract
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1. Davis NK. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Universities." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2019;7(4):375-386.
1. Mwangi J. W, P. Malii GL. "Polyphenols of Ximenia americana, uses in traditional medicine and antimicrobial activity." Fitoterapia. 1994;2(LXV):185.
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8. Kitonyi G.W, Githang'a JW RJAMOW. "Paeditric thrombosis in Kenya." J Haem Thromb. 2009;7(2):452.
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A
A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of oxamniquine in rabbit and rat.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of the schistosomicidal agent oxamniquine (6-hydroxmethyl-2-isopropylaminomethyl-7-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra hydroquinoline) were studied in 8 (4 male, 4 female) New Zealand White rabbits and 5 female Wistar rats, following intravenous administration (15 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic parameters (mean +/- SD) in the rabbit and rat, respectively, were as follows: plasma clearance, 65.5 +/- 33 and 17.2 +/- 5.7 ml/min/kg; steady-state volume of distribution, 7.9 +/- 4.5 and 2.1 +/- 0.5 l/kg; terminal elimination half-life, 1.8 +/- 0.3 and 1.8 +/- 0.9 h. Oxamniquine appeared to be widely distributed in both species, although significantly higher in the rabbit. Similarly, plasma clearance was significantly higher in the rabbit. Using reported estimates of liver blood flow and fractions excreted unchanged in urine of the rabbit and rat, calculations based on blood clearances indicated that oxamniquine has a low hepatic extraction ratio (0.2) in the rat and an intermediate hepatic extraction ratio (0.6) in the rabbit. From separate experiments, however, hepatic extraction appeared to be low in the rabbit, suggesting that oxamniquine disposition is probably broadly similar in both rabbit and rat.
A S, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2011. Abstract

Livestock Research for Rural Development 23 (11) 2011

Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya
Z A Sabuni, P G Mbuthia*, N Maingi*, P N Nyaga*, L W Njagi*, L C Bebora* and J N Michieka
Ministry of Livestock Development, Kabete,
P.O Box Private Bag, Kangemi, Kenya
alexsabuni@yahoo.com
* Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi
P.O Box 29053-00625 Nairobi Kenya

Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya.

Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
Key words: Age, agro-ecological zones, free range, sex

A MRKABURIAHF. "Participatory validation of medicinal plants used to treat livestock diseases by pastoralists of Kenya: A case of Samburu and Turkana pastoralists.". In: Proceedings of The First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other under utilized plant species in Kenya held on 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
A DRINDALOANNE. "Pharmacokinetics of temazepam in male surgical patients.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):483-5. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1995. Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of temazepam, the 3-hydroxy1 derivative of diazepam, were studied in nine male surgical patients (age: 28-57 years; weight: 55-87 kg) who had ingested single 40 mg doses, 4 hours prior to minor surgical procedures. Peak plasma temazepam concentrations were achieved rapidly (within 1 h post drug administration) and the estimated volume of distribution (mean: 1.13 1/kg), total clearance (mean: 1.6 ml/min/kg) and terminal elimination half-life (mean: 8 hours) were comparable to previously reported values in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between volume of distribution and either weight or age, and between clearance and age. These findings are broadly consistent with previous reports from studies in healthy subjects. Temazepam can therefore be used as a premedicant in patients requiring minor surgery; the concomitant anaesthetic agents administered and the surgical procedures have no effects on temazepam pharmacokinetics
A DROWILLAHFRANCIS. "Pattern and outcome of abdominal injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):37-43. 1999; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To establish the pattern and results of interventions in patients with abdominal injuries requiring admission. DESIGN: A descriptive, prospective, hospital-based study involving observation of patients from admission to final outcome of management as either discharged or deceased. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from November 2004 to February 2005 in the adult general surgical wards. PATIENTS: Eighty consecutive admissions of adult patients with either blunt or penetrating abdominal injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type and cause of injury, demographic data, temporal parameters, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: The 80 patients had a male to female ratio of 12.3:1, the majority were in the third decade of life with a range 15-56 years and mean of 28.2 years. Penetrating to blunt abdominal injuries had 2:1 ratio with the leading causes of injury being stab wounds, gunshot wounds and road traffic accidents. Blunt abdominal injuries had a higher tendency to extra-abdominal injuries. Duration prior to presentation to hospital and surgery depended on severity of injury. Modes of management varied between attending surgical firms. There was a 20% change in the mode of management and a 16.1% rate of negative laparotomy. Penetrating injuries had a better interventional outcome. Penetrating abdominal injuries had higher rates of complications while the blunt injuries had higher rates of mortality. Overall, both the complication and mortality rates were 12.5%. Correlates of mortality included delay before surgery, associated injuries, need for blood transfusion, admission to intensive care unit and duration prior to admission. Abdominal injury patients stayed an average of 6.4 days with the blunt injuries with complications staying close to twice as much as their penetrating counterparts. CONCLUSION: Abdominal injuries are a predominantly male disease with the majority in the third decade of life. As opposed to previous studies, gunshot wounds are now a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of negative laparotomies has come down by 10% over the past 15 years. The outcome of management depends on the severity and type, of injury sustained.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Premedication with temazepam in minor surgery. The relationship between plasma concentration and clinical effect after a dose of 40 mg.Anaesthesia. 1989 Oct;44(10):812-5.". In: Anaesthesia. 1989 Oct;44(10):812-5. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1989. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
A O-R, GO O, E K, E G, F O, E O. "Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017;5(1):70-75. Abstractprevalence_of_abnormal_liver2.pdf

Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence
of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs)
in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the rheumatology out-patient clinic,
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Design: Cross-sectional descriptive
study.
Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic
at KNH.
Participants: One hundred and seven
RA patients.
Results: The overall prevalence of
abnormal LFTs in the study population
was 57%. The most common abnormal
LFTs were direct bilirubin and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP), which were elevated
in 34.6% and 15% of the study population,
respectively. Abnormal direct bilirubin
was associated with longer duration of
disease; adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 0.54
(0.34, 0.86) p-value 0.009 and higher
disease activity, adjusted OR 2.79 (1.23,
6.25) p-value 0.014. Abnormal ALP
was significantly associated with BMI,
adjusted OR 0.205 (0.074, 0.57), p-value
0.002 as well as duration of disease,
adjusted OR 1.14 (1.013, 1.29), p-value
0.031.
Conclusion: This study found the
prevalence of liver dysfunction in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be
high, at 57%, and recommends regular
monitoring of liver function tests in
patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Introduction
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a systemic,
chronic, progressive inflammatory
disease characterized by symmetric joint
polyarthritis that progresses to severe joint
destruction1
. As a systemic illness, RA
has many extra-articular manifestations
and co-morbidities, many of which have
been studied in our local setting, and
have been found to correlate with disease
activity2-5. The liver has however been
overlooked as a target organ in patients
with RA. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect
the liver in many ways6,7; dysfunction
is thought to arise from the disease
itself, independent autoimmune disease,
infections such as viral hepatitis or as a
consequence of anti-inflammatory drugs
such as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory
Drugs (NSAIDs) or Disease Modifying
Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)6
.
The most common DMARDs used
in treatment of RA in our setting are
methotrexate and leflunomide, which can
be hepatotoxic. The risk of hepatotoxicity
while on treatment with DMARDs may
be increased in the presence of hepatitis
or alcohol intake.
LFTs may be abnormal in up to
50% of patients with RA and this has
been shown to correlate with disease
activity7,8. The ‘rheumatoid liver’ has
long been a topic of interest and previous
studies noted histological changes in
the liver of RA patients who were not
on treatment with DMARDs such as
fatty change, cellular necrosis, chronic
passive congestion and gross atrophy9-12.
Studies have also investigated use of
multiple DMARDs, which were thought
to predispose patients with RA to a higher
risk of developing hepatotoxicity13,14.
With increasing awareness and
knowledge of the RA, more patients
are being diagnosed early and started
on treatment, which may be life-long.
Effective treatment modalities may have
hepatotoxic effects. Abnormal LFTs are
in themselves an independent predictor
of mortality15. Due to high mortality
from both RA as well as abnormal LFTs,
such a subset of patients could therefore
be at a higher risk. This is especially so
because we currently have limited ways
of managing liver injury in our setting.
It is therefore important for us to monitor
liver dysfunction in patients with RA.

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Position Paper : College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi".". In: Sub- Regional Workshop in Towards Professional Excellence in Higher Education, Part II : 17th to 30th June 1990. Kassel-Witzenhausen, West Berlin. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990. Abstract

 

 

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "a proposal that initiated the formation of a task force for establishing a University at the Coast of Kenya, Bandari/JKUAT in 1998.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1998. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Provision of Basic Education to Nomadic Pastoralists in Kenya".". In: The Ministry of Science and Technology and presented at the Re-Assessment Workshop KCCT Mbagathi, Nairobi. Kenya 6 th to 8 th May 2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract

Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Peritonitis - Definitions, Interventions and Contravention.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine,. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Position Paper : College of Education and External Studies, University of Nairobi".". In: Sub- Regional Workshop in Towards Professional Excellence in Higher Education, Part II : 17th to 30th June 1990. Kassel-Witzenhausen, West Berlin. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990. Abstract
   
A. EO. "The Post-Colonial Historiography of Kenya." University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Paton S, Nicolie L, Mwongera M, Kabiru P, Mirza N, Plummer F and WAMOLA I.A. Salmonella and Shigella Gastroenteritis at a public teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Inf. Control and Hosp. Epidemiol. 12(12): 710 1991.". In: Inf. Control and Hosp. Epidemiol. 12(12): 710 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Provision of Basic Education to Nomadic Pastoralists in Kenya".". In: The Ministry of Science and Technology and presented at the Re-Assessment Workshop KCCT Mbagathi, Nairobi. Kenya 6 th to 8 th May 2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Pulei AN, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "Prioritizing Research Agena for Public Consumption in Developing Countries", paper presented to a Research Methodology Workshop for Cooperative College of Kenya Lecturers, Nyeri, 5th to 10th January, 1992.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1992. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Problems of Curriculum Development for Self Employment in Kenya".". In: First Regional Seminar on Transitional Education, Nairobi, Kenya. June 1988 sponsored by the Friendrich Ebert Foundation. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988. Abstract

 

 

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Principles and Concepts in Real Property Management." paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Principles of Learning".". In: College of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Pain. A Brief Appraisal.". In: Calcutta Medical College Magazine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1967. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Problems of Curriculum Development for Self Employment in Kenya".". In: First Regional Seminar on Transitional Education, Nairobi, Kenya. June 1988 sponsored by the Friendrich Ebert Foundation. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1988. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Principles of Learning".". In: College of Education and External Studies University of Nairobi seminar 1991. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract
   
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Haarlem JV, Poelman M, Haverkamp MC, Wamola IA.Bacteraemia in patients presenting with fever. East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Feb;72(2):116-20. IBIMA Publishing; 1995. Abstract
In three studies, in Ghana and Kenya, blood from 639 patients admitted with fever was cultured. Standard treatments were antimalarials (54-100%) and antibiotics (39-90%). According to the criteria in use, however, only 10-31% had malaria alone; of those who received antibiotics, 66% were diagnosed with malaria, gastrointestinal infections, post-operative recuperations, circulatory problems, central nervous system disorders or FUO, and did not need antibiotics at the first encounter. For those with wounds and abscesses (8%), generalised antibiotic treatment can also be questioned. Bacteraemia was found in 71 (11.3%) patients; in the HIV patients, however, 5 (23%) of 22 had bacteraemia. This is a minimum incidence, since culture techniques were not optimal for the isolation of fastidious microorganisms. The most prevalent organisms isolated were Salmonella, Klebsiella/Enterobacter and S. aureus. Resistance (intrinsic and extrinsic) in the Gram- bacteria was high: 31-100% were resistant to amoxycillin, 0-80% to cotrimoxazole, 15-95% to chloramphenicol and 9-15% to gentamicin. The need for cultures and sensitivity tests for patients with prolonged or undiagnosed fever is stressed. Specific treatment should be given only when infections, whether malarial or bacterial, have been positively diagnosed.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Pattern of extracranial peripheral aneurysms in a Kenyan referral hospital.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "Ph.D Thesis entitled "The Valuation of Waterfront Properties Along the Coastline of Kenya.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1986. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. NMKE; A;. "Performance of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Graduates in Nursing Practice in Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2012;41 (1)(December, 2012):9-15.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "Politics and the Law: A Sampling o Pointers from the Bench.". In: Nairobi University Law Journal, Vol. 1:69. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Professional Management Practices" paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Position paper on Academic Staff Management in the University of Nairobi" presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on Institutional Management in Higher Education".". In: Quatre-Bornes, Republic of Mauritius 6th to 17th September 1993. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract

 

 

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "a proposal for the establishment of the Mombasa Islamic University in 2001.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Position paper on Academic Staff Management in the University of Nairobi" presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop on Institutional Management in Higher Education".". In: Quatre-Bornes, Republic of Mauritius 6th to 17th September 1993. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1991. Abstract
   
A. EO. "Philosophy of History." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
n/a
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Petit PL, Wamola IA.Typhoid fever: a review of its impact and diagnostic problems. East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;71(3):183-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
A retrospective analysis was done on the diagnosis of typhoid fever based on clinical symptoms and available laboratory data over the last 16 years from rural areas of four African countries. This analysis concentrated on the reliability of diagnosis without cultures which cannot be performed in most rural hospitals due to lack of the necessary expertise and equipment. The analysis showed the problem to be increasing perhaps because of interaction of salmonella infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition and other infections together with neglected sanitary facilities and lack of clean water. The use of certain cardinal clinical symptoms combined with available laboratory tests were shown to enhance the diagnosis of typhoid fever, especially in vulnerable persons. In conclusion the paper suggests that using the approach followed to obtain this data in rural tropical areas one can confidently make a diagnosis of typhoid fever.
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. "Prioritizing Research Agena for Public Consumption in Developing Countries", paper presented to a Research Methodology Workshop for Cooperative College of Kenya Lecturers, Nyeri, 5th to 10th January, 1992.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1992. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A.O B, W.O PO, Dr. Ouma GO, Dr. Onono JO. "Pastoralist Perceptions on Climate Change and Variability in Kajiado in Relation to Meteorology Evidence." Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2016;5(1):37-46. Abstractpastoralist_perceptions_on_climate_change_and_variability_in_kajiado_in_relation_to_meteorology_evidence.pdfAcademic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

This study provides an overview of changing climatic conditions in Kajiado County based on analysis of climatic data and perception of pastoralist on key climatic variables. It collates the two sources of knowledge on climate change, indicating the consistency and inconsistency between the two. Rainfall and temperature data of the study area for a period of 43 years
(1970-2013) was collected from Kenya Meteorological Service, organized and analyzed using Microsoft excel. The perception of Maasai pastoralist to climate change was determined using questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interview. Result shows that rainfall trend in Kajiado County have a high variability level (CV %) of 27.5% for Kajiado North, 21.5% for Kajiado West, 26.4% for Kajiado East and 25.2% for Kajiado Central. Although, there is no significant change for rainfall over the study period, result on perception revealed that 83% of respondent perceive that rainfall amount is reducing in the last 30 years. However, perception of pastoralist about years of extreme drought corroborates the meteorological trend of years with very low rainfall. A rise in minimum temperature (1.410C), maximum temperature (0.470C) and average temperature (0.940C) occurred between 1970 and 2013. This agrees with the perception of 81% of Maasai pastoralist, which perceived that temperature has been increasing in the last 30 years. Overall, the results of this study are in line with recent trend of global warming in the region as reported by the latest Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2014) report.

Keywords: climate change, rainfall, temperature, perception

ABDALLAH DRAL-ASARAYMAMIBRAHIM. ""Principal character in Swahili Drama" Faculty of languages & Translation studies, Al-Azhar university, Issue 34. And also published in African perspective, fourth volume, Issue 13 Summer 2003, State Information Service.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2003. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Abdel-Rahman EM, Landmann T, Richard Kyalo, Ong’amo G, Mwalusepo S, Sulieman S, Ru BL. "Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models." International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation. 2017;57:61-74.
Abea FBO. "Payroll Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2008;October - December(No. 4):20-24.
Abea FBO. "Payroll Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2008;October - December(Issue No. 4):Pg. 20-24.
Aboge GO, Terkawi M, Goo Y-K, Batbaatar V, Nishikawa Y, Sunaga F, Namikawa K, I I, Fujisaki K, Suzuki H, Xuan X. "Precursors of methotrexate target dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of Babesia gibsoni.". 2010. Abstract

It is not known whether precursors of methotrexate, such as 2, 4-diamino-6-hydroxymethyl-pteridine (DAP) and 2, 4-diamino-N10-methyl-pteroic acid (DAMPA), could target the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) enzyme of Babesia and inhibit the parasite growth. Therefore, we have determined whether DAP and DAMPA as well as other chemically related compounds like pteroic acid (PA) and N10Triflouropteroic acid (N10TFPA) could target the DHFR-TS enzyme of B. gibsoni and inhibit its growth. DAMPA was a more-potent inhibitor of the B. gibsoni growth in vitro (50% inhibition concentration [IC50] = 2.4 ± 0.20 μM) [mean ± standard error of the mean] than DAP (IC50 = 78 ± 15 μM). Moreover, DAMPA potently inhibited enzymatic activity of recombinant DHFR-TS of B. gibsoni (IC50 = 2.6 ± 0.15 μM) than DAP (IC50 > 100 μM). In contrast, PA and N10-TFPA did not inhibit the activity of the recombinant enzyme and growth of B. gibsoni. The inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity by DAMPA mirrored with inhibition of the parasite growth indicating that the purified recombinant enzyme could be used for preliminary screening of some antifolate precursors. Therefore, both DAP and DAMPA inhibit growth of B. gibsoni by targeting the DHFR-TS enzyme of the parasite.

Abong GO, Okoth MW, Ogolla JA, Ouma J. "POTENTIAL OF PROCESSING POTATO FLAKES FROM POPULAR KENYAN POTATO VARIETIES.". 2011. Abstract

Losses of potatoes are incurred during seasons of glut and farmers are forced to sell their produce to middlemen at low prices due to short storage life of the raw tubers. Processing potatoes after harvesting into dehydrated products such as potato flakes is one of the ways to overcome the problem of inadequate and inappropriate bulk storage of raw potatoes. Potato flakes are known to be shelf stable and hence assure users of the availability of the produce all year round. This study was instituted to establish the potential of processing potato flakes from selected popular Kenyan potato varieties. Five potato varieties (Tigoni, Dutch Robjin, Desiree, Kenya Mpya, and Sherekea) which are popular commercially were used in this study. The varieties were harvested after maturity and processed into potato flakes before evaluation of retained vitamin C, color, oil and moisture content, and sensory attributes. The varieties used in this study had dry matter contents ranging from 18.2% to 23.7%. Oil content of the flakes was significantly (P≤0.05) lower in Dutch Robjin (0.23%) compared to Desiree (0.76%). Oil content of flakes significantly (p=0.011) but negatively correlated (r=-0.956) with dry matter content of the raw potatoes. Reduced ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in raw tubers differed significantly (P≤0.05) 2 among the varieties ranging from 90.37 mg/100g in Kenya Mpya to 127.56 mg/100g in Sherekea. The vitamin decreased in flakes, the reduction being higher in Kenya Mpya (60.34%) and Sherekea (71.71%) compared to Tigoni (18.15%) and Desiree (23.26%). Overall, Dutch Robjin was the best variety for flakes followed by Desiree and Tigoni with regard to overall acceptability. Sherekea was unacceptable while Kenya Mpya was barely acceptable. Promotion of these varieties for flakes processing will not only diversify the range of potato products, but also add value to local potatoes. .

Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN, Ogolla J, Ouma J, Ngunju CW, Oded K. "Physico-Chemical Changes in Popular Kenyan Processing Potato Varieties as Influenced by Storage Condition." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;3(2):112-120.abong_2015a_physico-chemical_changes_potato_storage.pdf
Abong GO, Okoth M, Kabira J, Ogolla J, Ouma J, Ngunju C, Odek K. "Physico-chemical changes in popular Kenyan Processing Potato varietisas influened by storage condition. Current Research in Nutrition in Food Science." Current Research in Nutrtion and Food Science. 2015;3(2):112-120.
Abong' GO, Kabira J, Okoth MW, Ogolla JA, Ouma J. "Potential of processing potato flakes from popular Kenyan potato varieties.". In: CAB e Books.; 2015.
ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, Shibairo S, WANJEKECHE ELIZABETH, OGENDO JOSHUA, WAMBUA TOM, Lamuka P, ARAMA PETER, Okoth M. "Post-Harvest Practices, Constraints and Opportunities Along Cassava Value Chain in Kenya." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(2):114-126.
Absaloms HO, others. PCB CAD Training Manual.; 1994.
Abubakar L, Osir EO, Imbuga MO. "Properties of a blood-meal-induced midgut lectin from the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.". 1995. Abstract

The properties of a blood-meal-induced lectin (agglutinin) from the midgut of Glossina morsitans capable of agglutinating Trypanosoma brucei were studied in vitro. The midgut homogenate from flies that had been fed twice had the highest agglutination activity, followed by that from the once-fed flies and that from the unfed insects. As compared with the bloodstream-form trypanosomes, a much lower concentration of the midgut homogenate was required for agglutination of the procyclic parasites. Furthermore, the agglutination process was specifically inhibited by D-glucosamine. Soybean trypsin inhibitor abrogated agglutination of the bloodstream-form parasites, whereas the procyclics were unaffected. The agglutination process was temperature-sensitive, with little activity being evident between 4 degrees and 15 degrees C. Similarly, heating the midguts to 60 degrees-100 degrees C led to loss of activity. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography, the agglutination activity co-eluted with trypsin activity at approximately 50% NaCl. These results suggest a very close relationship between midgut trypsin-like enzyme and the agglutinin. Since successful agglutination of bloodstream-form trypanosomes requires protease activity, it may be that the enzyme cleaves off some surface molecules on the parasite surface, thus exposing the lectin-binding sites

Abuom TO, Kirui G, Tsigadi SA, Gitonga PN, Ndurumo SM, Sura A, Kitaa JMA. "A preliminary retrospective study on tumours affecting dogs in Kenya.". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2006.
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological activities of gardenia jovis-tonantis.". 1994. Abstract

A methanol extract derived from Gardenia jovis-tonantis showed bronchodilator activity isolated guinea pig trachea. The extract also showed cardiorelaxant activity isolated rabbit heart and caused a rapid fall ill diastolic pressure ill anaesthetised rats

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia.". 1997. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia." International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1997;35(1):60-62. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Pattern of road traffic fatalities in Nairobi M.P Okemwa, E.A Rogena, F Rana, D.G Gatei.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2008.
ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "P. M. Guthiga, J. T. Karugia, and R. A. Nyikal .". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2007. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Participation of Commercial Banks in the Development of Small Enterprise Sector in Kenya.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

Aduda BO, Jain PK, Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Waita SM. "Performance of TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy Composite ETA Solar Cell Fabricated from Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Thin Film Window Layer." International Journal of Materials Engineering. 2013;3(2):11-16. Abstractpublished_paper21.pdf

In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis and thermally annealed at 400℃. The films were characterized as deposited (no annealing) as well as after annealing. Optical studies showed that the energy band gap of the films was lowered from 3.25 eV to 2.90 eV on Nitrogen (N2) doping. The reduction in energy band gap was attributed to the introduction of N2 impurity states on the bands (conduction band and or valence band). The effect of N2 doping of Titanium Dioxide window layer on the efficiency of the ETA TiO2/In(OH)iSj/Pb(OH)xSy solar cell was investigated using a conventional current-voltage (I-V) technique. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) increased from 1.06% for the solar cell with undoped films to 1.32% for the solar cell with N2-doped films. The increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency on doping was attributed to increased light absorption due to the Nitrogen doping.

Aduda BO. "Performance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells fabricated from Obliquely DC Sputtered." Africa Jnl. of Science and Technology, Series. 2006;7(2):125-139.waita_et_al_ajst_-_2006.pdf
Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

AEO Otedo, GO Oyoo JOOCFOEOO. "Pyomyositis in HIV: A Series of 12 Cases." East African Medical Journal Vol.. 2013;90(12). AbstractWebsite

Background: Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the large skeletal muscles presenting with muscle pain and swelling. It is commonly seen in the tropics but is being recognised more in end-stage HIV/AIDS. In HIV-associated pyomyositis, leukocytosis and bacteraemia is rare due to deranged immune response. Surgical drainage, antibiotic treatment and HAART are the mainstay of treatment.
Objective: To describe pyomyositis in HIV positive patients, their CD4+ cell counts, clinical stages of pyomyositis and anatomical sites affected.
Design: Cross sectional, prospective, descriptive, consecutive entry study.
Setting: Kisumu District Hospital and Nairobi Rheumatology Clinic between January 2002 to December 2007.
Subjects: Twelve patients with HIV infection and pyomyositis.
Main Outcome Measures: CD4+ cell counts, clinical stage and site of pyomyositis.
Results: Twelve patients (six males and six females) were enrolled with mean age of 39.3 years (24-52). Pyomyositis was localised in the following regions:two each in gluteal and calf, six in the thigh and one each in the right arm and abdominal wall. CD4+ cell counts were low with a mean of 166.8 cells/µl (1.0-433) (normal range is 355-1600 cells/µl), indicating severe immunosuppression. They also had leucocytopaenia with a mean white blood cell count of 3.67 ~ 103/µl (1.5-7.1 ~ 103/µl) with a mean neutrophil count of 62.7% (43-78). Random blood sugar and creatine kinase levels were all normal. The co-morbidities comprised one case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and five of oral candidiasis. Pus swab grew Staphylococcous aureus in eight instances and Streptococcous pyogenes in four.
Conclusion: Pyomyositis in HIV positive patients tends to occur at low CD4+ cell counts. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism.

Aguttu, J.M KNJM & LM. "Principals’ Support of Peer Education and Prevalence of Drug and Substance Abuse in Public Secondary Schools in Busia County, Kenya. ." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies . 2019;2(11):79-95.
Agwanda A. Population Dynamics of Kenya. 2009 census analytical volume. Kenya national Bureau of Statistics; 2011.
Agwata JF. "Potential implications of climate change on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Kenya.". Proceedings of the 8th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa Beach Hotel, 11-14 September, 2007; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Agweyu A, Kibore M, Digolo L, Kosgei C, Maina V, Mugane S, Muma S, Wachira J, Waiyego M, Maleche-Obimbo E. "Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines." Trop. Med. Int. Health. 2014;19(11):1310-20. Abstract

To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya.

Ahangar S, Zaz M, Shah M, Wani SN. "Perforated subhepatic appendix presenting as gas under diaphragm." Indian Journal of Surgery. 2010;72:273-274. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ahmed I, Asgeirsson KS, Beckingham IJ, Lobo DN. "The position of the vermiform appendix at laparoscopy." Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2007;29:165-168. AbstractWebsite

Background The vermiform appendix has no constant position and the data on the variations in its position are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the various positions of the appendix at laparoscopy. Methods Patients undergoing emergency or elective laparoscopy at a university teaching hospital between April and September 2004 were studied prospectively. The positions of the appendix and the caecum were determined after insertion of the laparoscope, prior to any other procedure and the relative frequencies calculated. Results A total of 303 (102 males and 201 females) patients with a median age of 52 years (range 18–93 years) were studied. An emergency appendicectomy was performed in 67 patients, 49 had a diagnostic laparoscopy, 179 underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and eight had other procedures. The caecum was at McBurney’s point in 245 (80.9%) patients, pelvic in 45 (14.9%) and high lying in 13 (4.3%). The appendix was pelvic in 155 (51.2%) patients, pre-ileal in 9 (3.0%), para-caecal in 11 (3.6%), post-ileal in 67 (22.1%) and retrocaecal in 61 (20.1%) patients. Conclusion Contrary to the common belief the appendix is more often found in the pelvic rather than the retrocaecal position. There is also considerable variation in the position of the caecum.

Ahramjian L, Carson A, Collins P, Kirloss R, Lang J, Makunda C, Moses Z, Oh SJ, Reinhardt J, Service E, Smith M, Styger K, Vagen K. The Philadelphia Public Space Project. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania; 2008.
Ahuya, CO; Okeyo AM; MFM. Productivity of cross-bred goats under smallholder production systems in the Eastern highlands of Kenya1.; 2005. Abstract

Dairy goats have become increasingly popular among smallholder mixed crop-livestock farmers. Their profitability will determine their growth within smallholder production systems. A survey was carried out in 114 farmer groups, representing 435 goat herds and 1676 goats. Data on reproductive and growth performance, milk production and flock dynamics (deaths, births, and sales) were collected between October 2001 and September 2003. The genotypes involved were the local East African goat, pure Toggenburg (T) and their crosses (F1) and 3/4T. Using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC) as an input framework, herd structure, gross margins and herd growth were calculated based on feed efficiency. The parameter used was the annual total value of off- take per carrying capacity unit (CCU), which was defined as a standard livestock unit consuming 100 Mega joules of metabolisable energy (ME) per day. The goat enterprise proved to be profitable Annual gross margins of over US $259 were recorded indicating that dairy goat enterprises under smallholder production systems can be profitable,(the USD exchange rate at March 2005 was 77 Kenya shillings to US $1)

Ajmani ML, Ajmani K. "The position, length and arterial supply of vermiform appendix." Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1983;153:369-374. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position and length of appendix were studied in 100 Indian (Uttar Pradesh region) cadavers. In 39% more than one appendicular artery was demonstrated. The retrocaecal and retrocolic positions of the appendix were by far the commonest (58%). Incidence of postilial position was also fairly common (10%). The average length of the appendix was found to be 9.5 cm in the male and 8.7 cm in the female. The prevalence of the retrocaecal and retrocolic positions may partly explain the incidences of appendicitis.

Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Akale J.E., Maina C.W., Nduhiu. G., Mainga.A., J.K. M, Kang'ethe E. K. "Prevalence of Cryptosporidia in Dogs and cats from selected kernels and veterinary clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference. U.o.N CAVS; 2014.04-3_abstract-cryptosporidia_in_dogs_2.pdf
Akama MK, Chindia ML, F.G. M, Guthua SW. "Pattern of Maxxillofacial and Associated Injuries in Road Traffic Accidents.". 2007.
Akama MK, W GS, Chindia ML. "Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.". 2000. Abstract

A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results

Akaranga SI. "Prosperity Gospel in Kenyan Urban Centres: Come, See, Pay and Receive Your Miracles and Healing." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(10):199-208. AbstractWebsite

In this part of the 21st century, the impact of ‘New Age” religions created by secularization have exposed the western Christianity to several challenges which seem not only divergent to biblical doctrine but tend to give new image to God. Even here in Kenya, we are not foreign to these challenges. Some of which include; ordination of women, gender mainstreaming, marriage of the same sex, sex scandals of celibate clergy, leadership struggle, corruption and prosperity gospel, to mention but a few. This paper investigates the impact of prosperity gospel, an offshoot of neo-Pentecostalism in Kenyan urban centres with emphasis in Nairobi. This Christian social phenomenon teaches that true Christian faith results in material wealth and physical well-being. It claims that the Bible teaches that financial blessing is the will of God for Christians (vide Wikipedia, the free Encylopedia). That is, instead of the gospel of the forgiveness of sins, the centre is occupied by miracles and the improvement of the quality of life, along with temporal blessings from God (Anssi Simojoki, 2002: 272). This explains why the churches associated with prosperity gospel are popular in the eastern side of the city of Nairobi. The main question is whether the prosperity gospel is authentic Christian theology that satisfactorily improves the lives of the faithful? To facilitate our discussion, we have discussed the following four objectives: the origin and background of prosperity gospel, its teachings and impact, to make possible recommendations. The collection of data included both primary and secondary materials. We administered 250 oral interviews. Ninety members from the churches associated with the phenomenon, seventy students from both Kenyatta University and University of Nairobi and ninety adults outside the two categories.

Key words: Prosperity/gospel, Pentecostalism/charismatic, Miracle, Interlocutors, Hermeneutic

Akaranga SI, Ongong JJ. "The Phenomenon of Examination Malpractice: An Example of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2013;Vol.2 No.8(8):83-86.jep_vol_4_no._18_2013.pdf
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The Phenomenon of Intolerance and Its Impact on Christian - Muslim Relation in Kenya." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 2015;5(8):105-121. AbstractWebsite

One of the common euphemisms today is: “Religion is inherently violent, the cause of all major wars in history”. The interlocutors accuse religion without remembering that the last two world wars were fought not on account of religion, but, because of other interrelated social, material and ideological factors, the chief of which being competition for scarce resources. Yet, when the observers cite the Crusades, the Inquisition and wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, not to mention the recent spate of terrorism committed in the name of religion, it is hard to belittle euphemism. Like religion, terrorism is difficult to define. Generally, however, it is a deliberate use of violence or threat of its use against innocent people, with the aim of intimidating them specifically or others into a course of action they could not otherwise take. Terrorism is fundamentally political, even when other motives-religious, economic or social are involved. It is about power, acquiring it or keeping it. This is probably why, the discussion of apparent tension between Christians and Muslims here in Kenya can hardly be discussed without due consideration of the role of Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda. The association of Islam with terrorism in the recent past first came to global attention with the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Cairo, the then president of Egypt. This wave of violence claiming religious justification became more rampant in the 1980’s finally culminating in the atrocity of September 11, 2001, in New York. Here in Kenya, there have been attacks against public institutions, bus stops and markets; an action of hostility which threatens amicable relationship between the two religions. This is why; critics of religion acknowledge that monotheism is prone to violence and intolerance. If however, there is one thing we can reliably predict about this century, it is that, an increasing share of Kenya’s people is going to identify with either Christianity or Islam. And, examples of disastrous accounts of conflict can hardly enhance amicable coherence even if done in the name of religion. To meet the challenges of our time and create a desirable Kenyan society, we need to accurately assess our religious affiliations. It is not enough to assume the nature of these two Abrahamic religious traditions and their roles in Kenya. The central question this paper asks and attempts to answer is: If religion can be used as an instrument of destruction, how come it has continued to survive as the most influential social phenomenon? To facilitate our discussion the paper adopts theories of Emile Durkheim and Myerson to explain the functional relationship between religion and violence; and cultural interpretation of violence. The paper therefore, examines the following three objectives:

Ambivalent nature of religion,
Existential justification for hermeneutic of suspicion and,
Abrahamic tradition: A basis for interfaith dialogue.
Keywords: terrorism, violence, religion, dialogue, suspicion, tradition and exegesis.

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Poverty Alleviation: Challenges to the African Development Planners, Discovery and Innovation, Special Edition 2001/2.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2002.
Akech M. "Privatization and Democracy in East Africa: The Promise of Administrative Law.". Submitted. Abstractprivatization_and_democracy.pdfWebsite

This book explores the role of democracy and Public Law in privatization processes in the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. In particular, the book recommends the creation of strongly institutionalized Administrative Law frameworks to facilitate meaningful democratization of privatization processes in these countries. The book anticipates that such reforms would enhance the day-to-day accountability of, and public participation in, privatization processes in the three countries. The book seeks to contribute to the study of the relationship between Public Law, markets and democracy in African countries. Its particular contribution is the argument that privatization processes can only be efficient, fair and legitimate if they are democratic, that is, participatory and accountable.

Akech M, Kinyanjui Sarah. "Pretrial Detention in Kenya: Balancing the Rights of Criminal Defendants and the Interests of Justice’." East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights 1.. 2013;19(1).
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Performance of Crushed Coconut Shell Dual Media Filter Paper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Akuon P, Xu H. Polar coded MQAM with no noise variance estimation for capacity and soft decision metric. Ile Maurice, Mauritius: IEEE Africon 2013; 2013.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Path reduction factor modelling for terrestrial links based on rain cell growth,IEEE.Africon,Zambia, 2011,.". In: IEEE. IEEE; 2011. Abstract
Suggested prediction for Rain attenuation in Terrestrial links based on growth modelling of the rain cell is validated from measurements.
Akuon P, Xu H. "Polar coded spatial modulation." IET Journal. 2014;vol. 8(no.9): pp.1459-1466.
Akweya BA. Prevalence of streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus in camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk in Garissa and Wajir districts of Kenya, their sensitivity to antibiotics and acceptability of camel milk and its products. Wangoh J, Gitau P, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may
be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to
determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk.
Camel milk samples from Garissa and Wajir were analyzed to determine the
prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The
antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was also studied. Milk samples (n =207)
were aseptically obtained from primary marketing agents. Samples were
analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae. The confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were subjected to diffusion sensitivity test. Resistance was
determined by measuring the diameter of the zone cleared by the antibacterial
and the isolates were reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.
Questionnaires were administered to evaluate camel milk and milk product
acceptability.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in the
two districts differed with Garissa having higher percent incidence both for
Staphylococcus aureus (34.95%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (37.79%).
Wajir, had lower prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (10.58%) and
Streptococcus agalactiae (7.69%). Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were resistant to most of the antibiotics except Gentamicin.
x
Although camel milk and milk products were acceptable, each had different
quality parameters that attracted customers. The most important purchasing
criterion for raw camel milk was taste (27%, 19% and 18%) for Wajir, Garissa
and Nairobi respectively. While packaging (18%, 18% and 16%) was more
important for pasteurized milk also in the same order. For yoghurt the most
important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of
sour camel milk is the most important attribute in both Garissa (30%) and
Nairobi (24%).
The results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and
increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common
antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk
production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers
involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the
attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.

Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Promoting Animal and Human Welfare in Disasters: The Role of Veterinary Professionals (2011). Aleri, J.W and Mogoa, E.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Prevalence of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School Children in Nairobi City. Mwanthi, M.A., Kinoti .M; et al.". In: East African Journal of Public Health, Vol. 5. NO. 2. 2008. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. .Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

Alsanius BW, Kosiba AH, Onyango CM, Mogren L. "Produce quality and safety.". In: Rooftop Urban Agriculture. New York: Springer; 2017.
Aluoch JR, JM M. "Platelet function in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Nairobi.". 1996. Abstract

From July 1990 to January 1991 we studied platelet functions in 55 indigenous Kenyan patients (23 males and 32 females) with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in steady state (SCASS) and in 20 (11 males and 9 females) SCA patients in vaso-occlusive sickle cell crisis (VSCC). A control group of 50 healthy (23 males and 27 females) individuals matched for age and sex was also studied. Platelet aggregation time to ADP in SCASS (57.2 +/- 39.1) and in VSCC (31 +/- 11.1) were more prolonged (p < 0.05) compared to controls (12.7 +/- 5.2). It was also significantly more prolonged (p < 0.05) in VSCC than in SCASS. Platelet adhesiveness time was 31.1 +/- 13.7 seconds in SCASS, 30.9 +/- 11.1 in VSCC, and 37.7 +/- 13.0 in controls and was significantly lower in both SCA groups (p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. Clot retraction was 52.8 +/- 6.9 in SCASS, 53.6 +/- 10.7 in VSCC, and 45.9 +/- 8 in controls and was significantly higher in both SCA groups than in controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two SCA groups themselves. We conclude that platelet function is deranged in indigenous Kenyan patients with SCA.

AM K. "Paediatric oral health and climate change." Edorium J Dent. 2019;2019; 7:(2019; 7:):2019; 7:.
AM G. "Pedagogical Integration of ICT: An Evaluation of Programmes and Software usage for teaching and learning in selected institutions in Kenya.". In: The Academic Conference in the School of Continuing and Distance Education 2013. Kikuyu Campus; 2013. Abstract

Abstract
The paper is based on the findings the Panafrican Research Agenda The purpose of the Panafrican Research Agenda on the Pedagogical Integration of ICT was to contribute to the broadening of knowledge of ICT usage in learning institutions. The research project aimed at enabling stakeholders better understand how the pedagogical integration of ICT can improve the quality of teaching and learning in Africa. This paper therefore presents an analysis of data collected in 10 Kenyan institutions. The paper focuses on the programmes and software usage and the impact on teaching and learning. It aims at exploring in detail the current impact of ICT usage in schools exploring the computer programmes, software and packages used in teaching and learning. A multi -case approach was used where by ten institutions were selected using similar procedures to allow comparison between the cases. The study used a mixed method approach. This approach borrows from diverse methodologies and facilitates triangulation of data. For every indicator understudy, information was gathered using three different questionnaires and directed interview schedules: The educator questionnaire for teachers, the administrative questionnaire for institutional heads the learner interview schedule and the parent’s interview schedule. The questionnaires and interviews were followed by focus group discussions with the respondents. The interviews and discussions were recorded while the videotaped classroom observations later encoded and analyzed. Data was then validated by a national team before it was uploaded to the Panafrican observatory. The findings presented in this paper are based on data uploaded on the Panafrican Research Agenda Observatory
.
Keywords: ICT in education, pedagogical integration,

AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitated abstinence in orally dosed benzodiazepine-dependent dogs. Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Nov;255(2):744-55. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The ability of graded doses of flumazenil (2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg) and a lactose placebo to precipitate abstinence was studied in dogs treated chronically with diazepam, nordiazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam, oxazepam, halazepam and lorazepam by oral dosing. A scale comprised of 10 precipitated abstinence signs, the Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale, was developed, which yielded linear flumazenil log-dose response lines with significant slopes in dogs dependent on diazepam, nordiazepam and flunitrazepam. The effects of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg of flumazenil in otherwise drug naive dogs were studied. In naive dogs, the most prominent effect of flumazenil was to reduce activity. All benzodiazepines studied produced dependence that was characterized by signs of precipitated abstinence; however, the intensity and quality of abstinence varied from one benzodiazepine to another. Precipitated abstinence in dogs treated chronically with diazepam and flunitrazepam was characterized by a dose-related increase in clonic convulsions and Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. This pattern differed from that seen in nordiazepam- and alprazolam-dependent dogs, which showed a comparable flumazenil dose-related increase in clonic convulsion but only a modest increase in Benzodiazepine Precipitated Abstinence Scale scores. Oxazepam and lorazepam produced dependence that was less intense than that seen with the other benzodiazepines. Plasma levels of the benzodiazepines and their metabolites were repeatedly determined after single doses and during addiction cycles. Nordiazepam accumulated in diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs and alpha-OH alprazolam accumulated in alprazolam-dependent dogs. Other drugs and metabolites did not. These observations suggest that: 1) different benzodiazepines or their metabolites produce different types of physical dependence, suggesting that they or their metabolites have different mechanisms and sites of action; 2) plasma cumulation of the benzodiazepines or their active metabolites is an important factor in the genesis of physical dependence; and 3) metabolism of benzodiazepines plays an important role in their dependence-producing capacity, and because of differences in the way species metabolize benzodiazepines, the type of dependence produced in different species may differ.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Precipitation of abstinence in nordiazepam- and diazepam-dependent dogs. McNicholas LF, Martin WR, Sloan JW, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr;245(1):221-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Dogs were made dependent on p.o. administered diazepam (24 or 36 mg/kg/day) or nordiazepam (18 mg/kg/day). Flumazenil (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. once a week according to a Latin Square design precipitated abstinence in both groups of dogs. Abstinence was evaluated using a Nordiazepam Precipitated Abstinence Scale (NPAS) of various signs of abstinence and by counting seizure episodes. Flumazenil caused dose-related increases in the NPAS scores of both diazepam- and nordiazepam-dependent dogs; the slopes of the two dose-response lines were not different. Both groups of dogs also had both clonic and tonic-clonic seizures after flumazenil administration. CGS-8216 (2, 6 or 18 mg/kg) administered p.o. did not cause a dose-related elevation in NPAS scores for either group of dogs but clonic and tonic-clonic seizures were seen. Thus, flumazenil precipitates the benzodiazepine abstinence syndrome, as evidenced by tremors, tachypnea and other signs, including seizures, whereas CGS-8216 may have some selectivity in precipitating seizures without other signs of abstinence.
Amayo EO, Otieno CF, OGOLA EN, Vaghela V. "Patterns of homocysteine in Kenyans with type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Increased total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The measurement of tHcy in blood is therefore of potential great importance especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the total homocysteine levels in ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with Type 2 diabetes without overt cardiovascular, renal, liver or other chronic disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of tHcy, HbA1c, lipids and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients, 48% males, with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean (sd) age of the males was 56.85 (8.96) years and of the females was 55.68 (8.93) years. The mean (sd) total serum homocysteine for males of 12.97 (6.06) micromol/l was significantly higher than that of the females of 10.64 (4.41) micromol/l. The cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, the body mass index and blood pressure of the study subjects did not show any statistically significant influence on their homocysteine levels. However, increasing age and duration of diabetes showed a significant linear relationship with rising level of total serum homocysteine. Some study participants reported smoking habit but unreliably. CONCLUSION: There was a significant proportion of the study patients with high levels of serum homocysteine, although most of them were of low to intermediate risk category. It may be prudent to assay homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are either older or have had diabetes for long duration for potential intervention.

Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, ITOH F, NAKAMURA K, Gemma H. "Postharvest characteristics of bananas cultivated under low chemical and conventional production systems in Ecuador." Tropical Agriculture and Development. 2008;52:43-49. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Karithi E, M. Hutchinson, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room." Acta Horticulturae . 2018:193-197.abstract.pdf
Ambuko J, Karithi E, Hutchinson M, Wasilwa L, Hansen B, Owino W. "Postharvest shelf life of mango fruits stored in a CoolbotTM cold room.". In: III All Africa Horticultural Congress 1225.; 2016:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Wanjiru F, Chemining’wa GN, Owino WO, Mwachoni E. "Preservation of postharvest quality of leafy amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) vegetables using evaporative cooling." Journal of Food Quality. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Amiri S. "Pwaguzi.". In: Mayai Waziri wa Maradhi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2004.
Amisi SK, Wilson VJ, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre extraction photographs in selection of artificial teeth." JKDA. 2010;1(4):114-119.
Amisi SK, Wilson VP, Kisumbi BK, Simila HO, Wamalwa PW. "Pre-extraction photographs in the selection of artificial teeth.". 2010. Abstract

To explore the validity of using pre-extraction facial photographs in the selection of artificial anterior denture teeth. Design: A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting: Faculty of Dentistry and WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Health, University of the Western Cape, Republic of South Africa Materials and Method: A convenient sample of thirty (30) dentate subjects, with sound healthy six (6) permanent maxillary anterior teeth, was used. Five (5) facial photographs of different views and sizes were taken for each subject. The principal investigator measured and compared actual and photographic dimensions ofthe maxillary anterior tooth widths, inter-iris distance and inner-canthal distance. The shapes of each subject's face, and maxillary central incisor, were traced on the full face anterior photograph and compared. Results: The central incisor tooth width calculated from full-face anterior view photographs of portrait (5' x 7') or postcard (4'x 6') size had an accuracy of between +0.2smm and + 1 mm when compared to actual tooth widths. Comparison of an individual's tooth and face shape found that sixteen (16) subjects (53.3%) had a face shape that was similar to their maxillary central incisor shape. Anterior tooth widths wii found to be greater in males than females. Conclusion: Photographs are reliable pre-extraction records when used during selection of artificial anterior tooth size and shape. Anterior full-face views of size 4'x6' and s'x?' can be used to calculate maxillary central incisor width to an accuracy of within 1 mm. The application of photographs during anterior tooth selection is limited by their availability.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Preventive Health and Colonial African Urban.". In: Policies in Nairobi in African Urban Quarterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Proverty, Health and Race in a Colonial Setting: The Case of Maternal and Child Welfare Services.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "The Public Health Policies of the Nairobi Municipal/City Council 1945-63 in African Historians and African Voices: Essays Presented to Professor Bethwell A. Ogot on his Seventieth Birthday.". In: By E.A. Atieno-Odhiambo (ed), pp 145-183, Based, Switzerland, PSP Publishers, April.; 2000. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

Amriika, V M. "The Poetics of Journeying and the Dilemma of Baggage in Moyez Vassanji’s No New Land and Amriika” J-STEM, J." ournal of Science, Technology and Education,. 2008;Vol. 2 Nos. 1&2, (ISSN. 1991-2889. ):Pp. 219-226.
Amugune BK, Karimi PN, Bururia JM, Odhiambo PA, Museve GO. "Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae collected from patients with wounds at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2009;12(2):42-45.
Amugune NO. "Professor Jenesio I. Kinyamario.". 2011.
Ananga AA, Georgiev V, Ochieng JW, Phills B, Tsolova V. "Production of Anthocyanins in Grape Cell Cultures: A potential Source of Raw Material for Pharmaceutical, Food, and Cosmetic Industries.". In: The Mediterranean Genetic Code - Grapevine and Olive. INTECH; 2013.2013_anthocyanins_by_intech.pdf
Ananga AO, Cebert E, Soliman K, Kantety R, Konan K, Ochieng JW. "Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD Loci associated with blackleg resistance." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(9):1287-1293.2008_ananga_et_al_ajb.pdf
Ananga AA, E CE, Ochieng JW, Kumar S, Kambiranda D, Vasanthaiah H, Tsolova V, Senwo Z, F KF, Anike FN. "Prospects for Transgenic and Molecular Breeding for Cold Tolerance in Canola (Brassica napus).". In: Oilseeds. INTECH; 2012.2012_oilseeds_by_intech_june_2012.pdf
ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005.
ANDERSON MRMIRITIEVANS, W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Process For Building A Kiswahili Corpus From The World Wide Web.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Conference and Workshop on Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries 2005. Makerere University, Kampala, pp 148-152. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DD. Paleocene-Eocene calcareous nannofossil biozonation of the Northern Precaucasus region. Tbilisi, Georgia; 2010.
Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha FMJMCWBWP. "Postharvest Practices of Maize Farmers in Kaiti District, Kenya and the Impact of Hermetic Storage on Populations of Aspergillus Spp. and Aflatoxin Contamination.". 2016. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/mainawagacha/

Aflatoxin contamination in maize by Aspergillus spp. is a major problem causing
food, income and health concerns. A study was carried out in Kaiti District in Lower Eastern
Kenya to evaluate the effect of three months storage of maize in triple-layer hermetic
(PICS™) bags on the population of Aspergillus spp. and levels of aflatoxin. Postharvest
practices by maize farmers including time of harvesting, drying and storage methods were
obtained with a questionnaire. Aspergillus spp. in soil and maize were isolated by serial …

Anjili CO, Ngumbi PM, Kaburi JC, Irungu LW. "The phlebotomine sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Kenya." Journal of vector borne diseases. 2011;48(4):183-189. AbstractJournal of vector borne diseases

Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic in some parts of Kenya, where they are transmitted by phlebobotomine sandflies of genus Phlebotomus. This review is a compilation of the currently known distribution of phlebotomine sandflies in the parts of Kenya that have been studied, from the time sandflies were first reported in the country. So far 48 species of sandflies have been identified falling in the genera Phlebotomus Rondani & Berte and Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot. Genus Phlebotomus in Kenya is represented in five subgenera, namely Phlebotomus, Larroussius, Synphlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus and Anaphlebotomus. Genus Sergentomyia has the largest number of sandflies, and is represented in four subgenera, namely Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Grassomyia and Parvidens.

and Another FM. "Planning for Neutral Money Supply in African Economies with Special Application to Kenya." The Indian Economic Journal. 1993;41(1).
Anselm OJ. The philosophy of the near death experience . Pune india; 1996.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Tabuti JRS, Majaliwa MGJ. "Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:12. Abstract
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ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Problems of Rural Industries: A Case Study of Kakamega District, Western Province, Kenya- for the Annual Social Science Conference Of the Eastern African Universities, Dar-es-Salaam, December.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1973. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Africa, with Basic Books(K)Ltd.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2007. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Privatization in Kenya, published by Basic Books(K)Ltd. (Nairobi 1998).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Antony Letoyah Yiaile, James Mucunu Mbaria IMO-MMOOAHHJM. "Preliminary Screening of Crude Extracts of Fagaropsis Angolensis for Anticancer Activity.". 2018.

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