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Yenesew A. "Phtytochemical evaluation of Kenyan medicinal plants. .". In: The 11th NAPRECA Symposium. Antananarivo, Madagascar; 2005.midiwo_et_al-11th_napreca_proceedings.pdf
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
Nelson KE, Zinder SH, Hance I, Burr P, Odongo D, Wasawo D, Odenyo A, Bishop R. "Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial populations in the wild herbivore gastrointestinal tract: insights into an unexplored niche." Environ. Microbiol.. 2003;5(11):1212-20. Abstract

At present, there is little information on the phylogenetic diversity of microbial species that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of wildlife. To increase understanding in this area, we initiated a characterization of the bacterial diversity in the digestive tracts of three wild African ruminant species namely eland (Taurotragus oryx), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella rufifrons) and Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), together with a domesticated ruminant species, zebu cattle (Bos indicus), and a non-ruminant species, zebra (Equus quagga). Bacterial diversity was analysed by PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. A total of 252 full-length 16S rDNA sequences averaging 1,500 base pairs (bp) in length, and an additional 27 partial sequences were obtained and subject to phylogenetic analysis. Using a 98% criterion for similarity, all except for one of the sequences were derived from distinct phylotypes. At least 24 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU's) could be identified, with the majority of these sequences representing hitherto uncharacterized species and genera. The sequences were generally affiliated with four major bacterial phyla, the majority being members of the Firmicutes (low G+C Gram-positives) related to the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. By contrast, with earlier studies using 16S rDNA sequences to assess biodiversity in Bos taurus dairy cattle, Gram-negative bacteria in the Bacteroidales (Prevotella-Bacteroides group) were poorly represented. The lack of redundancy in the 16S rDNA dataset from the five African ungulate species, and the presence of novel sequences not previously described from the gastrointestinal tract of any animal species, highlights the level of diversity that exists in these ecosystems and raises the question as to the functional role of these species in the gastrointestinal tract.

Mbui FM, Achila RA, Opot BH, Wadegu MO, Majanja JM, Opanda SM, Ochola SA, Bulimo WD. Phylogenetic characterization of respiratory human adenoviruses isolated from pediatrics patients in New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital; Kenya.. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common pathogens associated with diseases affecting the respiratory tract, gastro intestinal tract as well as various organs like the liver, kidney and the brain. Currently there are 60 human adenovirus serotypes classified into 7 species A to G on the basis of serology, genome sequencing and phylogenomics. HAdV species B, C and E are mainly implicated in respiratory tract infections whereas the other species are associated with gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and ocular infections. Globally, the respiratory HAdV species play a significant role in pediatric infections accounting for 10% of overall respiratory illnesses and 5%–11% of pneumonia cases. However the disease burden due to respiratory adenoviruses in Kenya is not well studied; there is limited data on the respiratory human adenovirus species and serotypes circulating in the country.Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize respiratory human adenoviruses using serological and molecular approaches. Specifically the study sought to determine the species and serotypes of HAdVs that were associated with pediatrics respiratory infections in New Nyanza Provincial General Hospital from June 2010 to June 2012.Methods: Respiratory human adenoviruses isolated from patient’s samples in a period of two years were characterized using serological and molecular approaches. Virus isolates in Hep-2 cell cultures were tested with specific fluorescent antibodies to confirm the presence of Human adenovirus. The loop-2 fragment of the hexon gene was PCR amplified and then sequenced using the Sanger method.Results: Phylogenomics analysis of the sequences showed that during the study period, respiratory HAdV species B and C were associated with respiratory infections accounting for approximately 1% of the overall respiratory viruses. There were no cases of infections caused by respiratory HAdV E implying that this species was not in circulation during the study period. HAdV C was the predominant species accounting for 68.75% of the reported cases with serotype distribution as HAdV C1-25%, HAdV C2-25%, HAdV C5-6.25%, and HAdV C6-12.5%. HAdV B serotype 7 was the most prevalent serotype at 31.25%. Analysis of selection pressure of the sequences revealed that HAdV C5 and HAdV B7 were under positive selection pressure indicating that these viruses are undergoing an evolutionary process which signifies instability in their genomes. Conclusions: Characterization of respiratory human adenoviruses that circulated at New Nyanza Provincial General hospital during the study period revealed that species B and C were present but not E. There was significant genetic variation in the hexon gene of the HAdVs seen at this site compared to those from other parts of the world implying continuing evolution of respiratory HAdVs. To gain a complete understanding of this evolutionary process, whole genome sequencing of these viruses is called for in order to determine genetic stability and uniqueness of these viruses.

Ananga AO, Cebert E, Soliman K, Kantety R, Konan K, Ochieng JW. "Phylogenetic relationships within and among Brassica species from RAPD Loci associated with blackleg resistance." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2008;7(9):1287-1293.2008_ananga_et_al_ajb.pdf
Ochieng JW, Muigai AWT, Ude GN. "Phylogenetics in Plant Biotechnology: Principles, obstacles and opportunities for the resource poor." Afr. Journal of Biotechnology . 2007;6(6):639-649.2007_ochieng_et_al_ajb_phy.pdf
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Nguta, CM, S.F. D. "Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes ." Journal of Botany. 2017;((https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4369029).).
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the coleus clade inferred from leaf micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK genes." Journal of Botany, . 2017;(Vol. 2017),:pp. 1-16.
Phylogeny, Morphology and uses of Plectranthus (Lamiaceae).. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: In Ghazanfar,S.A. & Beentje, H. (Eds.) Taxonomy and ecology of African plants, their conservation and sustainable use. ; 2006.
Lorenza Beati, Jaymin Patel HL-WHAEKET-MRKJG. "Phylogeography and Demographic History of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Tropical Bont Tick." Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases . 2012;12:1-12.
Calatayud PA, Silvain JF, Branca A, Dupas S, Gigot G, Ong'amo G, LeRu B, Campagne P, Sezonlin M, Faure N. "Phylogeography in continuous space: coupling species distribution models and circuit theory to assess the effect of contiguous migration at different climatic periods on ….". 2014.
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Cohen D, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Leucht S, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Asai I, Möller H, Gautam S, Detraux J, Correll CU. "Physcial Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders II.". 2011.physcial_illness_in_patients_ii_2011.pdf
Omondi DO, Othuon LO, Mbagaya GM. "Physical activity patterns, dietary intake and health status among University of Nairobi lecturers in Kenya.". 2007. AbstractPhysical activity patterns, dietary intake and health status among University of Nairobi lecturers in Kenya

Health status based on lifestyle-related disease is a concern in many developing countries, including Kenya. Factors related to such disease conditions, are important in ensuring economic sustainability in future. Currently there is limited research in this area. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity patterns, dietary intake and health status of lecturers at the University of Nairobi. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers as study participants. Data collection included the use of a questionnaire with a physical activity checklist based on 7-day recall, 24-hour food recall, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and also diabetes-related questions. Descriptive statistics mainly means, percentages and correlations were used to analyze data. Inferences were made using chi-square statistics, which revealed a significant relationship between health status and physical activity (χ2 =27.54, N=118 p<0.05) and that lecturers who had at least one of the health problems consumed averagely higher amounts of proteins, fat, carbohydrates and kilocalories compared those without any of the health problems. In conclusion, results indicated that the health status of lecturers tended to be more contingent upon physical activity patterns than dietary intake

NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. "Physical Alteration and Destruction of Habitats in the Marine and Coastal Environment of Eastern Africa: Legal and.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2004. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Physical and Biological Environment of Kenya. Being chapter 2 of Book called Health and Disease in Kenya. Edited by Vogel, et al. E.A.L.B. Nairobi (pp.9-26).". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1974. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
DK Inoti, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Maina JG. "Physical and chemical characteristics of limestone for use in layer feeds in Kenya." Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition. 2020;37(3):242-246.
Hidaya N, Mutuku RN, Mwero JN. "Physical and Mechanical Experimental Investigation of Concrete incorporated with Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers." European international Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;Vol 6(8):31-41.
Ayiemba EHO. "The Physical Background.". 1985.Website
Gathu EW, Karuri EG, Njage PMK. "Physical characterization of new advanced drought tolerant common bean ( phaseolus vulgaris) lines for canning quality.". 2012. Abstract

The suitability for use in the canning industry of eight new dry bean varieties, selected from 150 new advanced drought tolerant dry bean lines was studied. Physical attributes including seed size, dimensions, hundred seed mass, bulk density, water uptake, volume increase and leaching characteristics on soaking were evaluated. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in seed dimensions, hundred seed mass and bulk density. DSS 11-04 (14.67 mm), DRM 11-14 (13.32 mm) and DPC 11-05 (12.84 mm) were highest in seed length. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in maximum soaking rate (Vmax), time at which Vmax occurred, water uptake at which Vmax occurred, final water uptake (UF) and time taken to reach UF. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in volume change. The rate of water uptake was highest in DNB 11-10 (24.00%/h) followed by Kenya Early (19.33%/h) and DSR 11-01 (18.33%/h). The extent of final water uptake was highest in DSS 11-04 (122.0%), DRM 11-14 (118.0%) and DRK 11-12 (113.3%). No significant differences (p>0.05) among varieties were observed in maximum leaching rate (Vlmax) and the time taken to reach final electrical conductivity (tECF) the measure of leaching characteristics. Significant differences (p = 0.05) were observed in time at which Vlmax occurred, electrical conductivity at which Vlmax occurred and final electrical conductivity (ECF). The extent of leaching was highest in DNB 11-10, Mex 142 and DMC 11-13 at 1.00, 0.97 and 0.93 deciSiemen/metre, respectively. All the genotypes DNB 11-10, DSS 11-04, DRK 11-12, DRM 11-14, DPC 11-05, DMC 11-13, DSR 11-01 and Kenya Early are comparable to the control Mexican 142 and are suitable for further use in the canning process according to the results of these physical tests.

ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "The Physical Ditribution Problems: The Need and th Application of Linear Programming Techniques (An M.B.A. Independent Paper of the University of Nairobi,.". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; Submitted. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
S. PROFNTEEREJACOB. "Physical Education and Sport in Higher Education in Kenya.". In: University of Manchester -1990. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
Kamenju J, Mwathi L, Kiganjo G. Physical Education Form Three Teacher's Guide.; 2004.
Janet K, Mwathi L, Kiganjo G. Physical Education Form Two Teachers Guide.; 2013.
Munayi S, Njororai WW, Asembo JM. Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Health in Kenya. Priorities for the 21st century.. Egerton University; 1998.
Ebrahim YH, Sealey A. Physical environment: Urban climatology . Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
Ndetei DM, De Hert M, Correll CU, Bobes J, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Cohen D, Asai I, Detraux J, Gautam S, Möller H, Newcomer JW, Uwakwe R, Leucht S. "Physical Illness in Patients with Severe Mental Disorders I.". 2011.physical_illness_in_patients_1_2011.pdf
and  Wanjala AMGO. "Physical Infrastructural Determinants of Disaster Awareness and Preparedness in Secondary Schools in Homa-Bay County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2017;2(9):120-131.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Coffee. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Paper No. 89-6109.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Physical Properties of Grain Affecting Silo Pressures. Proceeding of the 1 Oth International Symposium on Agricultural Engineering, Beijing, China. September 12 - 14.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1989. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Physical Properties of some Curvature Tensors.". In: Kenya Jour. of Sci.Ser A. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1998. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Mugo R. "Physical Wellness and fitness of the lecturer.". In: Pedagogy Manual. Nairobi: CODL; 2013.
MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA. "Physician Training in HIV/AIDS Care Services.". In: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN: 978-8443-9889-2. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Physico-chemical changes during extraction and concentration of clear guava juice. Lebensm-Wiss.u Technol. 13: 248.". In: Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, USA. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1980. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kabira JN, Ogolla J, Ouma J, Ngunju CW, Oded K. "Physico-Chemical Changes in Popular Kenyan Processing Potato Varieties as Influenced by Storage Condition." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2015;3(2):112-120.abong_2015a_physico-chemical_changes_potato_storage.pdf
Abong GO, Okoth M, Kabira J, Ogolla J, Ouma J, Ngunju C, Odek K. "Physico-chemical changes in popular Kenyan Processing Potato varietisas influened by storage condition. Current Research in Nutrition in Food Science." Current Research in Nutrtion and Food Science. 2015;3(2):112-120.
T
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA. "THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF VEGETABLE AMARANTH SOLD IN NAIROBI-KENYA.". In: Journal of Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Onyango, M.C., Shibairo, I.S., Imungi, J.K.and Harbinson, J.; 2008. Abstract
Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) namely, Cleome gynandra, Solanum nigrum and Vigna unguiculata was obtained. All the vegetables were sold in bundles of average weight 0.45kg. The edible fraction per bundle averaged 38.9%. Chemical analyses showed that vegetable amaranth had a moisture content of 85.5%, therefore a dry matter content of 14.5%. Expressed on dry matter basis, the mean total ash content was 19.2%, crude protein content 26.1% and the crude fiber content 14.7%. The mean ascorbic acid content was 627mg/100g, zinc content 5.5mg/100g and iron content 18mg/100g. The men nitrate content was 732.5mg/100g, total oxalates 5830mg/100g and soluble oxalates 3650mg/100g, while the lead content averaged 1.03mg/100g. The study concludes that vegetable amaranth has potential as popular vegetable in the diets of Kenyans to significantly contribute to provision of micronutrients, particularly iron and zinc.
P
N. KC, S. S, S. G, K. IJ. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference. Cape town, South Africa; 2009.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Physico-chemical methods for preservation of opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of Maasai women in Laikipia, Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Society Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 2009: Science and Technology Supporting Food Security in Africa 28 September to 1 October 2009.; 2009. Abstract
                                    Abstract
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Physico-chemical process in the saline-alkaline lakes of Kenya: Behr (eds.). , pp 47-52 DAAD/UNESCO.". In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Saline Alkaline lakes of Eastern and Southern Africa. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2000. Abstract
n/a
Wangaruro S;, Karanja NK;, Makatiani BT;, Odee DW;, Woomer PL. "Physico-chemical properties, initial microbial population and survival of rhizobia in peat, vermi¬culite and filtermud."; 2000. Abstract

Carrier materials are an important compo¬nent of legume inoculants, both in protect¬ing and applying the rhizobia. We have measured selected physico-chemical prop¬erties, initial microbial populations (bacte¬ria, actinomycetes and fungi) and survival of rhizobia introduced to peat, vermiculite and Muhoroni filtermud. Peat and vermi¬culite were collected from Ondiri and Kajiado respectively. Both sources are readily accessible from Nairobi, the loca¬tion of the MIRCEN legume inoculant pro¬duction facility. Peat was acidic while filtermud and vermi¬culite were close to pH 7.0. Filtermud and peat recorded high carbon while vermi¬culite contained low level of nitrogen as compared to the other two carriers. The original microbial populations in peat and filtermud were approximately lOa-fold greater than in vermiculite. Peat and filter¬mud supported the rhizobial densities of upto 108g-1 for six months which was the duration of the experiment. The results indicate that Ondiri peat would be a suit¬able substitute for rhizobia inoculant pro¬duction, having properties which compare favourably to the filtermud.

Mbui D, Orata D, Kariuki D. Physico-Electrochemical Assesment of Pollutants in Nairobi River(Reclamation of Nairobi River). Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010.
NDUTA DRWACHIRA-MBUIDAMARIS. "Physico-Electrochemical Assessment of Pollutants in Nairobi River.". In: JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTR. MBUI DAMARIS; 2007. Abstract
This is a generalization after my work on the projective space of dimension 4 to n.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Physico-geopgraphical characteristics of South Nyanza District. Republic of Kenya. South Nyanza District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ndiwa TC, Mwangi BM, Kairu E, Kaluli JW, Nyingi D. "Physicochemical Characteristics of Undrainable water dams utilised for fish rearing in the Semi-arid Naromoru area, Central Kenya." Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology. 2012;14(2(2012)):45-55.
Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mark AG. Physicochemical characterization of oils from Kenyan plants.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_1.png
Naiziriwo BB, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abongo DA. "Physicochemical parameters and magnetic speciation of Iron in Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria waters." Lakes and Reservoirs. 2009;14:127-137. Abstract

Magnetic speciation technique was used for the determination of iron species in Nakivubo Channel and Lake Victoria waters. The method consisted of a column of supported Dowex 1-X18, 20–50 US mesh (Cl) surrounded by movable permanent magnets. Dowex was supported by a porous material to permit adequate passage of the eluent through the column. In the presence of an external magnetic field, enhanced capacity for adsorption of iron III was observed. The enhanced capacity is primarily due to the magnetic field produced and ion exchange sorption mechanism. The results show that, most of the Iron in Nakivubo Channel waters is in reduced ferrous form while, in the Lake Victoria waters, it exists in the oxidized ferric form. Physicochemical parameters for the field samples are discussed in this study. Turbidity levels in catchments with substantial vegetation were significantly lower than those without. pH values up to 13 was observed for some of the point source. The physicochemical parameters along Nakivubo Channel waters were relatively higher than the Lake Victoria waters indicating slow increasing pollution load along the Nakivubo Channel.

Isaiah BM, Onyari JM, Omosa LK. "Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2021;32(1):46-56. AbstractEuropean Journal of Medicinal Plants

Abstract

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

MR. ODONGO HESBONO. "PHYSIOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF STRESS FROM CAPTURE AND RESTRAINT OF FREE-RANGING MALE AFRICAN GREEN MONKEYS (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).". In: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 73, 201-206. journal of Zoo and wild life medicine35(1); 2004. Abstract
Adrenal gland weights, stomach mucosal lesions, and morning serum cortisol and prolactin levels were measured in 15 juvenile and adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) that were shot by a hunter, euthanized after 24 hr of captivity, or euthanized after 45 days of captivity and intermittent blood sampling. Hormone levels were measured in seven additional males that had been in captivity for 7 mo. Mean serum cortisol concentrations were significantly lower in free-ranging wild monkeys at the time they were shot than in the monkeys after 1 day in captivity. Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in wild-caught monkeys on the day after capture than they were in the same animals after 18 and 26 days of captivity. Cortisol concentrations were also significantly higher in the wild-caught monkeys 18 days after capture than in the laboratory-habituated monkeys in captivity for 7 mo. Mean prolactin concentration was significantly lower in the wild-caught monkeys on day 2 after capture, and the levels increased gradually to 45 days in captivity and was highest in monkeys that had been captive for 7 mo.
Naeije R. "Physiological adaptation of the cardiovascular system to high altitude." Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 2010;52:456-466. Abstract

Altitude exposure is associated with major changes in cardiovascular function. The initial cardiovascular response to altitude is characterized by an increase in cardiac output with tachycardia, no change in stroke volume, whereas blood pressure may temporarily be slightly increased. After a few days of acclimatization, cardiac output returns to normal, but heart rate remains increased, so that stroke volume is decreased. Pulmonary artery pressure increases without change in pulmonary artery wedge pressure. This pattern is essentially unchanged with prolonged or lifelong altitude sojourns. Ventricular function is maintained, with initially increased, then preserved or slightly depressed indices of systolic function, and an altered diastolic filling pattern. Filling pressures of the heart remain unchanged. Exercise in acute as well as in chronic high-altitude exposure is associated with a brisk increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The relationships between workload, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake are preserved in all circumstances, but there is a decrease in maximal oxygen consumption, which is accompanied by a decrease in maximal cardiac output. The decrease in maximal cardiac output is minimal in acute hypoxia but becomes more pronounced with acclimatization. This is not explained by hypovolemia, acid-bases status, increased viscosity on polycythemia, autonomic nervous system changes, or depressed systolic function. Maximal oxygen uptake at high altitudes has been modeled to be determined by the matching of convective and diffusional oxygen transport systems at a lower maximal cardiac output. However, there has been recent suggestion that 10% to 25% of the loss in aerobic exercise capacity at high altitudes can be restored by specific pulmonary vasodilating interventions. Whether this is explained by an improved maximum flow output by an unloaded right ventricle remains to be confirmed. Altitude exposure carries no identified risk of myocardial ischemia in healthy subjects but has to be considered as a potential stress in patients with previous cardiovascular conditions.

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis {NEGATIVE} {FEEDBACK} {MECHANISMS} {Control} of body temperature.; Submitted. Abstract

Physiological control mechanisms and homeostasis NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Control of body temperature

Victor Mundan, Margaret Muiva SK. "Physiological, Behavioral, and Dietary Characteristics Associated with Hypertension among Kenyan Defence Forces." ISRN Preventive Medicine. 2013;2013(740143).
• Mundan V, Muiva M KS. "Physiological, Behavioral, and Dietary Characteristics Associated with Hypertension among Kenyan Defence Forces." ISRN Preventive Medicine. 2013;2013(ID 740143).
Patel NB. "Physiology of Pain.". In: Guide to Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. washington, USA: International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP); 2009.chapter_3_physiology_of_pain_.pdf
Patel NB. "Physiology of Pain.". In: Guide to Pain Management in Low Resource Settings. IASP; 2009.
Costanzo LS. Physiology: with {STUDENT} {CONSULT} {Online} {Access}, 5e. 5 edition. Philadelphia Pa.: Saunders; 2013. Abstract

Clear, consistent, and user-friendly, the updated edition of Physiology, by renowned physiology instructor Dr. Linda Costanzo, offers a comprehensive overview of core physiologic concepts at the organ system and cellular levels. It presents information in a short, simple, and focused manner, making it an ideal combination textbook and review guide for the USMLE Step 1. You'll grasp all the essential and relevant physiology knowledge you need for absolute success in school and on your exams! Build a strong understanding of the underlying principles of cellular physiology, the autonomic nervous system, and neurophysiology, as well as the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid-base, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive organ systems.{\textbackslash}Grasp physiology principles with absolute clarity through step-by-step explanations, easy-to-follow diagrams, and a full-color design, in addition to physiology equations and sample problems integrated throughout the text.Effortlessly study important points and reinforce your understanding of physiology with the help of chapter summaries and review questions. Access the entire contents online at Student Consult, including an image bank, 8 animations, "Ask the Author" section, and FAQs.Master the latest physiology concepts with expanded coverage on electrochemical driving forces across cell membranes; the cellular mechanisms in smooth muscle; second messengers (including JAK-Stat pathway); the effects of AII, PGs, NSAIDs on RPF, GFR, filtration fraction, and proximal reabsorption; and local reflexes involved in peristalsis.Reinforce your understanding of key content with the help of additional questions at the end of each chapter offered in an open-ended, problem-solving format.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "The Physique of Kenya: A contribution in Landscape Analysis. Annuals Assoc.". In: Ameri Geographers, Vol.56 No.2 pp 183-196, June 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Obiero G, Muge E, Tripathi L. "Phytochemical Analysis and Establishment of Embryogenic Cell Suspension and -mediated Transformation for Farmer Preferred Cultivars of West African Plantain ( spp.)." Plants (Basel). 2020;9(6). Abstract

Banana and plantain are among the foremost staple food crops providing food and livelihood to over 500 million people in tropical countries. Despite the importance, their production is hampered due to several biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant tissue culture techniques such as somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation offer a valuable tool for genetic improvement. Identification and quantification of phytochemicals found in banana and plantain are essential in optimizing in vitro activities for crop improvement. Total antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins were quantified in various explants obtained from the field, as well as in vitro plants of banana and plantain cultivars. The result showed genotypic variation in the phytochemicals of selected cultivars. The embryogenic cell suspensions were developed for three farmer-preferred plantain cultivars, Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele, using different MS and B5-based culture media. Both culture media supported the development of friable embryogenic calli (FEC), while MS culture media supported the proliferation of fine cell suspension in liquid culture media. The percentage of FEC generated for Agbagba, Obino l'Ewai, and Orishele were 22 ± 24%, 13 ± 28%, and 9 ± 16%, respectively. Cell suspensions produced from FECs were successfully transformed by -mediated transformation with reporter gene constructs and regenerated into whole plants.

Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. "Phytochemical Analysis of selected five plant extracts.". In: Chemistry and Materials Research.; 2013.
Waiganjo N, Ochanda H, Yole D. Phytochemical analysis of the selected five plant extracts.; 2016. AbstractWebsite

Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75 - 80% of the whole population, and the major part of
traditional therapy involves the use of plant extracts and their active constituents. Plants were collected,
identified, dried then extracted using hexane, Dichloromethane/methanol and water. Identification assays to
test the presence of various chemical constituents were carried out. The five plants were: Sonchus luxurians,
Ocimum americanum, Bridelia micrantha, Croton megalocarpus and Aloe secundiflora. The
Phytochemical screening of the compounds present in the plant extracts were; alkaloid, glycosides,
Saponins, reducing sugar, Steroid, Flavones and Catecholics. The most common compound in all the plant
extracts was Catecholics. Steroids are used in medicine to treat many diseases. The Plant extracts can be
possible candidates for drug development.
Keywords: Herbal medicine, Phytochemical compounds, Traditional therapy, Plant extracts

and Githinji C.G., P.M. Mbugua KKTIDK. "Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of Mondia Whytei (hook.f) root.". 2012.
Muema SM, Abuga KO, Yenesew A, Thoithi GN. "Phytochemical and Anthelmintic Study of the Root Bark of Teclea Trichocarpa, Engl. (Rutaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):44-47. Abstract

The root bark of Teclea trichocarpa exhibited anthelmintic activity against egg hatching and larval development of sheep nematodes (Strongyloides). Three compounds, namely lupeol, melicopicine and 6-methoxytecleanthine were isolated from the dichloromethane-methanol (50:50) extract of the plant. Melicopicine and 6-methoxytecleanthine exhibited mild anthelmintic activity. The present study lends scientific credence to the traditional use of Teclea trichocarpa in the treatment of human helminth infections.

Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2011;14(3):89-94. AbstractPhytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely β-sitosterol, 7-hydroxysitosterol and 3-hydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

Njogu PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kamau FN, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugo HN, Mwalukumbi JM. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;14(3):89-94.phytochemical_and_antimicrobial_investigation_of_girardinia_diversifolia_link_friis_urticaceae.pdf
Yenesew A. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;14:89-94.njogu_et_al-2011-ecajps.pdf
Njogu PM, Thoithi, G.N., J.W. M, et al. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14 (3):89-94.
Okalebo FA. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of clematis brachiata thunberg.; 2000. Abstract

The leaves, stem and roots of Clematis brachiata Thunberg
(Ranunculaceae) tested positive for anthraquinones, alkaloids,
saponins, coumarins, sterols, carotenoids and flavanoids and
cardenolides. Only the stem and leaves had tannins. The root had the
highest amounts of alkaloids and anthraquinones
The stem Soxhlet methanol extract yielded 13.2 mg (0.029 % of the
dried stem powder) of quercetrin (3-0-beta-L- rhamnosyl, 3', 4', 5, 7
tetrahydroxyl flavone). In addition the extract yielded 6400 mg
(1.3 % of dried stem powder) of a precipitate, FAO-FRS. It was
composed of a mixture of non-aromatic compounds.
The roots yielded 170 mg (0.068 % of dried root powder) of a nonaromatic
unsaturated lactone.
The Soxhlet methanol extracts of the leaves and stem had very good
activity against brine shrimps (LDso66.5 ug/ml and 365.6 ug/ml
respectively). An ethyl acetate ffaction of the stem Soxhlet extract,
FES, had the greatest activity against the-shrimps (LDso= 23.08
ug/ml).
The cold methanol extract of the root showed good in vitro
antimalarial activity (LDso = 39.9 ug/ml) against highly chloroquine
resistant isolate, Plasmodium falciparum VliS.
The leaf and stem extracts showed low in vitro antimalarial activity.
Quercetrin is known to have in vivo antimalarial activity.
None of the isolates and plant extracts showed significant
antimicrobial activity.
FAO-FRS, the cold methanol extracts of the leaf and stem showed
antinociceptive and local anesthetic effects.
The cold methanol extracts of the leaf, stem and roots caused
relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum. At low concentrations, FAOFRS
caused relaxation of the isolated rabbit ileum and at high
concentration it had a dose dependent contractile effect.
The traditional use the leaves and stems of C. brachiata Thunb as
analgesics, local anesthetics, antimalarial agents and spasmolytics,
seems tv have sound scientific rationale. The traditional use of the roots for the management of malaria and as a purgative seems to have
scientific rationale.

Jeruto P, Mutai C, Lukhoba C, Ouma G. "Phytochemical constituents of some medicinal plants used by the Nandis of South Nandi district, Kenya." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences,. 2011;9(3):1201-1210. Abstract

Alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones, glycosides, phenolics, terpenoids and flavonoids distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asparagus racemosus, Clutia abbysinica, Clerodendrum myricoides, Ehretia cymosia, Leucas calostachys, Toddalia asiatica, Rubia cordifolia, Spermacoce princeae,Carrisa edulis
and Ajuga remota. The leaves and roots of the plants were collected from their natural habitat
in Aldai division South Nandi district. All the plant samples were identified at University of Nairobi and confirmed in National Museums of Kenya. The Voucher specimens were deposited in the University Botanic Garden Maseno herbarium. The harvested roots were washed with water and the barks peeled off while still fresh and cut into small portions. The materials were then air –dried under a tree shade at room temperature for one week when possible, but in the sun whenthe humidity was too high. Phytochemical screening was carried out at Centre for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research (CTMDR) KEMRI Nairobi according to Harborne, (1984 & 1973. All plants were found to contain alkaloids, terpernoids , saponins and flavonoids except for the absence of saponins in root extracts of
R. cordifolia and C.myricoides and flavonoids in leave extracts of L. calostachys and A. remota.
The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in South Nandi District.

Midiwo JO, Yenesew A, Juma BF, Omosa KL, Omosa IL, Mutisya D. "Phytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants.". 2010. AbstractPhytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants

11 th NAPRECA Symposium Book of Proceedings, Antananarivo, Madagascar Pages 9-19 Midiwo et al. 9 Phytochemical Evaluation of So me Kenyan Medicinal Plants J. Ogweno Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B.F. Juma Kerubo L Omosa, Irene L Omosa, Daniel Mutisya. Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.o. Box 30197, Nairobi. Kenya. E-mail: jmidiwo@uonbi.ac.ke Abstract There are more than 1200 described medicinal pl ants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical informati on from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthel mintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoqui none in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain le ngth or the presence / absence of 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-fam ily de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti- feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, in secticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and mi nor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin deriva tive, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is upto 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, di hydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin a nd their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2'-glucosy l-6'-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exuda te mixture. Other leaf exuda te plants studied included the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloba n diterpenes have been found.

Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Phytochemical Investigation and Anthelmintic Activity of Dombeya rotundifolia, Hochst. M.Pharm.". 2004. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst) is a shrub (or tree) and grows in woodland, wooded grassland and rocky mountain slopes from Ethiopia southwards to Kwazulu Natal, South Africa. It is widespread in Kenya and has many traditional uses. Roots are boiled and the soup used to treat rheumatism. Roots are pounded, soaked in water and the macerate given to children with diarrhea. Its stems and roots are used as an anthelmintic and to treat syphilis. It is also used to treat heart problems, nausea in pregnant women, headaches, haemorrhoids, dyspepsia, regulate the menses, to hasten the onset of labour and as an abortifacient. Dried entire plant is used in South Africa for treatment of diarrhea and in Tanzania for intestinal upset and to rid evil effects of witchcraft. It is also used to treat abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headaches, haemorrhage and as a tonic. Phytochemical studies were carried out on the methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts of Dombeya rotundifolia. All the extracts contained cardiac glycosides. The methanol, hot water and could water extracts contained saponins. None of the extracts contained alkaloids and anthraquinones. Fractionation of the chloroform extract yielded two compounds which were identified as lupeol and -sitosterol by spectroscopic methods. The extracts delayed the normal hatching of strongyle eggs while killing the eggs at high concentration. Many of the un-hatched eggs below the concentration of 5000 g/ml had developed and the larvae could be seen inside the shell but some were dead showing that the extracts retarded development of the eggs. The calculated LD50 for egg hatch assay was 2570 g/ml, 500.9 g/ml, 2709.4 g/ml and 1762.9 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The calculated LD50 for the larvae mortality assay was 635.9 g/ml, 657.0 g/ml, 96.9 g/ml and 4195 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The extracts killed the hatched larvae at high concentrations. The calculated LD50 for the larvae development assay was 1689.6 g/ml, 765.4 g/ml, 4909.8 g/ml and 3062 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. This showed that the extracts prevented the normal development of the larvae from Larvae1 to Larvae3 (adult stage). The most active extract in egg hatch and larvae development assay was the cold water extract, while methanol extract was the most active in larvae mortality assay. The hot water and could water extracts relaxed the isolated rabbit ileum, an effect similar to that of adrenaline, supporting the use of this plant to treat diarrhea. The methanol and chloroform extracts had no effects on the isolated rabbit ileum up to a dose of 40 mg (2 mg/ml). No extract had activity on guinea pig ileum. All the extracts had broncho-constrictive effect on guinea pig trachea. The chloroform extract had a marked negative chlorotropic and inotropic effects on the isolated rabbit heart. The methanol and the water extracts had no effects on the heart up to a dose of 20 mg. Starting with a tissue bath concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, both methanol and hot water extracts caused contraction of isolated rat uterus with activity at a concentration of 2 mg/ml being comparable to the effect of oxytocin 0.1 i.u/ml and acetylcholine 0.5 g/ml. Both chloroform and cold water extracts had no noticeable effect on the uterus upto a dose of 2 mg/ml. The oxytocin-like contractions of isolated rat uterus caused by methanol and hot water extracts supports the use of this plant decoction as an abortifacient. The extracts had high activity against Artemia salina showing they may have good pestcidal and cytotoxic activity. The LD50 of methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts were 470.7, 323.3, 30.2 and 38.5 g/ml, respectively. The LD50 of lupeol and -sitosterol was 116.2 and 95.9 g/ml, respectively. In this work, the isolation of any compound from Dombeya rotundifolia is reported for the first time. The compounds lupeol and -sitosterol were isolated from the stem bark. The present work shows there is a scientific basis for the traditional use of the plant Dombeya rotundifolia as anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal and abortifacient.

Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Phytochemical Investigation and Anthelmintic Activity of Dombeya rotundifolia, Hochst. M.Pharm.". 2004. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Hochst) is a shrub (or tree) and grows in woodland, wooded grassland and rocky mountain slopes from Ethiopia southwards to Kwazulu Natal, South Africa. It is widespread in Kenya and has many traditional uses. Roots are boiled and the soup used to treat rheumatism. Roots are pounded, soaked in water and the macerate given to children with diarrhea. Its stems and roots are used as an anthelmintic and to treat syphilis. It is also used to treat heart problems, nausea in pregnant women, headaches, haemorrhoids, dyspepsia, regulate the menses, to hasten the onset of labour and as an abortifacient. Dried entire plant is used in South Africa for treatment of diarrhea and in Tanzania for intestinal upset and to rid evil effects of witchcraft. It is also used to treat abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headaches, haemorrhage and as a tonic. Phytochemical studies were carried out on the methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts of Dombeya rotundifolia. All the extracts contained cardiac glycosides. The methanol, hot water and could water extracts contained saponins. None of the extracts contained alkaloids and anthraquinones. Fractionation of the chloroform extract yielded two compounds which were identified as lupeol and -sitosterol by spectroscopic methods. The extracts delayed the normal hatching of strongyle eggs while killing the eggs at high concentration. Many of the un-hatched eggs below the concentration of 5000 g/ml had developed and the larvae could be seen inside the shell but some were dead showing that the extracts retarded development of the eggs. The calculated LD50 for egg hatch assay was 2570 g/ml, 500.9 g/ml, 2709.4 g/ml and 1762.9 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The calculated LD50 for the larvae mortality assay was 635.9 g/ml, 657.0 g/ml, 96.9 g/ml and 4195 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. The extracts killed the hatched larvae at high concentrations. The calculated LD50 for the larvae development assay was 1689.6 g/ml, 765.4 g/ml, 4909.8 g/ml and 3062 g/ml for the hot water, cold water, methanol and chloroform extracts, respectively. This showed that the extracts prevented the normal development of the larvae from Larvae1 to Larvae3 (adult stage). The most active extract in egg hatch and larvae development assay was the cold water extract, while methanol extract was the most active in larvae mortality assay. The hot water and could water extracts relaxed the isolated rabbit ileum, an effect similar to that of adrenaline, supporting the use of this plant to treat diarrhea. The methanol and chloroform extracts had no effects on the isolated rabbit ileum up to a dose of 40 mg (2 mg/ml). No extract had activity on guinea pig ileum. All the extracts had broncho-constrictive effect on guinea pig trachea. The chloroform extract had a marked negative chlorotropic and inotropic effects on the isolated rabbit heart. The methanol and the water extracts had no effects on the heart up to a dose of 20 mg. Starting with a tissue bath concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, both methanol and hot water extracts caused contraction of isolated rat uterus with activity at a concentration of 2 mg/ml being comparable to the effect of oxytocin 0.1 i.u/ml and acetylcholine 0.5 g/ml. Both chloroform and cold water extracts had no noticeable effect on the uterus upto a dose of 2 mg/ml. The oxytocin-like contractions of isolated rat uterus caused by methanol and hot water extracts supports the use of this plant decoction as an abortifacient. The extracts had high activity against Artemia salina showing they may have good pestcidal and cytotoxic activity. The LD50 of methanol, chloroform, hot water and cold water extracts were 470.7, 323.3, 30.2 and 38.5 g/ml, respectively. The LD50 of lupeol and -sitosterol was 116.2 and 95.9 g/ml, respectively. In this work, the isolation of any compound from Dombeya rotundifolia is reported for the first time. The compounds lupeol and -sitosterol were isolated from the stem bark. The present work shows there is a scientific basis for the traditional use of the plant Dombeya rotundifolia as anthelmintic, antidiarrhoeal and abortifacient.

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40(2020):148-155.chemistry_of_five_croton_species_phytolletters_2020.pdf
Chiteva R, Yenesew A, Chikamai B, Wanjohi J. "Phytochemical investigation of resins from Kenyan Commiphora holtziana." International Journal of current research. 2013;5(7):1791-1793. Abstract

Description
Commiphora holtziana gum resins when solvent extracted followed by a combination of chromatographic separation techniques on hexane extract of the Wajir sample, led to the isolation and characterization of a new compound, 11–hydroxy-γ-muurolene 1. In addition, two known compounds,(1E)-2-methoxy-8, 12-

Tsegaye DW. Phytochemical investigation of selected millettia (leguminosae) and ochna (ochnaceae) species for anticancer activities. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

Despite the availability of well established cancer therapies, death from cancer is common and is predicted to rise. There is evidence that natural products play a significant role in cancer therapy and prevention; with considerable number of anticancer agents in use are either natural products or their derivatives. Flavonoids are among classes of natural products gaining a lot of interest as potential anticancer and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this regard, plants from two flavonoid rich genera, Millettia (Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, Millettia dura and Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis) of the Leguminosae family and Ochna (Ochna holstii and Ochna ovata) of the Ochnaceae family were investigated. Chromatographic (column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC and HPLC) separation of the extracts from the five plants led to the identification of a total of sixty six compounds, out of which ten are new. Four derivatives of the isolated compounds were also prepared. The structural elucidation of the compounds was performed using spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultra Violet spectroscopy (UV), Circular Dichroism (CD), X-ray crystallography, Polarimetry and Mass Spectrometry (MS). The crude extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis yielded two new isoflavones (316 and 317) and four new structurally related rotenoids (318-321) along with eight known compounds. Similarly, the leaves of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis led to the identification of five rotenoids, three isoflavones and one triterpene, of which the isoflavone (312) is new. One of the known rotenoid (313) is reported here for the first time from the genus Millettia. The root bark extract of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis gave thirteen compounds (chalcones, rotenoids, flavanoids and cinnamyl alcohol) of which the chalcone (326) is a new compound. From the roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis, thirteen compounds were identified. Among these, the tetraglycoside isoflavone (306) is a new compound. Similar work on the root bark of Millettia dura yielded six isoflavones, one chalcone and a pterocarpan, named 3-O-prenylmaakiain (303) is new compound. Similarly, investigation of the stem bark and leaves of Ochna holstii yielded dimeric and monomeric flavonoids along with dasycarponin (332) and 2,4-dihydroxyphenylmethyl acetate (335). Furthermore, the root bark of Ochna ovata also gave seven compounds some of which were also obtained from the stem and leaves of Ochna holstii. Four alkaloids (336-339) obtained from root bark of Ochna ovata are reported here for the first time from the family Ochnaceae. This is the first report on the phytochemistry of the two Ochna species. The crude extracts and some of their constituents were evaluated for anticancer activities. The crude extract of the roots of M. oblata ssp. teitensis showed strong activity (4.5 μg/mL) against ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line followed by crude extract of root bark of M. usaramensis ssp usaramensis (11.6 μg/mL). The pure compounds were also found cytotoxic aganist ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line (IC50 10.5-88.1 μg/mL) among which the highest activity was recorded for usararotenoid C (154, 10.5 μg/mL) followed by maximaisoflavone J (325, 11.2 μg/mL). The activity of 154 is almost four times higher than that of epimillettosin (137, 39.7 μg/mL) with the only structural difference between the two is that 154 has a prenyl group at C-8 and a methoxyl group at C-9 while in 137 the prenyl has cyclized into 2,2-dimethylchromene. Similarly, the activity of maximaisoflavone J (325) is almost five times higher than maximaisoflavone B (304, 53.8 vii μg/mL); while the only difference between the two compounds is the replacement of the methoxyl group at C-4' in 325 by a methylenedioxy (C-3'/C-4') in maximaisoflavone B (304). The strong activities observed for the crude extracts; roots of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis and root bark of Millettia usaramensis ssp. usaramensis could be due to their active component; maximaisoflavone J (325) and usararotenoid C (154), respectively. Some compounds were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against Vero cells (IC50 6.7-67.4 μg/mL). Strong activity was recorded for the dimeric flavonoid, calodenone (253). This compound is ten times more active than the related compound, lophirone A (252), a compound which only differ from 253 by lack of a methoxyl group at C-15. The isolated constituents were also tested in Krebs-2 in vitro for translation inhibitory, but none of the compounds showed translation inhibitory activity. Overall, the investigation of the five plants yielded a wide range of new and known compounds as monomeric and dimeric flavonoids, rotenoids, isoflavonoids, chalcones, alkaloids, triterpene and two simple molecules (331 and 335), some of which showed moderate to low cytotoxicity on the ER-negative MDB-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-line and Vero cells.....

Korir EK. "Phytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae.". 2012. AbstractPhytochemical Investigation of the Larvicidal Activity of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis against Anopheles gambiae

With 500 million deaths globally, and over 90% in Africa, malaria is among the greatest killer diseases on the continent. Deaths due to malaria reach about half a million among children annually. Malaria patients constitute 15% of all hospital admissions, 50% of fever cases and 30% of outpatient consultations. The effect and cost of disease has enormous impact on economic growth and development of African economies. The emergence of drug resistant malaria parasite (plasmodium species) and insecticide resistant Anopheles mosquitoes have accelerated the spread of the disease. Some of the anti-malarials like chloroquine and pyrimethamine, which were used as first line drugs have been discontinued due to high prevalence of resistant parasites. Due to the high costs of malaria vaccine development and production coupled with diminished emphasis on vaccine research by multinational pharmaceutical firms, an efficient vaccine has not been produced for malaria management. However, research continues along these lines with two recent reports of new vaccines, one with 47% protection. Vector control. Therefore, remains the method of choice. Larval control is a preferable approach since the life cycle is terminated before emergence into the disease transmitting adults. Nonetheless, the used of biological control methods like larvivorous plants and fish is not viable. Insecticides resistance is on the increase and some of the effective ones like DDT have been banned due to their adverse effects on the environment, human health and non-target organisms. Thus, control strategies such as the use of phytochemical larvicides need to be investigated and developed. The current research examined the potential larvicidal activity of extracts of Toddalia asiatica and Ekebergia capensis. The extracts were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of Larvicidal compounds. The results indicate that some extracts have larvicidal activity up to 19.0 ppm with T. Asiatic showing the highest activity. Several compounds were isolated and characterized from the two plants. Sibiricin from T. Asiatic showed the highest level of Larvicidal activity. Eight pure compounds are being reported for the first time from this study. Their bioactivity and structural elucidation are discussed.

Buyinza D. Phytochemical investigation of Zanthoxylum holstzianum for antimicrobial principles. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2012. Abstract

As a response to the worldwide alarm of increased resistance of microbes to readily available antibiotics, the stem bark of Zanthoxylum holstzianum (Rutaceae) with no prior phytochemical report was investigated so as to isolate, and elucidate secondary metabolites with likely antimicrobial activities. The plant material was collected from Diani Veminant forest (coastal province of Kenya), dried at room temperature under shade, pulverised and extracted using acetone. The crude extract was subjected to fractionation and purification using a range of separation techniques including, partitioning, Column Chromatography (CC), Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC) and crystallization. The structure of the isolated compounds was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques such as UV, MS, and NMR.
In total seven compounds were isolated, of these, three were benzophenanthridine alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine (2), 8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (5) and 8oxochelerythrine (7)], one canthin-6-one alkaloid [N-methylflindersine (3)], a flavanone
[hesperidine (1)], a fatty acid [hexadecanoic acid (6)], and an amide (2E,4E)-Nisobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4)]. This is the first report of the occurrence of (2E,4E)N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4-dienamide (4), hexadecanoic acid (6) and hesperidin (1) from the genus Zanthoxylum. A summary of the isolated compounds is shown in figure 1. The crude extract and isolated compounds were screened against four microbial
pathogens, namely: Escherichia coli NC 35218 (Bacterium), Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 259213 (Bacterium), Candida albicans SC 5314 (Yeast fungus), and Aspergillus
niger ATCC 16404 (Filamentous fungus) using the disc diffusion technique as
recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012).
Dihydrochelerythrine (2), N-methylflindersine (3), (2E, 4E)-N-isobutyltetradeca-2,4dienamide (5) and the crude extract, each had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
of 6.25 μg/disc against Staphylococcus aureus. The crude had MIC of 62.5 μg/disc
against Candida albicans and the essential oils showed a MIC of 12.5 μg/disc against
both Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Kanja LW, Gakuya DW, Kiama SG, Ochola FO. "Phytochemical profile and antioxidant capacity of leaves of Moringa oleifera(Lam) extracted using different solvent systems." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2016;5(4):302-306.5-4-9-865.pdf
Misonge J.O, J.G K, W.M K, J.M M. "Phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity evaluation of Launaea Cornuta H. (Asteraceae) using brine shrimp." Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2015;3(4):116-120.
Onyancha J.M, Cherongis C.N MNMGIDG. "Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Kenyan Hydnora abyssinica A. Braun (Hydnoraceae)." Journal of Innovations and Pharmaceuticals and Biological Sciences . 2015;2(1):1-6.
Ochwangi DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Phytochemical screening of Medicinal Plants of the Kakamega County Kenya Commonly Used Against Cancer. Med Aromat Plants 1: 1-7.". 2016.
Odhiambo Judith, Dossaji Saffudin LCYA. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt (Iridaceae).". 2014.pn_5.pdf
Yenesew A, Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt. (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2014; 8:589-592. Abstractpaper_72_judith_et_al_jou_of_pharma._res._2014.pdf

Background: Plants continue to play a vital role in their therapeutic value. This is because of the vast secondary metabolites that many of them produce. These natural products have been utilised as single or in combination with other compounds for utilization as source of drugs for many ailments in form of antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antihelminthes, and antimalarials among others. Plants evaluated phytochemically in most cases have previous reports on biological activity, ethnomedicinal or traditional medicine usage. However, many other plants with no such previous reports may be as important with variety of natural products with potential significance in pharmaceuticals for drug development. Dierama cupuliflorum is one such plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of phytochemicals in this plant. Method : The organic solvent extracts from Methanol: Dichloromethane (1:1) along with dry powder/ground portions from corms and aerial parts were screened for the presence of selected phytochemicals using standard chemical procedures. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavanoids, glycosides and anthraquinones. More phytochemicals were detected in corms than in the aerial parts. Conclusion: Although there is no available report on the use of this plant for medicinal purposes, the phytochemical data presented here has demonstrated that this plant has the potential to be used significantly for therapeutic purposes in many health challenges. This study has therefore laid down a good foundation for future studies on this plant whose bioactivity studies are currently underway.

Odhiambo J, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba C, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt. (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2014;8 (4):589-592.phytochemical_screening__dierama_2014.pdf
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
Judith O, Saffudin D, Catherine L, Abiy Y. "Phytochemical screening of Dierama cupuliflorum Klatt.(Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol. 2014;8(4):589-592.
Ochwangi DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JO, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants of the Kakamega Country, Kenya Commonly Used against Cancer." Med Aromat Plants (Los Angel) 2016. 2016;5:6 DOI: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000277.ochwangi_medaromatplants_2016__1.pdf
Ochwang’i DO, Kimwele CN, Oduma JA, Gathumbi PK, Kiama SG, Efferth T. "Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants of the Kakamega County, Kenya, commonly used against cancer." Med Aromat Plants . 2016;5:277.
Karumi EW, Maitai CK, Okalebo FA, Mungai NN, Ndwigah SN, Mukungu NA. "Phytochemical, Anthelmintic and Antimicrobial activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(3):77-82.
Machumi F, Midiwo JO, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Tekwani BL, Walker LA, Muhammad I. "Phytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii.". 2013. AbstractPhytochemical, Antiparasitic and Antimicrobial Investigations of Terminalia brownii

Terminalia brownii is an African medicinal plant used to treat parasitic and microbial infections [1]. Chromatographic separations on the stem bark extract aimed at identifying the active components led to isolation of a new oleanane-type triterpenoid, along with seven known oleanane-type triterpenoids and seven ellagic acid derivatives. The new compound was identified using spectroscopic methods as 3β,24-O-ethylidenyl-2α,19α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1). The compounds were evaluated for their antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities giving the most potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.76 µg/mL for 23-galloylarjunolic acid (2) against P. falciparum W2 strain and the most potent antimicrobial activity with IC50 values of 0.32 µg/mL for diellagic lactone (3) against C. glabrata.

O. A’G, T. M, W. OM, F. N’ang’a, G. O’P, M. MD, D. M, M. A, S G. "Phytochemicals in leaves and roots of selected Kenyan orange fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) varieties. International Journal of Food Science." International Journal of Food Science . 2020;2020(1-2):1-11.
Ndunda BE, Midiwo JO, Omosa LK, LANG’AT MK. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY INVESTIGATIONS OF THREE KENYAN CROTON SPECIES. Nairobi-Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2014.
J.K.Muthee, D.W. Gakuya, J.M. Mbaria, C.M.Mulei. "Phytochemistry and cytotoxicity of plants used as anthelmintics in Loitoktok sub-county,Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association 49th Annual Scientific Conference. Hotel Itoya, Busia county,Kenya ; 2015.
J.K.Muthee, D.W. Gakuya, J.M. Mbaria, C.M.Mulei. "Phytochemistry and cytotoxicity of plants used as anthelmintics in Loitoktok sub-county,Kenya." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2016;5(1):15-19.vol5_issue1_04.pdf
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72.
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in the Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya.". In: 1st International Conference Pesticidal Plants. Vol. 10.; 2013:.
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern.in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;3(1):65-72. Abstractvernonia_glabra.pdf

Food spoilage and poisoning pathogens lead to pre- and post-harvest losses of crop produce and poisoning
of food and feed stuff; posing a great threat to food security and safety worldwide. This project aimed to
investigate the pesticidal activity and presence of chemical compounds in Vernonia glabra; as an alternative
control approach, to food crop protection. Organic extracts of leaves and flowers showed the highest
activity against S. aureus (mean inhibition zones of 1.85 and 1.78 respectively), than the standard antibiotic
(Streptomycin 1.30). Flavonoids were greatly present in all extracts screened. The results of this study
justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine, and suggest that the plant has ideal
characteristics in the application as bio-pesticide control to crops and food stuff.

C.K. K, D.S. F, C.W. L, M.M. J. "Phytochemistry and Utilization of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern.in Management of Food Spoilage and Poisoning Pathogens, in Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2014;1(3):65-72.
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle extract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science . 2014;2(9):128-134, .phytophthora_infestans_responses_to_stinging_nettle.pdf
Njogu M, Muindi E, Muthomi J, Nyankanga R, Muchiri P. "Phytophthora infestans responses to stinging nettle nextract, phosphoric acid and fungicides combination, in Kenya." Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS) . 2014;2(9):128-134.
Omondi E.A, Ndiba P.K NPG. "Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB’s) in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth (E.Crassipes)." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research . 2015;4(5):147-156.
Were FH, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation Using Bamboo to Reduce the Risk of Chromium Exposure from a Contaminated Tannery Site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;Vol. 7(16):12-25.
Faridah H Were, Wafula GA, Wairungu S. "Phytoremediation using bamboo to reduce the risk of chromium exposure from a contaminated tannery site in Kenya." Journal of Health and Pollution. 2017;7(16):12-25. AbstractJournal of Health and Pollution

Description
Background. This study examines an intervention strategy to reduce the risk of chromium (Cr) exposure. It follows a previous Cr exposure investigation, which revealed that large volumes of Cr-contaminated waste were burnt on site. The study site had a long history of land-based waste disposal since 1994.
Objective. The potential for phytoremediation using bamboo species to restore Cr-contaminated soil was evaluated.
Methods. Chromium levels and physico-chemical properties of the tannery and control soils were analyzed before transplanting six different bamboo species. Translocation, bio-concentration and bioaccumulation factors of the species were assessed for phytoremediation capabilities.
Results. Chromium levels in the tannery soils ranged from 1337.0 to 3398.0 mg/kg dw. The chromium levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control soils (0.20 to 2.34 mg/kg dw) and …

Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Meguro S, Hayashi H, Mathenge S, Kiboi S, Miyawaki A. "A PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE MONTANE FORESTS OF CENTRAL KENYA FOR THEIR CONSERVATION." Abstracts of EcoSummit 2007——Ecological Complexity and Sustainability——Challenges & Opportunities for 21st Century's Ecology. 2007.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Amugune BK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from Dombeya torrida (J. F. Gmel). ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):44-48.
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi GN, J.W.Mwangi, B.K.Amugune, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from Dombeya Torrida (J.G GMEL)." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2013;16(2):1-9.abstract.pdf
Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2008;11:52-54.
Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretumjragrans F. Hoffm.". 2008. Abstract

Two sterols, b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of combetrum fragrans~ The, identity.of'.these.compounds was established by spectral analysis.

Maima AO, Thoithi GN, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, Kibwage IO. "Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretumjragrans F. Hoffm.". 2008. Abstract

Two sterols, b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the stem bark of combetrum fragrans~ The, identity.of'.these.compounds was established by spectral analysis.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Piantadosi A, Panteleeff D, Blish CA, Baeten JM, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J (2009) HIV-1 neutralizing antibody breadth is affected by factors early in infection, but does not influence disease progression. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Piantadosi A, Panteleeff D, Blish CA, Baeten JM, Jaoko W, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J (2009) HIV-1 neutralizing antibody breadth is affected by factors early in infection, but does not influence disease progression. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Virology 83(10):10269-74; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Omuga DB. "Pica Practices of Pregnant Women in Nairobi Kenya." Journal College of Medicine. 2009;14(1):24-32. Abstract

Aim: To establish the prevalence of pica behaviour during pregnancy; to identify the substances commonly ingested and their prevalence; and to determine the characteristics of women who reported practicing pica.

Method: Was descriptive, cross sectional study involving use of questionnaire administered in interview format. Study was conducted at Pumwani Maternity Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Participants included a convenience sample of 1071 ante natal women with a mean age of 28.1 (+_ 7.3) years. Subjects were selected based on availability, accessibility, and willingness to participate in the study.

Results: Seven hundred and ninety three (74.0%) participants reported practicing pica regularly on a daily basis. Pica prevalence categorised by substances ingested was as follows: soft stones (odowa), 89.8%; soil, 61.2%; and others, 9.6% and no pica, 26.0%. Majority of women who reported practicing pica (62.5%) ingested more than one substance. Most women who practiced pica reported having experienced strong cravings prior to ingestion of pica items, childhood pica, pica before pregnancy, pica in previous pregnancy and a history of pica in family members and significant others in the community.

Conclusions: Pica prevalence was significantly high among the subjects indicating that pica in pregnancy might be more common and widespread in Kenya than health care providers assume or observe. There is no need to routinely screen pregnant women for pica during antenatal visits as this will provide a more systematic and a less expensive way of establishing its epidemiologic status. A nationwide investigation of pica prevalence is also recommended in order to establish possible health consequences of pica on mother and child.

Rayya. "Picha ya Hadaa.". In: Sina Zaidi na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Target Publishers; 2011.
Akama MK, W GS, Chindia ML. "Pierre Robin Syndrome: case report.". 2000. Abstract

A case of a female neonate with Pierre Robin Syndrome with frequent cyanotic episodes and feeding difficulties which could not be adequately managed by positioning and oral airway placement is presented. Tongue-anterior mandible fusion procedure was performed with satisfactory results

Samuel Maina Githigia. PIG SECTOR REVIEW KENYA. NAIROBI: FAO LIVESTOCK COUNTRY REVIEWS; 2012.fao_pig_sector_review_in_kenya1.pdf
Singh L, Silim SN, Baudoin JP, Kimani PM, Mwang’ombe AW. "Pigeon pea(Cjanus cajan(L.) Millspuagh in“Crop Production in Tropical Africa.". 2010.
Bebora LC, Bii CC, Waitindi HK. "Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as Possible Sources of Candida and Cryptococcus Infections for Humans and Animals.". 2005. Abstract

A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose agar, CHROMagar and urea media were used for isolation and characterization of these yeasts. Various species of Candidaand Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated in numbers ranging from 104 to 105 colony forming units per gramme or per 2-minute exposure to air; from both pigeon-frequented areas and garbage sites. Cryptococcus was isolated more than Candida species in pigeon-frequented areas, while the reverse was the case for garbage sites, both for solid and aerial samples. The dog faeces yielded Candida organisms mainly. The presence of these yeasts in both solid samples and air highlights the possibility of these areas, which are frequently traversed by humans and animals (including chickens and other birds), as being possible sources of infection for humans and animals. Aerial contamination means the organisms can be disseminated far and wide easily.

Khamala CP, Okeyo-Owour JB. "Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.". 1980. AbstractPigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) varietal response to insect podborer infestation in Kenya.

In field trials with (a) determinate and (b) indeterminate pigeon pea cv., pod damage by Heliothis armigera, Pardasena virgulana and Melanagromyza obtusa and seed yield losses ranged from 37% and 23% in an early-flowering cv. of (b) to 64% and 52% in a late-flowering cv. of (b), resp

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Pigeonpea breeding: Objectives, experiences and strategies for Eastern Africa. Pages 21-33. In: Silim, S., G. Mergeai and P.M. Kimani (eds) . Pigeonpea: Status and potential in Eastern and Southern Africa . Patancheru, India, ICRISAT and Gembloux Universi.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Wasamba P. Pilgrim. Nairobi; 2010.a_pilgrim.pdf
Oludhe C. Pilot Application Projects.; 2005.
SD G, D P, Linden A AG, E B, J.F C, SR F, P J, M K, M L, F L, MA M, E O'F, S O, R R, F A. "A pilot comparison of standardized online surgical curricula for use in low- and middle-income countries." JAMA Surg. 2014;149(4):341-316.
Wasamba P, Wanjiku K, Jane B, Owiti L, Kimani F. Pilot Project on the best Practices in the Management, Structures and Processes of Constituency Development Fund (CDF). Nairobi: Collaborative Center for Gender and Development (CCGD); 2007.
Tina LD, Omoni G, Lee K, WAKASIAKA S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.". 2013. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills. an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis. 92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed. e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

omoni DG. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013. Abstracta_pilot_quasi-experimental_study_to_determine_the_feasibility_of_implementing_a_partograph_e-learning_tool_for_student_midwife_training_in_nairobi.pdf

Midwifery. 2013 Mar 4. pii: S0266-6138(12)00183-0. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.10.003. [Epub ahead of print]
A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.
Tina Lavender D, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M.
Source

Jean McFarlane Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address: tina.lavender@manchester.ac.uk.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.
DESIGN:

an uncontrolled before-and-after study was conducted, informed by Kirkpatrick's four-stage model of evaluation; we report on the first two stages. We included a cohort of third and fourth year midwifery students who were studying at one university in Nairobi. The same hypothetical case scenario was used, pre- and post-implementation of the World Health Organization partograph e-learning tool, to assess students' partograph completion ability. Views on the tool were also sought, using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using standard statistical techniques and framework analysis.
FINDINGS:

92 (88%) students participated. Students expressed positive views about the e-learning tool. However, the mean post-intervention score (27.21) was less than half of the maximum obtainable score. There was some improvement in test scores; year three mean score pre-intervention was 21.39 (SD 5.72), which increased to 25.10 (5.41) post-intervention (paired-t=3.47, p=0.001); year four mean score pre-intervention was 24.39 (5.98) which increased to 29.30 (6.77) post-intervention (paired t=3.85, df=91, p<0.001). In the post-test, year four students scored higher than year three students (unpaired t=3.28, df=90, p=0.001). Students were unable to plot cervical dilatation correctly, once established labour had been confirmed.
KEY CONCLUSION:

e-Learning training is acceptable to student midwives and has the potential to be an effective means of teaching the practical application of the partograph. However, in this study, their inability to correctly plot transference from the latent to active phase of labour suggests that the partograph itself may be too complicated. Modifications and further evaluation of the e-learning tool would be required before any widespread implementation. Furthermore, students need the clinical support to operationalise their learning; educating qualified midwives and obstetricians to be positive role models when completing the partograph would be one potential solution. Further research is required, taking on board the recommendations from our pilot study, to investigate the impact of partograph e-learning on practice and clinical outcomes.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lavender T, Omoni G, Lee K, Wakasiaki S, Campbell M, Watiti J, Mathai M. "A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi." Midwifery. 2013;29(8):876-84. Abstract

the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.

Masese L, McClelland RS GWSKN-AJOLRBAKRGJF. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers." Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(3):217-22.
Ndinya-Achola JO KA, McClelland RS, Gitau R, G W, J S, F K, L1 M, Lester R, Richardson BA, A. K. "A pilot study of the feasibility of a vaginal washing cessation intervention among Kenyan female sex workers.". 2012.document1.pdf
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Pilozzi, A., A.M. Siani, Palmieri, S., N. J. Muthama, Cross-relationship between a long series of rainfall and other parallel series of various meteorological parameters.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Contemporary Climatology, Brno, August, 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
KIKO PROFKIMUYUPETER. "Pinckney T.C. & P.K. Kimuyu. Land Regisration in East Africa: Good, Bad or Unimportant? Journal of African Econmies 3:1.". In: sfdsadfsa. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
research theories for high school students
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Pinner RW, Onyango FE, Perkins BA, Mirza N,Mbori-Ngacha DA, Reeves M, DeWitt W, Njeru E, Agata NN, Broome CV. Epidemic meningococcal disease in Nairobi, Kenya - 1989. J Infect Dis 1992;166:359-364.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1989. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "Pinner, R.W., Onyango, F., Perkins, B. A., Mirza, N.B., Ngacha, D.M., Reeves, M., DeWitt, W., Njeru, E., Agata, N.N., Broome, C.V. and the Kenya/CDC Meningitis study KNjeru cv 9 group. Epidemic Meningococcal Disease in Nairobi, Kenya, 1989. J. Infect. Dis.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 1992; 166:359-364. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract
In a five year retrospective study of 360 patients with homozygous (SS) sickle cell disease, eighteen (5%) were found to have neurological complications. Their ages ranged from 7 months to 21 years with a mean of 11.1 +/- 6 years. Of those with neurological complications, twelve (67%) of the patients had cerebrovascular accident, six (33.3%) convulsions, three visual disturbance; one sensorineural deafness, one cerebellar degeneration and the last one confusion and hallucinations. Four of the patients had multiple neurological complications. There was only one patient with recurrence of neurological complications. Two patients were hypertransfused and up to the end of the study period none of them had any recurrence. The pattern of neurological complications are similar to that observed in other studies. However, in this study, there were fewer recurrences of neurological complications.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J, Tabuti JRS, Majaliwa MGJ. "Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:12. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Colebunders R, Laga M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Vander Groen G, Plummer FA.AIDS in Africa: A Public Health Priority. J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987.". In: J. Virol. Method, 17: 1 - 10, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ngugi EN, Simonsen NJ, Cameron DW, Taelman H, Plummer FA. Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987.". In: Heterosexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS 1: 199 - 206, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Piot P, Plummer FA, Rey M, Ngugi E, Rouzioux C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Veracauteren G, D'Costa LJ, Laga M, Nsanze H, Fransen L, Haase D, Van der Groen G, Brunham RC, Ronald AR, Brun-vezinet F,Retrospective Seropidemiology of AIDS virus infection in Nairobi pop.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 155 (6): 1108 - 1112, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
Nilsson D, Nyanchaga EN. "Pipes and Politics: A century of change and continuity in Kenyan urban water supply." Journal of Modern African Studies. 2008;46 (1):133-158.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Piracy.". In: Piracy, maritime security and the environment in the Eastern African coast. Continental Resort, Mombasa; 2010.
Wambua PM. "Piracy.". 2010.Website
Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

Kihara EN, Mutara L, Maina SW, Kisumbi B. "Pit and fissure sealants: knowledge, attitude and use by dentists in Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

To study the Knowledge, Attitude, and Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants by Dentists in Nairobi. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was done between May and June 1999. Questionnaires were distributed to 115 dentists who were sampled through convenience sampling. Setting: Nairobi Subjects: Dentists in public and private practice. Results: Sixty nine dentists (60%) responded. (50.7%) of the dentists had average knowledge on PFS. Majority of the respondents (92.7%) agreed that Pit and fissure sealants should be part of preventive measures for dental caries. (65%) claimed to use Pit and fissure sealants with only a third using them regularly. The Pediatric dentists used sealants frequently. Conclusion: Application of PFS was not practiced much in Nairobi and sealant usage was associated with dentist's knowledge about them. There is need to disseminate knowledge on PFS to the dentists and sensitize the public about prevention of dental decay using sealants.

OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "'Pitfalls of the Adversarial System in Criminal Justice'.". In: Victoria Walter and Debbie Betts (eds), Safeguarding Human Rights in Eastern Africa (FES, Kampala), 77. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
Mwang’ombe NJM, Kiboi JG, Kitunguu PK, Musau CK. "Pituitary Surgery At The Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2013. Abstract

Introduction: Surgical extirpation of pituitary lesions and can be performed by craniotomy or trans-sphenoidal approaches. This could be for pituitary ablation, excision of pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, suprasellar meningiomas and other types of tumors of the sellar region. Despite this being a common neurosurgical procedure there is a paucity of data on the local Kenyan experience and outcomes following pituitary surgery. Study Design and Site: A retrospective study at the Kenyatta National Teaching and Referral Hospital, Nairobi. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for pituitary lesions at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Patients and Methods: Following ethical approval, patients’ records were retrieved and assessed for clinical and radiologic features of pituitary lesions, surgical treatment and post operative outcome. All the data was coded and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Frequencies and means were computed for description of the various variables and the association between categorical variables calculated using Chi-square test while comparison of mean values was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA). Results: A total of 65 patients were included with 39 (60%) female and 26 (40%) male patients. The mean age was 36.88 years (+ 14.689) and majority of the patients (55%) were aged between 26 and 45 years. The most common presentation were visual disturbances reported by 57 (87.7%) of the patients having reduction in visual acuity, while 37 (56.9%) had bitemporal hemianopia. Amenorrhea and primary infertility were reported by 11 (16.9%) patients while 14 (21.5%) and 8 (12.3%) had galactorrhea and gynecomastia respectively. Ten patients (15.4%) had acromegalic features of hypergnathia and acral enlargement of hands and feet. Sixty two (95.4%) patients were operated during the study period and of these 28 (45.2%) by the transphenoidal approach as opposed to 34 (54.85%) by craniotomy. The pterional trans-sylvian approach was the most common of the transcranial hypohysectomies accounting for 17 (50%) patients, while 15 patients (44.1%) were operated by the subfrontal approach and two patients were operated via midline inter-hemispheric approach.2nd Bi-ennual International Scientific Conference 2013, Nairobi Kenya 29 Majority (96.4%) of trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomies were by sub-labial incision. Fifty (76.9%) of the patients had good functional outcome while 11 (16.9%) and 4 (6.2%) suffered moderate and severe disability respectively. Patients’ age (p=0.0029), duration of symptoms prior to surgery (p=0.0018) and surgical management versus conservative (p=0.001) significantly affected patient outcome. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome between patients of different sex (p=0.058) or the type of operation performed (p=0.191). Conclusion: Transsphenoidal and trans-cranial approaches are effective and safe treatment strategies for pituitary lesions with low morbidity, mortality and recurrence rates. With the paradigm shift towards more trans-sphenoidal and particularly endonasal approaches, additional prospective studies are required to assess clinical and endocrinological outcomes.

O DROPEREALFRED. "Pius Yanda, Shem Wandiga, Richard Kangalawe, Maggie Opondo, Dan Olago, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Robert Kabumbuli, Alfred Opere, Faith Githui, James Kathuri, Lydia Olaka, Eugene Apindi, Michael Marshall, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Edward Kirumira, Robin.". In: Vulnerability to Climate-Induced Highland Malaria in East AIACC Working Paper No.25; 47pp. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2006. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

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