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Forthcoming
Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
Oriaso SO. Beyond Horizons for Success: An Autobiography. NAIROBI: Neema; Forthcoming.
Submitted
JP E, S E, J K, LW I. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans. ." Journal of Insect Science . Submitted.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
Rylander F, Peng B, Wheeler J. "Bike Share Usage Prediction in London.". Submitted. Abstract
n/a
Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve South Coast, Kenya." SCOPUS. Submitted:1. Abstract
n/a
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN, S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill, E., Kungu, A., Bencivenga, A., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M. Epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma variations in incidence between Ethnic groups and Geographical Regions 1966-1979.International Orthopaedics Sicot.". In: International Orthopaedics Sicot. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Bridging the Education-Community Divide: Analysis of Urban Planning Education and approaches in Kenya.". In: 5th Session of the World Urban Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "BURYING AS AN INTERMENT METHOD AND ITS IMPACT ON LAND IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; Submitted.
In Press
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
2022
Verwey C, Gray DM, Dangor Z, Ferrand RA, Ayuk AC, Marangu D, Kwarteng Owusu S, Mapani MK, Goga A, Masekela R. "Bronchiectasis in African children: Challenges and barriers to care." Front Pediatr. 2022;10:954608. Abstract

Bronchiectasis (BE) is a chronic condition affecting the bronchial tree. It is characterized by the dilatation of large and medium-sized airways, secondary to damage of the underlying bronchial wall structural elements and accompanied by the clinical picture of recurrent or persistent cough. Despite an increased awareness of childhood BE, there is still a paucity of data on the epidemiology, pathophysiological phenotypes, diagnosis, management, and outcomes in Africa where the prevalence is mostly unmeasured, and likely to be higher than high-income countries. Diagnostic pathways and management principles have largely been extrapolated from approaches in adults and children in high-income countries or from data in children with cystic fibrosis. Here we provide an overview of pediatric BE in Africa, highlighting risk factors, diagnostic and management challenges, need for a global approach to addressing key research gaps, and recommendations for practitioners working in Africa.

Moturi CA, Wairimu AG. "Big data adoption in official statistics in Kenya: challenges, opportunities and determinants." Statistical Journal of the IAOS . 2022;38(1):251-262. AbstractWebsite

The data revolution has increased data demands for leveraging on Big Data in the production of statistics. The paper assesses the adoption of Big Data in research institutes in Kenya. Data were collected from 64 data practitioners based in the 24 research institutes that have a mandate to produce and analyse official statistics. The paper establishes the risks and challenges of using Big Data in statistics, identifies the determinants of adoption of Big Data in statistics and validates the relevance of a Technology Adoption Model (TAM) for predicting the adoption. It is the conclusion that there are immense opportunities for Big Data in statistics if the associated risks and challenges are addressed and the identified key determinants prioritized to promote the adoption.

A. K, Mbugua J. K., A.G. W, Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Anaerobic." Digestion Bio-Slurry Microbes. Medicon Agriculture & Environmental Sciences.. 2022;2(5):03-12.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J.G.N. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos Using Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemistry (IJSRCH). . 2022;7(2):22-32.
2021
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
Miruka SA, Aboge GO, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Vet Med Sci. 2021. Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus cause diseases both in humans and animals. These diseases range from mild to fatal infections thus necessitating development of a specific molecular method for detection of pathogenic S. aureus.

Olali T. Barua ya Sumbukeni.; 2021.
Thierno Souleymane Barry, Oscar Ngesa, Onyango NO, Mwambi H. "Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Anemia among children under 5 years in Guinea.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Bacground: Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa with an increasing number of children under 5
years getting infected. Guinea is one of the most affected countries. In 2018, the prevalence rate was 75% in
children under 5 years. This study sought to identify the factors associated with anemia and to map spatial
variation of anemia across the eight (8) regions in Guinea for children under 5 years, which can provide
guidance for control programs for the reduction of the disease.
Methods: Data from the Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) 2016 was used for this study. A
total of 2609 children under 5 years who had full covariate information were used in the analysis. Spatial
binomial logistic regression methodology was undertaken via Bayesian estimation based on Markov chain
Monte Carlo (McMC) using WinBUGS software version 1.4.
Results: Our findings revealed that 77% of children under 5 years in Guinea had anemia and the prevalence in
the regions ranged from 70.32% (Conakry) to 83.60% (N’Zerekore) across the country. After adjusting for non
spatial and spatial random effects in the model, older children (48–59 months) (OR: 0.47, CI [0.29 0.70]) were
less likely to be anemic compared to those who are younger (0-11 months). Children whose mothers have
completed secondary education or more had a reduced chance of anemia infection by 33% (OR: 0.67, CI [0.49
0.90]) and Children from household heads from Kissi ethnic group are less likely to have anemia than their
counterparts whose leader is from Soussou (OR: 0.48, CI [0.22 0.91]).
Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the identification of high-risk areas as well as the identification of
socio-economic and demographic factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years. Such an
analysis is important in helping policy makers and health practitioners in developing programs geared towards
control and management of anemia among children under 5 years in the country.

A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
Miruka SA, G.O. A, Macharia RW, George O Obiero, Omwenga IM. "Beta hemolysin gene of Staphylococcus phage 3AJ_2017 genome is a suitable molecular marker for identification and characterization of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;8(2):845-851.
"Beyond DNA-targeting in Cancer Chemotherapy - Emerging Frontiers - A Review." Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2021;21:28-47.
AM J, CAZ J, AEB H, JA O’o. "Bilateral Ligation of the Anterior Branch of the Hypogastric Artery in Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage Secondary to Septic Abortion (Case Report)." J Gynecol Obstet. 2021;3(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Hemorrhage is the main cause of Maternal Mortality (MM) (27%) followed by hypertensive disorders and sepsis (12%). Septic abortion is considered an intermediate risk factor for the development of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH). The algorithm for the management of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony that includes systematic pelvic devascularization has been described, but this management is really planned for resolution of the pregnancy after the 20th week of gestation, since an HMO due to abortion is un usual. We present the case of a 21-year-old patient who self-medicates a prostaglandin analog at 2 months of pregnancy, achieving only a threat of abortion, goes to the emergency room 3 months later with a diagnosis of septic shock, USG and MRI are performed with altered results, only of hepatomegaly, delayed abortion of 8 weeks of evolution and gestational trophoblastic disease. Emergency MVA was performed due to profuse bleeding, placement of a Bakri balloon and clamping of the uterine arteries without results, for which an emergency exploratory laparotomy (LAPE) was performed with ligation of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, being a successful procedure, without the need for Obstetric Hysterectomy (HO). The patient is managed in intensive care and in the end the diagnosis of TSG is ruled out. Bilateral Hypogastric Artery Ligation (BHAL) in the case of Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage (MOH) secondary to delivery or cesarean section is commonly used, however it is not a technique to report when bleeding is secondary to abortion. In these cases, it is also a viable, successful, fertility-preserving surgical procedure, and an alternative to Obstetric Hysterectomy (OH) when other less invasive methods such as uterine artery clamping or Bakri balloon have failed.

Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Wangila AJ, Gachuiri CK, Muthomi JW, Ojiem JO. "Biomass yield and quality of fodder from selected varieties of lablab (lablab purpureus l) in Nandi South sub-county of Kenya." Online journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2021;11(1):28-35.
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Kinyua, Gladys Wanjiru, J.K M, Ahenda S, Onyatta JO. "Biotransformation of Biodegraded Organic Waste from a Batch Mode Microbial Fuel Cell to Organic Fertilizer." J. Bioremediat Biodegrad. . 2021;12(8):1-5.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Damali N, Diane K, Razak MH, Odour B, Odero T, Faguar. PGC. "Building and sustaining effective partnership for Training and New Generation of Global Health Leaders.". 2021.
2020
Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Omuombo C, Williamson D, Olago D. "Biogeochemical proxy evidence of gradual and muted geolimnological response of Lake Nkunga, Mt. Kenya to climate changes and human influence during the past millennium.". 2020;8:e00416. AbstractWebsite

Lake Nkunga is a crater Lake on the north eastern slopes of Mount Kenya that provides a record of catchment changes covering the last millennium. A multi proxy study was carried out on 89 cm of sediment core retrieved from 20 m near the lake shoreline. The mineralogy, magnetic mineralogy, organic and elemental geochemical proxies indicate a rejuvenating lake during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly with limited sediment supply and sustained by ground water. A progressive response to wetter conditions commences ca. 810 cal yr. BP with an increase in sediment influx that peaked at 500 cal yr. BP, a period that encompasses the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA). The establishment of the present-day maar conditions may have occurred during this period of the LIA. The lake has been relatively stable with declining terrestrial input from 290 cal yr. BP to present. The inferred changes in Lake Nkunga levels from deep to shallow phases are characterized by slow and muted response to both abrupt (e.g. Medieval Climate Anomaly) and sustained and prolonged climate shifts (e.g. Little Ice Age), reflecting the resilience of geolimnological and catchment processes in this lake and its watershed to climatic changes and human influence. This study provides new insights into the utility of biogeochemical proxies from nearshore lake cores in the equatorial east Africa highlands whose responses to extreme weather events are not well understood over the last 1000 years.

Howell KL, Hilário AHF, Haberland G, et al. "A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program." Biochem Pharmacol. 2020;7:1-25.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Jeneby F, Badrus A, Taib H, Alluso A, Odiemo L, Otanga H. "Best practices in reaching ‘hidden’ populations and harm reduction service provision.". In: The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle. New York: Emerald Publishing Company; 2020.
Marab PM, Musyoki S, Amayo A. "Biochemical changes in whole blood stored for transfusion at Bungoma County Referral Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2020;9(1):a1182.
Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of Market Wastes from Nairobi Inoculated With Dagoretti Slaughterhouse Waste." Int J Sci Res Sci Eng & Technol.. 2020;7(4):81-90. Abstract

Background: Anaerobic degradation entails the conversion of substrate organic matter to biogas. A wide variety of substrate has been employed. The biochemical methane potential of twenty market wastes was investigated using rumen fluid inoculum.
Experimental: The proximate properties like carbohydrates, crude proteins, crude lipids, fibre, and moisture levels were determined using standard procedures. The physio-chemical analysis was done to investigate the ash, total solids and volatile matter content. The substrates biogas production capacity
based on elemental composition, COD, organic fraction composition was investigated. However, the BMP experiments were carried out at mesophillic conditions.
Results: The total biogas production was in the range of 1000 to 3500ml, with a methane composition of 56 – 60%. The biodegradability of the substrates ranges from 71 to 94%, subject to the lignin levels.
Conclusion: The BMP studies are vital in assessing the methane potential of the substrate without carrying out the experiments.
Keywords : Biogas, Methane, rumen fluid, market wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
Makori EO. "Blockchain Applications and Trends That Promote Information Management.". In: Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things. In Libraries. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2020.
Twala PP, Mitema A, Baburam C, Feto, N.A. "Breakthroughs in the discovery and use of different peroxidase isoforms of microbial origin." AIMS Microbiology. 2020;6(3):330-349.
Ng'asike O'aoP, Hagmann T, Wasonga OV. "Brokerage in the borderlands: the political economy of livestock intermediaries in northern Kenya." Journal of Eastern African Studies. 2020.
Ndung’u CW, Ogutu M, Yabs J, Muranga NJ, Kinoti M. "Business Environment, Corporate Image, Competitive Strategies And Performance Of Large Manufacturing Firms In Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2020;6(1):215-233. Abstractbusiness_environment_corporate_image_competitive_strategies_and_performance_of_large_manufacturing_firms_in_kenya.pdf

Firms’ performance differs from firm to firm in the same industry with some firms achieving higher
levels of performance than others which can be connected to the type of competitive strategies a
firm adopts. The never-ending changes today calls for firms to continuously monitor their business
environment with a view to creating strategies that will make them different from their competitors
and improve their corporate image in the eyes of their customers. The study sought to determine
how business environment and corporate image affect the relationship between competitive
strategies and the performance of large manufacturing firms in Kenya. It was guided by positivist
philosophy and a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The target population was large
manufacturing firms in Kenya where a structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data.
Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study found that the joint influence of
competitive strategies, business environment and corporate image on performance of large
manufacturing firms in Kenya was statistically significant. Manufacturing firms should adopt
competitive strategies in response to business environment and craft strategies to enable them
position themselves better than competitor. The firms can indirectly improve performance by
maintaining a good corporate image also.

Ongaro J, Rao O. Basic Mathematics: Fundamental Concepts in Pure Mathematics. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2020. Abstract
n/a
Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Junior PFE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Bright excitons with negative-mass electrons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14705. 2020. Abstract
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2019
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura, Jistrom M. "Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi-arid areas.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Wangai FK, Masika MM, Lule GN, Karari EM, Maritim MC, Jaoko WG, Museve B, Kuria A. "Bridging antimicrobial resistance knowledge gaps: The East African perspective on a global problem." PLoS ONE. 2019;14(2):e0212131. Abstract

There is worldwide concern of rapidly increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, there is paucity of resistance surveillance data and updated antibiograms in Africa in general. This study was undertaken in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) -the largest public tertiary referral centre in East & Central Africa-to help bridge existing AMR knowledge and practice gaps.

BIRIR JK, Kairu W, Gatari, M.J; Boman J, RAJAGOPAL P. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019;(December).
Kairu WM, GATARI MJ, BIRIR JK. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Bidii ya Maria na Musa. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
Luvembe AM, Mutai H. "Big Data Framework for Kenya’s County Governments." Journal of Computer and Communications. 2019;07(01):1-9. AbstractFull Text Link

Digitalization is transforming governments across the globe. At the national level, down to regional and multiple departments in the public institutions, unprecedented change is occurring exponentially as a result of massive digitalization. Digitalization is compelling governments at all levels to embrace voluminous data and institute appropriate multi-channel platforms to support digital transformation. While this is the case, most governments have been caught unprepared thwarting maximum benefits spurred by digitalization. Inherently, the social media and e-participation tools for generating huge amount of data have convoluted most governments’ appetite in Big Data management. This situation is further compounded with the slow pace of adoption of these technological tools by citizens and the public sectors. For enhanced e-citizen satisfaction and engagement, as well as e-participation processes, public institutions need to promote engagement and collaboration. In view of advancing benefits to their citizens, public institutions need to institute appropriate measures to collect citizen’s data. The information collected is vital for public institutions in actualizing what services the citizens want. Using literature reviews and cases, the authors examine Big Data benefits in counties and propose a Big Data model to improve efficiency of e-governance services and productivity in county governments. The authors demonstrate Big Data framework has the aptitude of molding citizen’s opinion in county decision making process. Better use of e-technologies is shown in the proposed model which illustrates sharing resources among various data analytics sources. Our proposed framework based on Big Data analytics is a viable initiative to progress effectiveness and productivity, strengthen citizen engagement and participation and encourage decision-making in e-governance services delivery in the counties.

"Biochemical composition of pigeonpea genotypes in Kenya." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2019;13(11):1848-1855.juliana_cheboi_biochemical_paper.pdf
Ebrahim YH. "Bioclimatic analysis, synthesis and sustainable architecture." Dr. Ebrahim Digital Clipboard. 2019;August 2019 (1)(1(1)):1-20.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
Ochieng JW, Ananga A. "Biotechnology in Agricultural Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa." Elem Bioeconomy. 2019.
Oredo J. "Blockchain as an Emerging Financial Trust Model." MANAGEMENT April (2019).
Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Ebrahim YH. "Book chapters: Research methodology textbook on assessing and appreciating the impact.". In: Micro-temperature change and urban built-form. Beau Bassin, Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.
Gichuyia LN. BOOSTING INTERCON- TINENTAL RELATIONS _ LESSONS FROM BUILDING PHYSICS. Wilhelm Kempff house- Casa Orfeo, Positano -Italy,; 2019.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. Abstract

Abstract

Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (
were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design and inexpensive adsorbing material from renewable sources.

Chanzu HA, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM. "Brewers’ spent grain in adsorption of aqueous Congo Red and malachite Green dyes: Batch and continuous flow systems." Journal of hazardous materials. 2019;380:120897. AbstractJournal article

Description

Abstract Sorption of Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) dyes currently used in pigments and clothing industries were investigated using brewers’ spent grain (BSG) from a local brewery. Adsorption increased with a higher adsorbent weight and lower colorant concentrations. Accumulation of CR and MG was optimal at acidic pH and neutral pH respectively. Sorption decreased with an increase in temperature signifying an exothermic process. Batch adsorption data fitted better to Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum monolayer coverage capacities (Q O)) were found to be 2.55 mg/g for MG and 36.5 mg/g for CR dye. Column studies using BSG were also conducted for both dyes. Fixed bed breakthrough was fast with an increase in dye concentration, adsorbent surface area, and flow rate and with a decrease in column depth. BSG are effective, simple in design …

Ebrahim YH. "Bruce Creager." Architectural World. 2019;August 2019 (2)(1(2)):10-14.
N MJ, Bukachi PR. "Building Information Modelling Adoption in Structural Design in Kenya – A Case Study of Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):272-285.
M M, Vander Stoep A, Kuria M, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, M M, Child M, Unützer J KJ. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: A South-North Collaboration." Global Social Welfare. 2019;6(3):177-188.
Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Jirstrom M. "Building pastoralists resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR). 2019;34(ISSN: 2212-4208):429-435.
NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Oredo J. "The Burgeoning e-Waste Burden." MANAGEMENT June (2019).
2018
Neema G. Mturo*, Zaja Omboga KW;. "b) Uhalisiamazingaombwe katika Muktadha wa Ubaada-ukoloni: Mchango wa Vita vya Mapenzi Riwaya ya Maundu Mwingizi, ." Mara Research Journal of Kiswahili . 2018;Vol. 3, No. 1(June 2018, No 1):Pages 22-31, .
Kithinji AM. "BANK SIZE AS A MODERATING FACTOR ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BANK RESTRUCTURING AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2018;5(1):298-307. Abstractdr._angela_kithinji_publications_2018_to_2019_1.pdf

ABSTRACT
The main goal of this research was to examine how bank size moderates the relationship between
bank restructuring and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. This study
employed descriptive research design. The study was a census of all the 44 commercial banks in
Kenya which were in operation as at 31st December 2014. This research collected secondary
data gotten from banks annual report for the period of ranging from 2002 to 2014. The regression
analysis model was used to estimate the moderating effect of size on the relationship between
bank restructuring and profitability. The study established that moderation of the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance using bank size was not significantly
influenced by financial restructuring, operational restructuring and asset restructuring on
financial performance of commercial banks. However, when bank restructuring variables were
interacted with bank size the findings are that only capital restructuring had a significant
interaction. It was therefore, concluded that bank size therefore moderates the relationship
between bank restructuring and financial performance. The study recommends that there is need
to institute policy reforms geared towards increasing the size of banks either internally by
increasing their asset size or through mergers to expand their size. The regulator can also embark
on setting a minimum size threshold with a view to significantly reducing the number of banks
which would translate into the remaining ones becoming larger. Furthermore, there is need for
commercial banks to strike a balance between enhancing their operations through operational
restructuring or improving profits by focusing on aspects that have a direct positive effect on
profits.

Keyword: Bank Size, Bank Restructuring, Financial Performance, Commercial Banks

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Added Value Mobile Money Products by the Lesser off Segments in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(6):146-155.jun18049_1.pdf
Barua ya Mauti . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
Bulinda DM. "Basics of Educational Administration ." Lambart Academic Publishing. 2018.
Mbali KK, Mutembei HM MJK. "BENEFITS OF ADOPTING BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY IN." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):87-92.mutembei-mbali-benefits-2018.pdf
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Lengai G, Muthomi J. "Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2018;6:7-41.
Angeline Anyona Aywak1*, Timothy Musila Mutala1, Purity Ndaiga1, Callen Onyambu1, Raza2 S. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.
Angeline Anyona Aywak, Mutala TM, Ndaiga P, Onyambu C, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." The Journal of Global Radiology. 2018;4(1):1-7.Website
AA A, TM M, P N, C O, S. R. "Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred for Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." J Glob Radiol. 2018;4((1)):10.7191/jgr.2018.1037.
Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Mathai M, Stoep A, Kumar M, M.Kuria, Obondo A, Kimani V, Amugune B, Makanyengo M, Mbwayo A, Child M, Unutzer J, Kiarie J. "Building Mental Health Research Capacity in Kenya: a South-North Collaboration." Glob Soc Wek . 2018;2018:1-12.
Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
Wang N, Wang Y, Shang B, Wen P, Peng B, Deng Z. "Bioinspired one-step construction of hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces for oil/water separation." Journal of colloid and interface science. 2018;531:300-310. Abstract
n/a
2017
Goyette MS, Wilson KS, Deya R, Masese LN, Shafi J, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Jaoko W, McClelland SR. "Brief Report: Association Between Menopause and Unprotected Sex in High-Risk HIV-Positive Women in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2017;74(5):488-492. Abstract

Many HIV-positive women now live well beyond menopause. Postmenopausal women are no longer at risk for pregnancy, and some studies suggest that they may use condoms less often than premenopausal women. This study tests the hypothesis that, in HIV-positive women who report trading sex for cash or in-kind payment, unprotected sex is more common at postmenopausal visits compared with premenopausal visits.

Joseph O, Otele O. "The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development.". In: The Emerging Dominance of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya’s Mineral Resources Windfalls. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Kanaya S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Kiboi SK, Afendi FM. "Big Data and Network Biology 2016." BioMed Research International. 2017;2017.
AM K, TJ M. "Bilateral second premolars agenesis together with a unilateral canine radiculomegaly." Contemp Clin Dent. 2017;2017; 8(2017; 8):2017; 8.
Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo DO, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;6:5-11.
Tom Osewe, James Mbaria DYDOJNHO(2017). "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia mirantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic clinical Pharmacology,. 2017;( DOI:http//dx.doi.org/10.18203/23192003.ibjbcp2020164753).
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and detoxification of malachite green dye using novel enzymes from bacillus cereus strain KM201428: kinetic and metabolite analysis." Energy Procedia. 2017;119:38-51. AbstractScience Direct Journal

Description
Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic …

Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Mandala N, Kaijage, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Board Structure, CEO Tenure, Firm’s Characteristics and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(31):39-63.
Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Makunda CS. Bridging the divide between problem and solution: A design approach to housing production in Nairobi. Design School Kolding, Kolding, Denmark: Design School Kolding and Cumulus International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media; 2017.
Mgalula ME, Richter U, Hensel O, Hülsebusch C, Kaufmann B, Oliver Wasonga. "Bridging the gap between increasing knowledge and decreasing resources.". 2017. Abstract

n/a

Carron M, Alarcon P, Karani M, Muinde P, Akoko J, Onono J, F`evre E, Ḧasler B, Rushton J. "The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2017;147:90-99.
17. Charles Richard Oyier1, Paul Amollo Odundo1 BN1 JM&. "Budget Planning for Instructional Resources in Secondary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya." Asian Education Studies. 2017.
Peng B, Zhu R, Li M, Tang Z. "Bending vibration suppression of a flexible multispan shaft using smart spring support." Shock and Vibration. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Deng Z. "Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate films on bioinspired polydopamine matrices." Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. 2017;14:1095-1105. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Li J, Li Q, Li Y, Zhu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Bi L, Lu H, Xie J, others. "Bose–Einstein oscillators and the excitation mechanism of free excitons in 2D layered organic–inorganic perovskites." RSC advances. 2017;7:18366-18373. Abstract
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2016
Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Obiero JA, Waititu KK, Mulei I, Omar FI, Jaoko W, Mwethera PG. "Baboon vaginal microbial flora." J. Med. Primatol.. 2016;45(3):147-55. Abstractbaboon_vaginal_microbial_flora.pdfPUBMED

Knowledge of the composition of vaginal microbial ecosystem is essential for understanding the etiology, prevention, and treatment of vaginal diseases. A baboon model has been used to provide detailed understanding of reproductive physiology and immunology applicable to women. However, little is known about the composition of its vaginal microbial ecosystem.

Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Landais E, Huang X, Havenar-Daughton C, Murrell B, Price MA, Wickramasinghe L, Ramos A, Bian CB, Simek M, Allen S, Karita E, Kilembe W, Lakhi S, Inambao M, Kamali A, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Edward V, Bekker L-G, Tang J, Gilmour J, Kosakovsky-Pond SL, Phung P, Wrin T, Crotty S, Godzik A, Poignard P. "Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort." PLoS Pathog.. 2016;12(1):e1005369. Abstract

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLoS Med.. 2016;13(4):e1001991. AbstractWebsite

Mike English and colleagues argue that as efforts are made towards achieving universal health coverage it is also important to build capacity to develop regionally relevant evidence to improve healthcare.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.
Wanjare, J. & Ojwang P(2016). "Behavioral Factors and Financial Decisions by Traders in Kibuye Market, Kisumu City, Kenya." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 29 - 39.
"Better Outcomes through Learning, Data, Engagement, and Research (BOLDER) – a system for improving evidence and clinical practice in low and middle income countries.". 2016. AbstractWebsite

Despite the many thousands of research studies published every year,
evidence for making clinical decisions is often lacking. The main problem is that
the evidence available is generated in conditions very different from those that
prevail in routine clinical practice and with patients who are different. This is
particularly a problem for low and middle income countries as most evidence is
generated in high income countries.
A group of clinicians, researchers, and policy makers met at Bellagio in Italy to
consider how more relevant evidence might be generated. One answer is to
conduct more pragmatic trials—those undertaken in routine clinical practice.
The group thought that this might best be achieved by developing “learning
health systems” in low and middle income countries.
Learning health systems develop in communities that include clinicians,
patients, researchers, improvement specialists, information technology
specialists, managers, and policy makers and have a governance system that
gives a voice to all those in the community. The systems focus on improving
outcomes for patients, use a common dataset, and promote quality
improvement and pragmatic research. Plans have been developed to create at
least two learning systems in Africa.

Ndambo DK. Big Data Anaytics And Competitive Advantage of Banks and Insurance Companies in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2016. Abstract

This study focussed on big data and competitive advantage in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya and was dependent on the following objectives: To establish the extent of application of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to determine the relationship between big data analytics and competitive advantage of commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to establish the challenges of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi. A descriptive survey was employed for the purpose of data collection for this research. The population targeted for this study was commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya. There are 42 commercial banks and 49 insurance companies in Nairobi. A sample of 20 commercial banks and 25 insurance companies was undertaken due to the limited time allocated for data collection and analysis. The sample was selected based on a judgmental basis taking into account the companies’ use of big data analytics. This research used primary data collected using structured questionnaires. The respondents were managers dealing with company strategies and/ or information and technology managers in the selected companies. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and regression techniques. The study found that companies in the financial industry specifically commercial banks and insurance firms have invested in data storage facilities and advanced tools in the area of business intelligence for reporting and analysing consumer/ client behaviour. These tools allow the companies to anticipate consumer needs more effectively, in addition to optimizing their operations. The addition of big data analytics systems in the companies’ daily routines enables them to gain higher levels of insight in the big data environment thus enabling more effective decision making. There are challenges in management of big data that if addressed can help organizations appreciate the full potential of big data tools and various analytics especially in aspects of competitive advantage. This study, through a thorough analysis of its findings concludes that the big data revolution has found a place in the commercial banking and insurance industry in Nairobi, and that the trend is on the rise as these companies continue to discover the valuable data with tremendous potential they have had in their storage for decades.

Gakuubi MM, Wanzala W, Wagacha JM, Dossaji SF. "Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(2):27-36. Abstract4-2-6.1_1.pdf

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its accruing products have a long worldwide history of human uses such as food, therapeutics and aromatherapy which are inherent in the plant’s unique chemical composition and bioactivities. In the recent past, T. minuta essential oils (EOs) have received great attention in research, and their phytochemistry, bioactivities and uses remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. The interest in EOs is largely due to increased demand by consumers for natural-based products such as additives, drugs and pesticides, whose global acceptability and safety is highly regarded compared to synthetic products. The purpose of this review is to document the existing value addition and evidence-based multipurpose potential and considerations of T. minuta as a new generation crop as provided for by in-depth scientific studies of its EOs. Among the bioactivities and therapeutic properties attributed to T. minuta EOs include: antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral and other microbicidal properties against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens, pests and parasites. Oil of T. minuta is therefore a potentially useful agent for protecting food crops on farm and in storage and livestock, thereby enhancing food security and improving human livelihoods. Nevertheless, increased value addition and the need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of T. minuta EOs through in-depth scientific studies should be prioritized to globally position this plant as a new generation crop.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Mbugua-Gitonga Agnes, F M, Thenya & T. "Biotechnology and Food Security in Kenya - An Assessment of Public Concerns on Biosafety, Public Health and Religious Ethics." Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. . 2016;9(3):1-13.
Ogutu CA, Odweso GM. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016.
Patrick G.O. Weke, Ogutu C, Odwesso G. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016;52(3):149-234.
Ogeng’o JA, Misiani MK, Olabu BO, Waisiko BM, Murunga A. "BRANCHING PATTERN OF THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2016;5(2):755-763. Abstractbranching_pattern_of_the_left_anterior_descending.pdf

Branching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery is important in explaining variations in
occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis, informing management strategies for coronary heart disease and
interventional cardiology. Data on African populations are, however, scarce. Since coronary heart disease
is increasing in Africa, the aim of this study was to describe branching pattern of the left anterior
descending coronary artery in an indigenous Kenyan population. Two hundred and eight hearts obtained
during autopsy were dissected at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The
entire left anterior descending coronary artery was exposed. Number of branches, pattern of termination
and level of bifurcation were determined. Images of representative patterns were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. Data are presented in macrographs and tables. The number of septal and
diagonal branches varied between 1 and 3. Termination occurred in the posterior interventricular sulcus
in 68.8% and at the apex in 23% cases. Most common mode of terminal branching was bifurcation
(76.9%) followed by trifurcation (11.3%), quadrifurcation (3.4%) and pentafurcation (1.5%). Bifurcation
occurred in the distal segment in 48.8% and in the proximal segment in 15% of cases. The left anterior
descending coronary artery displays high variability in number of septal and diagonal branches, level of
termination, mode of terminal branching and level of terminal bifurcation. These patterns may constitute
risk factors for atherosclerosis and should also be acknowledged during cardiac procedures. Pre –
operative ultrasound evaluation is recommended to minimize inadvertent iatrogenic injury.

M NI, Munyoki JM, Kinoti M. "BRANDING PRACTICES FOR FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLE AND THE PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL FRAMERS IN KIAMBU COUNTY, KENYA." European Journal of Business and Social Sciences. 2016;Vol. 5, (No. 09):1-15.munyoki_and_nkaari.pdf
Ireri BN, Omwenga EI. "A Bridging Technology of Learner Entry Behavior in a Flipped Classroom Model. In J. Keengwe, & G. Onchwari (Eds.)." Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age . 2016:106-121. Abstractjournal_mobile-learning_-a-bridging-technology-of-learner-entry-behavior-in-a-flipped-classroom-model.pdfJournal Website

Today's learner is able to access information from mobile devices. Due to accessibility and affordability of mobile devices, more instructors continue to adopt instructional design models of mobile learning as more learners also bring their mobile devices to their classrooms. Instructors using flipped classroom model organize the learning activities both inside and outside classroom. Before the next class the instructor avails instruction and content in advance. The learner reviews class content materials and assigned research activities at home prior to class. In class, the instructor allows learners to peer review their work in groups while the instructor engages them to validate their work. The findings described in this chapter suggest that introducing mobile learning to learners in a flipped classroom model helps to bridge learner entry behavior as it improves learner performance.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Agweyu A, Gathara D, Oliwa J, Ayieko P, Were F, Paton C, Tunis S, Forrest CB. "Building Learning Health Systems to Accelerate Research and Improve Outcomes of Clinical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." PLOS Medicine. 2016;10(1371). Abstractbuilding_learning_health_systems_to_accelerate_research_and_improve_outcomes_of_clinical_care_in_low-_and_middle-income_countries.pdf

Achieving universal coverage that supports high-quality care will require that health systems are designed to integrate the delivery of health services with the generation of new knowledge about the effectiveness of these services.
System strengthening and research will need to be better integrated to achieve this in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) so that changes in coverage, quality, and impact are measured, costs are contained, and health systems are responsive to users’ needs and concerns.
In high-income countries, learning health systems (LHS) are emerging to meet similar needs. The LHS vision aspires to engage policy makers, researchers, service providers, and patients in learning that uses and strengthens routinely collected data to conduct pragmatic, contextually appropriate research, promote rapid adoption of findings to improve quality and outcomes, and promote continuous learning.
Although there are significant challenges, we should begin to develop LHS in LMIC for their immediate and longer term benefits and to avoid having to retrofit health systems with the capability to promote learning at a later date and even greater cost.
A global coalition on how to build LHS effectively that shares accumulating learning could enable such a strategy.

Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. "The business case for climate change: The impact of climate change on Kenya’s public listed companies.". In: Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
Peng B, Ning Z, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu Y, Ni G, Zhu H. "Beyond perturbation: role of vacancy-induced localized phonon states in thermal transport of monolayer MoS2." The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2016;120:29324-29331. Abstract
n/a
Nabulindo WN. BLOOD PROGESTERONE DETERMINATION BY LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KENYA.. Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University …; 2016. Abstract
n/a
2015
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

Achieng J. "Beyond parliamentary representation What representation: counting the numbers!". In: Annual University of Nairobi Womens colloquim. Nairobi; 2015.
Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Ásbjörnsdóttir KH, Slyker JA, Maleche-Obimbo E, Dalton Wamalwa, Phelgona Otieno, Grace C. John-Stewart, Gichuhi CM, John-Stewart G. "Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Hospitalization among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Kenyan Infants." J Hum Lact. 2015. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. HEU infants may experience increased morbidity due to breastfeeding avoidance.

Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Kanyinga K. "Barack Obama visit was not by accident; China is just but an illusion." Daily Nation, August 15, 2015.
Iminza NW, L GW, Kiragu ND. "BANK SIZE AND OCCUPATIONAL FRAUD RISK: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA.". 2015;1(1):1-10. Abstract

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners report that a typical organization loses at least 5% its annual revenue loss through occupational fraud. Further statistics indicate In a list of 22 industry categories, occupational fraud risk is highest in commercial banks than any other industry globally. Occupational fraud risk is therefore a global problem. The problem is that Kenya has the highest incidences of fraud is East Africa and that this vice continue to erode investors and the overall financial intermediation role of commercial banks. In Kenya, fraud contributes to 31.5% of the deterrents of global competitiveness. The study set to determine the effect of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. A representative sample of 30 banks out of the 43 commercial banks licensed by Central Bank of Kenya by June 30, 2012 was used in this study. Bivariate linear regression was used to test the null hypothesis; there is no relationship between bank size and occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. The findings from this study are, a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.97 for the stimulus variable, a positive correlation of r=0.518 between bank size and occupational fraud risk. In addition the study reports a significant 26.8% influence of bank size on occupational fraud risk in commercial banks in Kenya. These results provide insights into the deterrent and management of occupational frauds in Kenya and similar developing countries.

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