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MARY MRSODEROTHERESA. "Odero, TMA Lango, D..Final Report: Visual Perception TDR ( Tropical Diseases Research ) to Geneva, 1996.". In: Tropical Diseases Research. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1996. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Odhiambo D, De Souza J, Gikenye G, Saidi HS. Radiological anatomy of a cranial malformation in a conjoined dicephalus twin. Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125.". In: Eur. J. Anat., 2006; 10 (3): 121-125. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Odhiambo F A, WAMOLA I.A and Ndinya-Achola J O. Aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates from blood cultures of children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia.East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):869-74.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Nov;68(11):869-74. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
A total of 120 sets of blood cultures were performed aerobically from 60 children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Out of these, 36 (30%) sets from 19 (31.7%) patients yielded bacterial growth while 84 (70%) sets from 41 (68.3%) were negative. Salmonella typhimurium was the most frequently isolated bacteria (63%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.8%). Salmonella typhimurium isolates were mostly multi-antibiotic resistant, most of them only sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, while all were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, the most frequently used antibiotic in this hospital. PIP: Between March 1987-January 1988, physicians enrolled 60 pediatric patients with a fever who were admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya for various clinical conditions in a study to determine the types, frequency, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates. Most of the patients were 13 months-4 years old (45%). 31.7% of the patients had positive blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the 2nd most common bacteria (15.8%) among these patients. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella typhimurium in most patients (63%). In fact, during the same period, the Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory at the hospital identified Salmonella species in 48% of all isolated bacteria and 35% of these were S. typhimurium. S. typhimurium tended to be present in children with gastroenteritis (41.8%) or a fever of unknown origin (33.3%). S. typhimurium was very sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxime, but resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Health workers in Kenya have frequently administered ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, but not amikacin and cefotaxime. 67% of the strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to gentamicin and 33% to chloramphenicol. These results along with those of other reports from this hospital indicated a dramatic rise in Gram negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics. Therefore physicians should no longer consider gentamicin as a 1st line antibiotic in treating suspected septicemia patients.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Odhiambo FA, Murage EM, Ngare W, Ndinya-Achola JO.Detection rate of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1997 Sep;74(9):576-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Sep;74(9):576-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
A ten-year retrospective review of laboratory detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid was undertaken using past laboratory and clinical records at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 1462 India-ink tests were carried out, 76 (5.2%) of these tested positive for C. neoformans. An increasing number of clinical requests for India-ink test mirrored by increasing number of patients with immunological disorders were noted over the study period although no obvious trend emerged in the detection pattern of C. neoformans. The use of a more sensitive test such as the latex agglutination technique is suggested.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Odhiambo FA, Murage EM, ngare W, Ndinya-Achola JODetection rate of Cryptococcus neoformans in Cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi EAMJ 74: 576-78, 1997.". In: EAMJ 74: 576-78, 1997. IBIMA Publishing; 1997. Abstract
Of 22,274 patients > or = 12 years old attending a Nairobi primary health care (PHC) clinic, 1076 (4.8%) had STD-related complaints, of whom 980 underwent assessment of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infrequent condom use. Gonorrhoea, chancroid, syphilis seroactivity, trichomoniasis, or objective signs of STD were found in 78%, and HIV seropositivity in 15% of men and 19% of women. Most women were married, living with a spouse; while most men were single, or married, but living separated from a spouse. Among married men, last sex was with a female sex worker (FSW) or casual partner for 60% not living with a spouse and 26% living with a spouse (P<0.005). Two or more partners during the past year were reported by 82% of men and 25% of women (P <0.001), and 55% of men and 11% of women reported the last partner was high risk. HIV seropositivity among both genders was associated with numbers of partners, and among women, with being widowed or divorced. Only 3% reported use of a condom with the last partner. Among men whose last sex was with a FSW, 74% said the reason for not using a condom was not having one. Thus, infrequent condom use, low condom availability, and gender differences in behaviour necessitate modifying development policies that separate families; and better coordination between family planning, PHC, and AIDS/STD programmes, with improved supply, social marketing and community-based distribution of condoms in high-risk settings for STD/HIV prevention.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Odhiambo FA, Wamola IA, Ndinya-Achola JO. Aerobic and facultative bacterial isolates from blood cultures of children with clinically diagnosed septicaemia. E.A.M.J. Vol. 68: 869 - 874, Nov. 1991.". In: E.A.M.J. Vol. 68: 869 - 874, Nov. 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O AND MAJANI A.A. (2003), Engineering principles and practices on irrigation, book manuscript written with financial assistance from DFID.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O AND ODUOR, MAIMO M MALESU (2005,) Impacts of Rain Water Harvesting in Kusa.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, (2006), USING ROOF-STORAGE RAINWATER SYSTEMS AS A COPING STRATEGY ON DROUGHT RELATED DISASTERS.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 1997, methodology for sizing rainwater harvesting reservoirs, a paper presented at the annual SEASAE conference in Arusha Tanzania.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2001, water turbines, a paper presented to the annual KSAE conference at Grand Regency Hotel.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2002, quantifying biomass for firing thermax boilers in Thika Industrial district, a paper presented to the KSAE annual conference at Milimani hotel, Nairobi.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
ORODI MRODHIAMBOJOHANNES. "ODHIAMBO J.O, 2004, towards a rainwater model village, a paper presented to the annual water experts conference in Arusha Tanzania,.". In: AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAINWATER HARVESTING FOR DISASTER MITIGATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZED BY KENYA RAINWATER ASSOCIATION (KRA) AND THE SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NETWORK(SEARNET) ON RAINWATER HARVESTING HELD IN MOMBASA, KENYA. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
 Annual seasonal droughts of 2-4 months occur in Kusa limiting access of households to safe drinking water. This compounds the health and socio-economic disasters through increased water borne diseases rated at 10% morbidity and 63% mortality and marginalizing economically the resource poor through drudgery and wastage of time in water fetching activities. The introduction of rooftop rainwater harvesting 5 m3 storage tanks has redressed the trend in 30% of the households owning these systems that harness the 900mm annual rainfall on 80-100 m2 individual roof catchments. A study carried in the area through structured questionnaires, group discussions and literature survey revealed that the tanks operated at reliability and satisfaction levels of 44-59% when the guttering system covered 25% of the available roof area and 80-100% for coverage of 100 % for daily demand levels of 100 liters.  An assured supply of domestic water at homestead level resulted in a state of water security leading to increased use of water per capita thereby improving personal hygiene for the rural community.  Morbidity and mortality rates from water borne diseases reduced from 10% to 9.8% and 63% to 31% respectively for households with rooftop-tank systems. The study showed that well sized roof-tank combinations and appropriate demand managed strategies are effective measures for ameliorating household water supply to mitigate against drought caused health and socio-economic disasters in the area.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Odhiambo PA, Greenhalgh RM, Devine TJ.The effects of aorto-iliac operations on sexual function in the male and a re-emphasis on possible preventive techniques.East Afr Med J. 1979 Oct;56(10):490-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Oct;56(10):490-7. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Odhiambo PA.Patient follow up care after open heart surgery.East Afr Med J. 1998 Dec;75(12):673-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Dec;75(12):673-4. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Odhiambo PA.The application of micro-vascular surgery to the reconstruction of the thoracic oesophagus. Preliminary communication.East Afr Med J. 1979 Jun;56(6):248-54.". In: East Afr Med J. 1979 Jun;56(6):248-54. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Odhiambo PA.The first ten years of heart surgery in Kenya–aspirations, dilemmas and possibilities.East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):520-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Sep;69(9):520-4. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1992. Abstract
This paper looks at the beginnings of cardiac surgery in Kenya with relevant clinical data as well as the overall historical background to various cardiovascular operations which preceded formal establishment of the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgical Unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Similar activities in other hospitals in Nairobi and elsewhere in Kenya have been excluded. The Unit separated from general surgical wards in January 1973. By the end of 1983, a total of 208 open heart operations had been done by various teams in the Unit. A number of other heart operations were also undertaken. Those done before that decade are also highlighted back to 1950. The many problems that the Unit faced and still faces are also identified in this paper and the dream of making it a Centre of Excellence revisited.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "ODHIAMBO W.A., GUTHUA, S.W., MACIGO, F.G., and AKAMA, M.K.: Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg (31), 374-377, 2002.". In: Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 2002; 31: 374 . Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular.  This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the august 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya.  A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta national Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi.  Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft and hard tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries.  Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region: 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region.  This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach.  The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON, J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON, J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Elsevier; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Safety 2010; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Safety 2010; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

KIRIAGO DRAKAMAMATHEW. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Macigo FG, Akama MK.Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Macigo FG, Akama MK.Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7. IPPNW; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Macigo FG, Akama MK.Maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist bomb attack in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002 Aug;31(4):374-7. IPPNW; 2002. Abstract

Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.

O PROFOWINOJOHN. "ODHIAMBO, J. W. & OWINO, J. (1985): .". In: Kenya j. Sci & Tech Vol., 6 (1) pp 59-67. 1999; 1985. Abstract
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W PROFODHIAMBOJOHN. "Odhiambo, J. W. and Mwambi, H. G. The Role of Mathematical Modelling and Computing in Biomedical Research. 2000.". In: In proceedings of a Career Improvement Workshop in Mathematics and Computer Science. Chiromo Campus, University of Nairobi, 27 February - 4 March. SITE; 2000. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "ODHIAMBO, W.A., AYOTI O.J. AND GUTHUA, S.W.: The Burden of firearm injury in a developing country, case presentation and renew of the literature. Proceedings of the 7th World Conference in injury prevention and safety promotion, 571, Vienna, 2004.". In: Proceedings of the 7th World Conference in injury prevention and safety promotion, 571, Vienna. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "ODHIAMBO, W.A., GUTHUA, S.W., and THANGA, P.W.: Multiple Firearm Injury: Case Report and Review of Literature on the Burden of Firearm Injury in Africa. Proceedings, 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Durban, South Africa, Mar.". In: Proceedings, 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Durban, South Africa, March/April 2006. Elsevier; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). SUBJECTS: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. RECOMMENDATIONS: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.
R PROFMUTIGAERASTUS. "Odima, P.A., McDermott, J.J. and Mutiga, E.R., 1994. Reproductive performance of dairy cows on small holder dairy farms in Kiambu District, Kenya Design, Methodology and Development considerations. Kenya Vet. 18: 366-368.". In: Disc and Innov. Acd. Sci. Publ. Vol.1 No.4, 39-43 (1989). Erick Onyango Odada; 1994. Abstract
Data relating to reproductive parameters of German shepherd bitches were collected from registered German shepherd dog (GSD) breeders with information kept over a 15-year period (1982-1997). The information obtained was verified using the East African Kennel Club records. A total of 594 bitches from 280 breeders were recorded. From these, 798 heats were observed, 594 of which were used for breeding, resulting in 3592 puppies. The mean age at puberty was 519.0 +/- 41 days. Heats occurred throughout the year, although significantly (P < 0.05) higher and lower incidences were observed in October and April respectively Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.01) increased interoestrous interval, which was 247.8 +/- 99.6 and 183 +/- 52 days among bred/pregnant and non-bred bitches respectively. Most bitches in oestrus (73.7%) were bred, and breeding was carried out throughout the year, with a distribution closely related to that of heat incidence. Subsequently, whelping occurred throughout the year, and 95.5% of the bitches that were mated whelped. A mean gestation period of 60.6 +/- 5.1 days was observed. The mean litter size was 6.4 +/- 0.4 puppies, and did not differ significantly between months. The preweaning losses were low, with 2.3% stillbirths, 0.9% culls and 11.4% mortalities.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Odindo MA, Mwanthi MA.Role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among HIV/AIDS persons in Kibera, Kenya.East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5.". In: East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo R.S. (2001) The Clean Development Mechanism - A Framework for the Development of Sustainable Projects. CNA, Nairobi.". In: Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society, Mombasa, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo R.S. (2001) The Clean Development Mechanism - A Framework for the Development of Sustainable Projects. CNA, Nairobi.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2001) Resource Management Issues Relevant to Planning and management of Hydro-Power Resources in the Greater Horn of Africa. Paper presented at the IGAD Workshop on the Socio-Economic Aspects of Resources Management relevant to Planning and .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2002) Climate Change and the Energy Sector in East Africa.". In: Paper presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Climate Considerations and Power Production in Kenya. ICPAC, Nairobi. Meteorological Society, Mombasa, 2002. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2003) Review Report on the CP Pre-Proposal "The Challenge of Climate Change - Research to Overcome Its Impact on Food Security, Poverty and natural Resource Degradation in the Developoing World",.". In: Prepared for CGIAR Secretariat. FAO/WFP, Rome, Italy, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2004) Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Kenya. .". In: Papers presented at the IGAD/ICPAC workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change, Kisumu, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. (2004) Importance of Adaptation studies for Climate Change and Vulnerability. .". In: Paper presented to the Free University of Berlin on the Environment, December, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. and Ogallo, L. (2003) Drought in Eastern Africa - CLIVAR/UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA/IPCC Workshop on Drought in Tucson Arizona. Papers presented to the workshop on Drought and Climate Change.". In: Workshop on Drought Episodes and Climate Change, Tucson Arizona, November, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Odingo, R.S. and Ogallo, L. (2003) Drought Occurrence in Eastern Africa Sub-Region, as witnessed from Palaeo- and Instrumental Climate records.". In: Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
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GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Odoi, A., J.M. Gathuma, C.K. Gachuiri, A. Omore, T. Gitau and S.W. Wanyangu 1998. Constraints to small ruminant production in small holder farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:191-195.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Odoi, A., J.M. Gathuma, C.K. Gachuiri, A. Omore, T. Gitau and S.W. Wanyangu 1998. Constraints to small ruminant production in small holder farms in Kiambu district, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:191-195.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Group WHOODR. "Odon device for instrumental vaginal deliveries: results of a medical device pilot clinical study ." Reproductive Health . 2018;15(45). AbstractWebsite

Background
A prolonged and complicated second stage of labour is associated with serious perinatal complications. The Odon device is an innovation intended to perform instrumental vaginal delivery presently under development. We present an evaluation of the feasibility and safety of delivery with early prototypes of this device from an early terminated clinical study.

Methods
Hospital-based, multi-phased, open-label, pilot clinical study with no control group in tertiary hospitals in Argentina and South Africa. Multiparous and nulliparous women, with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, were enrolled during the third trimester of pregnancy. Delivery with Odon device was attempted under non-emergency conditions during the second stage of labour. The feasibility outcome was delivery with the Odon device defined as successful expulsion of the fetal head after one-time application of the device.

Results
Of the 49 women enrolled, the Odon device was inserted successfully in 46 (93%), and successful Odon device delivery as defined above was achieved in 35 (71%) women. Vaginal, first and second degree perineal tears occurred in 29 (59%) women. Four women had cervical tears. No third or fourth degree perineal tears were observed. All neonates were born alive and vigorous. No adverse maternal or infant outcomes were observed at 6-weeks follow-up for all dyads, and at 1 year for the first 30 dyads.

Conclusions
Delivery using the Odon device is feasible. Observed genital tears could be due to the device or the process of delivery and assessment bias. Evaluating the effectiveness and safety of the further developed prototype of the BD Odon Device™ will require a randomized-controlled trial.

O PROFOWINOJOHN. "ODONDI L. & OWINO J. (2000): Population Modeling:.". In: Sustainable optimal harvesting in Fish Farming Discovery & Innovations Vol. 12 (3/4), pp 137-141. 1999; 2000. Abstract
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O PROFORINDADA. "Odonga AM, Wambwa JR, Orinda DA.Acute intermittent porphyria in an East African female.East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):716-9. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1980. Abstract
PMID: 7215256 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FN, Ojwang SBO E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 67, 830.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FN, Ojwang SBO E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 67, 830.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1991: 68, 74. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1991. Abstract

Adolescent sexuality has become a major problem all over the world. This review paper describes the main problems encountered in Kenya with regards to adolescent sexuality. The role of the Government and some non-governmental organisations is outlined. Factors which contribute to the problem of adolescent sexuality in Kenya are described. The paper stresses the role of research in solving these problems and finally suggests some strategies which may be adopted in order to minimise the undesirable effects of adolescent sexuality in Kenya. PIP: Kenya's population has increased from 5.4 million in 1948 to 15.3 million in 1979 and is expected to rise to 39 million by 2000. The population growth rate has risen from 2.5% in 1948 to 3.8% in 1979. Improvements in health and economic status since independence have caused significant changes from 1948-79: the fertility rate of women has increased from 6.5-7.9, the crude death rate has decreased from 25/1000-14/1000, infant mortality has decreased from 184/1000-104/1000 births, and life expectancy has increased from 35-54 years. Adolescent girls, 15-24, contribute up to 30% of total pregnancies of females, 15-49, and will form 44.2% of the reproductive age group by 2000. Between 1960 and 1979 the fertility rate of girls 15-19 has increased from 141/1000-168/1000. The age of menarche has dropped from 17 to 12-15. In 1 rural community 41.9% of the girls and 76.1% of the boys aged 12-23 had at least one sexual experience. The mean age at first coitus was 13.7 for boys and 14.9 for girls. 42% of the girls and 74.8% of the boys had more than one sexual partner. Because of the gradual change from extended families to nuclear families, education, role models, and any established activities that initiated youth into adulthood have virtually disappeared, leaving adolescents uneducated and unprepared. Only 2-6% use any form of contraception. 58.4% of rural and 64.4% of urban pregnant girls are in primary school at the time of conception. 8340-10,400 girls drop out of school due to pregnancy each year. 46.6% of girls who get pregnant are not married. Abortions among the adolescents account for 28-64% of abortions done in hospitals, but because of strict abortion laws in Kenya, most adolescents resort to criminal abortions frequently performed by inexperienced people in unsanitary conditions. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not uncommon among adolescents: 36.8% of pregnant adolescent females had at least 1 STD, compared to 16% of those aged 25 and above. Contraceptive services, education, and laws protecting the adolescent must be instituted in response to the problems of adolescent sexuality.

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FNZO, Ojwang SBO Verucose carcinoma of the vulva: Report of two cases and literature review E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 830-831." EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Odongo FNZO, Ojwang SBO Verucose carcinoma of the vulva: Report of two cases and literature review E. Afr. Med. J. 1990:67, 830-831.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Jul;68(7):585-9. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
A female Kenyan child with pseudoprecocious puberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumour is presented. Clinical features in this patient included a mass in the lower abdomen, a growth spurt and appearance of pubic hairs as well as enlargements of the breasts. No similar case has been reported in a Kenyan child. The management and review of literature are discussed
ONYANGO DROCHOLATOMJ. "Odontogenic Keratocyst of the Maxilla A diagnostic problem Transaction of the Royal College of Surgeons of Glasgow Vol. 27, 1989.". In: Transaction of the Royal College of Surgeons of Glasgow Vol. 27, 1989. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1989. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "Odor composition of preferred (buffalo and ox) and nonpreferred (warebuck) host of some savanna tsetse.". In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, 2002, 28(5). International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Gikonyo NK, Hassanali A, Njagi PGN, Peter M, Midiwo JO. "Odor Composition of Preferred (Buffalo and Ox) and Nonpreferred (Waterbuck) Hosts of Some Savanna Tsetse Flies.". 2002. Abstracthttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/36947

A previous study on the feeding responses of tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans, implicated the existence of allomonal barriers, both volatile and nonvolatile, on the nonpreferred host, waterbuck, Kobus defassa. In the present study, electroantennogram-active compounds in odors from waterbuck were compared with those of two preferred hosts of tsetse flies, buffalo, Syncerus caffer, and ox, Bos indicus. Odors from the three bovids were trapped on activated charcoal and/or reverse-phase (octadecyl bonded) silica and analyzed with a gas chromatography-linked electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) and, where possible, identified by using gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chromatographic comparisons with authentic samples. The GC-EAD profiles (with G. m. morsitans antennae) of the odors of the two preferred hosts were comparable, comprising medium-chain, saturated or unsaturated aldehydes and phenols, with buffalo emitting a few more EAG-active aldehydes. Waterbuck odor gave a richer profile, consisting of fewer aldehydes but more phenolic components and a series of 2-ketones (C8–C13) and δ-octalactone. This bovid also emits moderate amounts of C5–C9 straight-chain fatty acids, some of which were detected in buffalo and ox only in trace amounts. However, these did not elicit significant GC-EAD responses. Waterbuck profiles from the antennae of G. pallidipes showed broad similarity to those from G. m. morsitans, although the composition of aldehydes and ketones was somewhat different, indicating species-specific difference in the detection of host odors. Certain waterbuck-specific EAG-active components, particularly the 2-ketones and lactone, constitute a candidate allomonal blend in waterbuck odor.

Hisco A, Tobias Homan, Smith TA, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Silky M, Collins K Mweresa, Prisca Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Teun Bousema, Nicolas Maire, DePasquale A. "ODOR-BAITED TRAPS AS A NOVEL TOOL FOR MALARIA CONTROL-THE SOLARMAL TRIAL." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 2017;95(5):26.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Oduma J., Waindi N., Gombe S. and Wango E.O. (1994). Partial purification of a putative membrane bound androgen-binding protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Int. J. Biochem., 26(4), 583-588.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Oduma J.A., Makawiti D.W., Wango E.O., Oduor-Okelo D., Schuler G.and Hoffman B. (1998). In vitro and in vivo effects of the pesticide heptachlor on the synthesis of progesterone and oestradiol.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Oduma JA, Oduor Okelo D, Odongo H, Makawiti DW.The pesticide heptachlor affects steroid hormone secretion in isolated follicular and luteal cells of rat.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;144(1):76-84. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2006. Abstract
Heptachlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, suppresses the production of progesterone and estradiol in the female rat in vivo or in isolated ovaries in vitro. In this study the effect of heptachlor on steroid hormone production by isolated rat luteal and follicular cells, in the presence of two precursor hormones was investigated. Ovaries were isolated from anesthetized mature normocyclic virgin rats (3 to 4 months old), under sterile conditions. Corpora lutea and follicles were microscopically dissected out and separately enzymatically dispersed with collagenase at 37 degrees C. Viable cells collected after centrifugation were used at a concentration of approximately 2.5 x 10(5) cells/10 mL. Both luteal and follicular cell preparations were separately incubated overnight (15 h) at 37 degrees C in the presence of pregnenolone (P5) and androstenedione (A4) at a concentration of 6.0 nmol/L each, and heptachlor at either 0.12 microg/mL (low dose) or 1.20 microg/mL (high dose) (test cells) or in the absence of heptachlor (control cells). At the end of the incubations, progesterone and estradiol 17beta levels were analyzed in the incubation media. The results indicate that heptachlor significantly suppressed the production of both progesterone and estradiol in both cell types in a dose related manner even in the presence of A4 and P5 as precursor hormones (P<0.05).
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Oduma JA, Wango EO, Makawiti DW, Einer-Jensen N, Oduor-Okelo D.Effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on body weight, mating success, oestrous cycle, gestation length and litter size in laboratory rats. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxico.". In: Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995 Feb;110(2):221-7. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 5 or 20 mg/kg body weight heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. They were weighed every day and the stage of oestrus determined by vaginal smears. One experimental group was mated and pregnancy characteristics studied. Heptachlor affected body weights, cycle patterns, length of gestation period and litter sizes in a dose-related manner. At a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, heptachlor caused a significant decrease in average body weight (P < 0.01), disrupted and/or prolonged oestrous cycles, decreased mating success (P < 0.001), slightly increased gestation length (P < 0.05) and decreased litter size (P < 0.01).
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC, W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "ODUMA, J. A., WANGO, E. O., ODUOR-OKELO, D., MAKAWITI, D. W. & ODONGO, H. O. (1995). In vivo and in vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide Hepatchlor on female sec steroid production in rats. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 1995. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC, W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "ODUMA, J. A., WANGO, E. O., ODUOR-OKELO, D., MAKAWITI, D. W. & ODONGO, H. O. (1995). In vivo and in vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide Hepatchlor on female sec steroid production in rats. J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1988). Isolation and characterization of cauda epididymis cellular androgen binding protein. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A. (1998). The effect of graded doses of heptachlor - a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide - on the reproductive performance of adult female (sprague dawley) rats. Ph.D Thesis.University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.: Waindi, E.N.; Gombe, S. & Wango, E.O. (1994).Partial purification of a putative membrane bound androgen binding protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Int. J. Biochem.26(4): 583-588.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1994. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Purification and characterization of cauda epididymal cellular androgen binding protein. (Proc. Internat. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man.Nairobi, 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1987). Testosterone profiles, spermiogram and gonadal histology in the dog Proc.(Proc. Interna. Conf. Reprod. In Mammals and Man -Nairobi, Kenya 23-27 November, 1987.". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1987. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1988). Epididymal membrane androgen binding protein: Purification and characterization (Abstract).". In: 4th International Congress of Cell Biology, Montreal, Canada 14-19 August, 1988. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1988. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. & Gombe, S. (1990). A possible membrane bound androgen receptor protein in the dog cauda epididymis. Cell Biology International Reports, 1990.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1990. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Waindi, E.N. and Gombe, S. (1991). Plasma and testicular testosterone and related gonadol parameters on early pubertal and adult dogs. Discovery and Innovations 4 (3): 53-58.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1991. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Makawiti, D.W.; Oduor Okelo, D.;Schuler, G. & Hoffmann, B. (1997). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on the synthesis of progesterone and estradiol.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1997. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Oduma, J.A.; Wango, E.O.; Oduor Okelo, D.; Makawiti, D.W. & Odongo, H.O. (1995). In-vivo and in-vitro effects of graded doses of the pesticide heptachlor on female sex steroid hormone production in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.111C(2):191-196.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Oduor DO, Bwayo JJ, Bhatt SM, Kwasa TO, Maitha GM, Ombette JO. Multiple sexually acquired diseases occurring concurrently in an HIV positive man: case report, diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jun;69(6):345-6. uon; 1992. Abstract

A case of an HIV positive man with multiple sexually acquired disease occurring concurrently is described. Risk behaviours that could have predisposed him to HIV infection are discussed. The factors which might have interacted to make the sexually acquired infections severe and difficult to treat are postulated.

PIP: The case of an HIV-seropositive man with gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, and chancroid is described. Multiple sexual partners, genital ulcer diseases, and lack of circumcision may have predisposed him to HIV infection. As indicated by his CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, his immunological status was not very compromised. Other factors were therefore probably behind these multiple sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This 30-year old man was inadequately treated for a long time for urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease, and ultimately collapsed on the job with a comprised central nervous system. Bacterial infection related to the multiple STDs could certainly have caused this collapse. The time demands of this man's work, the lack of medical facilities to diagnose and treat such conditions, his unprotected sexual behavior with multiple partners, and broader socioeconomic conditions which separate wage- earning males from their families in Africa conspire to produce multiply-afflicted cases such as these.

ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D (1972). The lymphatic system of the testis of the goat. M.Sc.Thesis. University of Nairobi.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1972. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. & AJIBOLA-TAYLOR,T.(1991) Universities in Kenya.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. & GOMBE, S. (1991). Development of the fetal membrane in the cane rat, (Thryonomys swinderianus): A re-interpretation. Afric. J. Ecol. 29: 157-167.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. & NEAVES, W.B. (1982). The choriallantoic placenta of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben): An electron microscopic study. Anat. Rec.204: 215-222.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1974). Carbohydrate histochemistry of the duodenal glands and trachea of the cat and horse. Dr.Vet.Med.Thesis, University of Bern,Switzerland.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1974. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1974). The Leydig cells and vascular system in the testis of the goat (Capra hircus). Z. Mikrosk Anat. Forsch 88: 1036-1044.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1974. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1976). Histochemistry of the duodenal glands of the cat and horse. Acta Anat. 94: 446-456.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1976. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1978). A histological study of the ovary of the cane rat(Thryonomys swinderianus) E. Afr. Wildlife. J. 16: 257-264.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1978. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1979). A study of the fetal membranes and placenta of the African cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus), with some observations on the placentation in the elephant shrews .". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1979. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1984). An electron microscopic study of the choriallantoic placenta and subplacenta of the cane rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmick).Placenta 5: 433-442.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1984). Histology of choriallantoic placenta of the golden rumped elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon chrysophygus, Gunther 1881). Anat. Anz. Jena 157: 395-407.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1984. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1985). Ultrastructural observations on the choriallantoic placenta of the golden-rumped elephant shrew, (Rhynchocyon chrysopygus). Afric. J.Ecol. 23: 155-166.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D., & GOMBE, S. (1982). Placentation in the African cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus) Afric. J. Ecol. 20: 249-266.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1982. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D., (2000). The veterinarians and their role in leadership. Kenya Vet. 19:5-6.". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D., GOMBE, D. & AMOROSO, E.C. (1980). The placenta and fetal membranes of the shortnosed elephant shrew (Elephantulus rufescens).Saugatierkol. Mitt. 28: 293-301.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "ODUOR-OKELO, D., MUSEWE, V.O. & GOMBE, S. (1983). Electron microscopic study of the choriallantoic placenta of the rock hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei, Gray), J.Reprod. Fert. 68: 311-316.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F. and C. P. GUPTA (1988). Design of the revolving knife-type sugar cane basecutter. Paper No. 88-5511, American Society of Agricultural Engineers. CAB Agricultural Engineering Abstracts No. 3307.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1988. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F. and MBUYA T. O. (2005). The Limiting Value of the Fleet Angle of a Rope Running Off a Sheave. The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(1) 37-46.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2005. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and C. P. GUPTA (1992). Kinematics of the revolving-knife disc-type sugar cane basecutter I - Fundamental mathematical relationships. Agricultural Mechanisation in Asia, Africa and Latin America 23(4) 9-15. CAB Agricultural Engine.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1992). Mathematical analysis and computer graphic simulation of reel kinematics. International agricultural engineering conference. Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand on 7-10 December, 1992. Vol.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1992. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). Aerodynamic torque and power on a rotating circular disc - a dimensional analysis approach. Journal of Kyushu Branch of the Japanese Society for Agricultural Machinery, No. 42, September 1993.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). An algorithm for combine harvester reel stagger determination based on reel kinematics and crop stem deflection. International conference for agricultural machinery and process engineering. Proceedings of a .". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, M. F.; JUN SAKAI and EIJI INOUE (1993). Combine harvester reel stagger.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (1999). Gear ratios for non.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1999. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2000). Gear ratios for reverted compound gear trains of minimum weight. The mechanical engineering 6th annual seminar. Proceedings of a seminar held at Juja, near Nairobi, Kenya, on 8th - 9th June 2000.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2000. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2001). An information processing approach to materials selection in engineering design and manufacturing.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2001. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "ODUORI, MOSES FRANK (2002). Gear ratios for compound gear trains of minimum weight. Computer.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 2002. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
"Odyssey down inquiry lane: Yesterday, today and tomorrow." International Journal of Literacy and Development. 2014;1(1):99-109.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Oehmke F, Weyand j, Hackethal A, Konrad L, Omwandho C, Tinneberg HR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus Liebig university of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. IMPACT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE:A PILOT STUDY.". In: Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2009 Nov; 25(11):722-5:.; 2009. Abstract

Endometriosis affects 6-10% of women in reproductive age, 35-50% of whom experience pain, infertility or both. Mild cases are managed medically but surgery provides relief to women in pain. However, symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. We investigated the impact of endometriosis on quality of life among 65 women aged 18-60 years working at a city supermaket in Giessen, Germany. Of the 65 women, 12 had undergone surgeries, 22 had dysmenorrhoea, 24 dyspareunia and 3 were infertile. Of the 22 women with dysmenorrhoea, 10 had difficulties perfoming gardening, housework, sports and leisure activities. Five of these 10 women experienced social isolation, 6 professional setbacks; 6 declined efficiency at work and 3 had taken time off work. Of the 24 women with dyspareunia, 7 experienced minimal , 12 light and 5 moderate to strong pain. only 16 of these 24 women discussed the problem with their partnes. This study demonstrates that pain is a major cause of physical, psycho-social, emotional and professional or work related impairment among women with endometriosis. Because endometriosis is  likely to impose emotional and financial burdens, we suggest that future studies should be extended to include interviews with family members.

W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Oerke, E. C, Meier, A., Lienemann, G., and Muthomi, J. 2002. Incidence and control of Fusarium species causing head blight in the Rhineland, Germany. Pages 32-44 in: Wissenschaftlichen Fachtagung: Fusarium-befall and Mykotoxinbelastung von Getreide Schadv.". In: Wissenschaftlichen Fachtagung, Landwirtschaftliche Fakult. Landwirtschaftliche Fakult; 2002. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
"Oesophageal cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma in Malawi: a comparative analysis. Mlombe Y, Dzamalala C, Chisi J, Othieno-Abinya N." Malawi Med J. . 2009;21(2):66-8. Abstract

Given that oesophageal cancer (OC) is common in Malawi and its outcome is so
dismal, would it be pragmatic to promptly mitigate the effects of smoking,
alcohol and aflatoxins rather than seek a higher degree of local evidence for
their role in OC? We retrospectively analysed a total of 13,217 OC and Kaposi's
sarcoma (KS) cases as recorded in the Malawi National Cancer Registry from 1985
to February, 2006. We found no OC clustering to suggest a role for culturally
variable habits like smoking, alcohol, maize use and maize storage in the
country. It may be that drinking and eating hot foods physically damages the
oesophageal mucosa, this is in line with work recently reported from Asia. We
also found that OC numbers have risen in line with KS (and HIV) suggesting a link
between these conditions

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22 (October 1990).; 1990. Abstract
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Oredo J. "Of Cloud Computing and Digital Transformation." MANAGEMENT February (2017).
Munene M. "Off the Grid Sustainable Energy Systems: The Case for Rural Areas in Kiambu County, Kenya." Edizioni POLI.design, Milano, Italy. 2016;8(ISBN: 978-88-95651-24-8).
CHESELEMI MRWAFULAJAMES. "Off-grid lighting products in Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116. VDM Verlag; 2010. Abstract

Less than 20% of Kenya's population is connected to the grid. Only 5% of the country's rural population, which accounts for over 70% of the total population enjoys electricity connectivity. To compensate for this deficiency in rural areas, kerosene has been the preferred choice for lighting. Kerosene is used in approximately 92% of all households. Off-grid lighting products such as LED lights are poised to play a pivotal role in the transformation of the lighting scenario in the rural areas of the developing world. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

JULIUS MRMWAKAMUTISO. "Offshore wind power potential in the Kenyan coastal strip-To be submitted in the East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Survey Review, Vol. 34, No 263, London. Longhorn; 2007. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O. and Waghela, S. (1978). Isolation and characterization of Campyobacter biotypes in Kenya. Wld. Congr. Bint. Mexico pg 166 - 173.". In: Proceedings of the Association of veterinary teachers and research workers of Great Britain Annual Scientific Conference, April 1981, Scarbororough, England. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1978. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Ogaa, J. S. Agumbah, G.J.O., Patel, J.H. Kiere, S.M. and Mwangi, L. (1985).Massive obstructive urothiasis in a bull used for Artificial Insemination. Vet. Rec.117, 664 - 666.". In: Ken. Vet. Assoc. Scientific Seminars, April, 1987, Nyeri,Kenya. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 1985. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "OGAA, J.S. & ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1983) Wildlife obstetrics. A challenge to veterinarians. Kenya Vet. 7: 14-16.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1983. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
OSODO MRSOGONDAGRACE. "Oganda G. (1995) Creating a Barrier Free Environment for Children with Physical Disabilities.". In: Nairobi: KISE. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O 2001. Economic benefits of standards and regulations. In: Report on Public Education and Awareness on Regulations And Standards Of The Environmental Management And Coordination Act, 1999. Pages 15-23.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1981 Veterinary Sanitary Characteristics of poultry meat in Stenorol (coccidiostat tests Msc. Thesis, Moscow, 1981.).". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1985. Veterinary Sanitary expertise and assessment of market value of saiga meat under .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1985. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1996. Kenya Veterinary Association Privatization Scheme (KVAPS). Background current status and futures perspectives. Proceedings of the joint Regional Commonwealth Veterinary Association, Mauritius veterinary association/ Pan- African Veterinar.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1996. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1997. Microbiological, and physico-chemical characteristics of Siaga (Siaga tatarica Linneaus) meat during storage. Kenya Veterinarian Volume 24, 1-5.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1997. The Ecology and Biology of saiga (Siaga tatarica Linneaus) found in the Pricaspian Steppe of Kalmwyiky. The Kenya Veterinarian 15: 50-54.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 1998. Animals, Husbandry, Utilization and the Environment. Proceedings of Environment Litigation Workshop, Mombasa 1998: 14 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1998. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Constitutional review. Country report-Kenya: proceeding of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional Conference for Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; April 20 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Critical aspects of animal production, health sciences and environmental litigation. In: The Veterinary profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary Association/Kenya Veterinary Association joint Region.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Disaster preparedness in the livestock industry in Kenya with respect to drought. In: The veterinary Profession in a changing environment. Proceedings of the Commonwealth Veterinary association/ Kenya Veterinary Association Joint Regional.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2000. Fisheries resources and food security. Food Security in Rural Development BAN Seminar, Nairobi, Kenya. November 2000.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2000. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001. Chemicals in the livestock industry. Workshop on chemical management. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 12 .". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001.Environmental impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool for Environmental Management. Presented at Envirovet summer Institute 2001. Seminar at White Oak Conservation Centre, Florida, USA on July 19, 2001.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, 2001.Knowledge Base in Quality Asssuarance: A tool in poverty eradication and food insecurity strategy. (Workshop on quality control fisheries industry). Berlin Alumni Network Website. 15.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, and A O Nyangwara 2001. Requisite hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) for quality control in fish trade. Berlin Alumni Networks website.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, P G Mbuthia, H Kaburi 1993. Fish pathogens isolated from fish species inhabiting L. Naivasha and aquaculture systems of Nyandarua District, Kenya. European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) 5th International conference. Diseases of fish a.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1993. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O, V O Awour, 1997. Effect of climate change on wildlife and tourism. In: impacts of climate change in Kenya (Ogola J.S, M A Abira and V O Awour eds) Pages 73-91.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1997. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W O. The Beef industry in Kenya: National and international perspectives. In Proceedings of Joint Commonwealth Veterinary Association and Veterinary Association of Zambia Regional Conference, Lusaka Zambia 4th to 6th August, 2004, 4 - 11.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2004. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2001. Economic Benefits of Environmental Regulations and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2002. Soil Quality and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental .Management and Coordination Act, 1999. Workshop series.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Ogara W.O. 2002. Water Quality and Standards. In Public Education and Awareness of Regulations and Standards of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act, 1999. Workshop series.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "Ogara W.O. and A.M. Okeyo. 2002. Technology transfer and innovative process in Biomedical sciences in Developing world.". In: Discovery and innovations. 14(3/4):155-160. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 2002. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ogara, W. O., P.G. Mbuthia, H. F. A., H. S.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Ogara, W. O., P.G. Mbuthia, H. F. A., H. S.". In: A paper presented at a workshop on policy and sustainable strategies for delivery of animal health, production and marketing services in Kenya in the 21st century. Held at Stem hotel, Nakuru on 6th to 11th June 1999. University of Nairobi; 1998.
GEOFFREY DRKIRONCHI. "Ogara, W.O., D.M. Nyariki and G. Kironchi. 2001 (Eds). Food Security in Rural Development. Proceedings of the Seminar of Berlin Alumni Network, November 22-24, 2000, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN 3-823613472. pp. 119. www.ban.fu-berlin.de.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
This book provides an overview of selected problems and issues in dryland agriculture in eartern and southern Africa, and the various attempts by individuals, communities and development organizations to overcome these problems. It provides specific examples of technologies and approaches, as well as selected experiences of individual farmers, organizations and communities
N.I DROONGEZABLON. "Ogaro Lugard Kaunda and Oonge Z.N.I., Cheap Engineering Solutions in Conservation of Natural Resources in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands, A case study of Nuba Mountains, Sudan.". In: Presented in the 7th International Sudan Studies Conference in University of Bergen, Norway, on 8th of April 2006 to celebrate . World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2006.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL, OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Ogege, J.I.O., Odada, E.O. and Olago, D.O. (2002). Geological controls on groundwater geochemistry in Butula area, Busia District, Kenya. African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (2): 24-33. December 2002. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2002. Abstract
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ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Ogendo SW. Pattern of anticoagulation control after heart valve surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):354-8. The East and Central African Journal of Surgery.; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of anticoagulation control for post heart-valve surgery for patients on follow up at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). DESIGN: A combined prospective and restrospective hospital-based study. Retrospective period from January 1991 to 31st August 1997, while the prospective period was from 1st September 1997 to 31st November 1999. SETTING: Cardiothoracic surgery clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. PATIENTS: Post heart valve surgery patients on warfarin and attending the cardiothoracic surgery clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinic attendance intervals, average warfarin dosages, interval of dosage change, INR values and variations from accepted normal. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion into the study consisting of 77 mitral valve replacements, 18 aortic valve replacements, seven double valve replacements and one mitral valve repair. The total follow up time for the study period is 316.9 patients years. On average, patients attended their anticoagulation clinic once every 59 days. The average dose of warfarin prescribed was 6.81 mg daily (+/-2.67 mg), with double valve replacement patients receiving a statistically significant lower dosage of 6.04 mg (+/-1.36 mg), (95% confidence limits). On average, a warfarin dose change was made 1.48 times a year per patient. For all the patients, the mean INR was 2.50 (+/-1.18). The respective values for mitral, aortic, double valve replacement and the mitral repairs were 2.53 (+/-1.21), 2.32 (+/-1.04), 2.5 (+/-1.05) and 2.02 (+/-0.53), respectively. Mitral valve repair patients maintained a significantly lower level of INR (95% confidence limits). Only during 18% of the follow up time was adequate anticoagulation maintained. During the study period only 6.9% of patients were able to maintain adequate anticoagulation for 50% or more of their follow up time. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulation control at the KNH still needs some improvements in clinic attendance and better dosage adjustments to achieve more appropriate INR values.
ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "Ogendo SW.Weight change post oesophagectomy for carcinoma of oesophagus.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):271-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Jun;84(6):271-8. Odula P.O.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of weight changes observed in postoperative oesophagectomy patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital and evaluate weight change with selected preoperative variables. DESIGN: A prospective analysis of post-operative weight change of patients following oesophagectomy utilising body mass index (BMI). SETTING: The cardiothoracic unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: All patients with oesophageal cancer, with a confirmed histological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and discharged post oesophagectomy. INTERVENTION: Oesophagectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Changes observed in the BMI during respective clinic visits. RESULTS: Fifty nine patients were enrolled into the study with a mean preoperative weight of 50.4 kilograms and mean BMI of 19.4 kg/m2 (+/- 4.3). Sixty seven point seven percent of patients preoperatively fell into the underweight category (less than 20kg/m2); normal were 16 patients (27.1%) and overweight included six patients (10.2%). Postoperatively the majority of patients continued to loose weight and the overall average BMI at the study endpoint was calculated as 18.0 kg/m2 (+/- 3.2). This value was significantly lower compared with the preoperative value (p = 0.004). None of the selected variables showed a significant relationship to the postoperative weight change pattern observed, though the patients gaining weight postoperatively had an apparently better survival pattern compared to the others. Analysis of the selected variables versus weight change pattern (gain, stable or weight loss) showed no significant relationships. CONCLUSION: This study population presented a lower initial preoperative weight compared to similar studies from the developed world, with the majority being underweight. The majority of patients exhibited a continued postoperative weight loss with only a small number showing any weight gain. The study unfortunately was not able to demonstrate association of weight change with any of the selected variables.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2000. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1998. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1998. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1997. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1996. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1995. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: A potentially lethal Disease. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1995. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1994. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1993. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1993. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1993. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1993. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1992. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1992. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1992. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1992. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1992. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1991. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1991. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1991. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1991. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1990. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, Vol. 15 No 2. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1989. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, Vol. 14 No. 1. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1988. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, Vol. 14 No 2. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1988. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: Health Digest. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1988. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 1. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1987. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine, Vol. 13 No. 1. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1987. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertion, University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ogeng.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 1986. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O. A Chemical and Pharmacological investigation of Strychnos henningsii. Thesis submitted to the University of Nairobi for the Degree of Master of Science of on Pharmacy 1997.". In: UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Juma F. D. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1989. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO JOHNOBIERO. "Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M. M., Inchimaru M., Matsukawa M., Fakuoka N., Kishida K. and Juma F. D. .". In: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7. University of Nairobi Press; 1983. Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).

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