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WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Optical characterization of sputtered TiO2 compact under layers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.". In: 1st International conference on Solar Energy Materials Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

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Ayieko CO, R. J. Musembi, A. A. Ogacho, B. O. Aduda, B. M. Muthoka, P. K. Jain. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15.
C. O. Ayieko, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications ." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15. Abstract

A composite thin film consisting of TiO2 (binder), uniformly mixed CuFeMnO4 paint (solar absorber) was coated on textured aluminum sheets by dip coating. The film’s elemental analysis was done using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) and the surface of the film characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical properties of the TiO2/CuFeMnO4 composite film were also studied using computerized double beam solid-spec 3700 DUV Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. Reflectance was obtained by spectrophotometric measurements, and thermal emmittance was determined using heat flux- based technique respectively. Reflectance measurement values less than 0.03 in the solar wavelength (290 nm < λ < 2500 nm) and low thermal emmittance less than 0.016 for temperatures between 24°C and 100°C were obtained.

Ayieko CO, Musembi RJ, Ogacho AA, Aduda BO, Muthoka BM, Jain PK. "Optical Characterization of TiO2-bound (CuFeMnO4) Absorber Paint for Solar Thermal Applications." American Journal of Energy Research. 2016;4(1):11-15. AbstractJournal Article Website

A composite thin film consisting of TiO2 (binder), uniformly mixed CuFeMnO4 paint (solar absorber)
was coated on textured aluminum sheets by dip coating. The film’s elemental analysis was done using energy
dispersive x-ray (EDX) and the surface of the film characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical
properties of the TiO2/CuFeMnO4 composite film were also studied using computerized double beam solid-spec
3700 DUV Shimadzu Spectrophotometer. Reflectance was obtained by spectrophotometric measurements, and
thermal emmittance was determined using heat flux- based technique respectively. Reflectance measurement values
less than 0.03 in the solar wavelength (290 nm < λ < 2500 nm) and low thermal emmittance less than 0.016 for
temperatures between 24°C and 100°C were obtained.
Keywords: CuFeMnO4 paint, TiO2- bound, reflectance, thermal emmittance, solar thermal

Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

Cang J, Kalatsky VA, Löwel S, Stryker MP. "Optical imaging of the intrinsic signal as a measure of cortical plasticity in the mouse." Visual neuroscience. 2005;22:685-691. Abstract

The responses of cells in the visual cortex to stimulation of the two eyes changes dramatically following a period of monocular visual deprivation (MD) during a critical period in early life. This phenomenon, referred to as ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, is a widespread model for understanding cortical plasticity. In this study, we designed stimulus patterns and quantification methods to analyze OD in the mouse visual cortex using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Using periodically drifting bars restricted to the binocular portion of the visual field, we obtained cortical maps for both contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) eyes and computed OD maps as (C - I)/(C + I). We defined the OD index (ODI) for individual animals as the mean of the OD map. The ODI obtained from an imaging session of less than 30 min gives reliable measures of OD for both normal and monocularly deprived mice under Nembutal anesthesia. Surprisingly, urethane anesthesia, which yields excellent topographic maps, did not produce consistent OD findings. Normal Nembutal-anesthetized mice have positive ODI (0.22 +/- 0.01), confirming a contralateral bias in the binocular zone. For mice monocularly deprived during the critical period, the ODI of the cortex contralateral to the deprived eye shifted negatively towards the nondeprived, ipsilateral eye (ODI after 2-day MD: 0.12 +/- 0.02, 4-day: 0.03 +/- 0.03, and 6- to 7-day MD: -0.01 +/- 0.04). The ODI shift induced by 4-day MD appeared to be near maximal, consistent with previous findings using single-unit recordings. We have thus established optical imaging of intrinsic signals as a fast and reliable screening method to study OD plasticity in the mouse.

Kremmer E, Krämer PM, Weber CM, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Krämer PM, Weber CM, Kremmer E, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Mulama AA, Oduor AO, Muiva C, Mwabora JM. "Optical properties and Raman studies of amorphous Se-Bi thin films." The African Review of Physics . 2014;9:33-38 .Website
Muiva CM, Sathiaraj TS, King JG. "Optical properties of amorphous Se90-XIn10SbX thin film alloys." Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2016;689:432-438. Abstract

Ternary thin film alloys of Se90-XIn10SbX (x = 1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) were synthesised by flash evaporation of the pre-melt quenched bulk samples under a vacuum of 10−5 Torr. Optical absorption analysis pointed to indirect allowed transitions as the mechanism of excitation across the energy gap. The optical band gap (Eg) was evaluated on the basis of Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model and Tauc's extrapolation method in the spectral region where the absorption coefficient, α ≥ 104 cm−1. The refractive index (n), complex dielectric constant (ε), band tailing parameter (B), plasma frequency (ωp), single oscillator parameters (Eo and Ed) and lattice dielectric constant (εL) were deduced for each alloy. The compositional dependence of optical and dielectric parameters was explained on the basis of chemical bond approach. The observed shift in the trends of Eg, Ed, εL and ωp values at the composition where Sb = 4 at% was correlated to the usual chemical threshold at this composition.

Mulama AA, Mwabora JM, Oduor AO, Muiva C. Optical Properties of Flash Evaporated Thin Films: Effect of Film Thickness. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

Thin films of 〖 Se〗_(100-x) 〖Bi〗_x (x=0.0,1.5,3.0,4.5 and 6.0 at.%) deposited by flash evaporation technique, have been investigated in the wavelength range of 500nm-1000nm. It is found that the effect of increasing bismuth content on the as deposited films led to increase in the absorption coefficient, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant while transmittance and optical band gap energy decreased. On the other hand, reflectance, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index, band gap energy, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant increased with increase in film thickness but transmittance decreased.

Muiva C, Santhiaraj S, Mwabora JM, Maabong K. Optical Properties of flash evaporated amorphous Se100-xInx thin films for CuInSe2 solar cell applications. Gaborone, Botswana; 2012.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Optical Remote Sensing.". 2013.
Akuon P, Xu H. Optimal bit error analysis of Nr-branch EGC under Rayleigh fading channels. Addis Ababa, Ethipia: IEEE Africon; 2015.
Manyora H. Optimal English . Hillman Publishers; 2009.
Awori MN, Finucane K, Gentles TL. "Optimal Normative Pediatric Cardiac Structure Dimensions for Clinical Use." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2011;2(1):85-89.normative_data_abstract.png
Drinkwater CJ, Neil MJ. "Optimal timing of wound drain removal following total joint arthroplasty." The Journal of arthroplasty. 1995;10:185-189. AbstractWebsite
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B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Optimal Use of Departmental facilities.". In: Proceedings of the First In House Seminar pp. 35 - 38. Materials Research Society; 2002. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
Mr.Ikinya. Optimal Use of Departmental facilities . St. Anne Guest house Kisumu; 2002.
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Use of Z-Scores to Preserve the Pulmonary Valve Annulus During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9(3):285-288.tet_z-score_of_tap_use_-awori-2018.pdf
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Mitema FO, Kebba N. "Optimal use of z-scores to preserve the pulmonary valve annulus during repair of tetralogy of Fallot." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2018;9:285-288. Abstract
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Onyango N.O., Mueller J. MSK. Optimal Vaccination Strategies in an SIR epidemic model with time scales. Rennes, France; 2014.
NO O. "Optimal Vaccination Strategies in periodic settings and Threshold conditions: A Survey." . International Journal of Biomathematics and Biostatistics . 2010;1(2):193-201.
Awori M, Mehta N, Mitema F, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8(3):385-388.pa-ivs_optimal_z_score_use_in_decision_making_awori_2017.pdf
Awori MN, Mehta NP, Mitema FO, Kebba N. "Optimal Z-score use in surgical decision-making in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum." World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. 2017;8:385-388. Abstract
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ODHIAMBO MRERNESTAMOLLO. "Optimisation of a Cyclone Combustor to Burn Bagasse (A numerical simulation and experimental validation based on cylindrical particle model).". In: The combustion Institute (British Section) Newsletter, 2002, Issue 1. The combustion Institute (British Section); 2002. Abstract
Optimisation of a Cyclone Combustor to Burn Bagasse (A numerical  simulation and experimental validation based on cylindrical particle model)
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "Optimisation of a three dimensional terrestrial geodetic network.". In: MSc thesis, University of Nairobi,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1981. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Verbeek E, Kanis E, Bett RC, Kosgey IS. "Optimisation of breeding schemes for litter size, lambing interval, body weight and parasite resistance for sheep in Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

The current study optimised breeding schemes for litter size (LS), lambing interval (LI), body weight (BW) and gastrointestinal parasite resistance for sheep in Kenya. Selection for the breeding goal traits was performed in a conventional way using information on phenotypes only. For gastrointestinal parasite resistance, information on genetic makers was used, with faecal egg count (FEC) as an indicator trait. Selection for parasite resistance was partly based on field measurements and the possibilities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) were explored. Several selection schemes were defined based on whether a classical selection only was used (Latin number 1), a quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FEC was assumed to be available (2), that the correlation between FEC and BW was assumed to be positive (unfavourable-Roman I) or negative (favourable- II) and finally how FEC was included in the index (i.e., no inclusion (A), with FEC (B) or with FEC QTL (C-F)). The schemes with overlapping generations were evaluated using the computer program SelAction. Rams, ewes and total selection responses in US dollars ($) per animal, and rams’ and ewes’ accuracies for each scheme with a favourable or unfavourable correlation were estimated. The differences in total selection responses between schemes that did not include FEC in the selection index resulted in a response of $0.16 in scheme 1AI and $0.20 in scheme 1AII. In schemes 1BI and 1BII, FEC was included in the index. The responses in scheme 1BI and 1BII were $0.165 and $0.217, respectively. The increase in response in schemes II compared with schemes I was due to a favourable correlation between BW and FEC. The different FEC index traits had a different effect on economic response. It should be noted that increased emphasis on selection for FEC will reduce the relative responses to the breeding goal traits BW, LS and LI. Consequently, the goal of selection for FEC should be to maintain acceptable levels of gastro-intestinal parasite resistance as well as sufficient improvement of LS and BW.

Nquma TY, Sanette Marx, Obiero G. Optimisation of ethanol yield from cassava. Sommerset west, South Africa; 2009.
Mecha J, Gitahi-Kamau N, Ilovi S, L. Njagi, Njuguna E, Mutai K, Katei I, Inwani I. "Optimising adolescent HIV care in a large Kenyan care and treatment centre.". In: IAS Conference on Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Vancouver, . Canada; 2015.
Kimosop KC, Abungu NO. "Optimising Voltage Profile of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2012;2(12):89-95. Abstractijetae_1212_13.pdfClick here to read more...

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

Masai ST, Apolot OF, Ngʹwono OM, Kuria KTK, K CH, N MN. "Optimization and Validation of A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Nevirapine in Plasma." Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;9(5):175-181.
H. A, T. T. Optimization by Genetic Algorithm. Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
Ujeneza E, Njenga HN, Mbui D, Kariuki DN. "Optimization of Acid ACtivation Conditions for Athi River Bentonite Clay and Application of the Treated Clay in Palm Oil Bleaching." IOSR-Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;7(8):29-38.
Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe F, Masimba DM. "Optimization of C/N Ratio For Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion From Food Wastes Found In Nairobi A Lab-Scale Case Study." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;Vol. 9(1):63-81. Abstract

Extensive work has been done on Anaerobic digestion of single substrates and using codigestion.
In a number of cultures around the world, the wastes that are discarded as
household waste may not easily fit in the biogas models that have been developed so far. It is
therefore necessary to analyse the biogas produced from food mixtures found in unique
settings and compare them with literature values of individual substrates. In the current study,
food mixture found at waste bin at a cafeteria used by StudentsofUniversity of Nairobiwas
analysed. The purposes of this study were to investigate adjusted modes of substrate pretreatment
(Mechanical, thermal and thermo-chemical) and their role in maximizing the
process of anaerobic digestion through speeding up hydrolysis. The experiments were carried
out on waste samples consisting of carbohydrate food waste (ugali+Rice),potato peels, banana
peels and a mixture of the substrates mixed with rumen slurry in the ratio 3:1 under controlled
mesophilic anaerobic conditionsin the lab scale digester. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment was
the most effective for speeding up hydrolysis with the co digested substrates producing
maximum biogas. The desired C:N ratio of 31 was obtained when all the four substrates were
combined. Similarly, the biogas produced from the mixture of the four substrates was higher
than from any of the substrates.

Mwaniki JM, Mwazighe FM, Masimba DM. "Optimization of C/N Ratio for Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion from Food Wastes found in Nairobi- A Lab-scale Case study." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):63-81.Abstract.docx
Mabetsela, N, Marx, S, G.O O. Optimization of enzymatic conversion of maize stover to bioethanol. Sommerset West, South Africa; 2009.
Tum PK, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM. "OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION FROM Eucalyptus grandis LEAVES BY CLEVENGER DISTILLATION." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. 2016;9(1):91-102. Abstract

Recent statistics show a rise in the margin of consumption and utilization of essential oils. People
have turned their attention to traditional medicines, and so the demand for essential oils in the
international market has increased drastically. However, essential oil extraction processes have
been observed to suffer from minimum output levels. The purpose of this study was to
investigate the effects of changing the process parameters (time of extraction, leaf sizes and
leaves to water ratio) and their contribution to maximizing the process of extraction and also the
composition of Eucalyptus grandis oil to establish utility of the oil.The extracted oil’s refractive
index was determined and GC-MS analysis of the oil was also done to determine the
composition of the oil. There was an increase of %yield with increase in time up to 150
minutes.Quality of the oil extract was desirable from appearance and smell. Variation in oil yield
was also noted from varying the leaves to water ratio, with 1:12.5 (w/v) being optimal. The
adjustment of leaf sizes was found to be most effective with a very high increase in yield margin.
The whole leaves produced the highest amounts of oil. More than 20 compounds were identified
with many of them appearing in eucalyptus oil from other species seen in literature.
Key Words: Essential Oils, Eucalyptus grandis, Clevenger Distillation, Optimization, GC-MS

K.Tum P, Kasha GM, Kithure JGN, Mwazighe FM. "Optimization of Essential Oil Extraction from Eucalyptus grandis Leaves By Clevenger Distillation." Journal of Kenya Chemical Society . 2016;9(1):91-102.abstract.pdf
Korir PC, Salim AM, Odalo JO, Waudo W, Gitu LM, Yusuf AO. "Optimization of Extraction Condition and Characterization of Malva Verticillata Root Bark Mucilage." International Journal of Chemistry. 2018;10(2):1-9. AbstractInternational Journal of Chemistry

Description
The study aimed at optimizing the extraction conditions and establishing the physicochemical properties of the mucilage obtained from root bark of Malva verticillata. Effects of temperature, time, particle size and amount of water as a solvent on the yield and composition of mucilage were established. Micrometric, physical, chemical and structural properties were used to characterise the extracted mucilage. Result showed significant correlation between extraction conditions and mucilage yield. Low temperature and short extraction time results into pharmaceutically valuable mucilage with low protein content, high viscosity and good dispersion in aqueous solvent. Large and small size particles of the plant material results into low mucilage yield without significant difference (p= 0.054). The mucilage shows mixed cohesiveness with less tendencies to flow. It exhibits vibration bands in FTIR that are associated with the presence of polysaccharides and proteins. The mucilage contains 2.65% protein, 13.83% inorganics, 1.85% fats, and the rest carbohydrates. High extractive value˃ 80% and moisture content˃ 12% implies that mucilage has high tendency to microbial attack. Optimized extraction conditions results into high yield of the mucilage with the same physicochemical properties and mineral composition regardless of the plant material sampling sites.

Abubakar Ali, V. K. Oduol PA. "Optimization of Handover in Mobile System by Using Dynamic Guard Channel Method ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2017;5(9):32-53.
B K, Kaluli J.W, P N, G T’o. "Optimization of Maerua Decumbent bio-coagulant in paint industry wastewater treatment with response surface methodology." Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;164:1124-1134.
Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Mwema FM, Tanya B. "Optimization of material removal rate in the CNC milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composites using the Taguchi technique." Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44(1):1130-1132. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.229

This research paper focuses on the optimization of the input parameters used in the computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite. The efficiency and profitability of the cutting operation was assessed using the material removal rate (MRR). Finding the optimal and suitable parameters to use in the cutting of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite is crucial when it comes to increasing productivity without increasing the cost of production and machining time. Therefore, the Taguchi technique was utilized to optimize the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut used while focusing on their effects on the material removal rate. The analysis of the input parameters was carried out using the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that the optimal milling parameters for efficient productivity were; the cutting speed of 600 rpm, a feed rate of 200 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8 mm. Additionally, the feed rate is the most contributing factor in affecting the material removal rate, followed by the depth of cut and lastly the cutting speed at 53%, 17 and 10% respectively.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Optimization of parameters for study of heavy metals in biological samples, J. Biochemiphysics, 5, 19.". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
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Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

S.W. M. Optimization of production techniques for structural bricks. Nairobi, Kenya: Kenya Building Research Centre; 2011.
P.D M, Gathungu GK, Njogu MK, Nyankanga RO, Ambuko J, Landeo JA. "Optimization of seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting capacity through integrated gibberellic acid and benzylaminopurine application." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International . 2015;4(4):188-198.
Muchiri PD, Gathungu GK, Nyankanga RO, Ambuko J, Landeo JA. "Optimization of seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting capacity through integrated gibberellic acid and benzylaminopurine application." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2015:188-198. Abstract
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Shagwira H, Mwema FM, Obiko JO, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET. "The Optimization of the Surface Roughness of Milled Polypropylene + 60wt.% Quarry Dust Composite Using the Taguchi Technique." Advances in Material Science and Engineering. 2021;Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering:169-174. Abstracthttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-3641-7_20

This study is based on the optimization of the parameters that influence the computer numerical control (CNC) milling operation during the machining of polypropylene+60wt.% quarry dust composite. The input parameters studied are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut. These input parameters were optimized using the Taguchi optimization technique with the output response taken into consideration was the surface roughness. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) was selected and formulated in a commercial software Minitab 19 based on three factors and three levels combination. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was analysed to give a combination of values of the input parameters that produced optimum results for surface roughness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then conducted to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. From the results, the optimum values obtained were cutting speed of 1000 rpm, feeding rate of 120 mm/min and depth of cut of either 0.5 mm or 0.8 mm. The cutting speed had the highest contribution towards the surface roughness at 81.98%, followed by the depth of cut at 7.43% and the feed rate having the least contribution at 3.69%.

P PROFPATELJAYANTI, KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Optimization of X-ray Fluorescence Elemented analysis.". In: An example from Kenya Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 49, 885 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
P PROFPATELJAYANTI, KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Optimization of X-ray Fluorescence Elemented analysis.". In: An example from Kenya Applied Radiation & Isotopes, 49, 885 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Optimization with a Technological Constraint paper 4 in the Proceedings of the East african Universities Scial Science Conference (Kampala.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Optimized hybrid green power model for remote telecom sites,.". In: PowerAfricaIEEE. IEEE; 2012. Abstract
Site Installation results of a hybrid green power model are discussed to assist power solution design engineers in proper implementation of various components.
Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Optimizing Nitrogen Application in Onion (Allium cepa L.): Influence of Rate and Time of Topdressing on Growth, Yield and Quality." New Perspectives in International Plant and Soil Research Vol. 1. 2019:102-120. Abstract
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MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Optimizing paediatric HIV care in Kenya: challenges in early infant diagnosis. Bull World Health Organ . 2008 Feb; 86 ( 2 ): 155-60 . PMID: 18297171 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Cherutich P, Inwani I, Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D.". In: Bull World Health Organ . 2008 Feb; 86 ( 2 ): 155-60 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2008. Abstract
National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya. pcheru2000@yahoo.com PROBLEM: In 2003, the goal of the Kenyan Ministry of Health was to avail antiretroviral treatment (ART) to 50% of the estimated 250 000 eligible individuals by the end of 2005. By July 2005, 45 000 adults and more than 2000 children were on treatment. A study was conducted to determine the barriers to identification of HIV-infected children. APPROACH: Existing government policies were reviewed and the ART register of the Kenya National AIDS Control Programme was used to identify facilities providing ART. This paper reports the findings around diagnosis and staging of HIV infection in children. LOCAL SETTING: At the time of the study, 58 health facilities were providing ART to children. Only one institution had achieved universal HIV testing in the antenatal clinics. Six facilities systematically followed up HIV-exposed children. HIV antibody testing was not readily available to the children. Although four research centres were capable of carrying out diagnostic HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the services were restricted to research purposes. Other constraints were inadequate physical infrastructure, inadequate systems for quality control in the laboratories and shortage of staff. LESSONS LEARNT: The policy framework to support identification of HIV-infected children had been established, albeit with narrow focus on sick children. The assessment identified the weaknesses in the structures for systematic diagnosis of HIV through laboratory or clinical-based algorithms. The researchers concluded that health staff training and implementation of a systematic standard approach to identification of HIV-infected children is urgently required. PMID: 18297171 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Nyawade SO, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker M. "Optimizing soil nitrogen balance in a potato cropping system through legume intercropping.". 2020.
Ogot MM, Muller MR, Kasten DJ. "Optimizing Student Use and Experiences in Industrial Assessments.". In: NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE. Vol. 24. [Texas A&M University]; 1999; 2002:. Abstract

Using students in the performance of industrial assessments is a cost-effective way to staff a team and is likely to increase in popularity. Students have always been an integral part of the process in DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program. In recent years, however, that process has been greatly enhanced, as the program developed from a simple energy audit to an integrated assessment, focusing on the "Industries of the Future" as defined by the Department of Energy. This paper investigates the nature of the student experience, and further looks to define what it can be in the future both from the aspect of improving the assessment product and the education of the student.

Munene EN, Kiema JBK. "Optimizing the Location of Base Transceiver Stations in Mobile Communication Network Design: Case study of the Nairobi Central Business District, Kenya." International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research. 2014;1(2)(2200-9833):113-127.
Patel MS, Ottieno JAM. "Optimum two stage group-screening designs." Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods. 1984;13(21):2649-2663. AbstractFull text link

In this paper, emphasis has been given to both the expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions and two stage group-screening designs have been obtained which minimise one fixing the other or minimise some sort of cost function which connects the two. Some group-screening plans have been given at the end as illustrations.
Keywords: group-screening plans, orthogonal main-effect plans, group-factor

Mette Vaarst, Gidi Smolders, Wahome R, Charles Odhong, Muhammad Kiggundu, Fred Kabi, Sylvia Nalubwama, Halberg N. "Options and challenges for organic milk production in East African smallholder farms under certified organic crop production." Livestock Science. 2019;220:230-240.
M. V, G. S, R. W, C. O’, M. K, F K, S N, N. H. "Options and challenges for organic milk production in East African smallholder farms under certified organic crop production." Livestock Science 220. 2019:230-240.
Parita S, Chinwe SI, Romanus O, Joshua N. "Options for Improving the Communication of Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts to Smallholder Farmers – The Case of Kenya." German Development Institute. 2012;17/2012(17/2012):1-4.
Odari BV, Musembi RJ, Mageto MJ, Othieno H, Gaitho F, Mghendi M, Muramba V. "Optoelectronic properties of F-co-doped PTO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis." American Journal of Materials Science. 2013;3:91-99. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2021;600:75-80. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Muinga N, Edwards T, Allen E, Maleche-Obimbo E, English M. "Oral amoxicillin versus benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia among kenyan children: a pragmatic randomized controlled noninferiority trial." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2015;60(8):1216-24. Abstract

There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings.

Dimba EAO, F.G. M, IN N, P W, Chindia ML. "oral and dental effects of khat chewing in the Eastleigh area of Nairobi.". 2008.
Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Nyanchoka INI, Macigo FGI, others. "The Oral and Dental effects of Khat chewing in the Eastleigh area of Nairobi.". 2008. Abstract
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Kabira WM. The oral artist.; 1997.Website
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Oral Artist and the Gender Dimension in Relections on Theories and Methods Ed Okombo, Nandwa, Nairobi University Press.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "The Oral Artist, Heinemann Educational Publishers,Nairobi.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1983. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Oral Cancer In Kenya. In Solid Tissue Tumours Handbook.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Dimba EAO, Guthua SW, Chindia ML. Oral Cancer In Kenya. In Solid Tissue Tumours Handbook.. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Oral Features in Ngugi wa Thiong.". In: African Affairs 18 (June 2005):231-46. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract

The article examines some preponderant elements that create an impression that Ngugi wa Thiong'o's novel, Devil on the Cross, is orally narrated. More often than not associated with oral discourse, these elements are the narrative voice, biblical allusions, oral literature and the confessional mode. As a result of preponderant oral elements in a form of written discourse, there is not only intersection between oral and written discourse but also an interface between the two modes of transmission of literary works, oral and written, in the novel. Consequently, the article calls for further research into the implications this interface has for the two modes of transmission of literary works.

Ogunbodede EO, Kida IA, Madjapa HS, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L. "Oral health inequalities between rural and urban populations of the African and Middle East region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:18-25. Abstract
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Ogunbodede EO, Kida IA, Madjapa HS, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L. "Oral health inequalities between rural and urban populations of the African and Middle East region." Advances in dental research. 2015;27:18-25. Abstract
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Edalia GL, Mua BN, Kisumbi BK, Kemoli AM. "Oral health knowledge attitude practices and caries experience among 10-12 year olds in children homes." JKDA. 2009;1(3):84-89.
G EL, B.N M, B.K K, A.M K. "Oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and caries experience among 10-12 year olds in children’s homes. ." Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2009;1(3):84-89.
Mua BN, Kisumbi BK, Kemoli AM, others. "Oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and caries experience among 10-12 year olds in children’s homes." Journal of Kenya Dental Association. 2009;1. Abstract
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Wangari VW, Matu NK, Mutave RJ. "Oral Health practices and gingival status of postpartum women in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2(2):16-20.
Wangari VW, Matu NK, Mutave RJ. "Oral Health practices and gingival status of postpartum women in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of oral Health Sciences. 2015;2. Abstract
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W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health seeking behavior of persons living with HIV at two Comprehensive Care Centers in Kenya.". In: African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 18-24 (in Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

There is limited research on oral health seeking behavior in the Sub- saharan Africa. The few existing reports show very low utilization of oral health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the oral health seeking behaviour of persons living with HIV. It was a cross¬sectional study conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi district hospital Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC). Two hundred and fifty two HIV sero-positive males and females age between 19-73 years who presented themselves at the two Ccc. About a third 67.5% of the respondents said they had ever visited a dental clinic. Only 6.9% were visiting a dental clinic regularly. Less than half of the respondents (43.5%) were satisfied with the treatment received in the clinics. The main reason for satisfaction was pain relief. For those who were not satisfied with the treatment, the main reason for dissatisfaction was the use of local anaesthesia. For the respondents who had never visited a dental clinic, the main reason (60%) was their HIV status. "ajority of persons living with HIV/AIDS do not seek dental treatment regularly. The main reason for not seeking treatment is their HIV status. Only less than a half of those who seek treatment are satisfied with treatment given.

Mutara LN, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG. "Oral Health seeking behaviour among the elderly in a Kenyan population." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2004;5(2).
Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, EM N, Gathece LW, F.G. M. "oral health seeking behaviour of an elderly in a Kenyan popolation.". 2004.
Hideki F, Cyril NO, Eunice K, Evelyn WG, Yoshihiko H. "Oral Health Status among 12-Year-Old Children in a Rural Kenyan Community ." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2014;1:1-5.
Hayashi Y, Ogada CN, Kihara E, Wagaiyu EG, Fukuda H. "Oral Health Status among 12-Year-Old Children in a Rural Kenyan Community." Dent Oral Health . 2014;1:1-5.
Hussein A. Oral health status among children with and without cleft lip and palate seen in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2003. Abstract

Clefts of the lip and palate (CLP) are amongst the commonest craniofacial anomalies
encountered by clinicians. Compared to many other anomalies, CLP is easily diagnosed
and described. Due to this, it has been one of the most intensively studied congenital
malformation worldwide. Anomalies of the face give rise to considerable morbidity
which is psychologically traumatic to the parents. Thus the need to study the oral health
status of children with cleft lip/palate (CLP) in a section of a Kenyan population.
Type of study: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional study.
Methods: A total of 89 children were clinically examined, 49 formed the study group
(children with clefts) and 40 were the control group (children without clefts) ; age range,
2 to 15 years. Factors such as plaque, gingivitis, caries, missing teeth and stage of the
dentition were recorded.
Setting: Nairobi, Kenya.
Results: Out of the 49 children in the study group, 55% had CLP and 33% had CLA
while 6%had isolated CL. The prevalence of plaque was 96.27% in the 'study group while
among the control group this was lower at 89.5% (p<0.05). This was reflected by the
significant difference observed in the frequency of tooth brushing (x211.564 l df
p=O.OOI). Children with clefts had a significantly increased number of units with
gingivitis ranging from 79.2% for tooth 16 (p=0.04) to 51.6% for tooth 52 (p =0.264),
although not statistically significant in the latter.
The prevalence of caries in the study group was 11.8% (95% CI; 9.8%-13.8%) and the
control group was 8% (95% CI; 6.2%-9.8%). This difference was significant (p<0.05).
These children also showed an increased number of carious teeth in the posterior
segments ranging from 16.7% for tooth 16 (p>O.05) to 41.2% for tooth 46 (p>O.05),
while in the deciduous dentition it ranged from 22.6% for tooth 61 (p>O.05) to 36.7% for
tooth75 ( p>O.05)and was not significant. The children with clefts also showed generally
delayed eruption in both the permanent and the deciduous dentitions. This was significant
for the lateral incisors in the deciduous dentition (pO.05).
Conclusions: Children with clefts had generally poor oral hygiene and gingival health
with an increased number of carious teeth compared to children without clefts. These
children should be considered to have an increased risk of developing dental diseases and
therefore,will require stringent oral hygiene instructions and regular reviews by dental
professionals. Their treatment should involve preventive and curative services in order to
maintain healthy primary and permanent dentitions.

AO 59. O, P W, LW G. "Oral Health status and oral health related quality of life of adults patients at Mathari Hospital Dental Unit." Academic Research journal ofmulti-displinary. 2018;5(4):117-130.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health status in HIV positive children in a Nairobi Hospital.". In: Brisbane convention and exhibition centre, 28th June-1st 2006. Munyao J, Gathece LW.; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW. "Oral Health Status of an Elderly Population in Dagoretti, Nairobi." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2004;5(2):265-268. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health status of an elderly population in Dagoretti, Nairobi.". In: African Journal of oral health sciences, Vol 5 No 2, 265-268, June 2004. Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Mutara LN; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK, Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Mutara LN, others. "Oral health status of an elderly population in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2004. Abstract
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Koyio LN, WJMvd S, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, others. "Oral Health Training Programs for Community and Professional Health Care.". 2014. Abstract
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Koyio LN, van der Sanden WJM, Dimba E, Mulder J, Creugers NHJ, Merkx MAW, van der Ven A, Frencken JE. "Oral health training programs for community and professional health care workers in Nairobi East District increases identification of HIV-infected patients." PLoS One. 2014;9:e90927. Abstract
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AJ W, C S, JL A. "Oral herpes simplex virus type 1 infection following cadaveric renal transplantation in a young type 1 diabetic female. The role of acyclovir: a case report." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(12):709-11. Abstract

Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.

W DROMOLOANTHONYJ. "Oral herpes simplex virus type 1 infection following cadaveric renal transplantation in a young type 1 diabetic female. The role of acyclovir: a case report. East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):709-11.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Dec;69(12):709-11. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1992. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Phipps W, Saracino M SHMLJMWCMCRSSWK. "Oral HHV-8 replication among women in Mombasa, Kenya." Journal of Medical Virology. 2014;86(10):1759-65.
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Njeru EK, Wagaiyu EG. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
F.G. M, Gathece LW, Wagaiyu EG, T.K M, E.K N, W. GS. "Oral Hygiene practices and Risk of oral Leukoplakia.". 2006.
Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Guthua SW, Wagaiyu EG, Mulli TK. "Oral Hygiene Practices and Risk of Oral Leukoplakia." East African Medical Journal, 83 (4), 74-79, 2006.. 2006;83(4):74-79. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Hayashi Y, Fukuda H, Matsuura T, Toda K. "Oral hygiene status among the Elderly in an area with limited access to dental services in a rural Kenyan community." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health 2017. 2017;4(402).
gathece. "Oral Hygiene Status and gingival inflammation of Persons Living with HIV Attending Comprehensive Care Centre in Nairobi." International journal of innovative research and advanced studies. 2017.
Hideki F, Toshiyuki S, Eunice K, Cyril O, Evelyn WG, Yoshihiko H. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." Journal of Oral Health and Dental Management. 2016;15(2):1-4.
Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." Oral Health and Dental Management. 2016;15(1):27-30.
Fukuda H, Saito T, Kihara E, Ogada C, Wagaiyu EG, Hayashi Y. "Oral Hygiene Status of Chewing Stick Users in a Rural Kenyan Community." OHDM. 2016;15(2).
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Oral Literature and Environment in Women as Managers of Environment, Ed Khasiani Acts.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Oral Literature and Translation.' In A. Bukenya, W.M. Kabira and O. Okombo (eds) Understanding Oral Literature. Kenya: Nairobi, University Press.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1994. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Oral Literature of the Embu and Mbeere: EAEP.". In: In 'Wajibu, Journal of Social and Religious Concern', Vol. 19, No. 3 (Sept.- Oct.). uon press; 1996. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "Oral Literature of the Kalenjin Nairobi EAEP.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1991. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Wasamba P. "Oral Literature Scholarship in Kenya: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects.". In: Preservation of Ethiopian Cultural and Literary heritage. Debre Markos, Ethiopia; 2014.oral_literature_scholaship_in_kenya_-wasamba-.pdf
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Oral Literature, Nairobi University, College of Education and External Studies.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1988. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Butt FMA, Chindia ML VVPMK. "Oral manifestations in a Kenyan Provincial Hospital." EAMJ. 2001;78(8):398-401.oral_manifestations_2001.pdf
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral manifestion of diabetes mellitus, relation to blood sugar levels, type and duration of diabetes.". In: African Journal of oral Sciences. 2009;5:16-20. Mohamed A.O, Mutara L.N, Gathece L.W.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
J.H. OJWANG. "Oral Narrative as Discourse."; 1994. Abstract

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Ndung'u I. "Oral Narratives ." ???????; 2011. Abstract
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LW G, N NE, J O, S M. "Oral sex and wet kissing among female sex workers in two slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: The 16th International Association for Dental Research (IADR). Second joint congress of the Southern Africa and East and southern Africa divisions. Durban; 2002.
F M A BUTT, M L CHINDIA RANAF. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: clinicopathological audit." The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2012;n/a(126):276-278.scca_2012_butt.pdf
F M A BUTT, M L CHINDIA RANAF. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: clinicopathological audit." The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2012;n/a(126):276-278.scca_2012_butt.pdf
Muange P, Chindia M, Njiru W, Dimba E, Mutave R. "Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A 6-Month Clinico-Histopathologic Audit in a Kenyan Population." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2014;4:475-483.
Muange P, Chindia M, Njiru W, Dimba E, Mutave R, others. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: A 6-month clinico-histopathologic audit in a Kenyan population." Open Journal of stomatology. 2014;4:475. Abstract
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Muange P, Chindia M, Njiru W, Dimba E, Mutave R, others. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: A 6-month clinico-histopathologic audit in a Kenyan population." Open Journal of stomatology. 2014;4:475. Abstract
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Muange P, Chindia M, Njiru W, Dimba E, Mutave R, others. "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: A 6-month clinico-histopathologic audit in a Kenyan population." Open Journal of stomatology. 2014;4:475. Abstract
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Wasamba P. "Oral Testimonies (OT) Methodology and the Pedagogy of Hope in the Narratives of IDPs of Mt. Elgon, Kenya.". In: Migration and Displacement. Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda; 2010.
Wasamba P. "Orality, Fieldwork and Textual production in the 21st Centuryr.". In: Performing Traditions, Travelling Narratives, Living the Diaspora. Hamburg, Germany; 2016.
Ngugi M. "Orality, Social Media, and Youth: An Integrative Model for Education and Training.". In: Incorporating Oral Culture in Education for Development. Nairobi: The Goethe Institut; 2013.
Nyenze E, Ojuma M. "ORBITAL COLD ABSCESSES WITH ASSOCIATED PANSINUSITIS AND BONE INVOLVEMENT." East African Journal of Ophthalmolgy. 2012;16(1):48-49. Abstract

Orbital involvement in tuberculosis is rare even in areas where TB is endemic.1 Orbital TB is classified into five forms; classical periostitis, orbital soft tissue tuberculoma or cold abscess with no bone destruction, orbital TB with bone destruction, orbital TB spread from para-nasal sinuses and tuberculous dacryoadenitis2,3,4,5. We present a 17 year old patient who presented with a third recurrence of orbital and forehead abscesses. On orbital CT-scan, the patient had pan-sinusitis, right orbital and frontal abscesses, bilateral proptosis and frontal bone destruction. Initially the diagnosis of orbital TB was based on a good response to antituberculosis medications and it was later confirmed by histology showing caseating TB granulomas.

Barasa AK, Kitonyi GW, Rajab JA, Muturi C, Kebaya L. "Orbital myeloid sarcoma preceding acute myeloid leukemia: a case report." East African Journal of Pathology. 2014;1:41-44.
M K, SW G, F M, M M. "Orbito-Maxillofacial cutaneous anthrax." The Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(2):100-103.
M K, M M, S G, F M. "Orbito-Maxillofacial Cutaneous Anthrax." The Annals of African Surgery. 2015;12(2):100-103.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "Order .". In: Pres. International Conference in Theoretical Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 1973. Abstract
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Nic S, Muthumbi AWN, Sharma J. "Order Enoplida."; 2014.
Muriuki W. ""Ordinary" Spirituality : One Japanese Approach to Imperfection.". In: Sobering Wisdom: Philosophical Explorations of Twelve-Step Spirituality. University of Virginia Press; 2014.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Orech FO, Christensen DL, Larsen T, Friis H, Aagaard-Hansen J, Estambale BA.Mineral content of traditional leafy vegetables from western Kenya.Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Dec;58(8):595-602.". In: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Dec;58(8):595-602. Taylor & Francis; 2007. Abstract

Socio-economic changes that have taken place in Africa have influenced people's eating habits in both rural and urban set-ups. Most people prefer introduced foods to traditional foods, including plant foods whose consumption is widely regarded as a primitive culture manifesting poor lifestyles. However, recent studies on traditional plant foods have shown that some are highly nutritious; containing high levels of both vitamins and minerals. They also have potential as a remedy to counter food insecurity since most are well adapted to the local environment, enabling them to resist pests, drought and diseases. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) contents in some 54 traditional vegetable species collected from Nyang'oma area of Bondo district, western Kenya. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content. We found that most traditional leafy vegetables, domesticated and wild, generally contain higher levels of calcium, iron and zinc compared with the introduced varieties such as spinach (Spanacia oleracea), kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). The results of this study could contribute towards identification, propagation and subsequent domestication and cultivation promotion of nutrient-rich and safe species within the farming systems of the local communities in Kenya, sub-Saharan Africa or elsewhere.

Gontier DC. "Oreintation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Participants’ workbook.". In: Orientation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Ministry of Medical Services; 2012.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ayers L, Ghannoum M, Fu P, Feigal EG, Black J, Whalen C, Lederman M, Remick SC.Capacity building for the clinical investigation of AIDS malignancy in East Africa.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2005. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Banura C, Katongole-Mbidde E, Johnson JL, Ayers L, Ghannoum M, Fu P, Feigal EG, Black J, Whalen C, Lederman M, Remick SC.Capacity building for the clinical investigation of AIDS malignancy in East Africa.". In: Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research Program, Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. MBA; 2005. Abstract

PURPOSE: To build capacity in the resource-poor setting to support the clinical investigation and treatment of AIDS-related malignancies in a region of the world hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic. METHODS: An initial MEDLINE database search for international collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries failed to identify any leads. This search prompted us to report progress on our collaboration in this aspect of the epidemic. Building on the formal Uganda-Case Western Reserve University (Case) Research Collaboration dating back to 1987, established NIH-supported centers of research excellence at Case, and expanding activities in Kenya, scientific and training initiatives, research capital amongst our institutions are emerging to sustain a international research enterprise focused on AIDS and other viral-related malignancies. RESULTS: A platform of clinical research trials with pragmatic design has been developed to further enhance clinical care and sustain training initiatives with partners in East Africa and the United States. An oral chemotherapy feasibility trial in AIDS lymphoma is near completion; a second lymphoma trial of byrostatin and vincristine is anticipated and a feasibility trial of indinavir for endemic Kaposi's sarcoma is planned. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of published reports of evolving international partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancy in resource constrained settings, we feel it important for such progress on similar or related international collaborative pursuits to be published. The success of this effort is realized by the long-term international commitment of the collaborating investigators and institutions to sustain this effort in keeping with ethical and NIH standards for the conduct of research; the provision of formal training of investigators and research personnel on clinical problems our East African partners are faced with in practice and the development of pragmatic clinical trials and therapeutic intervention to facilitate technology transfer and enhance clinical practice.

PMID: 15829373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC. AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations. Current Opinion in Oncology 6:468-476; 2004.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the emergence of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, it is apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, in particular, and lymphoma in patients with AIDS is declining, especially in regions of the world where these regimens are routinely available. The burden of HIV infection and AIDS is greatest in the developing world, and no doubt neoplastic complications are increasingly encountered. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments of this aspect of the AIDS epidemic in the developing world. RECENT FINDINGS: It was readily apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma sharply increased after the onset of the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. By the end of the second decade of the epidemic, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increasing in incidence and the natural history of Burkitt lymphoma is evolving in the backdrop of HIV infection as well. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in many developing countries, yet the true impact of HIV infection on the development of this neoplasm is not fully understood. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva appears to be a unique AIDS-associated neoplasm that is encountered in sub-Saharan Africa as well. Finally, although the epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features for many AIDS-associated neoplasms are well characterized in developing regions of the world, there is a paucity of data on the therapeutic approach to these tumors in this setting. SUMMARY: It is apparent that as the AIDS pandemic proceeds, the burden of neoplastic diseases is increasing in developing nations. Current therapeutic approaches are not well documented. Pragmatic prevention and therapeutic interventions suitable for the resource-constrained setting are clearly needed.
OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC. AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations. Current Opinion in Oncology 6:468-476; 2004.". In: MEDICOM, 2004; 19, 1: 13-18. MBA; 2004. Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the emergence of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, it is apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, in particular, and lymphoma in patients with AIDS is declining, especially in regions of the world where these regimens are routinely available. The burden of HIV infection and AIDS is greatest in the developing world, and no doubt neoplastic complications are increasingly encountered. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments of this aspect of the AIDS epidemic in the developing world. RECENT FINDINGS: It was readily apparent that the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma sharply increased after the onset of the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. By the end of the second decade of the epidemic, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is increasing in incidence and the natural history of Burkitt lymphoma is evolving in the backdrop of HIV infection as well. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women in many developing countries, yet the true impact of HIV infection on the development of this neoplasm is not fully understood. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva appears to be a unique AIDS-associated neoplasm that is encountered in sub-Saharan Africa as well. Finally, although the epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features for many AIDS-associated neoplasms are well characterized in developing regions of the world, there is a paucity of data on the therapeutic approach to these tumors in this setting. SUMMARY: It is apparent that as the AIDS pandemic proceeds, the burden of neoplastic diseases is increasing in developing nations. Current therapeutic approaches are not well documented. Pragmatic prevention and therapeutic interventions suitable for the resource-constrained setting are clearly needed.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC.Challenges and opportunities for treatment and research of AIDS-related malignancies in Africa.Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. Review.PMID: 16894296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. MBA; 2006. Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following our review of AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations in 2004, we sought to update recent publications and review data on the challenges and opportunities for the treatment and research of AIDS malignancies in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: It is apparent that the burden of AIDS-related malignancies and other virus-associated tumors is significant and increasing in Africa. Several recent studies report findings on conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma and there is a report that Hodgkin's disease, a non-AIDS-defining neoplasm, is increasing in incidence. International collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries are feasible and invaluable for clinical strategies to address this aspect of the pandemic. A departure point is the ongoing work of the East Africa - Case Western Reserve University Collaboration in AIDS malignancies. SUMMARY: The burden of neoplastic complications of HIV infection and endemic virus-associated tumors are assuming increasing significance in Africa. There is a need to develop nonmyelotoxic therapies and approaches that are hypothesis-driven and pathogenesis-based. The scarcity and shortages in this region demand that our scientific and therapeutic strategies are both suitable and pragmatic for testing in this setting. It is also imperative that African investigators lead us in this important endeavor.

OTIENO PROFMWANDAWALTER. "Orem J, Otieno MW, Remick SC.Challenges and opportunities for treatment and research of AIDS-related malignancies in Africa.Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. Review.PMID: 16894296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: Curr Opin Oncol. 2006 Sep;18(5):479-86. MBA; 2006. Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Following our review of AIDS-associated cancer in developing nations in 2004, we sought to update recent publications and review data on the challenges and opportunities for the treatment and research of AIDS malignancies in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: It is apparent that the burden of AIDS-related malignancies and other virus-associated tumors is significant and increasing in Africa. Several recent studies report findings on conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma and there is a report that Hodgkin's disease, a non-AIDS-defining neoplasm, is increasing in incidence. International collaborative partnerships dedicated to AIDS malignancies in developing countries are feasible and invaluable for clinical strategies to address this aspect of the pandemic. A departure point is the ongoing work of the East Africa - Case Western Reserve University Collaboration in AIDS malignancies. SUMMARY: The burden of neoplastic complications of HIV infection and endemic virus-associated tumors are assuming increasing significance in Africa. There is a need to develop nonmyelotoxic therapies and approaches that are hypothesis-driven and pathogenesis-based. The scarcity and shortages in this region demand that our scientific and therapeutic strategies are both suitable and pragmatic for testing in this setting. It is also imperative that African investigators lead us in this important endeavor.

MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Orenge, C.O.; Mathiu P.M. and Mbugua P.N. (2002). Nitrogen retention as an indicator of metabolic utilization of nitrogen in three months old ostrich chicks ( Struthio camelus massaicus). African Journal of Ecology, 40, 399 .". In: Participatory production of an EVK manual workshop, 28th to 30th July 2003. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Clemens ET, Maloiy GMO. "Organic acid concentrations and digesta movement in the gastrointestinal tract of the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus).". 2009. Abstract

Studies were conducted to compare digestive functions in two species of sub-human primate, the bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus) and the Vervet monkey (Cercopithecidae pygerythrus). Major differences were observed in the rate at which digesta markers moved through their respective gastrointestinal tracts, and in the concentration of lactic acid present in the gut. In both species, the caecum and colon were the principle sites of microbial activity and organic acid production.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Agacho AA. "Organic Binders to Enhance Efficiency of Charcoal Stoves (Jikos) & Water Filters.". In: 8th International Conference of the Africa Materials Resecrah Society (A-MRS). Accrea, Ghana; 2015. Abstract

Porous clay ceramics are used as thermal insulators in high temperature applications such as kins and chacoal stoves (Jikos).

F.W N, B.O A, Hilonga. "Organic Binders To enhance Fuel Efficiency Of Charcoal Stoves (JIKOS) and in Water Filters.". In: 7TH International Conference of the Africa Materials research Society (A-MRS). Addis Ababa, Ethopia; 2013.juami_conference_presentation_2013.pdf
Yusuf A. Organic Chemistry 2 (SCH 202). Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.scan0023.pdf
Odada EO, Karlén W, Svanered O. "Organic content and X-ray density of lacustrine sediments from Hausberg Tarn, Mount Kenya.". 2004. AbstractOrganic content and X-ray density of lacustrine sediments from Hausberg Tarn, Mount Kenya

The variations in the organic content of a sediment core from a pro-glacial lake, Hausberg Tarn, located on the NW slope of Mount Kenya has been determined. Two types of methods for determining organic content were compared using sediments from the same core. One type was direct measurement of organic carbon using a carbon analyser and the other was X-ray analysis. The results show that both techniques reveal changes in organic content, which are believed to reflect changes in the glacier size during the last 5700 years. However, the X-ray technique discloses a much more detailed view of the changes in the environment. In addition, the method is considerably faster than the methods of determining organic carbon content or weight loss on ignition.

Karuku GN, Mochoge BO. "Organic nitrogen fractions in three Kenya soils (Andosols, Luvisols and Ferralsols).". In: 10th AGM of the SSSEA. Tanzania, December. 1990 ; 1990.
Oluoko-Odingo, A.A, Mutisya. "Organic or Inorganic Agriculture: The Environmental Costs and Imperatives for African Agriculture." International Journal of Agriculture Innovation and Research (IJAIR),. 2014;2 ISSN (Volume) 23191473(6).
editor Ndetei, D.M., Othieno C, Owiti F, Sebit MB, Kilonzo G. "Organic Psychiatry."; 2006.
Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Swift MJ. "Organic Resource Quality and Soil Fauna: Their role on the microbial Biomass, Decomposition and nutrient release patterns in Kenya Soils ." Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2006;6:73-83. Abstract

Five organic resources commonly used for soil fertility maintenance in large parts of Kenya were selected for litter decay and nutrient mineralization studies that were conducted in three farms (Machakos, Kabete and Njabini) located at an elevational transect ranging from 1500 to 2800 m above sea level. These organic residues included: bean trash, maize stover, tree prunnings (Grevillea robusta), Senna spectabilis foliage, cow and poultry manures. Organic residues were either mulched or incorporated in the soil. Satellite experiments were also carried out in each of the three sites with one additional site at Maseno based in western Kenya. These experiments aimed at assessing the role of soil biota in the decomposition
and nutrient release. Soil fauna were excluded from control plots using 1-mm mesh litterbags. The organic residues were different in chemical composition i.e. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), carbon (C), lignin (L) and polyphenol (PP) contents, which in turn influenced their rate of decomposition and nutrient release patterns. Bean trash decomposed and released N and P faster than either the maize stover or Grevillea prunings. The slowest rate of decomposition observed for Grevillea prunings could be attributed to the high lignin content (24%). The N release was influenced by (L+PP):N ratio. Bean trash having a ratio of 10 released N faster than either maize stover or Grevillea prunings whose respective ratios of 20 and 13. P release was influenced by both C:P and N:P ratios. Maize stover with C:P and N:P ratios that were higher than the critical levels of 123 and 10 respectively, mineralized and released P more slowly than either bean trash or Grevillea prunings. Incorporated materials decomposed and released nutrients faster than surface applied materials. For surface applied organic materials, the delay in litter decay ranged from 4.1 to 4.4 days for every 100 m increase in altitude, while for incorporated materials the delay in litter decay ranged from 1 to 3 days per 100 m increase in elevation. This implies that farmers at higher elevations would benefit more by incorporating residues before planting, while at low elevations post emergence surface application would lead to improved nutrient availability. Njabini and Kabete recorded significantly higher microbial biomass (C, N and P) than Machakos. This could be linked to the higher organic C, higher total N, higher moisture content but lower temperatures reported for Njabini and Kabete than Machakos. Soil fauna enhanced decomposition of organic residues, although their role in influencing nutrient availability to crops from the organic residues may depend on the nature of the material. Fauna had no significant influence on nutrient release patterns of Senna possibly due to secondary compounds present in Senna, which were lower than the critical levels of 15 for lignin and 4 for polyphenol respectively.

Key words: Resource quality, placement, soil fauna, decomposition, nutrient release, microbial biomass

Wairire GG, Gachoka HW. "Organisation Justice and the Management of Change: A Case of Outplaced Employees in Kenyan Parastatal Organizations." International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management. 2008;7(12).
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Organisation Questionnaires for Impact Assessment of Technology Based (BDS) projects in Kenya.". In: Institute of Develoment Studies (UON). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Chandi JR, Atisa E. "Organisational Behaviour Model."; 2010.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Organisational Environment and Performance Relationships: A Review of the Literature.". In: The Proceedings of the 1987 Convention of the South-Eastern Decision Sciences Institute, USA.; 1987.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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Kalerwa GP, Migosi J. "Organisational structure and Knowledge Sharing in Public Research Institutes: Experiences from a developing country." The Cradle of Knowledge: Africa Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2013;1(1):98-107.

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