Publications

Found 1310 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is B  [Clear All Filters]
A [B] C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
B
Kaburu SM, Bulimo W, Maina GG, Ongus J. "Burden of human rhinovirus infections in influenza like illnesses in Kenya." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;21:222. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Democracy in Africa,".". In: Walter O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga, (eds.), Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1987), pp. 99-110. IPPNW; 1987. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and Rural Development in Africa,".". In: Indian Journal of Public Administration, Vol. XXVI, No. 2, April-June, pp. 418-442. IPPNW; 1980. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Bureaucracy and the Management of Health Services in Kenya," in H.K. Asmeron, Robert Hoppe and R.B. Jain, (eds.), Public Bureaucracies in Developing Countries (Amsterdam: VU University Press).". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Oredo J. "The Burgeoning e-Waste Burden." MANAGEMENT June (2019).
ADHIAMBO DRROGENAEMILY. "Burkitt , versus diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a practical approach Bellan C, Lazzi S, Defalco G, Rogena EA, Leoncini L.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid tumours as an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, characterized by a high degree of proliferation of the malignant cells and deregulation of the c-MYC gene. The main diagnostic challenge in BL is to distinguish it from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While in children BL and DLBCL types probably do not differ clinically, and the differential diagnosis between BL and DLBCL may theoretically appear clear-cut, in adults daily practice shows the existence of cases that have morphological features, immunophenotypic and cytogenetics intermediate between DLBCL and BL, and cannot be classified with certainty in these categories. Distinguishing between BL and DLBCL is critical, as the two diseases require different management. This review summarizes the current practical approach, including the use of a large panel of antibodies, and cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic techniques, to distinguish between BL, DLBCL and the provisional category of B-cell lymphoma, unclassificable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, now listed in the updated WHO classification. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Brichon P, Bertrand Y, Plantaz D. "Burkitt's lymphoma revealed by acute intussusception in children.". In: Annales de chirurgie. Vol. 126.; 2001:. Abstract
n/a
Othieno-Abinya NA. "Burkitt's lymphoma-- what is new?". 2008.Website
KA W, A V, DO A, EAO D, A M, AK L, J G, chindia ML. "Burning mouth syndrome presenting with oral lichen planus – A case report." African Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2014.
Wakoli KA, Vilembwa M, Awange DO, Dimba EAO, Mamujee A, Limo A, Gichana J, Chindia ML. "Burning Mouth Syndrome presenting with Oral Lichen Planus–Case Report." JOURNAL OF THE KENYA DENTAL ASSOCIATION. 2011;3:198-200. Abstract
n/a
Wakoli KA, Vilembwa M, Awange DO, Dimba EAO, Mamujee A, Limo A, Gichana J, Chindia ML. "Burning Mouth Syndrome presenting with Oral Lichen Planus–Case Report." JOURNAL OF THE KENYA DENTAL ASSOCIATION. 2011;3:198-200. Abstract
n/a
Ndetei DM, Pizzo M, Khasakhala LI, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Mutiso V, Kokonya DA. "Burnout in staff working at the Mathari psyhicatric hospital.". 2009.burnout_in_staff_working_at_the_mathari_psyhicatric_hospital.pdf
Ndiritu S, Ngumi ZW, Nyaim O. "Burns: the epidemiological pattern, risk and safety awareness at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Many burns are preventable but there is no published local prospective data on the epidemiological pattern of burns that would form the basis of care and formulation of burn prevention strategies.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the epidemiological pattern of burns and assess the awareness of burn risk and preventive measures among patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) with burns.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Kenyatta National Hospital.

PATIENTS:

One hundred and nine consecutive burn patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital.

RESULTS:

The mean age was 14.4 years (median 7.0, range 0.2-66 years). Mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) was 22.3% (median 13.0, range 1-95%). Children under five years were 48.6% with more scalds compared to adults. Open flames burns, involvement of accelerants and assault were prominent among adults. Education level above primary school was associated with higher risk awareness compared with primary level education or below.

CONCLUSION:

The pattern of burns noted resembles other reported series but the role of accelerants and assault appears enhanced in this study. Public education campaigns aimed at burns reduction could be tailored to the educational level of target population.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Burnt Clay - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol 8, March 2003, p13-26. JKUAT; 2003. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
Syagga PM. Burnt Clay - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry. .; 2003. Abstract

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the Cly to Portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housin

Shihembesha L. "Burnt Clay Waste as a Pozzolanic Material in Kenya." Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT. 2002;2002.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Buruchara, R.A., E.M.Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1985. Disease progress of angular leaf spot caused by Isariopsis griseola sacc. And it implications on resistance of some bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. ACTA HORTICULATURAE 218: 321 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Buruchara, R.A., E.M.Gathuru and D.M. Mukunya, 1985. Disease progress of angular leaf spot caused by Isariopsis griseola sacc. And it implications on resistance of some bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. ACTA HORTICULATURAE 218: 321 .". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1985. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
UWESO DRABUBAKARLAILA. "Burugu, M. W., Mbatia, B. N., Osir, E. O., Kenya, E. U., Abubakar, L. U. .". In: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science; 2008. Abstract
Rural aquaculture in Lake Victoria basin is a fast increasing nontraditional farming activity which if not appropriately practised will lead to degradation of the wetlands. As part of a study to develop appropriate guidelines and model systems for wetlands-based rural aquaculture in the basin a survey was conducted to assess the status and the ecological and socioeconomic impact of rural aquaculture on wetlands and wetlands communities. Aquaculture practice was found to be common but not as a major activity. Aquaculture in the wetlands can be described as a low input-low output production activity and subsistence based on ponds under 400 m2 using free seed from public agencies with hardly any supplementary feeding. Men owned most of the ponds and women only contributed to the management of the fishponds by feeding the fish. Poorly constructed ponds and loss during harvesting have led to the escape of cultured species into the wild. Introduction of nonnative species in the basin has already led to wide ranging ecological, environmental and socioeconomic changes whose impact and usefulness are still very much contentious. Repeat of such scenarios can be avoided if appropriate and science-based models for rural aquaculture farming are developed, tested and disseminated to the communities
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words I . Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
Kabura S, Otieno SP. Bury My Bones But Keep My Words II. Mbuga E, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2014.
MURIGU D(MRS) JENNIFER. "BURYING AS AN INTERMENT METHOD AND ITS IMPACT ON LAND IN KENYAN URBAN AREAS.". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Nyamongo IK. "Burying the dead, culture and economics: an assessment of two Kenyan cases.". In: International Social Sciences Journal, Vol. 160: 255-261. Wiley Interscience; 1999. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

kinyua OH. "BUSINESS AND SECURITY: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE.". In: Business and Security in Africa. Laico Regency Hotel; 2012.business_and_security_hasan_kinyua-presentation_14_sept.ppt
Kihiko MK, Kinoti MW. "The business case for climate change: The impact of climate change on Kenya’s public listed companies.". In: Climate Change and the 2030 Corporate Agenda for Sustainable Development Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited; 2016.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Business dynamics, Problems, Constraints and Coping by Agro food Enterprises; A case for Maize and Cassava in Kenya. Food Africa,.". In: International Working Meeting. Sponsored by INCO2, E.C. Frame work V and International Foundation for Science (IFS), 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Ndung’u CW, Ogutu M, Yabs J, Muranga NJ, Kinoti M. "Business Environment, Corporate Image, Competitive Strategies And Performance Of Large Manufacturing Firms In Kenya." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2020;6(1):215-233. Abstractbusiness_environment_corporate_image_competitive_strategies_and_performance_of_large_manufacturing_firms_in_kenya.pdf

Firms’ performance differs from firm to firm in the same industry with some firms achieving higher
levels of performance than others which can be connected to the type of competitive strategies a
firm adopts. The never-ending changes today calls for firms to continuously monitor their business
environment with a view to creating strategies that will make them different from their competitors
and improve their corporate image in the eyes of their customers. The study sought to determine
how business environment and corporate image affect the relationship between competitive
strategies and the performance of large manufacturing firms in Kenya. It was guided by positivist
philosophy and a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The target population was large
manufacturing firms in Kenya where a structured questionnaire was utilized to collect data.
Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The study found that the joint influence of
competitive strategies, business environment and corporate image on performance of large
manufacturing firms in Kenya was statistically significant. Manufacturing firms should adopt
competitive strategies in response to business environment and craft strategies to enable them
position themselves better than competitor. The firms can indirectly improve performance by
maintaining a good corporate image also.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, E. O, Olago D, Opere A, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability . 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon KE, Conway D, Pardoe J, Ndiyoi M, Batisani N, Odada E, Olago D, et al. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability. 2018;1:e14. AbstractWebsite

The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.

Gannon, Kate Elizabeth, Conway, Declan, Pardoe, Joanna, Ndiyoi, Mukelabai, Batisani, Nnyaladzi, Odada, E.O., Kgosietsile, Sinah, Opere, Alfred, Nyambe, Mubita, Omukuti, Jessica, Siderius, Christian, Olago DO. "Business experience of floods and drought-related water and electricity supply disruption in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa during the 2015/2016 El Niño." Global Sustainability.. 2018; ISSN 2059-4798.
Dorothy MC, Patrick A, Mary O. "Business in Kenya.". In: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Nairobi: Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.; 2007. Abstract

n/a

P.O Alila, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
n/a
PATRICK ALILA, et al. "Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions." University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Gitau OJJ &. Business Law. Nairobi: Focus Books; 2010.
Mutungi OK. "Business Organizations and the Africanisation of Commerce and Industry in Kenya." Doctoral Thesis, J.S.D. at Yale University Law School; 1974. Abstract
n/a
A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Business Plan, a manual for Higher Diploma in entrepreneurship ILO, UNDP.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
NZUVE SNM. Business Policy and Strategic Management. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1992.
Awino ZB, M MJ. "Business Process Outsourcing Strategy And Performance Of Kenyan State Corporations." Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS). 2014;5(7):37-43.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, F.N. K. "Business Statistics .". In: Introduction to Business. Kenya Literature Bureau; 1996. Abstract

Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. (Kibera F.N. Ed.)

MUTUKU MRKISIMBIJOHNBOSCO. "BUSINESS STATISTICS:- (DISTANCE LEARNING MODULE FOR KENYA METHODIST UNIVERSITY).". In: The TTMI project and the picnic model. Proc. of at both local and international levels a TTMI workshop April 1994 Nairobi, Kenya. (ISBNo 90-6754-403-5) pp136-146. University of nairobi; 2001. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
Z.B A. "Business Strategy, Internal Resources, National Culture And Competitive Advantage: A Critical Review ." 1st DBA Africa Management Review International conference ( 2015). 2015;1(1).
Oribu W, King’oriah PG, Agwata DJ, Gongera PGE. "Business Sustainability: A Need To Re-Look Environmental Practices And Initiatives." European Journal of Business and Management. 2014;Vol.6, No.3. Abstractbusiness_sustainability-a_need_to_relook_environmental_practices_and_initiatives.pdf

Due to the increasing degradation of the natural business enterprises’ environmental commitment has become an
important variable in most of today’s competitive business environment. This is because activities of most
enterprises are the main causes of environmental degradation which in turn impact on the sustainability of their
performance. This study looks at the specific business environmental practices and initiatives and how they
impact on their sustainability. The overall objective of the study was to establish the impact of environmental
initiatives on business sustainability around Lake Naivasha. The study design was descriptive survey in order to
pick behaviors which needed to be mitigated for purposes of business sustainability. Purposive random sampling
was used from the target population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. Discriminant
analysis was used to analyze the data and the key findings of the study show that business sustainability depends
mainly on the current environmental practices and initiatives that have been put in place. The study recommends
that business associations be at the frontline in regulating activities by their members in order to achieve
sustainability.

Dorothy MC, Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective.". In: Business in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
Dorothy, Mccormick; Kimuyu P. "Business Systems Theory: An African Perspective .". 2001.Website
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Busingye R.B., Kigondu S.C., Wango E.O. and Mmiro F.A. (1996).Reproductive hormones and testicular histology in males with human immunodeficiency virus infection.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. I-2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

Yenesew A. "Busseihydroquinones A-D from the Roots of Pentas bussei." Journal of Natural Products. 2012;75 :1299-1304. Abstractpaper_57_endale_et_al_j_nat_prod_2012.pdf

Four new naphthohydroquinones, named busseihydroquinones A−D (1−4), along with a known homoprenylated dihydronaphthoquinone (5), were isolated from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Pentas bussei. Although the genus Pentas is frequently used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria, only marginal activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and the chloroquineresistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum were observed for the crude root extract and the isolated constituents of this plant.

Calatayud PA, Okuku G, Musyoka B, Khadioli N, Ong’amo G. "Busseola segeta, a Potential New Pest of Maize in Western Kenya." ENTOMOLOGY, ORNITHOLOGY & HERPETOLOGY. 2014;3:132.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt F.M.A., Vaghela V.P, Chindia M. L.: Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in a Kenyan Provincial Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):398-401. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2001. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya many patients exposed to the HIV infection present with orofacial lesions as the primary manifestations of the disease and only a few studies have been performed to document this observation. OBJECTIVE: To clinically evaluate and document the range and pattern of oral lesions in a group of hospitalised patients with HIV-infection. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Coast Province General Hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, which is the main referral institution serving a population of approximately two million people. METHODS: Examination of all the cases included in the study was performed according to the WHO criteria. Both male and female patients aged 16 years and above were selected. The criterion of recruitment was based on a suspicion of immunosuppression, the presence of oral manifestations and the willingness to participate in the study. Prior to the examination each patient had undergone counselling followed by two consecutive screening tests using the ELISA technique. Where indicated incisional biopsy was performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of the relevant lesions. In collaboration with the medical team, treatment was administered as per the needs of the patient in terms of anti-fungals, antivirals or topical cortisteroids. RESULTS: Of the 61 cases, 25(41%) were males and 36(59%) females with an age range of 19 to 65 years (mean = 34.7 years). While all the cases had periodontal disease, over 80% had candidiasis of the hyperplastic, erythematous and pseudomembraneous types. Lymphadenopathy and angular cheilitis were each diagnosed in 27.9% of the cases; while oral Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 13% of the patients. Other conditions seen included persistent oral ulceration (11.5%), oral hairy leukopLakia and herpes zoster each constituting 4.9%; herpes simplex, mucosal hyperpigmentation, parotomegaly and facial palsy each comprised six per cent and oral warts seen in one case. In accordance with the pattern and prevalence of oral manifestations in our study, the results were largely consistent with those documented elsewhere. CONCLUSION: For the alleviation of the morbidity arising from the commonly occurring lesions, early detection is mandatory. Furthermore, documentation of the varied regional patterns of occurrence of these lesions may aid in the rational application of the emerging treatments.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana F, Machigo FG.Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya.Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Sep 8.". In: Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Sep 8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2008. Abstract

HIV-infected patients face a greater risk of developing malignant disease. The most commonly reported neoplasms of the head and neck region include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). There is also an increased risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A descriptive cross-sectional study including HIV-infected patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions was conducted. Of the 200 participants, 116 (58%) were male and 84 (42%) female with an age range of 18-61 years (mean 37 years). The females were significantly younger (mean 33 years) than the males (mean 37 years) (t test; 2.57; P<0.05 [0.001]). The prevalence of neoplastic lesions in this study was 27%; 37 (68%) patients had KS, 9 (17%) had SCC, 7 (13%) had NHL and 1 (2%) had Burkitt's lymphoma. More females than males presented with lesions of KS and SCC compared with NHL. The youngest patient presented with SCC at 18 years (mean 35.7 years), followed by KS at 23 years (mean 36.3 years) and NHL at 33 years (mean 43.9 years). Most study participants (97%) were in stage III/IV of the disease and the remaining 3% in stage II. In this study, the most common malignant neoplasms were KS, SCC and NHL, manifesting in a younger age group than in the non-HIV group of patients.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Rana FS, Ashani A.Cheilitis glandularis progressing to squamous cell carcinoma in an hiv-infected patient: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Dec;84(12):595-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Dec;84(12):595-8. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Cheilitis glandularis (CG), is a rare inflammatory minor salivary gland disease affecting the lower lip. The hallmarks of which include progressive enlargement and eversion of the lower labial mucosa resulting in the obliteration of the mucosal-vermillion interface. A case is presented of a 47-year-old HIV-infected woman who initially manifested clinical features of CG with a typical histopathology picture of a non-specific sialadenitis while a second biopsy performed six months later revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). She is symptom free one year following excision and radiotherapy treatment.
KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Butt FM, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA.Problems in diagnosing odontogenic myxoma: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):141-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Mar;84(3):141-5. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2007. Abstract
Tumours and tumour-like growths arising from odontogenic tissues constitute a heterogenous group of lesions whose diagnosis can be particularly challenging on the part of both surgeons and pathologists. In children, these lesions are even more difficult to clinically and histopathologically diagnose definitively because of the concurrent diverse embryologic differentiation of dental tissues. A case is presented of a 12 year-old boy who was subjected to inappropriate primary management of a left mandibular mass, due apparently to inadequate consultation to establish an accurate diagnosis.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "BUTT FMA, CHINDIA ML, WAKOLI KA. Problems in Diagnosing Odontogenic Myxoma: Case Report. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 141-145.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "BUTT FMA, VAGHELA VP, CHINDIA ML. Correlation of CD4 counts and CD4/CD8 ratio with HIV-infection associated oral manifestations. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 383-388.". In: Journal of The Kenya Dental Association (JKDA) Vol 1. No.1: 23-27. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2007. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E..N.Kioko, P. N. Ndegwa, C.L. Häuser. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests.". In: In: Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya), pp. 47-61. Brandenburg, Germany: Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft; 2008. Abstract

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

Flora N. Namu, John M. Githaiga, Esther N.Kioko, Paul N. Ndegwa, L. C. "Butterfly species composition and abundance in an old, middle-aged, and young secondary forests, in:Kühne L. (Ed.), Butterflies and moths diversity of the Kakamega forest (Kenya)." Brandenburgische Universitätsdruckerei und Verlagsgesellschaft, Germany. 2008:47-61.
Namu FN, Githaiga JM, Kioko EN, Ndegwa PN, Häuser CL, Kühn L. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica.". 2008.Website
F.N. Namu, J.M. Githaiga, E.N. Kioko, Ndegwa PN, C.L. Häuser, L.Kühn. "The butterfly, Hypolimnas salmacis magnifica (Drury, 1773) in Kakamega Forest National Reserve (KFNR) Kenya." Metamorphosis. 2008;18(4):142-143. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: Several strategies are employed in management of insect pests. Among these, chemical control is a priority to most farming communities where pest incidences occur while other existing options such as biological control are rarely considered. In coffee farming agro ecosystems, there are indigenous biological control agents such as the predacious phytoseiid mites, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa) that have the potential to manage secondary pests like coffee thrips, Diarthrothrips coffeae Williams. This study was conducted to assess the population dynamics of E. kenyae and D. coffeae as well as theirinteractions under coffee agro ecosystems where various soil fertilizer sources and selective insecticides were applied as treatments. The populations of both E. kenyae and D. coffeae fluctuated during the three years study period. The E. kenyae suppressed the population of D. coffeae under various treated coffee blocks. There was negative correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae in year 2006 and 2008 where the increasing population of E. kenyae decreased that of D. coffeae. In year 2007, positive correlation between E. kenyae and D. coffeae was observed in some of the treatments where increased population of D. coffeae caused an increased population of E. kenyae. Euseius kenyae managed to contain the D. coffeae population to below economical injury levels (1-2 thrips per leaf) during the three years under the various coffee agro ecosystems. The use of chlorpyrifos never affected E. kenyae. Their survival and increased in number under chlorpyrifos treated coffee blocks indicated the development of resistance by the population of E. kenyae, hence the possibility of using them as a component in an Integrated Pest Management strategy in coffee.

E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. Role of the jejunum and the ileum in the acid response of dogs to a meal. Gastroenterology. 1972 Aug;63(2):270-2. No abstract available.". In: Gastroenterology. 1972 Aug;63(2):270-2.; 1972. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Saunders J, Gillespie IE. Effect of truncal vagotomy on the increase in gastric acid secretion induced by small bowel resection in dogs. Digestion. 1973;8(4):293-8. No abstract available.". In: Digestion. 1973;8(4):293-8.; 1973. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton B, Wasunna AE, Saunders J, Gillespie IE. Site of the abnormal stimulus of gastric secretion after small bowel exclusion. Gut. 1972 Jul;13(7):539-43. No abstract available.". In: Gut. 1972 Jul;13(7):539-43.; 1972. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton BF, Wasunna AE, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. The magnitude of the intestinal phase of gastric-acid secretion. Br J Surg. 1970 Nov;57(11):857-8. No abstract available.". In: Br J Surg. 1970 Nov;57(11):857-8.; 1970. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Buxton BF, Wasunna AE, Gutierrez LV, Bedi BS, Gillespie IE. Role of inhibition by fat in the production of gastric hypersecretion following small-bowel resection. Br J Surg. 1971 Apr;58(4):297. No abstract available.". In: Br J Surg. 1971 Apr;58(4):297.; 1971. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O. Articial Insemination in Pigs.". In: A paper presented at . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1993.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.: Management of fertility problems in village herds of cattle in Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; (1991): Cryopreservation of boar semen: 1. A literature review. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 431-453.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Cyropreservation of Boar Semen: Studies on freezing packaging and fertilizing capacity. Master of Veterinary Sciences, Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; de Bragnaca M.M.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez .". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1990.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez .". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Einarsson S.; Rodriguez-Martinez H.Cryopreservation of boar semen: II. Effect of cooling rate and duration of freezing point plateau in boar semen frozen in mini -, maxi-straws and plastic bags. Acta Vet. Scand. 32, 455-461.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Hofino P.O.; Grevle, I.S. Einarsson S. & H. Rodriguez- Martinez H : In vivo fertilizing capacity of deep-frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags and maxi-straws. J. Vet. Med. A38, 281-286.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1991.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Bwanga, C.O.; Hofino, P.O.; Grevle I.S., einarsson S. & H. Rodriguez- Martinez Viability and Fertility of deep-frozen boar semen packaged in plastic bags.". In: 12th International Congress on Animal Reproduction, the Hague, 1992.Workshop on sperm preservation in swine. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Bwangamoi, O., Buoro, I.B.J., Price, J.E., DaCosta, R.P.R. and Mbugua, S.W., (1989). Natural Trypanosoma Vivax infection in a domestic cat in Nairobi. Bull. An. Hlth. and prod. in Africa, Special Issue, 147-157.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Bwangamoi, O., Frank H., Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W.K. (1971): Gross lesions in natural bovine East Coast Fever at Kabete. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 19 No. 3; 271-277.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1971. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Bwangamoi, O., Frank H., Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W.K. (1971): Gross lesions in natural bovine East Coast Fever at Kabete. Bull. Epiz Dis. Afr. Vol. 19 No. 3; 271-277.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1971. Abstract
n/a
WANJIRU PROFMBUGUASUSAN. "Bwangamoi, O., price, J.E., Mbugua, S.W., Mbaka, M. Gathumbi, P. and DaCosta, R.P.R. (1989): An Outbreak of canine distemper in Nairobi. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. in Africa, Special Issue, 79-86.". In: Proceedings: Biannual Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Bwangamoii, O. Buoro, I.B.J., Proce, J.E., D.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 1989. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Bwayo J, Plummer F, Omari M, Mutere A, Moses S, Ndinya-Achola J, Velentgas P, Kreiss J.Human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east Africa.Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jun 27;154(12):1391-6.". In: Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jun 27;154(12):1391-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among long-distance truck drivers in Kenya. METHODS: Truck drivers along the Mombasa-Nairobi highway were enrolled at a roadside research clinic. A standardized interview and serologic evaluation for HIV and syphilis were conducted. RESULTS: We enrolled 970 truck drivers and their assistants of whom 257 (27%) had HIV antibodies. In univariate analysis, HIV infection was correlated with older age, non-Kenyan nationality, Christian religion, longer duration of truck driving, travel outside of Kenya, less frequent visits to wives, and more frequent visits to prostitutes. Uncircumcised status, history of genital ulcer disease or urethritis during the previous 5 years, and a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay for syphilis were each associated with positive HIV serostatus. Univariate correlates of uncircumcised status included younger age, non-Kenyan nationality, Christian religion, travel outside of Kenya, and less frequent visits to prostitutes. There was a significant association between uncircumcised status and 5-year history of genital ulcer disease or serologic evidence of syphilis, but not with 5-year history of urethritis. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was independently associated with uncircumcised status (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 8.4), history of genital ulcer disease (adjusted OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.1), history of urethritis (adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.9), more frequent sex with prostitutes (more than once per month; adjusted OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8), and positive T pallidum hemagglutination assay (adjusted OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4). The attributable risk percentage for the association between HIV and uncircumcised status was 70%, and the population attributable risk was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers in east Africa are at high risk of HIV infection. The strongest correlates of HIV seropositivity were uncircumcised status and history of both ulcerative and nonulcerative sexually transmitted diseases.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bwayo JJ, Mutere AN, Omari MA, Kreiss J, Jaoko WG, Sekkade-Kingondu & Plummer FA (1991) Long distance truck drivers 2: Knowledge and attitudes concerning sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour. East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1991. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke NJD, Moses S, Embree J, Ngugi EN, Mwatha A, Kimani J, ANZALA AO, Choundhri S, Ndinya-Achola JO, Plummer FA. Comparison of the declines in CD4 counts in HIV-1-seropositive female sex workers and women from the general population in Nai.". In: J. AIDS Human Retrovirol 1995; 10:457-61. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bwayo JJ, Omari MA, Mutere AN, Jaoko WG, Sekkade-Kingondu C, Kreiss J & Plummer FA (1991) Long distance truck-drivers: 1. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. East African Medical Journal 68(6): 425-9.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(6): 425-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1991. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Health Service (chapter 11 pp 154 .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O and Ndombi I O Nutrition in Sickness; Chapter VI In: Feeding the Child including recipes Editors: R.K. Oniango, Nimrod O Bwibo, Isiye O Ndombi, Kama O Rogo. Publishers .". In: Publishers . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1988. Abstract

One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index.

PMID: 2591328 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N O Child Abuse and Neglect, Chapter 27 In: child Health .". In: AMREF. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1997. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo N.O, Kasili EG, Oduori ML: Childhood Leukaemia in Kenya. In: tumours in Early Life .". In: Edited by L Seven with Pwerugia Quadrennial international Conferences in Cancer Rome. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1977. Abstract

No abstract available.

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Bwibo N.O. and Pamba H.O.:Double Blind Comparative Study of Albendazole and Placebo in the Treatment of Intestinal Helminths.Roy. Soc. Med. 57: 49, 1982.". In: Roy. Soc. Med. 57: 49, 1982. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Bwibo N.O., Pamba H.O., Musa A.R.M., Homeida M., Saif M., Oyediran A.B.O.O., Favid Z., Ayed N. and Okelo G.B.A.:Summary of Clinical Trials in the Middle East and Africa.Roy. Soc. Med. 57: 31, 1982.". In: Roy. Soc. Med. 57: 31, 1982. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO, Neumann CG.The need for animal source foods by Kenyan children. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):3936S-3940S. Review.". In: J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11 Suppl 2):. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 2003. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 20956-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Early growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been found predictive of their later outcomes. This has led to increased interest in establishing measures to optimise such growth. In facilities without the resources required to undertake long-term audits for all the high risk infants they graduate, these growth parameters may also be used as selection criteria for those meriting such follow up reducing costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe early growth patterns among a cohort of VLBW infants and determine some of the factors associated with poor growth among them. DESIGN: Cross section survey. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seventy five neonatal survivors. RESULTS: Of the 175 infants recruited, the male/female ratio was 4:6, sixty four (36.6%) were intrauterine growth retarded while significant illnesses during the neonatal period were reported in 109 (62.3%). Forty seven percent of the infants had been fed on exclusive breast milk, 33% on mixed feeds while 20% received exclusive preterm formula. The mean neonatal weight gain for the whole cohort was 13.5 (3.9) g/kg/day, length of 0.34 (0.11) cm/week and head circumference of 0.32 (0.71) cm/week. By term only 33 (18.9%), 37 (21.1%) and 48 (28%) had reached the expected (the 3rd percentile) weight, length and head circumference respectively. Sixty percent of the infants gained weight at <15 g/kg/day while 70% and 78% grew in head circumference and length at < 0.5 cm/week respectively. At term weight, head and linear growth faultering were recorded in 81%, 72% and 79% respectively. The factors that were associated with better growth at this stage included feeding on preterm formula (P < 0.001) and absence of neonatal morbidity (P < 0.001). Infants who were appropriate for gestational age at birth also had better catch up growth at term compared to those born small for gestation (P < 0.001) but their neonatal growth itself was not significantly better. CONCLUSION: The mean neonatal growth in all anthropometric measures was less than expected and by the time of their expected delivery, less than 30% of these infants had reached the 3rd percentile of the expected measurement in all the three growth parameters. Choice of milk and neonatal morbidity influenced these growth patterns. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine fortification of mother's milk or addition of preterm formula and reorganised care of sick newborns is recommended to improve early growth. PMID: 16771104 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Breastfeeding: past, present and future. East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):145-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Mar;72(3):145-6. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1995. Abstract

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. swhaley@mednet.ucla.edu

Previous observational studies in developing countries have suggested that diet quality, particularly increased animal source food (ASF) consumption, is positively associated with child cognitive development. This report presents findings from a study in rural Kenya, designed to test the impact of three different diets on the cognitive development of school children. Twelve schools with a total of 555 Standard 1 children (equivalent to U.S. Grade 1) were randomized to one of four feeding interventions: Meat, Milk, Energy or Control (no feeding). Feeding continued for seven school terms (21 mo), and cognitive tests were administered before the commencement of feeding and during every other term of feeding. Hierarchical linear random effects models and associated methods were used to examine the effects of treatment group on changes in cognitive performance over time. Analyses revealed that children receiving supplemental food with meat significantly outperformed all other children on the Raven's Progressive Matrices. Children supplemented with meat, and children supplemented with energy, outperformed children in the Control group on tests of arithmetic ability. There were no group differences on tests of verbal comprehension. Results suggest that supplementation with animal source food has positive effects on Kenyan children's cognitive performance. However, these effects are not equivalent across all domains of cognitive functioning, nor did different forms of animal source foods produce the same beneficial effects. Implications of these findings for supplementation programs in developing countries are discussed.

PMID: 14672297 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO. Common causes of death in children at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4.". In: Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1970 Nov;9(11):691-4. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1970. Abstract

No abstract available

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Bwibo NO.Congenital syphilis. East Afr Med J. 1971 Apr;48(4):185-91.". In: East Afr Med J. 1971 Apr;48(4):185-91. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1971. Abstract

No abstract available.

K DRMUSAMBAYICHRISANTHUSIKALIKHA. "By Accident and Design, Contextualizing the Success and Dominance of the Kikuyu as Entrepreneurs in Kenya.". In: (IFRA) Nairobi. uon press; 1995. Abstract
{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "By the Sweat of Your Brow: Culture and Work,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "By Word of Mouth." Significance of Oral Tradition in the August - September 1982 issue of the UNESCO COURIER. 1982.

UoN Websites Search