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Book
Gichuki N. Banking Law: Cases and Materials.; Forthcoming.
Oriaso SO. Beyond Horizons for Success: An Autobiography. NAIROBI: Neema; Forthcoming.
Olali T. Barua ya Sumbukeni.; 2021.
OdongoMahacla, BeboraLillyCaroline, KagunyaDavid, KarabaW, MbuthisPG. Bacteriology and Mycology Handbook for Veterinary students.. Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020.
Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Ongaro J, Rao O. Basic Mathematics: Fundamental Concepts in Pure Mathematics. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2020. Abstract
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Bidii ya Maria na Musa. . Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers; 2019.
Barua ya Mauti . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
Orata D. Basic Thermodynamics And Kinetics (for Scientists and Engineers). Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2014.
Amolo M. BRP 314 N ew religious movement in Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Amolo M. BRP 318 : History of Christianity. Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 2013.
Gatotoh AM. Behavior Change: An Assessment of Correctional Counselling . Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Academic publishing; 2011.
Krämer PM. Biosensors.; 2011.Website
Kihiu J, Rading G, Mutuli S. Boiler, Piping and Pressure Vessel Cross-Bore Design Stresses. Saarbrucken: VDM Publishing; 2011.
Basic Mathematics.; 2010. AbstractWebsite

This module consists of three units which are as follows: Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions This unit starts with the concept of a set. It then intoroduces logic which gives the learner techniques for distinguishing between correct and incorrect arguments using propositions and their connectives. A grasp of sets of real numbers on which we define elementary functions is essential. The need to have pictorial representations of a function necessitates the study of its graph. Note that the concept of a function can also be viewed as an instruction to be carried out on a set of objects. This necessitates the study of arrangements of objects in a certain order, called permutations and combinations. Unit 2: Binary Operations In this unit we look at the concept of binary operations. This leads to the study of elementary properties of integers such as congruence. The introduction to algebraic structures is simply what we require to pave the way for unit 3. Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism This unit is devoted to the study of groups and rings. These are essentially sets of numbers or objects which satisfy some given axioms. The concepts of subgroup and subring are also important to study here. For the sake of looking at cases of fewer axiomatic demands we will also study the concepts of homomorphisms and isomorphisms. Here we will be reflecting on the concept of a mapping or a function from either one group to the other or from one ring to the other in order to find out what properties such a function has.

Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building design and development 1: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
Ebrahim YH, Rukwaro RW, Sealey A. Building science: Thermal design. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2010.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.University of Nairobi Press
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
Ebrahim YH. Building science elementary past examination papers - Year 3: 2009. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2009.
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
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Oketch Oboth JWB. Biopsychology. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distant Learning, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Ebrahim YH. Building science framed elementary course 2008. Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2008.
Ebrahim YH. Building science text book series: Abstracts . Nairobi, Kenya: Ebenergy Enterprises; 2007.
Williams N, Bulstrode C, O'Connell RP. Bailey 's {Short} {Practice} of {Surgery}. London; 2004. Abstract
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Wamitila KW. Bin-Adamu.; 2002.Website
Gichuki FN, Gachene CKK. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Mbindyo JM. Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration. 30. Mbindyo, J.M. “Benefits of Registering Births and Deaths, Planning and Provision of Improved Health Services - The Roles of health Personnel in Civil Registration” a Consultancy booklet for UNESCO - Kenya Country Office,; 1999.
Brief Guidelines for the Institutional Screening of Local Governments. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/42720 ; 1994.
NZUVE SNM. Business Policy and Strategic Management. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1992.
Book Chapter
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Jeneby F, Badrus A, Taib H, Alluso A, Odiemo L, Otanga H. "Best practices in reaching ‘hidden’ populations and harm reduction service provision.". In: The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle. New York: Emerald Publishing Company; 2020.
Makori EO. "Blockchain Applications and Trends That Promote Information Management.". In: Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things. In Libraries. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2020.
Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Ebrahim YH. "Book chapters: Research methodology textbook on assessing and appreciating the impact.". In: Micro-temperature change and urban built-form. Beau Bassin, Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.
Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Joseph O, Otele O. "The Background and Practice of China-African Cooperation on Resources Development.". In: The Emerging Dominance of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Kenya’s Mineral Resources Windfalls. Yunnan University Press; 2017.
Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. "The business case for climate change: The impact of climate change on Kenya’s public listed companies.". In: Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
Baker T, Kiptala J, Olaka L, Oates N, Hussain A, McCartney M. "Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya.". In: Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya. International Water Management Institute (IWMI); 2015. Abstract

The 'WISE-UP to climate'project aims to demonstrate the value of natural infrastructure as a
'nature-based solution'for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. Within
the Tana River Basin, both natural and built infrastructure provide livelihood benefits for
people. Understanding the interrelationships between the two types of infrastructure is a
prerequisite for sustainable water resources development and management. This is
particularly true as pressures on water resources intensify and the impacts of climate change
increase. This report provides an overview of the biophysical characteristics, ecosystem
services and links to livelihoods within the basin.

Nganga W. "Building Swahili Resource Grammars for the Grammatical Framework." In: Diana Santos, Krister Linden WN, ed. Shall We Play the Festschrift Game? Essays on the Occasion of Lauri Carlson’s 60th Birthday. Springer; 2012:. Abstract

Grammatical Framework (GF) is a multilingual parsing and generation framework. In this paper, we describe the development of the Swahili Resource Grammar, a first in extending GF’s coverage with a Bantu language. The paper details the linguistic detail and considerations that have to be addressed whilst defining the grammars. The paper also describes an end-user application that uses the developed grammars to achieve multilinguality.

Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012.
Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E..N.Kioko, P. N. Ndegwa, C.L. Häuser. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests.". In: In: Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya), pp. 47-61. Brandenburg, Germany: Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft; 2008. Abstract

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Kanyinga K. "Bananas and Oranges: Ethnicity and Failed Constitutional Reform in Kenya.". In: Debating Form and Substance in Africa's New Governance Models . Kampala: Fountain Publishers ; 2007.
Dorothy MC, Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
and Mwangi, E. Raharimampionona LSABJPEPS. "Bodiversity: Chapter 7 in African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, Our Wealth.". In: African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, Our Wealth. United Nations Environment Programme; 2006.
wandiga Kitui S, et al. "Biomass burning in Africa: role in atmospheric change and opportunities in emission mitigation." University of Nairobi, Macx-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Germany : Cambridge University Press; 2005.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "Biotechnology & Food Security: Some Policy & Institutional Considerations.". In: Encyclopaedia on Globalization. Moschovits; 2005.
d f f and Michael H. Chunga, James N. Kiarieb BRDLJOGJ-SAAC. "Breast milk HIV-1 suppression and decreased transmission: a randomized trial comparing HIVNET 012 nevirapine versus short-course zidovudine.". In: AIDS. Vol. 19:.; 2005:. Abstract

Objective: To compare the effect of perinatal regimens of short-course nevirapine
(HIVNET 012) and zidovudine [Thai-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
regimen] on breast milk viral shedding and perinatal transmission during the first 6
weeks postpartum in a randomized clinical trial.
Design: Randomized clinical trial.
Methods: Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women in Nairobi, Kenya who planned to
breastfeed were randomized to HIVNET 012 or Thai-CDC regimens. Two to four breast
milk samples were collected each week between delivery and 6 weeks postpartum.
Breast milk HIV-1 RNA was quantified using the Gen-Probe TMA assay. Infants were
tested for HIV-1 DNA at birth and 6 weeks.
Results: From March to October 2003, 76 women were enrolled and 795 breast milk
samples were collected from 60 women who were randomized and followed after
delivery. Between 3 and 21 days postpartum, nevirapine was associated with significantly
greater suppression of breast milk log10 HIV-1 RNA: days 3 to 7 (1.98 versus 2.42,
P ¼ 0.1); days 8 to 14 (1.78 versus 2.48, P ¼ 0.005); days 15 to 21 (1.90 versus 2.97,
P ¼ 0.003). At 6 weeks, the HIV-1 perinatal transmission rate was significantly lower
among those who took nevirapine than zidovudine (6.8% versus 30.3%, P ¼ 0.02).
Conclusions: Compared to a peripartum zidovudine regimen, nevirapine was significantly
more likely to decrease HIV-1 RNA in breast milk during the first week and
through the third week postpartum following single-dose administration, and corresponded
with decreased transmission risk at 6 weeks. Sustained breast milk HIV-1
suppression may contribute to the ability of nevirapine to decrease perinatal transmission
of HIV-1

Mulwa JK. "Borehole site investigations in volcanic rocks of Lolmolok area, Samburu district, Kenya.". In: Water Resources of Arid areas. London: Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 04 1535 9139; 2004. Abstract

A systematic approach has been applied in the selection of suitable sites for borehole drilling in a quest to provide adequate water supply to a rural pastoral community in Lolmolok area. The study area lies in samburu district in Kenya and is bound by latitudes 0°56’21”N and 0°57’58”N and longitudes 36°34’42”E and 36°36’35”E. The geology of this area is comprised of tertiary volcanics. Basalts, which have weathered into residual black cotton soil, are underlain by phonolitic lavas and tuffs. The systemat-ic approach for the exploration of groundwater was followed to enable selection of an optimum drill site(s) within a quadrant with three-kilometer radius identified by the pas-toral community. The approach consisted of the following multi-steps:-
(i) Hydrogeological reconnaissance of the whole area, mapping different groundwa-ter potential areas on the basis of aerial photo interpretation;
(ii) Geophysical field surveys involving very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES).
(iii) Processing and interpretation of the data acquired in the field, which led to selection of suitable drill sites, indication of potential yield and depth of aquifers.
This paper describes the success of combined geophysical survey techniques in siting boreholes whose yield ranges between 5 m3/hr and 10 m3/hr.

Oucho JO. "Botswana; Migration Overview.". In: Migration Perspective and prospects. Cape Town: IDSA; 2000.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, F.N. K. "Business Statistics .". In: Introduction to Business. Kenya Literature Bureau; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

Mwega FM, Ndulu BJ, Barkan J. "'Beyond Capitalism and Socialism' A Comparative Analysis of Economic Adjustment Processes in Kenya and Tan zania.". In: Beyond Capitalism and Socialism: A Comparative Analysis of Kenya and Tanzania.; 1994.
KAAYA GP. "Biological Control: An environmentally safe alternative to chemical Pesticides.". In: In "community-based environmentally-safe Pest Management". Eds. R.K. Saini and P.T. Haskell.; 1993.
Ogana W. "Boundary element methods in three-dimensional transonic flows, in C.A. Brebbia and J.J. Connor (eds.).". In: Advances in Boundary Elements - Vol. 2: Field and Fluid Flow Solutions. Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton; 1989.
Ogana W. "Boundary element methods in two-dimensional transonic flows, in C.A. Brebbia, W.L. Wendland and G. Kuhn (eds.).". In: Boundary Elements IX - Vol.3: Fluid Flow and Potential Applications. Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton ; 1987.
Case
Kihara" "A-B, Gladwell" "K, Eunice" "CJ, Medhat" "A, Issak" "B, Emily" "R, Rose" "KJ. Breast cancer in pregnancy; routine examination, diagnosis and management: A case report.; 2013.crcm_acceptance_of_breast_manuscript.doc
Conference Paper
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Characterization of C_00 Contractions and their invariant subspaces, corrected manuscript re-submitted to Opuscula Mathematica, paper under review.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Opuscula Mathematica,; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, Linear operators for which T* and T^2 commute, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on A-self-adjoint and A-skew-adjoint operators and their extensions, Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, accepted January, 2012, to appear.". In: Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS). Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences; Submitted.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted. Abstract
Aminoglutethimide (AG) 500 mg was administered orally to four normal volunteers and eight patients undergoing treatment for metastatic breast cancer. In each subject the acetylator phenotype was established from the monoacetyldapsone (MADDS)/dapsone (DDS) ratio. Acetylaminoglutethimide (acetylAG) rapidly appeared in the plasma and its disposition paralleled that of AG. A close relationship (P less than 0.01) was observed between the acetyl AG/AG and MADDS/DDS ratio suggesting that AG may undergo polymorphic acetylation like DDS. AG half-life was 19.5 +/- 7.7 h in seven fast acetylators of DDS and 12.6 +/- 2.3 h in five slow acetylators and its apparent metabolic clearance was significantly (P less than 0.01) related to the acetylAG/AG ratio. Over 48 h the fast acetylators excreted 7.7 +/- 4.4% of the administered AG dose in the urine as unchanged AG as compared to 12.4 +/- 2.8% in slow acetylators. A much smaller fraction of the dose was excreted as acetylAG: 3.6 +/- 1.5% by fast and 1.9 +/- 1.0% by slow acetylators respectively. After 7 days treatment with AG at an accepted clinical dose regimen to the eight patients there were significant reductions in the half-lives of AG (P less than 0.01) and acetylAG (P less than 0.01) and a trend (0.1 greater than P greater than 0.05) towards reduction of the acetylAG/AG ratio which became significant (P less than 0.05) if the one patient on a known enzyme inducer was omitted. The mean apparent volume of distribution was not significantly (P greater than 0.1) altered but the mean apparent systemic clearance of AG was increased (P less than 0.05). These changes are attributed to auto-induction of oxidative enzymes involved in AG metabolism.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and S.K. Moindi, A note on metric equivalence of operators, Far East Math Jourmal (FMJS), accepted March 2012, to appear.". In: Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM),2012, to appear. Far East Math Science Journal; Submitted.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN, S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill, E., Kungu, A., Bencivenga, A., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M. Epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma variations in incidence between Ethnic groups and Geographical Regions 1966-1979.International Orthopaedics Sicot.". In: International Orthopaedics Sicot. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Bridging the Education-Community Divide: Analysis of Urban Planning Education and approaches in Kenya.". In: 5th Session of the World Urban Forum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "BURYING AS AN INTERMENT METHOD AND ITS IMPACT ON LAND IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Faris AA, Akuon PO, Kalecha VO. "BER Performance of SSK Sequence Modulation.". In: IEEE AFRICON 2021. Arusha, Tanzania; 2021.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Muricho DN, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura, Jistrom M. "Building on local pastoralists’ knowledge for effective management of the arid and semi-arid areas.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

Achieng J. "Beyond parliamentary representation What representation: counting the numbers!". In: Annual University of Nairobi Womens colloquim. Nairobi; 2015.
Ndiritu A, Chandi R, RUGENDO CAROLINE. "Balancing work and study: A necessity for successful Distance Learning.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference .; 2015. Abstract

ABSTRACT
As the country re- evaluates the achievement of Millennium goals, it becomes important for Kenya to take its toll. One of the intentions was to increase gross enrolment rate in higher education. The projection was to increase the number of students joining the universities to 450,000 by end of 2015 from 130,000 in 2008. This number was to be increased through expansion of courses done through distance education. The targeted population was of those already in employment. This group has to be able to balance the demands of their workplace and their social demands for the back to school agenda to be achieved. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. However It has been noted that among the students who sit for university exams, many do not score 40% which is a minimum score for students to progress to the next level. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases scoring below 40%, which is a very high failure rate. This failure rate prohibits students from graduating. it is worth finding out the cause of this failure rate. This study was carried out to find out if distance learners had a problem managing their time given the demands of the same among competing ends. An effort was also made to find out if this problem had an effect on their academic performance. From a total number of 4500 of students from the University of Nairobi in different levels of their B.Ed degrees, a sample of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique .Data was collected using a mixed mode method and analyzed using Pearson correlations. The findings indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic performance (r=0.569)
Key words : work study balance, distance education, time management, Academic performance

Ejore P, Muasya I. "The Burden of Financing Secondary School Education in Kenya.". In: 2nd Africe Conference- Nairobi. Vol. 1. University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract
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G WG. "Beyond the Lecture Theatre: Trends and Partnerships for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control by Academic Institutions of Higher Learning.". In: 6th International Conference on Peer Education, Sexuality, HIV&AIDS. Kenyatta International Conference Centre; 2014.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties.". In: Internationa Association of Dental Research. Capetown, South Africa; 2014.
"Bernard Ouma, James Muthomi, John Nderitu, John H. Nderitu, Faith Torotich (2014). Pest management practices and compliance to market stawndards among French Bean Farmers. 14th Conference on HAK, Nairobi, 1-5th December 2014."; 2014. Abstract

PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND COMPLIANCE TO MARKET STANDARDS AMONG FRENCH BEAN FARMERS

Bernard Ouma, James Muthomi, John Nderitu2 and Faith Toroitich
Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
2. Mount Kenya University, P. O. Box 342-01000, Thika, Kenya
Abstract
The EU commission increased to 10% sampling and pesticide residue analysis of French beans and peas imported from Kenya. This resulted in a 25% dip in bean sales in January 2013. This study aimed at determining pest management strategies used by small scale French bean farmers. A survey to determine farmers’ pest management practices was done in Embu east and Mwea east district, where 32 and 38 farmers were from Embu east and Mwea east, respectively. The farmers considered French beans farming as an important source of income, and up to 50% of the farmers had been in French beans production for a period of three years and more. Most of farmers in the study area entirely relied on synthetic pesticides for pest and disease control. White fly was the major insect pest while rust was the major disease as identified by the majority of farmers. Less than 30% of the farmers were involved in the implementation of GLOBALGAP, with 3.1% of the farmers being certified. The findings showed that farmer’s pest management practices were incompatible with good agricultural practices and export market standards. There is a need to sensitize farmers on the use of alternative pest management strategies and requirements of the export market standards.
Key words: French beans, export market requirements, maximum residue levels, Global G.A.P

Kimani PM, Mulanya MM, Narla RD, Ambuko J, Ouma L, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Owino WO, Njuguna J, Kosgei PK, others. "Breeding runner bean for grain yield, disease resistance and short-day adaptation in eastern Africa.". In: Proc. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Conference.; 2014:. Abstract
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ndeti ndati, M M. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking products targeting Poor and Marginalized populations in Kenya.". In: Reaching the Unreached: Mobile Money Uptake in Ghana. Accra, Ghana; 2013.
Kwach JK, Onyango MA, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya.". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
kinyua OH. "BUSINESS AND SECURITY: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE.". In: Business and Security in Africa. Laico Regency Hotel; 2012.business_and_security_hasan_kinyua-presentation_14_sept.ppt
KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Biology of Acomys percivali and Acomys Kempi (African spiny mice) of Eastern Africa.". Rodentia; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Githanga J N KGW. "Blood Safety in Kenya:Challenges in blood distribution and cold chain maintenance.". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Bacteria contamination of Kale (Brassica Oleracea Acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: Eastern Africa Medical Journal. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012. Abstract
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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Bernard O. Okuku, Elisha T. O. Opiyo. An efficient agent-based wireless communication model. In the proceedings of The 3rd International Conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP 2012), August 18-20, 2012 in Wuhan, China. To appear in EEE X.". In: Proceedings of the Unesco-Hp Brain Gain Workshop on Distributed Systems, 29th August 2012, at Kenya School of Monetary Studies in Nairobi, Kenya. AJFAND; 2012.
Letting, Aosa E, Machuki VN. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(11) pp. 172-182; 2012. Abstract
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Opondo M. "A bottom -up approach to climate change adaptation policy: a case study of a community drought resilience project in Sakai sub-location, Makueni District, Kenya." (eds.) Musyoki, A. and Khayesi, M. Environment and Development: Selected Themes from Eastern and Southern Africa, Bay Publishers: Botswana; 2012. Abstract
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Odote C. "Building Synergies, Partnerships and Networks in Kenyan Civil Society." Taking Stock, Leaning Lessons and Moving Forward, Uraia Trust, Nairobi; 2012. Abstract
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P.O Alila, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
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Rudebjer P, Chakeredza S, Dansi A, Ekaya W, Ghezae N, Aboagye LM, Kwapata M, Njoroge K, Padulosi S. "Beyond commodity crops: Strengthening young scientists’ capacity for research on underutilized species in Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: 2nd International Symposium on Underutilised Plant Species. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2011.
Kimani E, Kigamwa J, Chege F, Muthomi J. "Bridging phytosanitary capacity through the Centre of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPE).". In: aGRO 2011 Inaugural Biennial Conference, Faculty of Agriculture. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2011.
joshua Kivuva. "Beyond Constitutional Politics: Kenya's new constitution and the restructuring of the state.". In: Public Lecture Series, Honors College. Cathedral of Learning Rm 2810, University of Pittsburgh; 2011.
JK MUSINGI. "Biofuels and human food security.". In: Developing Sustainable Utilization of Bio-energy opportunities in Eastern Africa Region:East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) Conference.; 2011.
Bebora L.C, E K, M N, N K, E K’ethe, C.J L, P.G M, L. N, J.J O. "Bacterial contamination of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs.". In: 10th African Crop Science Society Conference. Maputo, Mozambique; 2011.2011_-_bacterial_contamination_of_kale_from_farm_and_market.pdf
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2011.
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Bioavailability of cobalt, Zinc and Selenium and Anthelmintic effects of fortified and non fortified Albendazole in Sheep. J.M.Nguta; J.M.Mbaria.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian, Volume 35, Issue 1, 2011. The Kenya Veterinary Association; 2011. Abstract

Abstract: The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and also to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen sheep aged nine to twelve months. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and liver samples  on days 0, 14 and 28 post treatment, upon sacrifice of the study animals. Various trace elements were isolated from the organic matrix by wet oxidation for mineral analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. data was statistically analysed using repeated measurement test. Significance was noted at p < 0.05. Both the fortified albendazole and non fortified albendazole cleared all the worms in the treated sheep by day 14 post treatment. All the trace elements were shown to be more bioavailable in the liver and plasma of fortified albendazole (Group B) treated sheep compared to the non-fortified albendazole (Group A) treated sheep. The current study has shown that the liver is a better indicator of cobalt, zinc and selenium status in sheep compared to plasma.
Key words: Plasma; Liver; Cobalt; Zinc and Selenium

NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF KENYAN MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ARTEMIA SALIA L. (ARTEMIIDAE). J.M.Nguta *, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya; P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; , S.G.Kiama.". In: Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). University of Salerno, Italy; 2011.
Bigirimana J, Njoroge K, Muthomi W, Gahakwa D, Phiri NA, Gichuru EK. "Breeding for resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berkely and Brome) and coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae Waller and Bridge) in Rwanda.". In: aGRO 2011 Biennial Conference. Rwanda; 2011.
NGINYE MICHAEL. "Beyond Literal Translation." Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa,; 2011. Abstract
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J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biosensors in: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering.". In: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering. Da-Wen Sun, Springer Verlag; 2011.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Birithia, R. L., Subramanian, S., Muthomi, J., and Narla, R. D. 2010. Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya. 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tr.". In: 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. 8th - 11th December 2010, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agricult. Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK); 2011.
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "Blood Pressure and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Young Black Adults.". In: Heart Mirror Journal. Heart Mirror Journal; 2011. Abstract
Background: High blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide including Africa. The age of onset of this condition among young adult black urban dwellers is largely unknown. The economic burden occasioned by this condition calls for early detection to facilitate effective management. We determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Objective To determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Three hundred and fifty one medical students were included in the study and grouped by level of study, physical activity and smoking status. The blood pressure, weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured. Results The mean blood pressure, BMI and Waist hip ratio were 121/73 mmhg, 21.8 and 0.81 respectively. Seventy six students (26%) had a BMI below 20, while 28 students (9.6%) had a BMI greater than 25. A quarter of the students had prehypertension while 35(10%) students had stage 1 hypertension. Conclusions Almost half of the young black adults have early non-obesity related hypertension. Elevated blood pressure in the young adults should be controlled to prevent cardiovascular disease related death later in life.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Boy Who Learnt to Play Ball. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 191-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

"Biotechnology and Animal Health.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference & Exhibition. University Of Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
M.Kimeu. "The Built Environment and Its Impact on Climate.". In: Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors of Kenya Continuous Professional Development Workshop. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi.; 2010.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: International Symposium on: Modernizing Local Sustainable Technologies as the Engine for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
WAMBUA MUSILI. "Building collaborative peace and security arrangements in IGAD.". In: challenges and prospects. Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi; 2010.
Omwenga M. "Bridging the North-South Divide in Sustainable Urbanization: The Picture of Nairobi, Kenya. .". In: ISOCARP NETWORK EVENT, World Urban Forum (WUF) 5 . Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; 2010.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "The Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: 1st African Material Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN) Conference. Windhoek, Namibia); 2010.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2010.
Machangi JM;, Gitonga LM;, Nderitu JH;, Maniania NK;, Kabira JN. "Biological Control Agents Of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) On Potatoes(Solanum Tuberosum L.) In Kenya.".; 2010.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Ilako D, Karimurio J, Courtright P. Are blind people more likely to accept free cataract surgery? A study of vision-related quality of life and visual acuity in Kenya.Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):41-9.". In: PMID: 20100099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2010. Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine possible differences in visual acuity, socio-demographic factors and vision-related Quality of Life (QoL) between people accepting and people refusing sponsored cataract surgery.

METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-questionnaire WHO/Prevention of Blindness and Deafness Visual Functioning Questionnaire 20 (PBD-VFQ20) was used to determine the vision-related QoL. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye. After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal.

RESULTS: Fifty nine people (16.5%) refused and 298 accepted cataract surgery. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing (mean score 51.54 and 43.12 respectively). People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender. Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, 73.8% had best eye vision of 20/200 or better.

CONCLUSION: In this population, visual acuity was of limited use to predict a person's decision to accept or refuse cataract surgery. QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery.

INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Brooker, S., Okello, G., Njagi, K., Dubeck, M. M., Halliday, K. E., Inyega, H. N., & Jukes, M. C. H. (2010). Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enha.". In: The Fountain Journal Vol 4 No. 2. Trials Journal; 2010. Abstract
Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the practical issues encountered in conducting research in schools in Africa.
H.J. K, C.M G. "Breaking New Frontiers? Successes, Challenges And Impact Of Ict In Kenyan Schools’.". In: VLIR-IUC-UoN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE:ICT and Education. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.breaking_new_frontiers_ppt_presentation_1.pdf
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Blood Lead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract

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Galukande E;, Mulindwa, H; Wurzinger MAO; SM; J, Wurzinger M;, Mwai J, Solkner J. "Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterization of a new cattle farming system."; 2009. Abstract

keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership [1, 2] high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. Majority (53.3%) of the farmers interviewed stated that they kept the two cattle types (genotypes) because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons.

MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "B.". In: Forest Policy and Economics 11 (2009) 459. Ogutu J.O; 2009. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W & McClelland RS (2009) Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85.". In: UoN research meeting. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(5): 348-53; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baeten JM, Hassan WM, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Jaoko W & McClelland RS (2009) Prospective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonization among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative women. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 85(5): 348-53; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baltzer H, Chege D, Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Shin LYY, Kimani J, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Relative HIV resistance Kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectio.". In: UoN research meeting. Current HIV Research 7(5):504-7; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Baltzer H, Chege D, Rebbapragada A, Wachihi C, Shin LYY, Kimani J, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Plummer FA & Kaul R (2009) Relative HIV resistance Kenyan sex workers is not due to an altered prevalence or mucosal immune impact of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectio.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Current HIV Research 7(5):504-7; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Bennett, M.R., Harris, J.W.K., Richmond, B.G., Braun, D.R., Mbua, E., Kiura, P., Olago, D., Kibunjia, M., Atieno, C., Behrensmeyer, A.K., Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S. Early hominin foot morphology based on 1.5 million year-old footprints from Illeret, Ken.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Science, 323: 1197-1201. DOI: 10.1126/science.1168132; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
Tallontire, A. M. ONMMVA. "Beyond the vertical? Using value chains and governance as a framework to analyse private standards initiatives in Agri-food chains." Agriculture and Human Values, Vol. 28, Issue 3, pp 427-441; 2009. Abstract
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KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009.". In: International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
MBOYA DROLEWETOM. "Blood lead levels and potential environmental exposures among children under five years in Kibera slums, Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. East African Journal of Public Health; 2009.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "BloodLead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bosch KA, Rainwater S, Jaoko W & Overbaugh J (2009) Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response. Virology 398(1):115-24.". In: UoN research meeting. Virology 398(1):115-24; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bosch KA, Rainwater S, Jaoko W & Overbaugh J (2009) Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response. Virology 398(1):115-24.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Virology 398(1):115-24; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya veterinarian. Thaiyah, A.G., Gitau, P., Gitau, G.K., and Nyaga, P.N. (2010).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. kenya veterinarian: 33: 6-19; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Breyten Breytenbach: A Veil of Footsteps: Memoir of a Nomadic Fictional Character.". In: The African Book Publishing Record 35.1 (April 2009) 31-32. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2009. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Briesen S, Roberts H, Karimurio J, Kollmann M. Biometry in cataract camps : Experiences from north Kenya.Ophthalmologe. 2009 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print][Article in German].". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Burkitt , versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a practical approach Bellan C, Lazzi S, Defalco G, Rogena EA, Leoncini L.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, in adults daily practice shows the existence of cases that have morphological features, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics intermediate between DLBCL and BL, and cannot be classified with certainty in these categories. Distinguishing between BL and DLBCL is critical, as the two diseases require different management. This review summarizes the current practical approach, including the use of a large panel of antibodies, and cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic techniques, to distinguish between BL, DLBCL and the provisional category of B-cell lymphoma, unclassificable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, now listed in the updated WHO classification. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Muchiri L, Rajab J LG. "The Breast Cancer Awareness month: The Mater Hospital Experience.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Biofuels Production as a Mitigation Strategy: The Potential Impacts on Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Kenya .". In: National conference on the Environment . Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Obiero G, Martha Smit,. SHTL. "Bioconversion of linear alkanes to dicarboxylic acids using genetically engineered yeast strains.". In: Bio-08 conference.; 2008.
W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Biological control of root rot of beans caused by Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Phaseoli using an antagonist.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract

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MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. "B.M. Nzimbi, G.P. Pokhariyal and J.M. Khalagai, A note on Similarity, Almost-Similarity and Equivalence of Operators, Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317.". In: Far East Mathematics Journal, Vol 28, Issue 2(February 2008), 305-317. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2008. Abstract
The almost-similar and similar relations between operators on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces are investigated. It is shown that almost-similar operators share some properties with some other classes of operators. Various results on almost-similarity and similarity are proved. An attempt is made to classify those operators where almost-similarity implies similarity. We investigate some properties of corresponding parts of operators which enjoy these equivalence relations.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.

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