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"BLACK AUTHORS, POETS AND RECITATIONS.". In: First Black American History Symposium. United States International University – Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994.
GATARI MJ, Boman J. "Black carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa." Atmospheric Environment. 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports measurements of black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC)(TC= BC+ organic carbon) in the lower troposphere in Nairobi and the towns of Nanyuki and Meru in Kenya. The rural sites of Nanyuki and Meru are both located on the equator on the …

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Black Civilization and the promotion of Indigenous African Languages.". In: Colloquium section on Languages in Africa at Lagos Festival of Black Civilization and Art held. Lagos; 1977.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Black Market Trade: An Example from a Rural District in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Blackburn, H.D., Davis, S.K., Taylor, J.F. Cartwright, T.C., Rurangirwa, F. & Waruiru, R.M., l990. Genetic resistance to internal parasites.". In: In: Proc. of the 8TH SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, l00-05 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Blanton R.E., Wachira T.M., Zeyhle E.E., Njoroge E.M., Magambo J.K. and Schantz P.M. (1998) Oxfendazole Treatment for Cystic Hydatid Disease in Naturally Infected Animals.". In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 42(3): 601 - 605. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

Akaranga SI, Mwikamba CM. "Blessed are the rich and prosperous for theirs is the Kingdom of this world:The Kenyan Challenge." Research on Humanities and Soicial Sciences. 2015;Vol 5(14):138-141.
CM M, K K, C K. "Blind naso-endotracheal intubation." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):43-46.
Makori EO. "Blockchain Applications and Trends That Promote Information Management.". In: Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things. In Libraries. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2020.
Oredo J. "Blockchain as an Emerging Financial Trust Model." MANAGEMENT April (2019).
MBOYA DROLEWETOM. "Blood lead levels and potential environmental exposures among children under five years in Kibera slums, Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. East African Journal of Public Health; 2009.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Blood Lead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract

.

Kigera JWM, Kimpiatu P. "Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties." Annals of African Surgery. 2014;11(1):16-18.blood_loss_in_thra.pdf
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "BLOOD MEAL SOURCES OF GLOSSINA PALLIDIPES AND G. LONGIPENNIS (DIPTERA: GLOSSINIDAE) IN NGURUMAN, SOUTHWEST KENYA.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
In total, 1,952 Glossina pallidipes Austen and 1,098 G. longipennis Corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in Nguruman, southwestern G. pallidipes and many indicate that ostriches are an important host. More detailed work on the role of ostriches in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis is required. Keywords; tsetse, blood source, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "Blood Pressure and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Young Black Adults.". In: Heart Mirror Journal. Heart Mirror Journal; 2011. Abstract
Background: High blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide including Africa. The age of onset of this condition among young adult black urban dwellers is largely unknown. The economic burden occasioned by this condition calls for early detection to facilitate effective management. We determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Objective To determined the blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors among urban dwelling young adults at the school of medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Three hundred and fifty one medical students were included in the study and grouped by level of study, physical activity and smoking status. The blood pressure, weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured. Results The mean blood pressure, BMI and Waist hip ratio were 121/73 mmhg, 21.8 and 0.81 respectively. Seventy six students (26%) had a BMI below 20, while 28 students (9.6%) had a BMI greater than 25. A quarter of the students had prehypertension while 35(10%) students had stage 1 hypertension. Conclusions Almost half of the young black adults have early non-obesity related hypertension. Elevated blood pressure in the young adults should be controlled to prevent cardiovascular disease related death later in life.
Ongeti K, Ogeng'o J, Pulei A, Olabu B, Gakara C. "Blood pressure characteristics among slum dwellers in Kenya." Global Advanced Research. 2013;2(4):80-85. Abstract

Objectives: To assess the blood pressure characteristics of dwellers of Kibera slum. Design:
Descriptive crossectional study Setting: Kibera slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Patients and Methods: The
blood pressure, resting pulse rate and BMI was assessed among 400 dwellers of Kibera slum in
Nairobi, Kenya. The data collected was analysed for frequency and means using a statistical
program SPSS. Results: The mean blood pressure was 122/71mmHg. Systolic blood pressure was
higher in males than in females (p=0.001). Fifty two (13%) participants, 17.8% of males and 11.1%
of the females were hypertensive. Outstanding factors associated with hypertension included
male gender (p=0.001), a body mass index (BMI) > 25 and increasing age. Seven of the patients
knew they were hypertensive and 5 were on antihypertensive therapy. Conclusions: Prevalence of
hypertension in these urban slum dwellers is comparable to that reported in rural settings
elsewhere in Africa. There is need for public education concerning management of BMI and
hypertension starting early in life and regular screening of people at risk in the urban slum
dwellings.

Ongeti KW, Ogeng’o JA, PUlei AN, Olabu BO, Gakara CN. "Blood pressure characteristics among slum dwellers in Kenya." Glob Adv Res J Microbiol . 2013;2(4):80-85.blood_pressure.pdf
Nabulindo WN. BLOOD PROGESTERONE DETERMINATION BY LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF DAIRY CATTLE IN KENYA.. Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University …; 2016. Abstract
n/a
Gatheru AP. Blood requests, crossmatch and transfusion practices for elective surgery in Kenyatta National Hospital.; 2012. Abstract

This study was carried out over a period of ten weeks between June and August 2011 at the KNH theatres. A total of 370 patients scheduled for elective surgery whose blood had been crossmatched prior to being taken to theatre were recruited into the study. Majority of requests in the study period were requests for whole blood while requests for other blood products were rarely made. Most surgical teams made requests for two units of blood for the adults for most surgical procedures. Cross-matching of one unit of blood per patient however predominated followed by cross-matching of two units per patient. Single unit transfusions for adult patients were the most common despite requests for two units being the majority. However in the category of children the average blood volume transfused was 18.9mllKg. The overall Cross-match to Transfusion ratio during the study period was 1.42. Most of the blood that was cross-matched (64.8%) was transfused of the patients was transfused to them. The mean estimated duration blood products were kept out of the cold chain was 17 minutes. The methods mainly used to reduce the need for pre-operative blood transfusions included use of diathermy, pre-operative hemodilution and use of hypotensive anesthesia. The main transfusion triggers were estimated blood loss, conjuctival pallour and change in haemodynamic status. In the study subjects above 14 years, the mean estimated blood loss triggering transfusion was 750 mls. The study established that all patients received peri-operative fluids with crystalloid infusions predominating. There was a highly significant relationship( P

Githanga J N KGW. "Blood Safety in Kenya:Challenges in blood distribution and cold chain maintenance.". In: 6th International Congress of the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion .; 2012.
Katzarski M, Gopal Rao UK, Brady K. "Blood supply and position of the vermiform appendix in {Zambians}." Medical journal of Zambia. 1979;13:32-34. Abstract

The arterial blood supply, position, and length of the appendix were studied 103 Zambian cadavers. In 39.8%, more than one appendicular artery was found. In position, 43.6% were pelvic, and 20.3% retro-cecal. The average length of the appendix was 12.0 cm in males, and 11.4 cm in females. The prevalence of the dual blood supply and pelvic position, may partly explain the recorded rarity of appendicitis among Africans.

Jani PG. "Blood transfusion in Surgery In Africa." East and Central African Journal of Surgery, Volume 16 Number 2.. 2011;16(2).
NGANGA DRWAWERUFRANK. "Blood volume, Erythrokinetics and Spleen Function in Thrombocythaemia. Waweru F.N., Lewis S.M. Acta haemat. 73:219 .". In: proceedings. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1985. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Dipla K, Nassis GP, Vrabas IS. "Blood {Pressure} {Control} at {Rest} and during {Exercise} in {Obese} {Children} and {Adults}." Journal of Obesity. 2012;2012:e147385. AbstractWebsite

The hemodynamic responses to exercise have been studied to a great extent over the past decades, and an exaggerated blood pressure response during an acute exercise bout has been considered as an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Obesity is a major factor influencing the blood pressure response to exercise since evidence indicates that the arterial pressure response to exercise is exacerbated in obese compared with lean adults. Signs of augmented responses (such as an exaggerated blood pressure response) to physical exertion appear early in life (from the prepubertal years) in obese individuals. Understanding the mechanisms that drive the altered hemodynamic responses during exercise in obese individuals and prevent the progression to hypertension is vitally important. This paper focuses on the evidence linking obesity with alterations of the autonomic nervous system and discusses the potential mechanisms and consequences of the altered sympathetic nervous system behavior in obese individuals at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, this paper presents the alterations in the reflex regulatory mechanisms (&\#8220;exercise pressor reflex&\#8221; and baroreflex) in obese children and adults and addresses the effects of training on obesity-related disturbances.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "BloodLead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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Ogutu CA, Odweso GM. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016.
Patrick G.O. Weke, Ogutu C, Odwesso G. "BLUE, ABLE and Simplified Linear Estimation of the Selected Order Statistics from the Logistic Distribution." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics. 2016;52(3):149-234.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Blue-gum Timber as a Structural Material. Proceedings of the Forestry Engineering for Tomorrow Conference. Timber. Edinburgh, Scotland. 28- 30 June.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Howell KL, Hilário AHF, Haberland G, et al. "A Blueprint for an Inclusive, Global Deep-Sea Ocean Decade Field Program." Biochem Pharmacol. 2020;7:1-25.
Aosa EA, Machuki V, Letting N. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 11(June). Abstract

This study examined the relationship between Board diversity and financial performance of firms listed in the Nairobi Stock Exchange. Data on Boards’ age, gender, educational qualifications, study specialization, and board specialization as well as the companies’ financial performance were obtained from 40 companies using a structured questionnaire. Using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, the results show that there is a weak positive association between board diversity and financial performance. Overall, the results indicate a statistically not significant effect of board diversity on financial performance except for the independent effect of board study specialization on dividend yield. The results partially concur with agency and resource dependency theories of corporate governance as well as similar empirical studies. Ensuing implications for theory, policy and practice as well as methodology are also discussed.
Key Words: Board of Directors’ Diversity, Financial Performance, Listed Firms, Kenya

Letting, Aosa E, Machuki VN. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(11) pp. 172-182; 2012. Abstract
n/a
OLUOCH M F, M. OGINDA, I. OCHIENG. "Board Effectiveness and Performance of Public TVET Institution in Nyanza Region, Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management. 2015;7(11):ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (.
Mandala N, Kaijage, Aduda J, Iraya C. "Board Structure, CEO Tenure, Firm’s Characteristics and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(31):39-63.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Boarders, Frontiers and Conflict in Africa CCR-.". In: Paradigms for Constitutional Change in Kenya (Nairobi: Claripress). University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
FES Papers in Conflict Management, No. 2
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Bochner Curvature Tensor in Kahler Manifold.". In: Prog. Of Math. Vol.5 No. 1 and 2, PP 82-87. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1971. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
and Mwangi, E. Raharimampionona LSABJPEPS. "Bodiversity: Chapter 7 in African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, Our Wealth.". In: African Environment Outlook 2: Our Environment, Our Wealth. United Nations Environment Programme; 2006.
Ndetei, D.M., Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN. "Body dysmorphic disorder - case report.". 2007.
Mareko GM, Othieno CJ, Kuria MW, Kiarie JN, Ndetei DM. "Body dysmorphic disorder: case report." East Afr Med J. 2007;84(9):450-2. Abstract

The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.

Obel AO. "Body mass index in Non - Insulin Dependent Diabetes in K enya." Tropical and Geographical Medicine . 1988;40(2):93-96.
Kihiu J, Rading G, Mutuli S. Boiler, Piping and Pressure Vessel Cross-Bore Design Stresses. Saarbrucken: VDM Publishing; 2011.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M. J., Janh.". In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss; 8, 7703-7724. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Boman J., Gatari M.J., wagner A., Hossain M.I., (2005). Elemental characterization of aerosols in urban and rural locations in Bangladesh.". In: X-ray Spetrometry; DOI: 10, 1002/xrs.864, 460-467. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract
There have been very few studies in Kenya on aerosols despite the global demand on aerosol ground studies in the perspective of climate and the human well being. Therefore, atmospheric aerosol studies became the basis of the work covered in this thesis which describes aerosol studies in Kenya and development of an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF). Atmospheric aerosols are composed of both the particulate and gas phases and they contain chemical compounds and elememts that are harmful to human health. Their particle size range is related to sources and this determines their impact in the ambient aatmosphere. Anthropogenic activities mainly contribute fine particles mass (PM 2.5) and natural proceses contribute both fine and course (PM (10-2.5)) particle masses. PM10 (PM 2.5 + PM (10-2.5)) are inhalable into the human respiratory system and the fine particles have a marked impact on climate. PM10 particles are efficient in transporting micronutrients between ecosystems, soiling and destroying buildings. Any policies meant to protect the environment by controlling atmospheric aerosol particles will need back up knowledge on particle sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. The five sampling campaigns covered under this study were conducted in Nairobi city, Meru and Nanyuki towns and on the slopes of Mount Kenya at about 2000m and 4000 m above the sea level. The multi-elemental analyzing capacity of EDXRF and statistical treatment of data are indispensable tools in aerosol source identification. These techniques were used in all the published results. The results revealed the dominance of local and regional biomass burning and local soil dust emissions. Traffic emissions were more pronounced in urban centers, with high concentrations of Br, Pb and Mn in Nairobi but with minor contribution at the remote sites on Mount Kenya. Marine influence was seen superimposed in the soil dust emissions and agricultural activities were also identied through elevated concentrations of Ca, Cl, K and S in the same source. Nairobi turned out to be a more polluted city in comparison to Dar es Salaam, Gaborone and Khartoum in Africa. The developed EDXRF spectrometer will play a major role in environmental studies in Kenya. Longterm measurements of Kenyan aerosols are recommended to better understand the total picture of aerosol particles including seasonal variation.
MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Bondole wa Mbula, E.M. Gathuru, 1986. Malakisi tobacco necrosis virus. Proceeding of the symposium on viral diseases in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya. O.A.U. Scientific and Technical Res. Council Publication.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium of the Crop Science Society of Kenya held on 4-8th July 1988. Nairobi, Kenya. 15 p. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1986. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
Kwasa JK, Amayo A NPMKTO. "Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premenopausal women and in epileptics on anti-convulsant drugs." East Afr Med Journal. 2010;87(4):151-155. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Long term anti-epileptic drug use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been documented in both institutionalised and ambulatory patients.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess bone metabolism in ambulatory females of reproductive age, on antiepileptic drugs.
DESIGN:
Cross sectional comparative study.
SUBJECTS:
Ambulatory females in reproductive age group with epilepsy and on regular follow up were compared to healthy females of similar ages not on any treatment.
RESULTS:
The mean duration of treatment for epilepsy was eight years (+/- 6.3). Majority of the patients were on enzyme inducing drugs like phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate, either alone or in combination with non-enzyme inducers like lamotrigine (98.2%). There was a significantly lower mean serum calcium and a higher alkaline phosphatase level among the patients (P = 0.002 and 0.0001 respectively) than among the comparators. The urinary marker of bone loss (mean urine calcium excretion) was also significantly raised among the patients (P=0.003). The mean lumbar BMDT-score results were not significantly different in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Long-term anti-epileptic drug use significantly affects biochemical parameters of bone metabolism. These effects on bone biochemistry markers were not reflected in lumbar spine BMD in this study.

Kwasa JK, Amayo A, Ndavi PM, Kwasa TOO. "Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premenopausal women and in epileptics on anti-convulsant drugs." East Afr Med J. 2010;87(4):151-5. Abstract

Long term anti-epileptic drug use causes multiple abnormalities in calcium and bone metabolism that have been documented in both institutionalised and ambulatory patients.

Atoh FO, Otieno S. "Bonface Mganga.". In: Bonface Mganga. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; 2019.
Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book chapter entitled .". In: edited by J.G. Kiango and J.S Mlee, published by Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 1995.
Ebrahim YH. "Book chapters: Research methodology textbook on assessing and appreciating the impact.". In: Micro-temperature change and urban built-form. Beau Bassin, Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2019.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book entitled .". In: published by Phoenix Publishers. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2004.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Book entitled "The Kenya Highlands - Agricultural Geography" - published by the East African Publishing House, Limited, Nairobi, 1971. This book was the result of my Ph.D research work and, more important, an incorporation of my post-doctoral research on .". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1971. Abstract
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ROBERT DRMUDIDA. "Book entitled Essays in Conflict and Peace Studies (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming.". In: (Nairobi: Focus Publications, 2009) Forthcoming. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2009. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. "A book entitled Paradiso.". In: published by Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Mwaniki, S. W.; Nderitu, J. H. ; Olubayo, F.; Kimenju, J. W.; 2005.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa (H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University. Title, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Book Review for H-Net Africa(H-Africa@h-net.msu.edu) Michigan State University, Alusine Jalloh and Toyin Falola,Eds, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2003.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "BOOK REVIEW OF FROM STRATEGIES TO ACTION.". In: Published by Association of African Women for Research Development, AAWORD Kenya Chapter.; 1995. Abstract

This book is an epic account of life, touching on diverse facets of existence with the Buddhist answers to the riddles of life and those provided by modern science towards the same or similar riddles. In this book, Ikeda catches and conveys to us the impression that living a fulfilling life is attainable, and that the splendour of living such a life has an immutable value that transcends the bounds of the physical death. Fleeting between the past, present and a possible future, the book wrestles with the giant headaches of humankind through a systematic explication of the nature of the cosmos and life, the Buddhist view of life, and the question of life and death. All this is done with the exactitude of a physician carrying out a heart surgery, and with the eloquence of a young man wooing a fair maid. On the whole, the book reduces the recurrent headaches of man to quite curable ailments, no more serious than the common cold or constipation. With respect to the nature of the cosmos and life, the author sinks his teeth into such concepts as the body and the spirit, man and nature, eyes that can see life, the riddle of time and the essence of the cosmos. On the body and the spirit, the author addresses first and foremost, the strange phenomenon of life as it manifests itself in empirical situations

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, "Public Enterprise in Kenya: What Works, What Doesn't Work? and Why?" by Barbara Grosh.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.7, Nos. 1 and 2 February and May.; 1992. Abstract
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HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Book Review, Poems, Ashes and Ambers by Hossenjee Edoo and Anand Mulloo, Port Louis (Nice Printing)44pp.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1974. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Public Administration in World Perspective, by O.P. Dwivedi and Keith M. Henderson, eds.". In: African Urban Quarterly, Vol.6 Nos.1 and 2 February and May.; 1991. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "Book Review, Urban Migrants and Rural Development in Kenya, by John O. Oucho, Nairobi University Press.". In: African Book Publishing Record, Vol.xxiv, No.3, 1998, p.214.; 1996. Abstract
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K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Book Review: Estimating costs for cost effectiveness analysis: guidelines for managers of diarrhoeal diseases, CDD-WHO, Geneva, 1988, appearing on Health Policy and Planning: A Journal In Health in Development, Vol. 6 #1, March 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Book Review: Traditional Ideology and Ethics Among the Southern Luo, by A.B.C. Acholla-Ayayo in Problems of Developing Countries, No. 80, 1980.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1980. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Book: Edited by Prof. G. White, Academician Gerasimov and R.S. Odingo - Complex Water Development Systems. Westview Press, October, 1977.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1977. Abstract
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DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Book: Exegesis in Practice: Selected Texts of the Old and New Testaments, Nairobi 2006.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
WAMUYU MSNGECHUMARYELLEN, K. DRDALIZUEGAMBIF. "A booklet of Public Speaking: Using Communication Strategies and Good Human Relations. Synergy Services International (1992).". In: Synergy Services International (1992). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Booklet: Apostolato Ya Biblia "A" 1996 Nairobi.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1996. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
DAVID DRNJOROGEPETER. "Booklet: Biblical Apostolate "B" 1997, Nairobi.". In: Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. University of Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Books or Chapters in a book 31) Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome, R.G., 2004. Cattle Production systems in Kenya: Research and development. In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85- 1.". In: In: Cattle Production in Kenya-Strategies for planning and implementation, K.A.R.I., Nairobi. ISBN: 9966-879-57-9, pp85-133. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Boon for town in Murang'a." Star, June 20, 2013.
Gichuyia LN. BOOSTING INTERCON- TINENTAL RELATIONS _ LESSONS FROM BUILDING PHYSICS. Wilhelm Kempff house- Casa Orfeo, Positano -Italy,; 2019.
Pauw GD, Waiganjo Wagacha P, de Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping Machine Translation for the Language Pair English - Kiswahili." In: J. Aisbett, G. Gibbon, A.J. Rodrigues, K.K. Migga, R. Nath, G.R. Renardel, eds. Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research - Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. Kampala, Uganda: Fountain Publishers; 2008:. Abstract
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Pauw GD, Wagacha P, De Schryver G-M. "Bootstrapping machine translation for the language pair English-Kiswahili." Special Topics in Computing and ICT Research-Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development. 2008:30-37. AbstractFull Text

HTQO VJG increasing availability of parallel corpora. Processing the same text in two
different languages yields useful information on how words and phrases are translated from
a source language into a target language. To investigate this, a parallel corpus is typically
aligned by linking linguistic tokens in the source language to the corresponding units in the
target language. An aligned parallel corpus therefore facilitates the automatic

Pauw GD, Wagacha PW. "Bootstrapping morphological analysis of Gĩkũyũ using unsupervised maximum entropy learning." Eighth Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association. 2007. AbstractFull Text

This paper describes a proof-of-the-principle experiment in which maximum entropy
learning is used for the automatic induction of shallow morphological features for the
resourcescarce Bantu language of Gıkuyu. This novel approach circumvents the limitations
of typical unsupervised morphological induction methods that employ minimum-edit
distance metrics to establish morphological similarity between words. The experimental
results show that the unsupervised maximum entropy learning approach compares

Mulwa JK. "Borehole site investigations in volcanic rocks of Lolmolok area, Samburu district, Kenya.". In: Water Resources of Arid areas. London: Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 04 1535 9139; 2004. Abstract

A systematic approach has been applied in the selection of suitable sites for borehole drilling in a quest to provide adequate water supply to a rural pastoral community in Lolmolok area. The study area lies in samburu district in Kenya and is bound by latitudes 0°56’21”N and 0°57’58”N and longitudes 36°34’42”E and 36°36’35”E. The geology of this area is comprised of tertiary volcanics. Basalts, which have weathered into residual black cotton soil, are underlain by phonolitic lavas and tuffs. The systemat-ic approach for the exploration of groundwater was followed to enable selection of an optimum drill site(s) within a quadrant with three-kilometer radius identified by the pas-toral community. The approach consisted of the following multi-steps:-
(i) Hydrogeological reconnaissance of the whole area, mapping different groundwa-ter potential areas on the basis of aerial photo interpretation;
(ii) Geophysical field surveys involving very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES).
(iii) Processing and interpretation of the data acquired in the field, which led to selection of suitable drill sites, indication of potential yield and depth of aquifers.
This paper describes the success of combined geophysical survey techniques in siting boreholes whose yield ranges between 5 m3/hr and 10 m3/hr.

STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Bories JC, Loiseau P, d'Auriol L, Gontier C, Bensussan A, Degos L, Sigaux F. Regulation of transcription of the human T cell antigen receptor delta chain gene. A T lineage-specific enhancer element is located in the J delta 3-C delta intron.J Exp Med. 199.". In: J Exp Med. 1990 Jan 1;171(1):75-83. uon press; 1990. Abstract

Laboratoire d'Hematologie Moleculaire, Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France. We have defined transcriptional enhancing sequences inside the TCR-delta gene locus, using transient transfections with constructs containing DNA fragments cloned upstream to a reporter gene fused to a heterologous promoter. A 14-kb DNA region extending from the J delta 3 segment to 6 kb 3' to C delta was analyzed. We show the presence of positive regulatory sequences inside the J delta 3-C delta intron and have localized these sequences to two DNA fragments of approximately 300 and 258 bp. Analysis of cell specificity of the activation of such sequences demonstrates a T cell pattern for one of the two fragments. The nucleotide sequence of the T cell-specific element shows motifs sharing homology with previously described core enhancers.

Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Born Too Soon: Provide Corticosteriods at the earliest opportunity even if dose is not completed." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):62-63.Website
Nyamai C, Rollion C, Feneyrol J, Martelat J-E, Omito E, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu A. "The boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from tsavorite deposits in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique metamorphic belt, with a special focus on the mining districts in Kenya.". In: 13th SGA Biennial Meeting. Nancy, France; 2015. Abstractgiulianietal.boronsga-2015.pdf

The dravitic tourmalines associated with different types of rock from the tsavorite-bearing
metasedimentary Neoproterozoic sequence in Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar show two
ranges of boron isotopic compositions:(1) Tourmalines associated with tsavorite nodules
have homogenous 8113 values of-19.8 1 1.2 'llm that clearly involve continental evaporitic
material;(2) Tourrnalines from unmineralized rocks (elastic metasediments, metapegmatite,
and marble) have 8118 values between 45.9 and 40.356 “, which reflect a magmatic source
for the elastic tourmaline and probably an evaporitic one for tourmaline in marble.

W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bosch KA, Rainwater S, Jaoko W & Overbaugh J (2009) Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response. Virology 398(1):115-24.". In: UoN research meeting. Virology 398(1):115-24; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Bosch KA, Rainwater S, Jaoko W & Overbaugh J (2009) Temporal analysis of HIV envelope sequence evolution and antibody escape in a subtype A-infected individual with a broad neutralizing antibody response. Virology 398(1):115-24.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Virology 398(1):115-24; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Chugh DA, Kala M, Acharya SK, Khanna N, Sinha S.Characterization and molecular modeling of a highly stable anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen scFv.Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31.". In: Mol Immunol. 2003 Dec;40(9):617-31. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

We raised a mouse monoclonal antibody (5S) against the 'a' epitope of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by selecting for binding of the hybridoma supernatant in conditions that usually destabilize protein-protein interactions. This antibody, which was protective in an in vitro assay, had a high affinity with a relative dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. It also displayed stable binding to antigen in conditions that usually destabilize antigen-antibody interactions, like 30% DMSO, 8 M urea, 4 M NaCl, 1 M guanidium HCl and extremes of pH. The variable regions of the antibody were cloned and expressed as an single chain variable fragment (scFv) (A5). A5 had a relative affinity comparable to the mouse monoclonal and showed antigen binding in presence of 20% DMSO, 8 M urea and 3 M NaCl. It bound the antigen in the pH range of 6-8, though its tolerance for guanidium HCl was reduced. Sequence analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the frequency of somatic replacement mutations in CDRs over framework regions in the light but not in the heavy chain. A comparison of the molecular models of the variable regions of the 5S antibody and its germ-line precursor revealed that critical mutations in the heavy and light chains interface resulted in better inter-chain packing and in the movement of CDR H3 and CDR L1 from their germline positions, which may be important for better antigen binding. In addition to providing a reagent for neutralizing for the virus, such an antibody provides a model for the evolution of stable high affinity interaction during antibody maturation.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Khanna N, Acharya SK, Sinha S.Generation and characterization of a high-affinity chimaeric antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen.Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Feb;43(Pt 2):93-101.". In: Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Feb;43(Pt 2):93-101. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Antibody against HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) is advocated for the passive immunotherapy in certain cases of hepatitis B infections. A recombinant monoclonal antibody against HBsAg would offer several advantages over the currently used polyclonal human hepatitis B immunoglobulin. 5S is a mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to HBsAg with very high affinity. However, this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes, as it may elicit antimouse immune responses. Chimaerization, by replacing mouse constant domains with human counterparts, can reduce the immunogenicity of this molecule. We have cloned the V(H) (heavy-chain variable region) and V(L) (light-chain variable region) genes of this mouse antibody, and fused them with C(H)1 (heavy-chain constant domain 1) of human IgG1 and C(L) (light-chain constant domain) of human kappa chain respectively. These chimaeric genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector (pFab-CMV), which has a modular cassette coding for part of the hinge, C(H)2 and C(H)3 of human IgG1. The recombinant construct was transfected in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells to generate a stable transfectoma. The resulting transfectoma was maintained in a serum-free medium and the full-length chimaeric anti-HBsAg antibody was purified from the culture supernatant. The yield of the purified chimaeric antibody was moderate ( approximately 5.5 mg/l). We further characterized the chimaeric antibody using several in vitro techniques. It was observed that the chimaeric molecule was glycosylated and expressed in the expected heterodimeric form. This chimaeric antibody has very high affinity and specificity, similar to that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bose B, Khanna N, Acharya SK, Sinha S.Generation and characterization of a single-gene mouse-human chimeric antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Sep;21(9):1439-47.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Sep;21(9):1439-47. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is used for passive immunotherapy in certain cases of hepatitis B infection. The authors have earlier reported a high-affinity mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However, this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes because it may elicit antimouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody. METHODS: A single-chain variable fragment (scFv), derived from the mouse monoclonal 5S, was fused with the fragment crystallisable (Fc) fragment of human IgG1. The scFv region is expected to bind to the antigen, whereas the Fc fragment can provide the effector functions required for virus neutralization. This chimeric molecule was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in serum-free medium. It was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by in vitro binding studies. RESULTS: Purification and characterization indicated that this chimeric scFv-Fc fusion protein is secreted as a disulfide-linked, glycosylated, homodimeric molecule. The yield of the purified chimeric antibody was approximately 4.6 mg/L. In vitro analyses confirmed that this chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal. CONCLUSION: Because it is a single-gene product, this chimeric scFv-Fc has the advantage of stable expression. Being chimeric and bivalent, it is expected to be less immunogenic and therefore suitable for further in vivo studies on virus neutralization.
Peng B, Li J, Li Q, Li Y, Zhu H, Zhang L, Wang X, Bi L, Lu H, Xie J, others. "Bose–Einstein oscillators and the excitation mechanism of free excitons in 2D layered organic–inorganic perovskites." RSC advances. 2017;7:18366-18373. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Botanical and chemical composition of livestock diets on a semi-arid rangeland. Discovery and Innovation, 9: 235-241.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER, S.O W. "Botanical composition has a greater influence on mineral concentrations in dry season pastures in W. Kenya than either soil origin or composition.". In: Proceedings of "Environmental Geochemistry and Health in Developing Countries Conference", London, October 20-21. Book of Abstracts, 36-37. Association of Africa Universities; 1993. Abstracteffects_of_botanical_composition.doc

The prediction of mineral deficiencies in grazing livestock requires good correlations between convenient markers of mineral status and animal health or productivity. Correlations are likely to become weaker in moving from animal to pasture to soil in pursuit of a predictor because of the many factors which influence mineral uptake at each interface. However, soils are the easiest to characterize and correlations might be improved by removing the effects of known sources of variation. The influence of botanical (pasture species), geographical (altitude) and pedological (bedrock type, soil pH and extractable mineral concentration) factors on mineral concentrations in dry season pasture was therefore assessed. Samples of topsoil and herbage were gathered from 135 sites on 84 farms in the Mt Elgon region of W. Kenya between January and March, 1987. The underlying parent bedrock was determined from 1:125,000 Geological survey maps and altitude from topographical maps. Botanical composition of the pasture sample was recorded. Soil pH and total (Se) or extractable (not Se) mineral concentrations were determined by standard methods as were total mineral concentrations in unwashed herbage. Distribution of principle botanical species and all bedrock types amongst the sample sites are indicated in Tables 1 and 2 respectively, together with the analytical results. Statistical analysis used a residual maximum likelihood (REML) model for unbalanced data sets.
Pasture concentrations of Ca, P and Cu were generally below the requirement of ruminants, Zn and Se were marginal while Co, Fe and Mn were adequate. Soil bedrock had little influence on herbage composition. Of the four macro-elements, only S was affected by geology, low values being found above TV and MS bedrock. By contrast, only P was not affected by species, Ss being low and PC usually high in macro minerals. Of the seven trace elements analysed, geology influenced only one (Cu); low values were again found above TV and Mfi but Cu availability to grazing ruminants would be relatively high because of the associated low S values. By contrast, only Se was unaffected by species, PC being rich in all but Mn. Soil bedrock had a greater influence on soil composition but correlations between soil and herbage usually accounted for less than 10% of the variation in pasture composition (max r value 0.5 for P): correlations within species were equally poor. The influence of species on herbage Co disappeared if herbage Fe was used as a covariate, suggesting that contamination by soil Co varied between species: however, the correlation with soil Co remained weak. Soil pH was generally low and its use as a covariate did little to improve soil/plant relationships. Herbage Cu increased and Se decreased in curvilinear relationships with altitude.
Mineral deficiencies were therefore likely to occur in grazing livestock, risk being influenced by botanical and topographical but not pedological factors.

Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
"Botany.". 2012.
MUHIA DRLILLIANWANGECHIWAIBOCI, CM A, MG M, LO F, JP M, MI H, HM J. "Both the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) kinase inhibitory region and SOCS-1 mimetic bind to JAK2 autophosphorylation site: implications for the development of a SOCS-1 antagonist.". In: J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15;178(8):5058-68. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2007. Abstract

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 protein modulates signaling by IFN-gamma by binding to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2 and by targeting bound JAK2 to the proteosome for degradation. We have developed a small tyrosine kinase inhibitor peptide (Tkip) that is a SOCS-1 mimetic. Tkip is compared in this study with the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) of SOCS-1 for JAK2 recognition, inhibition of kinase activity, and regulation of IFN-gamma-induced biological activity. Tkip and a peptide corresponding to the KIR of SOCS-1, ((53))DTHFRTFRSHSDYRRI((68)) (SOCS1-KIR), both bound similarly to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2, JAK2(1001-1013). The peptides also bound to JAK2 peptide phosphorylated at Tyr(1007), pJAK2(1001-1013). Dose-response competitions suggest that Tkip and SOCS1-KIR similarly recognize the autophosphorylation site of JAK2, but probably not precisely the same way. Although Tkip inhibited JAK2 autophosphorylation as well as IFN-gamma-induced STAT1-alpha phosphorylation, SOCS1-KIR, like SOCS-1, did not inhibit JAK2 autophosphorylation but inhibited STAT1-alpha activation. Both Tkip and SOCS1-KIR inhibited IFN-gamma activation of Raw 264.7 murine macrophages and inhibited Ag-specific splenocyte proliferation. The fact that SOCS1-KIR binds to pJAK2(1001-1013) suggests that the JAK2 peptide could function as an antagonist of SOCS-1. Thus, pJAK2(1001-1013) enhanced suboptimal IFN-gamma activity, blocked SOCS-1-induced inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation in IL-6-treated cells, enhanced IFN-gamma activation site promoter activity, and enhanced Ag-specific proliferation. Furthermore, SOCS-1 competed with SOCS1-KIR for pJAK2(1001-1013). Thus, the KIR region of SOCS-1 binds directly to the autophosphorylation site of JAK2 and a peptide corresponding to this site can function as an antagonist of SOCS-1.

and Oucho, J.O. CMEE. Botswana migration perspectives and prospects.; 2000.
and Oucho, J.O. CMEE. Botswana migration perspectives and prospects.; 2000.
Oucho JO. "Botswana; Migration Overview.". In: Migration Perspective and prospects. Cape Town: IDSA; 2000.
Awino ZB, Nkirote C. "Bottlenecks in the Execution of Kenya Vision 2030 Strategy: An Empirical Study ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(3):505-512.
Opondo M. "A bottom -up approach to climate change adaptation policy: a case study of a community drought resilience project in Sakai sub-location, Makueni District, Kenya." (eds.) Musyoki, A. and Khayesi, M. Environment and Development: Selected Themes from Eastern and Southern Africa, Bay Publishers: Botswana; 2012. Abstract
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"Boundary element methods in fluid flow." Afrika Matematika. 1991;Vol 3(Series 2):pp. 53-63.
Ogana W. "Boundary element methods in three-dimensional transonic flows, in C.A. Brebbia and J.J. Connor (eds.).". In: Advances in Boundary Elements - Vol. 2: Field and Fluid Flow Solutions. Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton; 1989.
Ogana W. "Boundary element methods in two-dimensional transonic flows, in C.A. Brebbia, W.L. Wendland and G. Kuhn (eds.).". In: Boundary Elements IX - Vol.3: Fluid Flow and Potential Applications. Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton ; 1987.
Ogana W. "Boundary element solution of the transonic integral equation." Afrika Matematika. 1988;(Series 2, ):pp. 5-28.
Ogana W. Boundary element solution of the transonic integral equation. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report,; 1987.
Ogana W. "Boundary element solution of the transonic integro-differential equation." Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements. 1989;Vol. 6(No. 4):pp. 170-179.
Ogana W. Boundary element solution of the transonic integro-differential equation. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report,; 1987.
Ogana W. "Boundary element solution of the transonic integro-differential equation involving a decay function." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 1988;Vol. 9(Series A, Nos. 1 & 2):pp.23-38.
FRANKLIN DROPIJAH. "The Boundary-Layer Flow-Field Regime over Nairobi.". In: Experimewntal Mechanics. University of Nairobi; 1992.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill EG Jr, Kung'u A, Bencivenga A, Jeshrani MK, Mbindyo BS, Heda PM. An epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma in Kenya: the variations in incidence between ethnic groups and geographic regions, 1968-1978. Int Orthop. 1985;9(1):59-63.". In: Int Orthop. 1985;9(1):59-63. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN, S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Bovill, E., Kungu, A., Bencivenga, A., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S., Heda, P.M. Epidemiological study of osteogenic sarcoma variations in incidence between Ethnic groups and Geographical Regions 1966-1979.International Orthopaedics Sicot.". In: International Orthopaedics Sicot. University of Nairobi.; Submitted. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
KAAYA, G.P., VALLI, V.E.O., MAXIE MG. "Bovine erythrocytic, granulocytic and macrophage colony formation in culture." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1978;42:322-326.
KAAYA, G.P., MAXIE, M.G., VALLI VEO, LOSOS GJ. "Bovine granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony culture: Characteristics of the colonies and the assay systems." Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1979;43:448-457.
Peterson DL, Gleisner JM, Blakley RL. "Bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase: purification and properties of the enzyme." Biochemistry. 1975;14(24):5261-7. Abstract

A purification procedure is reported for obtaining bovine liver dihydrofolate reductase in high yield and amounts of 100-200 mg. A key step in the procedure is the use of an affinity gel prepared by coupling pteroyl-L-lysine to Sepharose. The purified reductase has a specific activity of about 100 units/mg and is homogeneous as judged by analytical ultracentrifugation, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and titration with methotrexate. The products of the first step of Edman degradation indicated a minimum purity of 79%. The reductase has a molecular weight of about 21500 on the basis of amino acid composition and 22100 +/- 300 from equilibrium sedimentation. It is not inhibited by antiserum to the Streptococcus faecium reductase (isoenzyme 2). Unlike the reductase of many other vertebrate tissues, the bovine enzyme is inhibited by mercurials rather than activated and it has a single pH optimum at both low and high ionic strength. However, the position of the pH optimum is shifted and the activity increased by increasing ionic strength. Automatic Edman degradation has been used to determine 34 of the amino-terminal 37 amino acid residues. Considerable homology exists between this region and the corresponding regions of the reductase from S. faecium and from Escherichia coli. This strengthens the idea that this region contributes to the structure of the binding site for dihydrofolate.

Jolly RD, Thompson KG, Winchester BG. "Bovine mannosidosis--a model lysosomal storage disease." Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser.. 1975;11(6):273-8.
Thaiya A.G., P. Gitau, Gitau G.K., Nyaga, P. N. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian." kenya veterinarian. 2010;58(33):6-19.
GITAU DRTHAIYAHANDREW. "Bovine papillomatosis and its management with an autogenous virus vaccine in Kiambu district, Kenya. Kenya veterinarian. Thaiyah, A.G., Gitau, P., Gitau, G.K., and Nyaga, P.N. (2010).". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. kenya veterinarian: 33: 6-19; 2009. Abstract

Fresh blood lymphocytes from nine health donors have been compared with samples from the same donors, recovered after period of 2 to 21 months storage in liquid nitrogen, for the capacity to respond to a range of mitogens in vitro. A microculture assay was used, requireing aliquots of only 25,000 cells. The mean levels of 14C-thymidine uptake for fresh and frozen samples were closely comparable when the cells had been stimulated by PHA, Pokeweed or mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells. Lymphocytes from six East African donors, frozen by a very simple technique, were recovered after 3 or more years storage in liquid nitrogen. Five of the samples were in good condition as judged by cell viability and the capacity to form spontaneous 'E' rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These five samples also responded extremely well to PHA, PWM and mitomycin-C-treated allogeneic lymphoblastoid cells using the microculture assay. This study extends the range of applications of cell banks in which small aliquots of blood lymphocytes are stored in liquid nitrogen for periods of several years.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Boy Who Learnt to Play Ball. Barrack Muluka and Tobias Otieno (Eds). The Doomed Conspiracy and Other Stories. 191-94.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers; 2011. Abstract

PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Braddick M.R., Kreiss J.K., Embree J.E., Datta P., Nidnya-Achola J.O., Pamba H.O., Maitha G., Roberts P., Quinn T.C., Homes K.K., Vercauteren G., Piot P., Adler M.W. and Plummer F.A.: Impact of Maternal HIV Infection on Obstetrical and Early Neonata Outco.". In: Outcome AIDS 4: 101 . Opuscula Mathematica,; 1990. Abstractimpact_of_maternal_hiv_infection_on_obstetrical_and_early_neonatal_outcome.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Braddick MR, Kreiss JK, Embree JE, Datta P, Ndinya-Achola JO, Pamba H, Maitha G, Robert PL, Quinn TC, Holmes KK, Vercauteren G, Piot P, Alder MW, Plummer FA.Impact of maternal HIV infection obstetrical and early neonatal outcome. AIDS 4 (10): 1001 - 1005,.". In: AIDS 4 (10): 1001 - 1005, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Braddick MR, Ndinya-Achola JO, Mirza NB, Plummer FA, Irungu G, Sinei SK, Piot P. Towards developing a diagnostic algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis in pregnancy.Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5.". In: Genitourin Med. 1990 Apr;66(2):62-5. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1990. Abstract
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. To identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection, we examined pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. C trachomatis was isolated from 14/178 (8%), and N gonorrhoeae from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Two characteristics were independently predictive of cervical infection by logistic regression analysis; the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding, relative risk 4.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 8.0) and having more than one sexual partner during pregnancy, relative risk 3.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 7.6). A screening programme for cervical infection which tested women with one or both risk markers would have a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI 51 to 85%) and a positive predictive value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.47). In countries where resources are limited, diagnostic algorithms incorporating clinical signs and behavioural characteristics may be useful in identifying pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection. PIP: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea are major causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity in developing countries. 178 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were therefore examined in the attempt to identify characteristics predictive of cervical infection. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 14 (8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoea from 17 (10%); cervical infection with either pathogen was present in 28 (16%). Logistic regression analysis found that the presence of either endocervical mucopus or induced endocervical bleeding and having more than 1 sex partner during pregnancy were independently predictive of cervical infection. A screening program for cervical infection which tested women with 1 or both risk markers wold have a sensitivity of 68% and a positive predictive value of 0.35. The authors conclude that countries with limited resources may use diagnostic algorithms and incorporate clinical signs and behavioral characteristics to help identify pregnant women at high risk of cervical infection.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Braddick MR,Ndinya-Achola JO,Mirza NB,PlummerFA, Irungu G, Sinei SKA, Piot P.Towards developing a diagnostic algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis in pregnancy. Genitourin Med. 66: 62 - 65, 1990.". In: Genitourin Med. 66: 62 - 65, 1990. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "The Bradley-Terry Model for Handling Categorical Response Variables from Farmer Participatory Trials." Far East J. of Theo. Stat. . 2006;20(2):163-178. AbstractWebsite

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This paper looks at responses from participatory on-farm farmer participatory trials that are often measured as ratings (farmers score each given treatment on a scale that is ordered but arbitrary) or rankings (where farmers arrange the treatments in order from most preferred to least preferred). Simple methods such as the preference statistic that uses the proportion of responses, Kruskal-Wallis test which is a one-way analysis of variance by ranks and the Friedman test that is a two-way analysis of variance by ranks are outlined. The Bradley-Terry model for ranks which is a logit model for paired comparisons is described and used to fit models for plot level covariates.

Uhl GR, Arinami T, Teasenfitz L, Macharia D, Iwasaki S, Inada T, Lujilde J, Hope B, Akinshola EB, Brusco A, Gardner E, Tagliaferro PA, Mora Z, Perchuk A, Myers L, Meozzi PA, Patel S, Gong J-P, Ishiguro H, Onaivi mail ES. "Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.". 2008.
Mwang'ombe N.J, R.B O. "Brain tumours at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2000;77(8):444-7. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency, mode of presentation and outcome following treatment of gliomas in patients treated at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, between January 1984 and December 1993. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fourteen patients with intracranial tumours who underwent brain surgery at the Kenyatta National Hospital. RESULTS: Two hundred and fourteen histologically confirmed intracranial tumours were seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1984 and 1993. Ninety seven (45.8%) of these were gliomas of which eighty one were astrocytomas, ten ependymomas and six oligodendrogliomas. Meningiomas were the next common tumours (34.4%). Gliomas affected the young age group most, with the peak in the first decade of life. Males were most affected with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Features of increased intracranial pressure were the commonest mode of clinical presentation. The parietal region was the commonest site of intracranial gliomas (37.5%). Surgery and radiotherapy were the main forms of definitive/palliative treatment given. The two year survival rate was 25%, for patients who had undergone total tumour excision with or without radiotherapy. Tumour debulking only without post-operative radiotherapy was associated with a seven per cent two year survival rate. CONCLUSION: Gliomas were the commonest intracranial tumours (45.8%) seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a ten year period (1983-1994). Radical surgery with or without radiotherapy was associated with a 25% two year survival rate, debulking and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival, biopsy and radiotherapy with 20% two year survival and debulking only with a seven per cent two-year survival. Gliomas are less commonly seen in the Kenyan African in comparison with rates of occurrence in the Caucasian race.
East Afr Med J. 2000 Aug;77(8):444-7.

Lom B, Cohen-Cory S. "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially regulates retinal ganglion cell dendritic and axonal arborization in vivo." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999;19:9928-9938. Abstract

Expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB in the ganglion cell layer of the Xenopus retina during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arborization indicates that BDNF is spatially and temporally available to influence RGC morphological differentiation (; ). BDNF promotes RGC axon arborization in vivo by acting as a target-derived trophic factor (). To determine whether BDNF also acts locally to regulate RGC dendritic development in vivo, we altered retinal neurotrophin levels at the onset of dendritic arborization and assessed the resulting arbor morphologies of RGCs retrogradely labeled with fluorescent dextrans. Injecting neurotrophins or BDNF function-blocking antibodies coupled to microspheres provided local alterations of retinal neurotrophin levels. BDNF significantly decreased RGC dendritic arbor complexity, whereas neutralizing endogenous BDNF levels with function-blocking antibodies significantly increased dendritic arbor complexity. RGCs exposed to other neurotrophins, as well as RGCs in retinae treated with BDNF but in areas not directly exposed to the neurotrophin, developed dendritic arbors that were indistinguishable from controls, indicating that exogenous BDNF acts specifically and locally. In the tectum, where RGC axons arborize, BDNF had opposite effects. BDNF significantly increased RGC axon arbor complexity and anti-BDNF reduced RGC arborization. Thus, BDNF reduces RGC dendritic arborization within the retina and increases axon arborization in the tectum. These results indicate that BDNF can differentially modulate axonal and dendritic arborization within a single neuronal population in opposing manners and raise the possibility that differential modulation by a neurotrophic factor finely tunes the morphological differentiation program of a neuron.

Gachago MM, AG K. "Branch Retinal Vein Occlusions. A Review." JOECSA. 2017;21(1):1-8.
Ogeng’o JA, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Munguti JK. "Branching pattern of aortic arch in a Kenyan population." J Morphol Sci; . 2010;27:51-55.
Ogeng’o JA, Olabu BO, Gatonga PM, Munguti JK. "Branching pattern of aortic arch in a Kenyan population." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2010;27(2):51-55. Abstract

Knowledge of the branching pattern of aortic arch is important during supraaortic angiography, aortic instrumentation, thoracic and neck surgery. Variant patterns are often associated with congenital cardiovascular malformations. The branching pattern shows population variation but there are no data for black Kenyans. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern in a Kenyan population. One hundred and thirteen aortic arches of adult black Kenyans were exposed during cadaver dissection classes in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi and their branches examined. All variations were recorded and photographed. The results are presented in macrographs and a table. Seventy six (67.3%) of the aortic arches showed classical 3 branch pattern of brachiocephalic, left common carotid and left subclavian arteries. Six variants were observed. The most common (25.7%) variation was that of two branches namely a common trunk for the brachiocephalic and left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery; followed by direct arch origin of the vertebral artery in 7 cases (6.2%). In 4 (3.5%) cases the arch had four branches. Over 30% of individuals in the Kenyan population may show variant branching pattern of the aortic arch. This should be taken into account during angiography, aortic instrumentation, supraaortic thoracic, head and neck surgery. Evaluation of cardiovascular malformations in the population is recommended.

Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching Pattern of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in a Black African Population: A Dissection Study." {ISRN} Anatomy. 2013;2013:1-4. AbstractWebsite
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Sinkeet S, Mwachaka P, Muthoka J, Saidi H. "Branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery in a black African population: a dissection study." SRN Anatomy. 2013;doi.org/10.5402/2013/962904.
Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Ogeng'o JA, Njongo W, Hemed E, Obimbo MM, Gimongo J. "Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery in an African population." Clin Anat. 2011;24(6):692-8. Abstract

Branching pattern of middle cerebral artery influences frequency of its aneurysms, and is of potential value in their surgical repair and diagnosis of stroke. This pattern shows inter-population variations but there is paucity of data from Africans. This study aimed at describing branching pattern among black Kenyans. Middle cerebral arteries numbering 288 from 144 formalin fixed brains obtained during dissection and autopsy at Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were studied. Origin of the middle cerebral artery was identified at base of brain and its stem followed by gently separating the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes. Pattern of early cortical, lenticulostriate, and terminal branching was recorded and macrographs taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 for windows and presented using macrographs. All the brains had bilateral middle cerebral arteries which were continuations of the internal carotid artery. Variations of the artery observed included duplication (1.7%), early bifurcation (5.2%), and early cortical branching (47%), predominantly temporal (63.9%). Lenticulostriate arteries arose predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment as single branches (64.6%), and as common trunks (35.4%). Modes of termination were bifurcation (82.3%), trifurcation (10.8%), primary trunks (6.2%), and quadrifurcation (0.7%). Cortical branching pattern of the middle cerebral artery resembles that of Caucasian and Indian populations suggesting equal vulnerability to aneurysms and stroke. Pattern of origin of lenticulostriate arteries, predominantly from the pre-bifurcation segment and higher percentage of common trunks implies that the population is more prone to ischemia after aneurysm repair. Extra diligence during operation on proximal middle cerebral artery is called for.

Loyal PK, Butt F, Ogeng’o JA. "Branching pattern of the Extraosseus Mental Nerve in a Kenyan population." Craniomaxilofac Trauma Reconstruct. 2013;6:251-256.
Ogeng’o JA, Misiani MK, Olabu BO, Waisiko BM, Murunga A. "BRANCHING PATTERN OF THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERY IN A BLACK KENYAN POPULATION." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2016;5(2):755-763. Abstractbranching_pattern_of_the_left_anterior_descending.pdf

Branching pattern of the left anterior descending coronary artery is important in explaining variations in
occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis, informing management strategies for coronary heart disease and
interventional cardiology. Data on African populations are, however, scarce. Since coronary heart disease
is increasing in Africa, the aim of this study was to describe branching pattern of the left anterior
descending coronary artery in an indigenous Kenyan population. Two hundred and eight hearts obtained
during autopsy were dissected at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The
entire left anterior descending coronary artery was exposed. Number of branches, pattern of termination
and level of bifurcation were determined. Images of representative patterns were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. Data are presented in macrographs and tables. The number of septal and
diagonal branches varied between 1 and 3. Termination occurred in the posterior interventricular sulcus
in 68.8% and at the apex in 23% cases. Most common mode of terminal branching was bifurcation
(76.9%) followed by trifurcation (11.3%), quadrifurcation (3.4%) and pentafurcation (1.5%). Bifurcation
occurred in the distal segment in 48.8% and in the proximal segment in 15% of cases. The left anterior
descending coronary artery displays high variability in number of septal and diagonal branches, level of
termination, mode of terminal branching and level of terminal bifurcation. These patterns may constitute
risk factors for atherosclerosis and should also be acknowledged during cardiac procedures. Pre –
operative ultrasound evaluation is recommended to minimize inadvertent iatrogenic injury.

KITHUNGA PETERN. "Brand Associations and Consumer Perceptions of Value of Products.". 2002. Abstract

Purpose - Brands are so valuable that companies may soon include a ‘statement of value’ addendum to their balance sheets to include intangibles such as the value of their brands.
This paper examines the importance of brands and the bases for purchase decision and loyalty. The bases are derived from a theoretical framework on the perceptual dimensions of brand association. The framework contains attributes, application, benefits, user, personality and country of origin as the associations that consumers use in their purchase decisions and loyalty.
Practical implications- The growing importance of brands and consumer perceptions of brands among marketing researchers requires that an extensive conceptual treatment of brand association be developed. The paper shows the nature of brand association and the future directions in the measurement of perceptual dimension of brand associations.

Key Words: Brand association, consumer perception, formation of brand association

Wahome EW. "Brand personality and the evolution of destination Kenya image during the colonial period." A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya (PAK) New Series. 2013.
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JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Breast feeding and immunity to intestinal infections.Kakai R,Bwayo J.J,Wamola I.A, Ndinya- Achola,Nagelkerke NJD,Anzala AO,Plummer FA.East African Medical Journal 1995;72:1.". In: East African Medical Journal 1995;72:1. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Breast feeding and immunity to intestinal infections.Kakai R,Bwayo J.J,Wamola I.A, Ndinya- Achola,Nagelkerke NJD,Anzala AO,Plummer FA.East African Medical Journal 1995;72:1.". In: East African Medical Journal 1995;72:1. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1995. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

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