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W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1986b. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1986.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1992. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1993. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1993.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1996.". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1996.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 1998 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1998.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 2000 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2000.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. 2004 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2004.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, 1998. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1998.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. and D. Chege, 1996. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1996.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. and J. Karugia 2005 .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2005.
W. PROFKOSURAOLUOCH. "Oluoch-Kosura, W. and J.K. Kilungo, 1992. .". In: European Journal of Anatomy. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1992.
OTIENO MROLWALTHOMAS. "Olwal et al. (2006c) proposes Log-MAP and SOVA based timing recovery methods in wireless channels. The proposed algorithms exploit the turbo receiver soft outputs to compute the posterior means, which are more reliable and accurate in generating stable, b.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference November 2004, Nairobi. Journal of Applied Biosciences; 2006. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
CEGE DRMWANGIJOSEPH. "Omar SA, Mens PF, Schoone GJ, Yusuf A, Mwangi J, Kaniaru S, Omer GA, Schallig HD. Plasmodium falciparum: evaluation of a quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay to predict the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment of uncompli.". In: Exp Parasitol. 2005 May;110(1):73-9. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Nairobi, Kenya. A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay was employed to predict retrospectively the outcome of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged <6 years in an endemic region. Blood samples were collected at initial diagnosis and during follow-up. Mutation-specific nested PCR methods to analyse DHFR (Arg-59) and DHPS (Glu-540) mutations that are associated with SP drug resistance were applied. Parasite genotyping was performed to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Eighty-six patients were recruited of which 66 were available for follow-up. Nine children were classified as early treatment failure, 13 cases were classified as late clinical failure, 32 as late parasitological failure, and only 12 children had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. DHFR and DHPS mutations conferring SP resistance were abundant in the Plasmodium population. Blood samples obtained 7 days after treatment were used to predict retrospectively the outcome of SP treatment. QT-NASBA was able to give a correct prediction of treatment outcome in 85.7% of the cases. Positive predictive value (PPV) of QT-NASBA case was 95% (95% confidence interval = 88.3-100) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 63% (95% CI = 39.5-86.5). In contrast, microscopy correctly predicted outcome in only 37.5% of the cases. PPV of microscopy was 100% (95% CI = 73.9-100) and the NPV was 25.5% (95% CI = 13.0-38.0). The analysis of a day 7 blood sample with QT-NASBA allows for the prediction of late clinical or parasitological treatment failure in the majority of the cases analysed in the present study. PMID: 15804381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Omari MA, Malonza IM, Bwayo JJ, Mutere AN, Murage EM, Mwatha AK, Ndinya-Achola J O;Pattern of bacterial infections and antimicrobial susceptibility at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):134-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Mar;74(3):134-7. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
To monitor clinically significant isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, all specimens sent to microbiology laboratory of the Kenyatta National Hospital were cultured on appropriate media. The susceptibility of the isolates was performed on Muller Hinton or diagnostic sensitivity test (DST) agar using comparative discs diffusion technique. The results were then entered into Microbe Base 2 computer programme. A total of 7416 clinically significant isolates were collected from 1991 to 1995. The most commonly isolated organisms were E.coli, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of these hospital acquired infections had multiple resistance to conventional antimicrobials, namely, penicillin, tetracyclines, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and ampicillin. The resistance pattern was high among both gram negative and positive bacteria isolates. Beta-lactamase production amongst them were 51%, 69.3%, 79.6% respectively. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 39.8%. Addition of clavulanic acid to amoxycillin increased Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility three fold. The emergence of multiple drug resistance calls for a continuous monitoring and reviewing of antibiotic policy in the hospital and the country at large.
KANGANGI DRGIKUNJUJ. "Ombui, J. N. and Gikunju J.K. 1999, Human Schistosomiasis: A review. A journal for Medical and Health Workers, AFYA, African Medical and Research foundation (AMREF) Vol. 31, No. 3, pp 5-9.". In: journal. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract

            Fluoride determinations were made with a fluoride ion selective electrode on 60 river water samples collected at readily accessible sites in Central and Nairobi provinces of Kenya. The highest fluoride concentration was 0.85 ppm in Laikipia District and the lowest was 0.08 ppm in Murang'a District. By region and district, the mean fluoride concentration ranged from 0.12 ppm for rivers in Laikipia to 0.24 ppm for rivers in Nairobi, with 0.32 ppm in the Upper Basin of the Athi River. The results indicate that the rivers are relatively low in fluoride and are therefore safe in this respect for domestic and industrial use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Omega, J.A., W.K. Munyua, T.A. Ngatia, E.K. Kangethe and, P.W.N. Kanyari (1998). Fasciola worms, faecal and gall bladder egg count relationships in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 46: 149-151.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
MARY DROMOSA. "Omiti, J & M. Omosa (2002) A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government .". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2002. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 203: Practical Geography; Course materials for teaching B.ED Science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 203: Practical Geography; Course materials for teaching B.ED Science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 206: Geography of Resources; Course materials for teaching B.ED science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. & Moronge, J.M. (2004)SGP 206: Geography of Resources; Course materials for teaching B.ED science. Faculty of Science, University of Nairobi.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. (July 2004) Reviewed: Air Transport and the Growth of Tourism in Kenya.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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JAPHAN MROMOKEKENNEDY. "Omoke, K.J. (July 2004) Reviewed: Air Transport and the Growth of Tourism in Kenya.". In: HEKIMA Publications, Faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Omondi D, Ogol C, Otieno S, Macharia I.Parental awareness of hearing impairment in their school-going children and healthcare seeking behaviour in Kisumu district, Kenya.Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Mar;71(3):415-23. Epub 2006 Dec 18.". In: Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Mar;71(3):415-23. Epub 2006 Dec 18. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hearing-impaired children who are identified early and appropriately managed have improved outcomes in speech, language, cognitive and social development. Enhanced parental awareness of their child's hearing disability, behavioral, developmental and psychosocial limitations is essential to sustaining timely detection and appropriate intervention. Additionally, availability of services for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation would improve the demand for pedaudiological care in this community. OBJECTIVE: To describe level of parental awareness of childhood HI and the pattern of access to and utilization of ambulatory care services. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three parents of lower primary school-going children who failed audiometric screening from sampled schools in Kisumu district, western Kenya. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First person to detect HI, age of child at first suspicion of HI, source of ambulatory health care and use of the health care facilities. RESULTS: The prevalence of HI was 2.48%. Most parents/guardians (69.7%) were aware of their child's hearing impairment. Of these, 63.6% were first to detect HI in the pupils, while 30.3% were detected by screen. Most children (57.2%) were first recognized with (HI) after age 2 years. The mean age at identification was 5.5 years. The median travel distance to the preferred health care facility was 2 km (IQR 1-2.5). Parents seldom sought or lacked help for their hearing-impaired children. Of 27.3% who asked for hearing assessment, 9.1% received some counsel on HI and 12.1% received medication, one (3%) was referred for audiological assessment and none used a hearing aid. Use of health facilities for maternal care was (65.7%) and immunization (62.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite adequate parental awareness of chronic childhood disability, health facilities were underutilized. This indicates the need to further stimulate and maintain a desirable level of uptake of services for diagnosis, treatment and habilitation of childhood HI, while sustaining delivery of effective and acceptable high quality paediatric care.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (1990) Course Book for Syntactic Studies , Faculty of External Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (1999) Language and Life in Kenya, Inaugural Lecture University of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. (2000) The Meaning of Pakruok In Mehr als nur Worte.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi L.N. and Standa E. (Ed.) 1985. Reports of The Kenya Non-Governmental Organization Committee Workshops.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "OMONDI, B.I., GUTHUA, S.W., AWANGE, D.O. AND ODHIAMBO, W.A.: Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of the Lower Level Midface Following Surgery of Ameloblastoma. The International Journal of Prosthodontics. (Inpress: Accepted August 2004).". In: The International Journal of Prosthodontics. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1973) Language Handicap in Everyday Life. Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. Vol.13 pp. 104-125.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1973.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1978) Wealth In Diversity in the Affirmation of Cultural Identity and Formation of National Conscience in Contemporary Africa. UNESCO Papers.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1978.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1980) Language and Culture : The Relevance of Linguistics to the Kenyan Situation. In Journal of Eastern African Research and Development.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1983) Cognate Object in Syntax. Proceedings of The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Colleraine, Ireland, July, 1983.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Local languages in Development.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1984) The Role of Women in Rural Development in Kenya. In Migration, Remittances and Rural Development by Mukras and Oucho (ed.).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1988) Aspects of the Paralanguage of Some Zambian Speech Communities. Kenya Journal of Science Series C.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1988) Language in Narok District. In District Profiles , Institute Of African Studies, Univerfsity of Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1988.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) A History and Evaluation of Dholuo Orthography.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) Comp and Question Words in Dholuo In Omondi, L.N. and Rottland, F. (1990) pp.225-237.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1990) Dholuo language Reform. In Language Reform, History and Future Vol.V. Edited by Istvan Fodor and Clanda Hagege, pp.215-227.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1991) The Syntax and Semantics of the Verbs 'To Marry' in Dholuo. In Nilo-Saharan VII Bender, L. (ed.) pp.197-213.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1991.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1992) The Role of Language in Rural Development. In Khasiani, S.A., (ed) Groundwork: African Women as Environmental Managers. Pp.75-90.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1993) Reduplication and The Lexicon. Proceedings of The LAUD Symposium, 1993.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1997) Dholuo Emotional Language: An Overview in the Language of Emotions by Niemeier and Dirven (ed.).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. (1999) Problems of Language Policy in East Africa. In Zura Za Africa - Voices from Africa. Peter Lang (ed.) pp.345-361.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1980. The Verb 'To be' in Dholuo Syntax in Schadeberg, T.C. and Bender M.L. (Ed.) Nilo-Saharan. Foris Publications, Dordrecht, Holland/Cinnaminson, U.S.A.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1982. The Major Syntactic Structures of Dholuo. Supplement 1. Language and Dialect Atlas of Kenya. Diatrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1983 Serial Verbs in Dholuo: A Transformational Analysis.nn Vossen R. and Bechhaus-Gerst M. (ed) Nilotic Studies. Deitrich, Reimer Verlag, Berlin.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 English, Communication and Development in Kenya Proceedings of The Conference on English in East Africa. British Council, Nairobi, March 24th to 27th 1986.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1986 Research Methods in Syntax: An Illustrative Description of The Dholuo Nominal Group in Scale and category theory of grammar Derika Associates Nairobi.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. 1989, Language, Gender and the Law in (Women and Law in Kenya) Mbeo M.A. and Ooko-Ombaka O. (Eds) Initiatives Ltd.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. Obanya, P., Hookoomsing V. (1981) Curriculum Development in Languages. Course materials for African Curriculum Organisation (ACO).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1981.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "Omondi, L.N. Rottland F. (Ed.) 1990 Nilo-Saharan III. Proceedings of the Third Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquim 5th - 8th August, 1986, Kisumu.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990.
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Omonge E., Ogutu E.O., Aluoch J.R. Clinical and laboratory predictors of Cholelithiasis in patients with sickle cell anaemia. EAMJ 75: 347, 1998.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jun;75(6):347-50. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Omoni, G.M, Musandu J.O Control of Infection During Surgery on a Patient with HIV Infection. Pharm DI Vol 11 No 4 April/May 2000.". In: Pharm DI Vol 11 No 4 April/May 2000. James Murimi; 2000. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

MUTHURE PROFMACHARIAISAAC. "Omoro SA, Fann JR, Weymuller EA, Macharia IM, Yueh B.Swahili translation and validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scale in the Kenyan head and neck cancer patient population.Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(3):367-81.". In: Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(3):367-81. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract

{ BACKGROUND: Depression is an important predictor of post therapy quality of life (QOL) in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. In addition, depression rates may vary among cultures. OBJECTIVE: As part of a larger cross cultural study on post therapy QOL differences in H&N cancer patients, the goal of this project was to translate a well-validated English language depression scale into Swahili, and then validate this scale in Kenyan H&N cancer patients. METHODS, SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: In Part 1 of the study, we translated the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) into Swahili, adhering to established International Quality of Life Association (IQOLA) guidelines. In Part 2, we psychometrically validated the newly translated scale using a prospective study of 48 patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital ENT clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: The Swahili PHQ-9 had good test retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.71) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). It also had good construct validity, as scores correlated strongly with TNM stage (Chi square = 123, p < 0.05), and with the compositeand global scores of an H&N cancer specific QOL scale (UW-QOL

N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Omosa I and Oonge Z.N.I., Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing Effluent.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.4 No.1, April 2007, pp 65-78. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2007.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & D. McCormick (2004) Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Baseline Survey. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. www.cck.go.ke.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Baseline Survey. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. www.cck.go.ke. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & D. McCormick (2004) Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & J. Onjala (Forthcoming) Kenya\.". In: Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1986) The Great Drought. In: K. Adagala & W. Kabira [eds] Kenya Oral Narratives: A Selection. Nairobi: Heinemann. Pp. 85-86.". In: The Great Drought, Kenya Oral Narratives: A Selection. Nairobi: Heinemann. Pp. 85-86. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1986. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1990) Ngina Baiseke. Translations of Mother of Girls and Other Stories to Ekegusii. Nairobi: Kenya Women Literature Group.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1990. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1991) People.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1991. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1992) Sustainable Management of Trees and Tree Resources: The Significance of Practices and Technologies. World Resources Review Vol.4. No. 4. Pp.480-490.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1992. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1992) The Future of Food in Africa: A Historical Analysis of the Food Situation in Kenya. World Resources Review Vol.4. No.2. Pp.175-187.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1992. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1992) Women and Sustainable Management of Domestic Fuel Energy. In: S.A. Khasiani [ed] Groundwork: African Women as Environmental Managers. Nairobi: ACTS Press. Pp. 41-54.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1992. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1993) Forward to the Book: Democratic Change in Africa - Women.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1993) Rural-Rural Development Disparities in Kenya. Wajibu Vol.8. No.3.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1994) Child Labour in Kenya: An Annotated Bibliography. Submitted to the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Ministry of Labour and Human Resource Development, Government of Kenya.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1994. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1995) Persistent Cultural Practices: A review of the Status of Women in Kenya. In: Association of African Women for Research and Development [eds] From Strategies to Action: A Research Perspective. Nairobi: AAWORD. Pp.61-85.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1995. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1995) Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: An Environmental Policy Analysis. In: Association of African Women for Research and Development [eds] From Strategies to Action: A Research Perspective. Nairobi: AAWORD. Pp.137-150.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1995. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1996) Rural Household Food Security. IDS Working Paper No. 510. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1996. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1997) Current and Potential Demand for Fresh and Processed Sweet Potato Products in Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya. CIP Working Paper No. 1997-1. Lima: International Potato Centre.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1997. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1998) Population Growth, Land Use and Food Self-Sufficiency in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of Small and Medium-Large Scale Land Holdings in Kisii and Nyamira Districts. Dakar: Union for African Population Studies (UAPS). Paper No. 31.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1998. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1998) Re-Conceptualising Food Security: Interlocking strategies, Unfolding Choices and Rural Livelihoods in Kisii District, Kenya. Department of Rural Development Sociology, Wageningen Agricultural University. PhD Thesis. 273pgs.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1998. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (1998) Sustainability of Forests in Kenya: Emerging Issues. In: A.G.M. Ahmed & W. Mlay [eds] Environment and Sustainable Development in Eastern and Southern Africa. Some Critical Issues. London & New York: Macmillan Press and St. Martin.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1998. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2000) Poverty and the Kenyan Family: A Rapid Assessment of the Situation of the Family in Nairobi. Submitted to the Association of African Women for Research and Development.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2000. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2000) Reaching Out to Stakeholders: The Impact of Agricultural Reforms on Poverty Alleviation in rural Kenya. In: K.K. Prah & A.G.M. Ahmed [eds] Africa in Transformation: Political and Economic Issues. Addis Ababa: OSSREA. Pp. 139-144.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2000. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2001) Life in Kenya. In: Strategy and Tactics [eds] Kenya: State of the Nation. Report submitted to the National Civic Engagement Programme. Nairobi: PriceWaterHouse Coopers. Chapter 4.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2001. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2002) Child Rights and Child Protection in Kenya. A Mid-Term Evaluation report. Submitted to the African Network for the Prevention and Protection against Child Abuse and Neglect. ANPPCAN Regional Office.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2002. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2002) Export Horticulture and Livelihood Strategies: A Focus on the Opportunities and Constraints Facing Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. Norwich: The Overseas Development Group and Sussex: Institute for Development Studies.". In: Research Teaser: Mainstreaming Chronic Poverty. IDS Policy Brief Issue No. 2. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2002. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2002) Youth Sexuality and Reproductive Health in Lugari District. Submitted to the Kenya Youth Initiatives Programme, Family Planning Association of Kenya.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2002. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2003) Assessment of the Impact of Agro-Forestry Based Soil Fertility Replenishment Interventions on the Poor in Western Kenya. In: IPGRI [eds] Agriculture and Development Strand Workshop Proceedings [http://www.cgiar.org/ipgri/pubs/2003].". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2003) Ethnicity and Pro-Poor Change in Kenya. A Research Paper submitted to the Drivers of Change Research Group. DFID, Kenya.". In: Research Teaser: Mainstreaming Chronic Poverty. IDS Policy Brief Issue No. 2. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2003) The Interplay Between Commodity Markets and Rural Livelihoods. A Focus on the Tea Industry in Rural Kenya. IDS Working Paper No. 538. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies.". In: Universal Access to Communication Services in Rural Kenya: A Geo-Socio-Economics Study Report. Submitted to the Communications Commission of Kenya and the International Development Research Centre. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2003) Universal Justice for Children at Risk: An evaluation of the programme and activities of the Children.". In: Research Teaser: Mainstreaming Chronic Poverty. IDS Policy Brief Issue No. 2. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2004) Researching Poverty in Rural Kenya: A Sustainable Livelihoods Framework Approach to Measuring the Impact of Agricultural Technologies on Poverty. In: KIPPRA [eds] Proceedings of the workshop on Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques to P.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2004) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Rural Kenya: Policies, Market Forces and Rural Livelihoods. IDS Policy Brief Issue 3 No. 3. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2005) Access to and utilisation of Information Communication Technology within the College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Report submitted to the College Academic Board, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2005) Community Mobilisation for Participation in Water Use and Management. Submitted to Technical University Delft Research Group.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2005) The Soko Huru Trade: Network Building, Informal Contracts and compliance Failure in the Marketing of Green Leaf in Rural Kenya. IDS Working Paper No. 540. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2006) Food Security Trends: A Situational Analysis of Food Supply Differentials in Rural Kenya. Discussion Paper No. 300. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (2006) Towards Food Security in Africa: Theories, Images and Realities. The East African Journal of Development Studies. Volume 1, No. 1. pp. 43-61.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) Incorporation into the Market Economy and Food Security among the Gusii: Paradise Lost or Paradise Gained. African Journal of Sociology. Volume VI, No. 1.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. People\.". In: People\. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1985. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. The Fuel wood Crisis in Rural Kenya. A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Fuel wood Scarcity in Bura Irrigation Settlement Scheme, Tana River District. Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi. Nairobi. M.A. Thesis. 300pgs.". In: The Fuel wood Crisis in Rural Kenya. A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Fuel wood Scarcity in Bura Irrigation Settlement Scheme, Tana River District. Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M.; A. Oyuke; & R. Njiru (2004) Training Manual \.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2004. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M.; G.R.N. Njeru; E. Ontita & O. Nyarwath (2006) The Theory and Practice of Governance in Kenya: Towards Civic Engagement. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2006. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M.; M. Kimani & R. Njiru (2005) Social Codes of Practice in the Cut Flower Industry. Submitted to the Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich Research Group.". In: The Search for Food Security: Images and Realities of Rural Kenya. IDS Policy Brief Issue 4 No. 1. Nairobi:. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Omuga BOO, Ojwang SBO Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Omuga BOO, Ojwang SBO Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi. E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 690. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PIP: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of unmarried mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, from December 1986-April 1987, was conducted with a pretested open-ended questionnaire: the 864 teen mothers are described here. They ranged from 13.4-19 years, most were 17-19. 49.4% were Catholic and 45% Protestant. 88.5% attended prenatal clinics once; 51.5% attended 5 times, although only 13% went to hospital clinics for specialized care. For reasons for not going for prenatal care teens stated that they were too shy to undergo a clinical exam, afraid of parents' reaction, unaware of the pregnancy or of the existence of prenatal care, they had not menstruated, or were in school, in prison, or had long work hours. Most girls had primary education, and 97.9% had dropped out of school. 34% dropped out because of pregnancy, and 32% for lack of tuition fees. Reasons for dropping out of school were tabulated, encompassing a broad range of social problems such as war, death, divorce, alcoholism or illness of parents, no tuition or uniform funds, poor grades, and running away from school. In Africa, teen pregnancy is probably increasing because of decreasing age at menarche and relaxing of traditional values.

MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Omunyin, M.E. Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1986. Las Cepas, del BCMCY. Su. Interaction Con Variedades de Frijol Con el Gene 1. Hojas de Frijol 8 (3).". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Omunyin, M.E., E.M. Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1987. Reactions of cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 65 (2): 166 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Omuse, J. K., Gathuma, J. M., Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S. and Nderu, F. M. K. (1978). Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Maasai-Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 26 (2) 156 .". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Omuse, J. K., Gathuma, J. M., Nyaga, P. N., Kaminjolo, J. S. and Nderu, F. M. K. (1978). Verminous pneumonia in topi (Damaliscus korrigum) in Maasai-Mara area of Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 26 (2) 156 .". In: journal. au-ibar; 1978. Abstract
Antisera to thermostable muscle antigens from 13 wild animals: Buffalo, Waterbuck, Bushbuck, Eland, Oryx, Kongoni, Bushpig, Warthog, Topi, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle, Sheep, Pig, Horse, Camel & Dog, were raised in rabbits and/or goats. Absorptions of the antisera with copolymerized pooled serum from the 20 species and the thermostable muscle antigens rendered most of the antisera mmonospecific. It was possible to identify the species of origin of saline extracts of both cooked and fresh meat samples in immunodiffusion tests. The method is promising for use in identification of the species origin of fresh and cooked animal meats.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M. and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumias District. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Biamah, EK. 2006. Nonlinear mixed effect modelling for improved estimation of water retention and infiltration parameters. Journal of Hydrology, 330:748-758.". In: Journal of Hydrology. Journal of Hydrology; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Shepherd KD, Coe R, Walsh MG, Gumbe LO. 2006. Rapid protocol for assessing soil physical degradation in arid and semi-arid areas. Highland2006 conference on environmental change, geomorphic processes, land degradation and rehabilitation in tropi.". In: Highland2006 conference. Mekelle University; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Vargas RR, Paron P. 2009. Soil erosion and sedimentation modelling of the areas between river Juba and Shabelle in South Somalia. Technical Report No. 16. FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD, Coe R 2003. Prediction of field-measured infiltration rates using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Poster presented at ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. Annual Meeting Abstracts [CD-.". In: ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings, 2-6 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA. ASA-CSSA-SSSA; 2003. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C. T., J .P .O. Obiero and S. C. Ondieki. 2001. Modelling Hydraulic Conductivity. Paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference , Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi, 2001.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference. KSAE; 2001. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
ODHIAMBO MROBIEROJOHNPAUL. "Omuto, C. T., J .P .O. Obiero and S. C. Ondieki. Modelling Hydraulic Conductivity. Paper presented at the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers International Conference , Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi, 2001.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2007. HydroMe: Estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from experimental data.". In: Software. R Development Core Team; 2007. Abstract
HydroMe is a R Package that estimates the parameters in infiltration and water retention models by curve-fitting method. The models considered in this package those that are commonly used in soil science.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. 2008. Assessment of soil physical degradation in Eastern Kenya by use of a sequential soil testing protocol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 128:199-211.". In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; 2008. Abstract
Soil physical degradation is a gradual process of many steps beginning from structural deterioration and ending in differential loss of finer particles through erosion. Control of the degradation remains a challenge to many scientists due to lack of proper assessment protocols. This study developed a sequential protocol with emphasis on definition of physical degradation and successive soil testing to determine the stages of degradation development. The protocol was tested in Cambisols, Arenosols, and Ferralsols in Eastern Kenya. Soil physical degradation due to 10 years land use change was defined as more than 25% drop in infiltration and water retention characteristics and aggregate stability and more than 30% increase in bulk density and silt content. Then a soil testing model was sequentially applied to identify physical degradation phases. Visual assessment of degradation symptoms, RUSLE model, and diffuse infrared spectral reflectance were used in the soil testing model as predictors of physical degradation. Visual assessment was found to be cheap and fast method for identifying final stages of physical degradation with 60% accuracy. Visual assessment combined with RUSLE model improved the assessment accuracy to 80%. Infrared spectral reflectance, which is sensitive to subtle changes in soil physical conditions, was also found as a potential surrogate predictor of early-warning signs of soil physical degradation. Inclusion of spectra into the assessment model improved the accuracy to 95%. This protocol is effective in identifying phases of soil physical degradation, which are useful for planning degradation control and monitoring schemes. Its further testing and worldwide application is recommended.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and L.O. Gumbe. 2009. Estimating water infiltration and retention characteristics using a computer program in R. Computers & Geosciences 35: 579-585.". In: Computers and Geosciences. Computers and Geosciences; 2009. Abstract
Infiltration and water retention functions are widely used soil hydraulic properties in the geosciences. They contain coefficients known as hydraulic parameters that are traditionally obtained through curve-fitting. Computer programs for the curve-fitting process are available for certain infiltration or water retention models. However, these programs are either not freely accessible or do not estimate certain hydraulic parameters. They are also inefficient and prone to errors for applications involving large datasets. This paper discusses the use of a freely accessible HydroMe package for fast, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in some commonly used infiltration and water retention models. The package is executable in the freely downloadable R programming software. It contains a program for estimating the parameters in infiltration models previously proposed. The program is capable of estimating parameters from arrays of grouped data in one single pass without having to enter the data each time for the parameter estimation. It incorporates mixed-effects and covariate modelling techniques for improved estimation accuracy. These techniques are not common in any other computer programs in the geosciences. Through covariate modelling, the package provides opportunity to include environmental correlates in the estimation of soil hydraulic parameters. Therefore, HydroMe not only improves the estimation accuracy and efficiency, but also provides insight into environmental risk factors that influence the management of soil and water resources.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and P.D. Shrestha. 2007. Remote sensing techniques for rapid detection of soil physical degradation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28, 4785.". In: International Journal of Remote Sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing; 2007. Abstract

Physical degradation undermines soils' ability to perform their many biophysical functions. Currently, there is lack of rapid methods to facilitate timely large-area assessment for effective control of the degradation. This study tested the combined applications of point-measurements of physical properties, soil spectral reflectance, and remote sensing for prediction of the degradation in a large watershed. Infiltration and water retention measurements at selected sites were used to aid definition of the degradation classes. A tree classification was then developed with diffuse spectral reflectance to predict the degradation classes. 93% accuracy with holdout cross-validation was achieved and the tree used to predict the degradation at multiple points in the study area. In addition, standardized deviations of land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from long-term Landsat scenes were used to study the thermal and vegetation conditions at the sampled points. The deviations of LST and NDVI were effectively incorporated in the prediction of the degradation at other places with 80% accuracy of ground reference data. This approach has the potential as a useful tool for guiding policy decision on sustainable land management.

THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and Vargas, R.R. 2009. Combining pedometrics, remote sensing and field observations for assessing soil loss in challenging drylands: a case study of northwestern Somalia. Land Degradation and Development 20: 101-115.". In: Land Degradation and Development. Land Degradation and Development; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T., Vargas, R. R., Alim, M.S., Ismail, A., Osman, A., Iman. H.M. 2009. Land degradation assessment and a monitoring framework in Somalia. FA0-SWALIM Technical Report L-14, FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT and Shepherd KD. 2006. New methods for large-area assessment of soil degradation. 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.". In: 18th World Congress of Soil Science July 9-15, 2006 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. WCSS; 2006. Abstract
Accurate estimation of soil hydraulic functions is an important topic in soil physics and hydrology. Soil scientists and hydrologists use experimental data to derive parameters of the hydraulic functions, and when measurements are not available they utilise pedotransfer functions. In all of the current methods, there is a lack of consideration for environmental covariates in the parameter estimation process. This paper presents nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) approach that incorporates various sources of information to make parameter estimates for population and individual-sites at the same time. Using likelihood approximations, NLME allows structured covariance matrices and estimated parameters to vary over sample-points thus giving more accurate description of the magnitudes and sources of inter-individual variations. This approach was used to estimate the hydraulic parameters from infiltration and water retention measurements that incorporate information about soil degradation. The performance of NLME was compared to: (i) average parameters obtained by considering whole dataset as one group and (ii) individual treatment of each sample-point independently. The best performance was achieved with NLME that gave the lowest residual standard error for the Philip’s infiltration and the van Genuchten’s water retention function. By including sampling structure and covariates in the parameter estimation process, NLME offers opportunity to study the mechanisms or factors producing a particular hydrologic response from different parts of the watershed. This information can be used for targeting recommendations in watershed management.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT, Vargas, RR, Alim,SM, Paron P. 2010. Mixed-effects modelling of time series NDVI-rainfall relationship for detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1552-1563.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Journal of Arid Environments; 2010. Abstract
Many researchers have used time-series analysis of remotely sensed images to gain understanding of the dynamics of loss of vegetation cover in drylands. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate still mask the potential of remote sensing signals to detect human-induced loss of vegetation cover. This paper presents mixed-effect modelling method for time-series NDVI-rainfall relationship to account for the complex interaction between vegetation and climate. Mixed-effects method is a form of statistical modelling that can simultaneously model environmental relationships for a population and for different groups within the population. In this study, it was used to model the NDVI-rainfall relationship in Somalia and for different vegetation types in the country. Its time-series application removed the interaction between vegetation and rainfall and identified areas experiencing human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the country. On average, it gave an accurate relationship between rainfall and NDVI (r2 > 60%) and detected areas with human-induced loss of vegetation cover (kappa = 75%). Although the potential of mixed-effects was shown using vegetation types, other factors such as soil types and land use can also be included in the method to improve accuracy of time-series NDVI images in detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the drylands.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Shepherd, K.D., Walsh, M.G., Coe, R., Biamah, E.K., 2005. Bio-exponential modeling of watershed water retention Characteristics. Paper submitted to European Journal of Soil Science.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Shepherd, K.D., Walsh, M.G., Coe, R., Biamah, E.K., 2005. Spectral reflectance screening of soil physical degradation using CART. Paper submitted to Journal of Remote Sensing of Environment.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop productivity. Model simulation of the stochastic behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums provides some insights into: the differences in rainfall characteristics within an agricultural watershed; and distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall for various uses. The longest dry spell analysis is of practical relevance to the selection of the best conservation practices (including conservation tillage) for soil and water management whilst the largest rainsum analysis can be used to determine the watershed runoff volume and discharges that would assist in the design of flood and erosion control structures, and the design of runoff water catchment systems (RWCS), which are essential for supplementary irrigation in semi arid Kenya. This study adopted an agro-hydrologic systems approach to the mitigation of agricultural drought at micro, meso and macro scale levels within an agricultural watershed. This approach had its premise that many agricultural drought problems in unstable ecosystems are best solved through farmers interventions at the micro scale level, conservation planning at the meso scale level and resource management at the macro scale level. Thus, the adopted agro-hydrologic systems approach is holistic and aimed at optimizing soil and water management in hydrologically defined geographical areas. The three levels of agricultural drought mitigation should be hierarchical and must consider all factors influencing the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of dominant soils in semi arid Kenya.
KIPNGETICH PROFBIAMAHELIJAH. "Omuto, T.C., Walsh, M.G., Shepherd, K.D., Biamah, E.K., 2004. Nonlinear mixed effect fitting of soil hydraulic functions from a large watershed, Minor corrections suggested to paper, corrected and sent back to Journal of Soil Science Society of America.". In: Wageningen University and Research Centre Publication. ISBN 90-6754-861-8. Also published as thesis (2005) by Wageningen University, ISBN 90-8504-178-3. Kisipan, M.L.; 2004. Abstract
In semi arid Kenya, episodes of agricultural droughts of varying severity and duration occur. The occurrence of these agricultural droughts is associated with seasonal rainfall variability and can be reflected by seasonal soil moisture deficits that significantly affect crop performance and yield. The objective of this study was to stochastically simulate the behaviour of dry and wet spells and rainsums in Iiuni watershed, Kenya. The stochastic behaviour of the longest dry and wet spells (runs) and largest rainsums were simulated using a Markov (order 1) model. There were eight raingauge stations within the watershed. The entire analysis was carried out using probability parameters, i.e. mean, variance, simple and conditional probabilities of dry and rain days. An analysis of variance test (ANOVA) was used to establish significant differences in rainfall characteristics between the eight stations. An analysis of the number of rain days and rainfall amount per rain day was done on a monthly basis to establish the distribution and reliability of seasonal rainfall. The graphical comparison of simulated cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of the longest spells and largest rainsums showed Markovian dependence or persistence. The longest dry spells could extend to 24 days in the long rainy season and 12 in the short rainy season. At 50% (median) probability level, the largest rainsums were 91 mm for the long rainy season and 136 mm for the short rainy season. The short rains were more reliable for crop production than the long rains. The Markov model performed well and gave adequate simulations of the spells and rainsums under semi arid conditions.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho C. A., Falconer, J., Roberts TK (1994): Purification and characterization of immunoglobulins bound to placenta of sheep.". In: In Proc. 1st International conference of World placental Associations, Sydney, Australia, A53.; 1994. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho C. A., Peters, C., Falconer, J., Roberts TK (1994): Sheep placental IgG inhibits human Natural killer cell cytotoxicity.". In: In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of .; 1994. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Falconer J, Gruessner SE, Mecha E, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Roberts TK, Tinneberg HR. Human placental immunoglobulins show unique re-association patterns with isologous and third party acid treated trophoblast microvesicles in vitro.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jun;82(6):290-3.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Gruessner SE, Falconer J, Tumbo-Oeri AG,Mala G, Mecha E,Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK. Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro.". In: J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2006 Mar;77(1):24-7.; 2006. Abstract

Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self) and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II maybe expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigens may be present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Tinneberg HR, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Roberts TK, Falconer J. Recurrent pregnancy losses and the role of immunotherapy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000 Jul;264(1):3-12.". In: Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000 Jul;264(1):3-12.; 2000. Abstract

Post implantation pregnancy losses are psychologically and economically stressful to the childbearing population. The etiology in the vast majority of cases is unknown but is partly thought to result from a break-down of the maternal tolerance to the fetoplacental unit. Immunologically based therapy remains controversial but no alternative therapy is available at the moment. This article reviews the conceived immunological basis of recurrent pregnancy losses, discussing the controversies arising, and recommending the use of intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIg, in well controlled experiments for further clinical trials.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA, Tumbo-Oeri AG, Tinneberg HR, Roberts TK, Falconer J.Immunological Role of the Placenta, Blocking Factors and NK Cells in Post-implantation Pregnancy.Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 2001 Jan-Jun;8(1-2):2-16.; 2001. Abstract

The unexpected failure of the mother to immunologically reject the foetus is partly thought to result from immunological properties of the placenta. The placental trophoblast produces immunosuppressive factors including progesterone and blocking antibodies which together down-regulate maternal immune responses to the foetoplacental unit. This article reviews the post implantation immunology of pregnancy emphasizing the roles of placenta, blocking factors and natural killer (NK) cells.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA. Effects of Albendazole therapy on serum proteins and Leukocyte Counts of Hydatid patients - 1989 M.Sc. Thesis.". In: M.Sc. Thesis.; 1989. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho CA. Ovine placental Immunoglobulins: purification, partial characterization and some in vitro Biological Activities.". In: Ph.D Thesis - 1996.; 1996. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Falconer, J., Roberts TK. Re-association of human and ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins with acidified trophoblast vesicles .". In: American journal of Reproductive Immunology.; 1996. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Hall, AL., Falconer, J., Roberts, TK.: Elution and partial characterization of immunoglobulins bound to ovine placenta.". In: Immunology and Cell Biology 75: 231 .; 1997. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Okello, G. B. A. and Tumbo-Oeri, AG. Effects of Albendazole therapy on leukocyte counts in hydatid patients .". In: In: Proceecngs of the 11th KEMRI/KETRI Scientific. Conference. Nairobi.; 1990. Abstract

Resting metabolic rates have been measured and compared with hepatic mitochondrial respiration in Kwashiorkor and diet-induced obese weaned rats. In Kwashiorkor, resting metabolic rate was 21% lower than the value of controls, while that of the obese rats was 14% higher than in control animals. The resting metabolic rate for Kwashiorkor animals was 50% of the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR), whereas that of the obese rats was 23% higher than the predicted BMR. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption patterns, using malate plus glutamate or succinate as respiratory substrates, revealed that the resting respiration (state 4) was 23.9% higher in Kwashiorkor and 29.1% higher in obese animals, while the active (state 3) respiration was 34.8% lower in Kwashiorkor and 43.3% lower in obese rats compared to controls. The respiratory control ratios (RCR) were 51.1% and 43.8% in Kwashiorkor and obese rats, respectively, relative to the values in control rats. It is concluded from these studies that Kwashiorkor disease and diet-induced obesity appear to interfere with oxygen utilization at the level of state 3 mitochondrial respiration, which is markedly decreased when compared to the values for control animals.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Peters C., Falconer, J., Roberts TK. Ovine and Human placental IgG inhibit human natural killer cell cytotoxicity in vitro.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 47 .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Peters, C., Falconer, J., Roberts, T.k., and Tumbo-Oeri, A. G. (2001): Is placental IgG toxic to natural killer cells?". In: In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the .; 2001. Abstract

In Proceedings of The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology/South African Societies for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Special meeting on the "Biochemical and Molecular Basis of Disease" Cape Town, South Africa (19th to 23rd November 2001. Abstract No. P155.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Omwandho, CA., Tinneberg H.R., Tumbo Oeri AG., Roberts TK., Falconer J (2001): Immunological role of placenta, Blocking factors and NK Cells in the post implantation pregnancy.". In: African Journal of Health Sciences 8: 2 .; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In normal pregnancy, the pregnant mother paradoxically tolerates the semi-allogeneic foetus until term. Experimental and clinical data to explain such tolerance in man reflects the involvement of multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To review the data pertaining to the experimental and clinical efforts to explain why the mother immunologically tolerates a semi-allogeneic pregnancy to term. DESIGN, SETTING AND METHODS: A review of the literature on state of the art thinking among researchers and clinicians on recurrent spontaneous abortions is summarised. RESULTS: A large body of recently published data strongly suggest that a breakdown in immunological maternal-foetal interactions may lead to occasional or recurrent foetal loss. Immunoregulatory activities involving blocking antibodies, regulatory factors, immunological cells, hormones, structural proteins and cytokines constitute the pregnancy-sustaining network. CONCLUSION: The majority of the evidence reviewed points to the involvement of immunological factors in successful pregnancies. However, the underlying mechanisms are inadequately explained, are largely speculative and require more focused investigation. A complete understanding of the mechanisms involved would enhance our capacity to develop rational ways of addressing recurrent pregnancy losses.

I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E. I., Waema T. M. An asynchronous framework for a flexible web-driven courseware development and learning environment.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management Nov 12-15 2002, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya pp41-43. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E. I., Waema T. M. An asynchronous framework for a flexible web-driven courseware development and learning environment.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Transformation of Higher Education Management Nov 12-15 2002, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya pp41-43.; 2001. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M. Towards Development of a Model Expressing a set of E-learning Variables. Reviewed.". In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 28th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M. Towards Development of a Model Expressing a set of E-learning Variables. Reviewed.". In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 28th .; 2006. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th . East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2002. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga E.I., Waema T. M., Eisendrath G.E. (Nov. 2002). Modelling an E-learning Infrastructure with a Content Calibrator within a Resource-constrained Environment.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Instruction (Online-Educa-Berlin), Nov 27th .; 2002. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. uon press; 2005. Abstract
Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Percutaneous transluminal baloon valvuloplasty is currently the treatment of choice for most cases of pulmonary valve stenosis. In the first series of cases performed at Kenyatta National Hospital, six patients aged 4 to 24 years with severe pulmonary valve stenosis and no other associated cardiac lesions were selected for the procedure. Immediately following baloon valvuloplasty, the pressure gradients across pulmonary valve measured by both echo-Doppler technique and cardiac catheterisation dropped very significantly (P < 0.001). Catheterisation peak systolic gradients (psg) dropped from 162.5 +/- 23.7 to 56.5 +/- 19.0 while echo-Doppler pressure gradients dropped from 112.0 +/- 11.9 to 42.8 +/- 16.0. No complications occurred during or after the procedure. This initial short-term experience in our set-up confirms the safety and effectiveness of this procedure. Furthermore, this procedure is much cheaper and technically easier to perform than cardiac surgery. PMID: 8062769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147. Nyenze E, Ilako D, Kimani K; 2005. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
I POMWENGAELIJAH, KIPCHUMBA MRCHEPKENCHRISTOPHER, MOHAMED MRDUBLEBISHAR. "Omwenga, E. I., Chepken C.K., Bishar D. Complexity reduction in the formative evaluation process using the QuizIntegrator. In Sustainable ICT capacity in developing countries.". In: Makerere University, Kampala, Elsevier Publishers pp 142-147.; 2005. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E. I., Rodrigues A. J. Towards an Education Evaluation Framework: Synchronous and Asynchronous E-learning Cases.". In: Journal of the Research Centre for Educational Technology, Kent, www.rcetj.org. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E. I., Rodrigues A. J. Towards an Education Evaluation Framework: Synchronous and Asynchronous E-learning Cases.". In: Journal of the Research Centre for Educational Technology, Kent, www.rcetj.org.; 2006. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Eisendrath, G., Libotton A. (June 2005b). Development and Application of an Objectives-driven E-content Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM).". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Eisendrath, G., Libotton A. (June 2005b). Development and Application of an Objectives-driven E-content Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM).". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50.; 2005. Abstract
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I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Omwenga, E., Waema, T., & Wagacha, P. A model for introducing and implementing e-learning for delivery of educational content within the African context.". In: African Journal of Sciences and Technology 5(1) 35-48. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga, E.I. and Waema, T.M., (1998) An Asynchronous Framework for a Flexible Web-Driven Spatial Courseware Development and Learning Environment,.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Training held in Berlin, Germany, 2nd . East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1998. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga, E.I., Waema, T.M. and Eisendrath, G. (2002), Modeling an E-learning Infrastructure with an nstructional Content Calibrator and Advisor,.". In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Technology Supported Learning and Training, pp 88-89, held in Hotel Itercon, Berlin, Germany, 25th . East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 2002. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Omwenga, E.I., Waema, T.M., & Eisendrath, G.P.C., Libotton A. (2005). Development and Application of an Objectives-Driven Econtent Structuring and Deployment Model (ODC-SDM),.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST), Science and Engineering Series 6(1), pp 45-50. Mvule Africa Publishers, ISBN 9966-769-56-0, pp. 25-72; 2005. Abstract
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Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "On a Almost Hermite Manifold.". In: Bull. Math. Sco. Belquim, t. XXXII, PP 3-9. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1980. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Malo O. "On a Certain Transformation of Boltzmann Equation.". 1974. AbstractOn a Certain Transformation of Boltzmann Equation

An identical transformation of the Boltzmann equation leads directly to an equation of a purely stochastic process. A simple special case is obtained from the well-known formulae of neutron physics on the transition probabilities in velocity space representing the process of slowing down a neutron inside a stationary nucleus.

Kavila M, Khalagai JM. "On A-Commuting Operators.". 2012. AbstractOn A-Commuting Operators

Two bounded linear operators A and B on a complex Hilbert space are said to ,1.- commute for ,lEe provided that: AB = ABA. In this paper we look for some properties satisfied by the operators A and B so that ,1.= 1. It is shown among other results that if one of the operators raised to some power is normal and 0 does not belong to the interior of the numerical range of the other operator then: A = 1 AMS 200 Mathematics Subject Classification 47B47 47 A30, 47B20

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "On Aime Cesaire French Cultural Centre.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1979. Abstract

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Musundi SW, Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Murwayi AL. "On almost similarity operator equivalence relation." IJRRAS. 2013;15(3):293-299.
Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Mwenda E. "On almost-similarity and metric equivalence of operators." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS)-accepted June 14, 2016. In Press.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "ON ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OPERATORS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SYNTHESIS MATRIX OF A FRAME IN TERMS OF FRAME OPERATOR." Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics (ISSN: 2208-2409). 2018;5(12):01-10. AbstractWebsite

In this research paper we introduce the operators associated with a frame. That is the Analysis and the Synthesis Operators and their basic properties. The structure of matrix representation of the Synthesis operator is also analysed. This matrix is what most frame constructions in fact focus on. The frame operator which is just the joining together of the analysis and synthesis operators is fundamental for the reconstruction of signals form frame coefficients. We also give a complete characterization of the synthesis matrix in terms of the frame operator.

Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On analysis and synthesis operators and characterization of the synthesis matrix of a frame in terms of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(12):1-10.
Ottieno J, Muhua G. "On Bayesian Estimation in Group-Screening Design without Errors in Decision." International Journa I of Computational and Theoretical Statistics. 2016; Vol 3(1):39-48.
Mille JK, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On characterization of class R_1 of non-normal operators in a Hilbert space." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). 2012;5(1):137-142.
A PROFODHIAMBOJACK. "On Cognition : Ascent from sense knowledge to knowledge of essence with publisher for evaluation.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1993. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modeling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

Antony Rono, Ogutu C, Weke P. "On Compound Distributions for Natural Disaster Modelling in Kenya." International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2020;2020. AbstractWebsite

Kenyan communities are exposed to natural disasters by an amalgamation of factors such as poverty, aridity, and settlements in areas susceptible to natural disasters or in areas with poor infrastructure. This is expected to increase due to the effects of climate change. In an attempt to explain some of these variabilities, we model the extreme damages from natural disasters in Kenya by developing a compound distribution that takes into account both the frequency and the severity of the extreme events. The resulting distribution is based on a threshold model and compound extreme value distribution. For frequency of events exceeding a threshold of 150,000, we found that it follows a negative binomial distribution, while severity of exceedance follows a generalized Pareto distribution. This distribution fits the data well and is found to be a better model for natural disasters in Kenya than the traditional extreme value threshold model.

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