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Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu AY, Mackelprang RD, Rositch AF, Bosire R, Manyara L, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Barriers to antiretroviral initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2011;58(3):e87-93. Abstract

In Kenya and much of sub-Saharan Africa, nearly half of all couples affected by HIV are discordant. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) slows disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals and reduces transmission to uninfected partners. We examined time to ART initiation and factors associated with delayed initiation in HIV-1-discordant couples in Nairobi.

Githui SN, Chege M, Wagoro MCA, Mwaura J. "Barriers to Screening Pregnant Women for Domestic Violence: A Cross- Sectional Study." Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing.Comm Pub Health Nurs 2018. 2018;4(10.4172/2471-9846.1000207).
Dorothy McCormick, Ongile G, Pedersen O. "Barriers to Small Firm Growth: Evidence from Nairobi's Garment Industry.". In: Flexibility and Networking in an African Context. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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Mulwa M, Samuel Ngigi. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Added Value Mobile Money Products by the Lesser off Segments in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2018;7(6):146-155.jun18049_1.pdf
ndeti ndati, M M. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking products targeting Poor and Marginalized populations in Kenya.". In: Reaching the Unreached: Mobile Money Uptake in Ghana. Accra, Ghana; 2013.
Mulwa M, Ndeti N. Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking Products Targeting Poor and Marginalized Populations in Kenya.. Dakar, Senegal: 4th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication for Development; 2014.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "Barriers to utilisation of eye care services in Kibera slums of Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8 Ndegwa LK, Karimurio J, Okelo RO, Adala HS.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):506-8. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
Ikamari LDE. "Barriers to Utilisation of Maternal Health care in Teso District’.". In: Rockefeller Foundation.; 2001.
Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services among slum dwellers of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya East Afr. Med." East Afr Med J. 2005;82:506-508. Abstract

Objectives: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
Design: Community based survey
Setting: Kibera Slums, Nairobi City, Kenya
Subjects: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over 2 years.
Results: Majority of subjects 83.3% do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance, and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008).
Conclusions: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care.
Recommendation: There is need to establish a comprehensive Primary Eye Care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(2):55-61. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARCO DRSHEILAAKINYI, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 55-61. 2. Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Kimani K, Karimurio J, Gichuhi, S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services in Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Project." East Afr J Opthalmol. 2008;14(1):55-61. Abstract

Objective: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years.
Results: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary’s Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty).
Recommendations: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

Barua ya Mauti . Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
Olali T. Barua ya Sumbukeni.; 2021.
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Base Maps. Geography Techniques II.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Baker T, Kiptala J, Olaka L, Oates N, Hussain A, McCartney M. "Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya.". In: Baseline review and ecosystem services assessment of the Tana River Basin, Kenya. International Water Management Institute (IWMI); 2015. Abstract

The 'WISE-UP to climate'project aims to demonstrate the value of natural infrastructure as a
'nature-based solution'for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. Within
the Tana River Basin, both natural and built infrastructure provide livelihood benefits for
people. Understanding the interrelationships between the two types of infrastructure is a
prerequisite for sustainable water resources development and management. This is
particularly true as pressures on water resources intensify and the impacts of climate change
increase. This report provides an overview of the biophysical characteristics, ecosystem
services and links to livelihoods within the basin.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Baseline STD prevalence in a community intervention trial of the female condom in Kenya. Feldblum PJ, Kuyoh M, Omari M, Ryan KA, Bwayo JJ, Welsh M. Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Dec;76(6):454-6.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Dec;76(6):454-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Kwach JK, Onyango MA, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya.". In: 13th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. KARI Headquarters; 2012.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2011.
Kwach JK;, Onyango MA;, Muthomi JW;, Nderitu JH. "Baseline survey for status of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt in Kenya."; 2010.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Baseline survey on oral health, feeding patterns and nutritional status of the old people in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi District.". In: HelpAge international, Africa Regional Development centre 21-23, April 2004. Ngatia EM, Gathece LW, Mutara LN, Macigo FG, Mulli TK.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Ngatia EM, Macigo FG, Gathece LW, Mutara LN, Mulli TK. Baseline Survey on Oral Health, Feeding Patterns and Nutritional Status of the Older People in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi District. Nairobi: Help-Age International Africa Regional Centre; 2004. AbstractWebsite

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, KAHAKI DRKIMANI. "Baseline trachoma survey in ELCK-Arsim integrated development project area of Samburu North, Kenya.E Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov; 14(2): 49-54. 3. Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann KHM.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology Nov; 14(2): 49-54. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2008.
Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Kollmann M. "Baseline trachoma survey in the ELCK-Arsim integrated development project of Samburu District, Kenya." East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):49-54. Abstract

Objectives: To establish the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in childrenaged 1-9 years; potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults >15 years and to document the magnitude of selected known trachoma risk factors.
Design: Baseline community based survey conducted in March 2008 using the standardized WHO protocol.
Setting: Evangelical Lutheran Church of Kenya (ELCK)-Arsim Integrated Development Project area, Samburu District, Lift Valley Province, Kenya.
Subjects: A total of 47 villages and 71 households were visited. 862 children aged 1-9 years and 1,044 adults aged ≥15 yrs were examined. 427 (49.5%) of the children were boys and 435 (50.5%) were girls. 330 (31.6%) of the adults were males and 714 (68.4%) were females. 97.6% of adults and 90.0% of children over 5 years had never gone to school.
Results: The prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children was 31.3% (95% CI: 28.2 – 34.4). Boys and girls were equally affected. Children 1-5 years of age were most affected. The prevalence of potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults >15 years was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5–2.9). Of those with TT, 5 (22%) were males and 18 (78%) females. The prevalence of TT increased with age. Eight (34.8%) of those with TT had coexisting corneal opacity meaning that they were either blind or going blind. Of he 1044 adults examined during the survey, 371 (35.5%) had TS giving a TT to TS ratio of 1:16. This implies that it will take time before potentially blinding trachoma (TT) is eliminated. Known trachoma risk factors were documented. During the dry season, most households take about 3 hours to fetch water. During the wet season, they take about 1 hour. A total of 460 (53.4%) children examined had dirty faces. No household had a leaky tin. No household has a leaky tin. Ten of the 47 villages visited did not have any communal water point. In most households (97.4%) animals were kept no more than 20 meters of the house. Most (57.4%) households had animals kept inside the house at times. Only 7 (11%) of the 155 households had latrines (built as part of a demonstration project). 58 households (37.4%) had uncovered human faeces in/around the compound. In 125 (80.6%) of the households, garbage was scattered all over the compound.
Conclusions: It was concluded that both, active and potentially blinding trachoma are a public health problem in the ELCK-Arisim integrated development project area.
Recommendations: The whole population (23,607 people) living in the project area need mass antibiotic treatment. About 312 adults living in the project area have potentially blinding TT and need of immediate surgery.

Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. "Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1992;12:3554-3567. Abstract

Injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye, intravitreally or subretinally, delays photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, as does local injury to the retina (Faktorovich et al., 1990). To determine whether this heparin-binding peptide or local injury is effective in any other form of photoreceptor degeneration, we examined their protective roles in light damage. Albino rats of the F344 strain were exposed to 1 or 2 weeks of constant fluorescent light (115-200 footcandles), either with or without 1 microliter of bFGF solution (1150 ng/microliters in PBS) injected intravitreally or subretinally 2 d before the start of light exposure. Uninjected and intravitreally PBS-injected controls showed the loss of a majority of photoreceptor nuclei and the loss of most inner and outer segments after 1 week of light exposure, while intravitreal injection of bFGF resulted in significant photoreceptor rescue. The outer nuclear layer in bFGF-injected eyes was two to three times thicker than in controls, and the inner and outer segments showed a much greater degree of integrity. Following recovery in cyclic light for 10 d after 1 week of constant light exposure, bFGF-injected eyes showed much greater regeneration of photoreceptor inner and outer segments than did the controls. bFGF also increased the incidence of presumptive macrophages, located predominantly in the inner retina, but the evidence suggests they are not directly involved in photoreceptor rescue. Subretinal injection of bFGF resulted in photoreceptor rescue throughout most of the superior hemisphere in which the injection was made, with rescue extending into the inferior hemisphere in many of the eyes. Remarkably, the insertion of a dry needle or injection of PBS into the subretinal space also resulted in widespread photoreceptor rescue, extending through 70% or more of the superior hemisphere, and sometimes into the inferior hemispheres. This implicates the release and widespread diffusion of some endogenous survival-promoting factor from the site of injury in the retina. Our findings indicate that the photoreceptor rescue activity of bFGF is not restricted to inherited retinal dystrophy in the rat, and that light damage is an excellent model for studying the cellular site(s), kinetics, and molecular mechanisms of both the normal function of bFGF and its survival-promoting activity. Moreover, the injury-related rescue suggests that survival-promoting factors are readily available to provide a protective role in case of injury to the retina, presumably comparable to those that mediate the "conditioning lesion" effect in other neuronal systems.

R.M O. "Basic Human Psychology in Community Organization.". In: t the African Network for the prevention and protection against Child Abuse and Neglect, Community Organization Training Program. Nairobi, Kenya; 2000.
E.Odada, D.Olago, M. Ntiba, Gichuki SO, N.Oyieke, W.Ochola. BASIC HYDROGEOLOGY IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS . South Africa; 2005.
Basic Mathematics.; 2010. AbstractWebsite

This module consists of three units which are as follows: Unit 1: (i) Sets and Functions (ii) Composite Functions This unit starts with the concept of a set. It then intoroduces logic which gives the learner techniques for distinguishing between correct and incorrect arguments using propositions and their connectives. A grasp of sets of real numbers on which we define elementary functions is essential. The need to have pictorial representations of a function necessitates the study of its graph. Note that the concept of a function can also be viewed as an instruction to be carried out on a set of objects. This necessitates the study of arrangements of objects in a certain order, called permutations and combinations. Unit 2: Binary Operations In this unit we look at the concept of binary operations. This leads to the study of elementary properties of integers such as congruence. The introduction to algebraic structures is simply what we require to pave the way for unit 3. Unit 3: Groups, Subgroups and Homomorphism This unit is devoted to the study of groups and rings. These are essentially sets of numbers or objects which satisfy some given axioms. The concepts of subgroup and subring are also important to study here. For the sake of looking at cases of fewer axiomatic demands we will also study the concepts of homomorphisms and isomorphisms. Here we will be reflecting on the concept of a mapping or a function from either one group to the other or from one ring to the other in order to find out what properties such a function has.

Ongaro J, Rao O. Basic Mathematics: Fundamental Concepts in Pure Mathematics. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2020. Abstract
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Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.University of Nairobi Press
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009.
P M F M, Nguhiu J, CM M. Basic Principles of Veterinary Surgery. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi Press; 2009. Abstract
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Odada E. "Basic research on the world's lakes lags far behind similar research on the oceans." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2004;9(3 - 4):161-162.
Abiodun, Adigun Ade; Odingo RS. "Basic Space Sciences In Africa.". 1983. AbstractWebsite

Through space applications, a number of social and economic programmes in education, communications, agro-climatology, weather forecasting and remote sensing are being realized within the African continent. Regional and international organizations and agencies such as the African Remote Sensing Council, the Pan-African Telecommunication Union and the United Nations system have been instrumental in making Africa conscious of the impact and implications of space science and technology on its peoples. The above notwithstanding, discernible interests in space research, to date, in Africa, have been limited to the work on the solar system and on interplanetary matters including satellite tracking, and to the joint African-Indian proposal for the establishment of an International Institute for Space Sciences and Electronics (INISSE) and the construction, in Kenya, of a Giant Equatorial Radio Telescope (GERT). During this “Transport and Communications Decade in Africa,” Africa's basic space research efforts would need to initially focus on the appropriateness, modification and adaptation of existing technologies for African conditions with a view to providing economic, reliable and functional services for the continent. These should include elements of electronics, communications, structural and tooling industries, and upper-atmosphere research. The experience of and collaborative work with India, Brazil and Argentina, as well as the roles of African scientists, are examined.

Orata D. Basic Statistical Thermodynamics. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2020. AbstractLap Lambert Academic Publishing

Basic Statistical Thermodynamics is a textbook suitable for senior undergraduate students and can be used also by posstgraduate students in Universities. This book is a culmination of over three decades of teaching at the University of Nairobi. The approach in the text is geared towards ensuring that, the student can use the book for self study. This has been achieved by showing in detail a step wise manner the derivation of the concepts and principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Orata D. Basic Thermodynamics And Kinetics (for Scientists and Engineers). Germany: Lambert Academic Publishers; 2014.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clincal Epidemiology: Part II. Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine, 1997; 1:66-68. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clinical Epidemiology: Part I Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine,1997;1:15-19. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Basics of Clinical Epidemiology: Part III. Joshi M.D.". In: HealthLine, 1998; 2:40-42. Institute of Health Research & Services; 1998. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine platelet abnormalities in patients with menigococcal meningitis. DESIGN: Case control study. SUBJECTS: Fifty seven cases of mennigococcal meningitis based on a cerebrospinal fluid gram stain for gram negative diplococcus or positive culture were recruited. Fifty-seven controls matched for age and sex were also recruited. The following platelet functions tests were performed; platelet counts, platelet adhesiveness, platelet aggregation and clot retraction. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients (41 males and 16 females) with meningococcal meningitis were studied. Their mean age was 25.5 +/- 8.32 years with a range of 15 to 45 years. Five patients had purpura, four peripheral gangrene, eight conjunctival haemorrhages and one was in shock. There was a statistical significant difference in the platelet aggregation and clot retraction between the patients and controls at p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0002 respectively. There was no significant difference in the platelet count and adhesiveness between the patients and the controls at a p-value of 0.203 and 0.22 respectively. No association was found between the platelet functions and the clinical presentations. CONCLUSION: Patients with meningococcal meningitis have abnormalities in the platelet functions mainly in aggregation and adhesiveness.
Bulinda DM. "Basics of Educational Administration ." Lambart Academic Publishing. 2018.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Bathymetry of Lake Bogoria, Kenya.". In: Journal of East African Natural History 92, 107-117. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2004. Abstractbathymetry_of_lake_bogoria_kenya.pdf

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Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Acharya SK.Acute liver failure: prognostic markers.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2003 Dec;22 Suppl 2:S66-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as liver failure occurring within one month of the occurrence of jaundice. The disease has a grim prognosis, with a mortality of 65% to 85%. The management of ALF has till recently been conservative, and newer therapeutic modalities like bioartificial liver, hepatocyte transplant, and extracorporeal liver assist devices have not yet been proven to be successful. Liver transplant has changed the gloomy outlook of the disease, and post-transplant survival rates of 60%-70% have been reported from most centers. However liver transplant is expensive, necessitates life-long immunosupression, and is limited by a global shortage of available organs. It is thus necessary to select patients who are at greatest risk of death for liver transplantation. Prognostic criteria are based primarily either on clinical and laboratory (coagulation tests, serum bilirubin) parameters, or on other parameters like liver volume. Prognostic criteria have been developed both from the East and the West; these are essentially similar except that the Western criteria take into account etiology (drug overdose being the main cause of ALF there) as well as jaundice-encephalopathy interval as factors for prognostication. The King's College criteria were one of the first prognostic systems; it has two parts for both paracetamol as well as non paracetamol ALF. The criteria from our institute found prothrombin time >25 s, serum bilirubin >15 mg/dL, age >40 years, and cerebral edema to be bad prognostic markers. Criteria from the PGIMER, Chandigarh found age >50 years, raised intracranial pressure, prothrombin time >100 s, and onset of HE more than seven days after the jaundice as poor prognostic markers. All these clinical criteria have similar sensitivity and specificity.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Bhatkal B, Ojha B, Kaur K, Saraya A, Panda SK, Acharya SK.Vaccination against hepatitis A virus may not be required for schoolchildren in northern India: results of a seroepidemiological survey.Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(9):728-31.". In: Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(9):728-31. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a sample of schoolchildren above 10 years of age and to determine the prevalence of HAV-induced hepatitis in adults at a tertiary care hospital in northern India between January 1992 and December 2000. METHODS: Sera from 276 male and 224 female schoolchildren aged 10-17 years were tested for anti-HAV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis who attended a liver clinic were tested for the serological markers of HAV, hepatitis B Virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus. FINDINGS: Of the male and female children, 96.3% and 98.2%, respectively had anti-HAV antibodies in their sera. The prevalence of these antibodies in the age groups 10-12, 13- 14, and 15-17 years were 98.6%, 94.8%, and 98.3% respectively. The frequency of HAV- induced acute viral hepatitis (69/870, 8%) in adults did not show an increasing trend. CONCLUSION: Mass HAV vaccination may be unnecessary in northern India because the seroprevalence of protective antibodies against HAV in schoolchildren aged over 10 years remains above 95% and there has been no apparent increase in HAV-induced acute viral hepatitis in adults.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Batra Y, Dutta AK, Acharya SK.Molecular adsorbent and re-circulating system.Trop Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr-Jun;25(2):60-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr-Jun;25(2):60-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a non-biological artificial liver support system. Used for almost a decade, there are only two randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of MARS till date. A number of uncontrolled studies have documented a marked improvement in the biochemical parameters of patients after MARS. Although MARS seems to be an effective and promising tool in the management of liver failure, its cost needs to be reduced to enable it use in a member of indications.
W. PROFNDUATIRUTH. "Battered baby syndrome at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1990 Dec;67(12):900-6. Muita JW, Nduati RW.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Dec;67(12):900-6. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract

Thirty children presenting with Battered Baby Syndrome over a five year period were studied retrospectively. The male:female ratio was 1:1.1. The majority (60%) were aged 0-11 months. 14 children (46%) were abandoned while six (20%) had multiple fractures, six (20%) multiple bruises and bites, and four (13.3%) had other forms of abuse. Twelve (40%) children were malnourished while eight of the babies (26.6%) were small for gestational age. Children were most frequently brought to hospital by the police or their mothers. The children were most frequently abused by their mothers either through abandonment or through physical battering. Details of mothers of the 14 abandoned children were unknown. Among the mothers of the other children, nine mothers were single, seven married and living with spouses and one stepmother. Two children (6.6%) died while the fate of two others was not known. Three children were sent home without intervention of the social worker, while twenty three children were discharged following intervention of the social worker; fourteen sent home, nine to a childrens' home and one through the juvenile court.

TOM DONDICHO. "Battered women: A social-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: In reflections on international tourism: Motivations, behaviour and tourist types, Robinson, M.J. Swarbrooke, N. Evans, P. Long and R. Sharpley eds. Newcaste and Sheffield: Athenaeum Press. African Study Monographs, 21(1): 35-44; 2000. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

Ondicho TG. "Battered Women: A Socio-Legal Perspective of Their Experiences in Nairobi." African Study Monographs. 2000;21(1):35-44.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
TOM DONDICHO. "Battered Women: A Socio-legal perspective of their experiences in Nairobi.". In: Mila 2: 19-28. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract

ABSTRACT The literature and research on domestic violence against women have

received increased attention in the 1980's and 1990's, but research on wife beating/battering

is still sparse. This paper reports from a research project in Nairobi that focused on the legal

experiences of battered women and their perceptions of the violence. Findings reveal that the

problem of battering is rampant and most battered women do not seek legal intervention. It

was also found that a majority of the women remained in intimate relationships with their

batterers due to economic dependence on the batterers and lack of alternatives outside the

relationship.

Key Words: Domestic violence; Legal Experiences; Nairobi; Kenya.

MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "Baurnhoffer, A.H., C.H. Hauzenberget, E. Wallbrecher, G. Hoinkes and H. Fritz, J. Loizenbauer, E.M. Mathu, N. Opiyo-Akech and S. Muhongo .". In: Kenya and the Pare-Usambara Mts. N.E. Tanzania. Journ. Afr. Eath Sci. 30:10. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Bayeh, Y.M., Kogi-Makau, W. and Mwikya, S.M.(2006). Microenvironment resource capacities, understanding of the right to food and nutritional security of under-five years old children in urban Bahirdar, Ethiopia (an intra-spatial perspective).". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
Thierno Souleymane Barry, Oscar Ngesa, Onyango NO, Mwambi H. "Bayesian Spatial Modeling of Anemia among children under 5 years in Guinea.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Bacground: Anemia is a major public health problem in Africa with an increasing number of children under 5
years getting infected. Guinea is one of the most affected countries. In 2018, the prevalence rate was 75% in
children under 5 years. This study sought to identify the factors associated with anemia and to map spatial
variation of anemia across the eight (8) regions in Guinea for children under 5 years, which can provide
guidance for control programs for the reduction of the disease.
Methods: Data from the Guinea Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) 2016 was used for this study. A
total of 2609 children under 5 years who had full covariate information were used in the analysis. Spatial
binomial logistic regression methodology was undertaken via Bayesian estimation based on Markov chain
Monte Carlo (McMC) using WinBUGS software version 1.4.
Results: Our findings revealed that 77% of children under 5 years in Guinea had anemia and the prevalence in
the regions ranged from 70.32% (Conakry) to 83.60% (N’Zerekore) across the country. After adjusting for non
spatial and spatial random effects in the model, older children (48–59 months) (OR: 0.47, CI [0.29 0.70]) were
less likely to be anemic compared to those who are younger (0-11 months). Children whose mothers have
completed secondary education or more had a reduced chance of anemia infection by 33% (OR: 0.67, CI [0.49
0.90]) and Children from household heads from Kissi ethnic group are less likely to have anemia than their
counterparts whose leader is from Soussou (OR: 0.48, CI [0.22 0.91]).
Conclusion: The spatial analysis allowed the identification of high-risk areas as well as the identification of
socio-economic and demographic factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years. Such an
analysis is important in helping policy makers and health practitioners in developing programs geared towards
control and management of anemia among children under 5 years in the country.

OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Be fruitful and multiply: - population management in Africa on the eve of the 21st centry?: Population management in Africa into thenext millennium" Faculty Luncheon presentation, NewYork University School of Law.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1997. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Howell K, Oguge N. "Beamys hindei." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Howell, K. ON, Chitaukali W. "Beamys major." 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; 2006. Abstract
n/a
Kimani PM;, Chirwa RM;, Kirkby R. "Bean Breeding For Africa: Strategy And Plan."; 2001. Abstract

The common bean is the principal grain legume grown by small-scale, resource-poor farmers for food and sale in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its productivity is severely constrained by many biotic and abiotic constraints, resulting in low production despite rising demand. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), in partnership with national programmes, regional networks, and NGOs, has released several improved bean varieties in the last decade. However, most of these varieties originated from the CIAT breeding programme at its global headquarters in Cali, Colombia. To strengthen the capacity of bean researchers in Africa to respond better to the changing needs of farmers and consumers, the Pan African Bean Research Alliance (PABRA), consisting of CIAT-Africa, the East and Central Africa Bean Research Network (ECABREN), and the Southern Africa Bean Research Network (SABRN), has developed a collaborative strategic plan for breeding high-yielding bean varieties with improved tolerance to major biotic and abiotic stresses, which also meet requirements for domestic, regional, and international markets. Following participatory approaches, breeding programmes for the seven most important market classes have been developed and are being implemented by collaborating NARS, selected on the basis of the importance of a particular market class in their country. Test sites were selected to represent the major bean-growing environments and constraints for each market class. The main priorities for the breeding programmes are (1) yield improvement, (2) identification, characterisation, and utilisation of sources of resistance to major biotic and abiotic constraints, (3) assessment of advanced lines for productivity in intercropped and sole cropping systems, and (4) cooking and nutritional quality.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Bean canopy response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and planting density under temperate and tropical conditions. East Africa Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 65:7-20.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Mukunya DM. "Bean Diseases In Kenya.".; 1974.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Bean growth and yield response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and planting density under temperate and tropical conditions. East Africa Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 65:21-36.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean Improvement for smallholder farmers in East and Central Africa.". In: Presented to Grain Legume Planning Workshop, 29-30 March 2005, Yaounde, Cameroon. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean Improvement for smallholder farmers in ECA: An Overview.". In: CMPG workshop, 1-3 April 2005, Leuven, Belgium. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Bean research for development strategy in central and eastern Africa. CIAT in Africa. Highlight Number 14. CIAT,.". In: Kampala, Uganda. December 2004. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Nekesa P;, Nderitu JH;, Otsyula RM. "Bean research in western Kenya: Lessons and experiences."; 1998.
Nekesa P;, and Nderitu JN, Otysula RM. "Bean research in Western Kenya: Lessons and experiences. 2nd biennial Crop Protection Conference.". In: In: KARI Scientific Conference. Nairobi; 1998.
Nderitu JH;, Kayumbo HY;, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly Infestation on Common Bean."; 1990. Abstract

The population patterns of eggs, larvae and puparia on bean plants and leaf punctures made by adults were investigated during cropping (March-July; October-January) and noncropping (July-October) seasons at two sites in Kenya. Bean grown in noncropping seasons had more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and puparia than bean grown in cropping seasons. Bean sown in noncropping seasons attracted unusually high beanfly populations from surrounding weeds as well as previous crops. Under field conditions, the Onhiomyi beanfly species, sencerella Greathead and 0. phasepli Tryon, bean infested plants in all seasons. Both species normally oviposited in punctures on the leavesbut 0. spencerella also oviposited in the stems of bean seedlings.

Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Nderitu JH, Kayumbo HY, MUEKE JM. "Beanfly infestation on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1990;11(1):34-41.
Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Crushed Stone Embankment." Journal, Institution of Engineers of Kenya. 1979:14-16.
Sahu BK, Gichaga FJ. "Bearing Capacity of Red Coffee Soils of Nairobi.". In: 2nd International ANSTI Seminar in Civil Engineering. University of Lagos, Nigeria.; 1984.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Beaten JM, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Richardson BA< Emery S, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Bankson DD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Vitamin A supplementation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 shedding in women: results of a randomised clinical.". In: J Infect Dis 2002;185:1187-91. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Beattie T, Kaul R, Rostron T, Dong T, Easterbrook P, Jaoko WG, Kimani J, Plummer F, McMichael A & Rowland-Jones S (2004) Screening for HIV-specific T-cell responses using overlapping 15-mer peptide pools or optimized epitopes. AIDS, 18:1-4.". In: AIDS, 18:1-4. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2004. Abstract
MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.
Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G. Muchemi. "Bebora and G.Muchemi. 2014. Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2014.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Common poisons-poultry.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1986): Salmonellosis in poultry: the disease, its diagnosis and Prevention.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1986.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1987): Common poisons - poultry. Kenya Veterinarian 11:7-8.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1987.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1996): The erratic nature of Enterobacteriaceae with particular mention to the genera Escherichia, Shigella and Salmonella: A practical review. Discovery and Innovation 8(3): 215-218.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1996.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. (1997): Role of plasmids in virulence of enteric bacteria. E.A. Medical Journal 74(7): 43-45.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1997.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. and Nyaga P.N. (1989): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella gallinarum isolates recovered from Kenya.". In: Paper presented at 1st Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1989.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C. and Nyaga P.N. (1989): Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella gallinarum isolates recovered from Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., Special issue:115-118.". In: Paper presented at 2nd Faculty of Veterinary Medicine biennial scientific conference, University of Nairobi. Taylor & Francis; 1989.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Nyaga P.N. and Njagi L.W. (2000): Bacterial species recovered from ducks sampled from peri-urban villages of Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 2000.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Nyaga P.N., Njagi L.W., Mbuthia P.G., Mugera G.M., Minga U.M. and Olsen J.E. (2002): Production status of indigenous chicken from peri-urban villages in Kenya.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in December 2002; Kenya. Taylor & Francis; 2002.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "Bebora L.C., Oundo J.O., Khamala J., Saidi S., Sang W.K., Yamamoto H. and 16 Mukundi P.W. (1993): Some E. coli strains causing septicaemia in chicks in Kenya.Kenya Veterinarian 17:1-3.". In: Presented at IHEPRUCA annual scientific meeting, held in November 2000; Tanzania. Taylor & Francis; 1993.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C. and Mbuthia, P.G. 2006. Report on three rare cases handled at the poultry clinic, Kabete. 5th Biennual FVM scientific conference and exhibition, 2006.". In: The Kenyan Veterinarian. The kenyan Veterinarian; 2006. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Mbuthia, P.G., Macharia, J.M., Mwaniki, G., Njagi, L.W., and Nyaga, P.N. 2005. Appraisal of the village bird.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P. and Nyaga, P.N. 2008. Importance of environmental hygiene in reducing bacterial load exposure to night-housed indigenous chickens. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, Col.". In: The 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Njagi, L.W., Mbuthia, P.G., and Kariuki, D.I. 2008. Various manifestations of ovarian carcinoma and Marek.". In: The 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at PHPT auditorium, Kabete Campus on September 17th to 19th 2008. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Bebora, L.C., Thaiyah, A.G and Mbuthia, P.G., L.W. Njagi, and P. N. Nyaga. 2007. A case of Newcastle disease in a parrot. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55 (4): 292-295.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2007. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "BECH, C., JOHANSEN, K. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1979) Ventilation and expired gas composition in the flamingo(Phoenicopterus ruber) during normal respiration and panting. Physiological Zoology 52, 313-328.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Bechuanaland: Pan African Outpost or Bantu Homeland by E.S. Munger. Review in East Africa.". In: In Bull. Geog. Assoc. of Ghana, vol.II. No. 1, pp.15-26, January 1966. UN-HABITAT; 1966. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Bedi BS, Debas HT, Wasunna AE, Buxton BF, Gillespie IE. Secretin and cholecystokin-pancreozymin in combination in the inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Gut. 1971 Dec;12(12):968-72. No abstract available.". In: Gut. 1971 Dec;12(12):968-72.; 1971. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Bedi BS, Wasunna AE, Gillespie IE. Effect of bile-salts on antral gastrin release. Br J Surg. 1969 Sep;56(9):695-6. No abstract available.". In: Br J Surg. 1969 Sep;56(9):695-6.; 1969. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
Loh TP, Saw S, Sethi SK. "Bedside monitoring of blood ketone for management of diabetic ketoacidosis: proceed with care." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2012;29:827-828. Abstract
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NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Beef and dressed chickens as sources of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Nairobi.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from beef carcasses, minced beef and dressed chicken were assayed for production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D using reverse passive latex agglutination technique. The highest isolation rate was from chickens followed by minced beef. Chickens yielded the highest percentage of enterotoxigenic strains. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) was the most frequently produced enterotoxin type from all the three sources. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) ranked second and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) third. The data show that chickens and minced beef are potential sources of food poisoning staphylococci in Kenya, and that increased handling of the products increases contamination suggesting that man is the major source.
Ombui JN, Arimi SM, Kayihura M. "Beef and dressed chickens as sources of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 1992;69(11):606-608.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Beef Industry in Kenya: A Review of National and International Perspectives.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 1981.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Beehner J.C., Nga Nguyen, Wango E.O., Alberts S.C. and Altmann J.(2006). The endocrinology of pregnancy and fetal loss in wild baboons. Hormones and Behaviour 49(5) 699-699.". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
and Kasina JM(2007, Nderitu JH. "Bees in horticultural crop production; Revisiting the sale of pollination in crop productivity." sustainable agric production in the tropics. 2007.
PROF.KIIRU MUCHUGUDH. "Before the Earth Receives My Bones: Clips of the Somali Belwo." Journal of the Korean African Studies . 2013;39(August 2013):95-108.abstract.pdfbefore_the_earth_receives_my_bones.pdf
Chesaina, Ciarunji; Gakuru O; KWM. "The Beginnings.". 2012.Website
N A, NM A, MO F, Y K, JI V, OB A-B, SZ M, S A, H H, S B, DA M, A R, I K, M M, M R, V P, S C, Y C, E J, JL C, K N, A S, G G, A P, P P, D M, J K, MM A, A A, MA D, M N, I H, MM A, AP V, A I, AM K, ME T. "Behavior change due to COVID-19 among dental academics - The theory of planned behavior: stresses, worries, training, and pandemic severity." PLoS ONE. 2020;15(9): e0239961(15(9): e0239961):15(9): e0239961.
Gatotoh AM. Behavior Change: An Assessment of Correctional Counselling . Saarbrücken, Germany: Lap Academic publishing; 2011.
Manguriu GN, Mwero JN, Abuodha SO. "Behavior of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars in Reinforced Concrete.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Steel reinforcement bars are a key component in reinforced concrete and are mainly employed to carry tensile stresses since concrete on its own is weak in tension. Sometimes these bars are wrongly bent, straightened and re bent, resulting in the altering of their original characteristics. Some of such steel has been used and some condemned as unfit for reinforcing purposes. This paper reports on the behavior of these reworked bars in reinforced concrete. In the investigation, test concrete beams built using reworked bars were built, cured and tested in bending to ultimate failure. Load-deflection relationship, beam side strains, cracking patterns and ultimate loads were investigated. Some tensile tests were also carried out on the reinforcement bars to give an indication of the behavior of the reinforcement steel, both normal and reworked. Beams built using reworked bars were found to be stiffer in the plastic range of the tensile reinforcement bars. From these results it was found that reworked reinforcement bars could be used for reinforcing concrete if the design formulae provided in the design codes were modified to cater for the slight changes in the properties of such steel.

A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
Wan H, Horvath C. "Behavior of soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase in hydro-organic media." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):135-44. Abstract

The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) has been investigated in mixtures of aqueous buffers with acetone, dioxane and acetonitrile. The enzyme was either in free solution or immobilized on a pellicular support which consisted of a porous carbonaceous layer on solid glass beads. The highest enzyme activity was obtained in acetone and acetonitrile mixed with citrate buffer over a wide range of organic solvent concentration. In 50% (v/v) acetone both V and Km of the immobilized enzyme were about half of the values in the neat aqueous buffer, but the Ki for inorganic phosphate was unchanged. In 50% (v/v) mixtures of various solvents and citrate buffers of different pH, the enzymic activity was found to depend on the pH of the aqueous buffer component rather than the pH of the hydro-organic mixture as measured with the glass-calomel electrode. The relatively high rates of p-nitrophenol liberation in the presence of glucose even at high organic solvent concentrations suggest that transphosphorylation is facilitated at low water activity.

Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "The Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: 1st African Material Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN) Conference. Windhoek, Namibia); 2010.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O. RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Behavior of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash as a Cementing Material.". In: International Symposium on: Modernizing Local Sustainable Technologies as the Engine for Sustainable Development. Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Wanjare, J. & Ojwang P(2016). "Behavioral Factors and Financial Decisions by Traders in Kibuye Market, Kisumu City, Kenya." Online Journal of Social Sciences Research, ISSN 2277-0844. 2016;Vol 5, 29 - 39.
and Subbo, W. K. WWRS. "Behaviour change in the area of HIV: Challenges and planks for positive living." Aids and Sexual Reproductive Health: Policy Implications. 2009;1(16):34-38.behaviour_change_in_the_era_of_hiv_aids_-_dr._subbo.docx
Subbo, Wilfred K.; Wakabe R; WS. "Behaviour change in the area of HIV: challenges and planks for positive living. Aids and Sexual Reproductive Health.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In Spite of considerable efforts and resources by government and NGOs to preventing the spread f HIV/AIDS in Kenya, little seems to have been achieved. While awareness is generally high, it is clear there is a gap between information and behavior change that must be bridged. This paper attempts to address this issue using the bridge model of behavior change. It first discusses the challenges that are the ‘valley’ between information and behavior change, then examines the planks that can be used to surmount the challenges, creating a bridge between the two ‘banks’.

Gichaga FJ. "Behaviour of Flexible Road Pavements under Tropical Climate.". In: Fifth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Arnhem, Netherlands.; 1982.
Jama HH. The behaviour of tubular steel beams subjected to transverse blast loads.; 2009. Abstract

A series of blast experiments was performed on tubular beams with different cross-section slenderness, lengths and boundary conditions. As a result of a transverse blast load, cold-formed hollow beams undergo global and local permanent deformations. Global deformation refers to the overall beam bending deformation and local deformation refers to the local cross section failure of the beams. The local deformations were complex and the measurement of the local deformation was taken to be the distance traversed by the top flange. It was observed that as the impulse on the beams was increased, the deformed cross section changed from a molar to a tear-drop shape. It was found that the impulse recorded using a ballistic pendulum is directly proportional to the mass of the explosive detonated. Further, as a result of the experimental work undertaken, it was found that a ballistic pendulum can be used to achieve replicable results. The global deformation of tubular beams subjected to blast loads is significantly affected by the boundary condition at the supports. As in the quasi-static testing regime, beams with fixed-ended supports deform less than beams with partially-fixed supports. In the range tested, it was found that local deformations of SHS beams are not affected by axial restraint. This can be understood if the beam is idealised as consisting of four plates of equal size. Initially the impulse is imparted only onto the top flange which has only ¼ of the mass of the beam. Therefore, severe local deformations occur at the top flange before the rest of the beam responds. The local deformations of all the beams tested progressed in a similar manner from molar to tear-drop shape as the magnitude of the impulse was increased. Nevertheless, the local deformations of the 300mm and 600mm beams are similar, the local deformation/beam depth being observed in the range of 1~1.4. The global deformations of the Series III beams, when compared to the Series IV beams, appear to indicate prima facie that global deformation is inversely proportional to the length of these beams. This apparent contradiction of beam theory is explained by the fact that the 1000mm beam is heavier than the 600mm span. In addition, the local deformation of the 1000mm beam occurs over a longer length and absorbs more energy. The interaction between local deformation and global beam bending deformation was investigated by examining the energy distribution. In this analysis shear effects were shown to be negligible and were therefore excluded. A proposal by Wegener and Martin [2] was utilised to simplify the analysis. Wegener and Martin [2] hypothesised that local and global deformations are uncoupled, with the local deformations preceding the global deformations. The energy consumed in the local deformation was estimated from the final deformed cross-section using hingeline mechanics. Stationary and rolling hinge approaches were utilised and found to yield similar energy levels. Thereafter, the principle of the conservation of energy was invoked and the distribution of the energy consumed in local and global deformation of the beams was shown. The energy consumed in the local deformation of the fixed 600mm span beams was found to be 63%, 66% and 49% of the input energy for the 35mm, 40mm and 50mm beams respectively. In the 600 mm span beams with partially-fixed boundary condition, a similar distribution of the energy was found. In the 1000mm beams, there was significantly more energy consumed in local deformation as shown by the fact that 73%, 69% and 83% of the input energy was consumed in local deformation for the 35mm, 40mm and 50mm beams respectively. SHS steel beams subjected to blast loads were found to undergo local cross-sectional deformations that consumed more than 50% of the input energy, which can be estimated using rigid-plastic analysis and the experimental results. Once the energy consumed in the local deformation is accounted for, the flexural beam bending deformation can be found using the bound of Jones equations and the remaining energy. Using these results, a semi-empirical general design guideline which yields a lower bound solution has been outlined and a design guideline has been proposed. Finite element simulations of some of the experiments were performed in order to determine the influence of strain-rate hardening and thermal softening on the results. Two boundary conditions, fully-fixed and partially-fixed beams with 600 mm span lengths were simulated. Linear Piecewise Plasticity (LPP), Linear Piecewise Plasticity with strain-rate (LPP+ ) and Linear Piecewise Plasticity with strain-rate and thermal softening (LPP+ +T) material models were used.

KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "Behavioural Effects of Infant and Child Mortality on Fertility in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 5 No. 3 (Dec) 2001. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Nyasembe VO, Teal PEA MWRTJHTB. "Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5(234):doi:10.1186/1756-3305-234.
Nyasembe VO, Teal PEA, WR M, Tumlinson JH, Torto B. "Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends." Parasites & Vectors. 2012;5:234.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012.
Nyabuga G. "Being sceptical: Deconstructing media freedom and responsibility." African Communication Research; 2012. Abstract
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Ojera, PB; Ogutu SEM; OLAM;. "Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A Survey of Sugar Industry in Kenya.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The sugar industry has experienced poor performance attributed to industry deregulation, poor management and political interference. Adopting the Simons Levers of Control framework, this study sought to establish the relationship between belief control practices and organizational performance in the sugar industry in Kenya. Using a census survey of the 45 firms in the sugar industry value-chain in western Kenya registered by the Kenya Sugar Board as at 1st January 2008, data was collected through self administered questionnaires sent to chief executive officers, finance managers and marketing officers of the target companies. The main finding of the study was that belief control systems are moderately prevalent in firms in the sugar industry and that belief control has a significant positive relationship with organizational performance ( = 0.288, p < 0.05). The findings of this study underscore the need of management to incorporate employees in the company core values and design of strategic control systems to cope with changing internal and external operating business environments. The study advances the extant theory of strategic management control practices by providing evidences from emerging economy and on a focused single lever of management control.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Bell DR, Plant NJ, Rider CG, Na L, Brown S, Ateitalla I, Acharya SK, Davies MH, Elias E, Jenkins NA, et al.Species-specific induction of cytochrome P-450 4A RNAs: PCR cloning of partial guinea-pig, human and mouse CYP4A cDNAs.Biochem J. 1993 Aug 15;294 ( .". In: Biochem J. 1993 Aug 15;294 ( Pt 1):173-80. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of a conserved region and to clone novel members of the cytochrome P-450 4A gene family from guinea pig, human and mouse cDNAs. This strategy is based on the sequences at nucleotides 925-959 and at the haem binding domain (nucleotides 1381-1410) of the rat CYP4A1 gene. Murine Cyp4a clones showed high sequence identity with members of the rat gene family, but CYP4A clones from human and guinea pig were equally similar to the rat/mouse genes, suggesting that the rat/mouse line had undergone gene duplication events after divergence from human and guinea-pig lines. The mouse Cyp4a-12 clone was localized to chromosome 4 using interspecific backcross mapping, in a region of synteny with human chromosome 1. The assignment of the human CYP4A11 gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by somatic cell hybridization. An RNAase protection assay was shown to discriminate between the murine Cyp4a-10 and Cyp4a-12 cDNAs. Treatment of mice with the potent peroxisome proliferator methylclofenapate (25 mg/kg) induced Cyp4a-10 RNA in liver, and to a lesser extent in kidney; there was no sex difference in this response. Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at high levels in male control liver and kidney samples, and was not induced by treatment with methylclofenapate. However, Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at low levels in control female liver and kidney RNA, and was greatly induced in both organs by methylclofenapate. Guinea pigs were exposed to methylclofenapate (50 mg/kg), but there was no significant induction of the guinea-pig CYP4A13 RNA. These findings are consistent with a species difference in response to peroxisome proliferators between the rat/mouse and the guinea pig.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ben-Yakir,D; Mumcuoglu, K.Y;Manor, Ochanda,J.O;Okuro, and Galun, R. Immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus):.". In: The effect of the induced resistance on the louse population: Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 8, 114-118. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
Sereti DK. "Benchmarking." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;(Issue No. 1, January-March):3-7.
"Benchmarking heritage conservation practices in Kenya and Korea." The Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2015;8:23-36.
A.P S, K.C C. "Benchmarking Quality of Experience (QoE) offered by Mobile Network Operators in Kenya: A User-Centric Approach,." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2015;5(1).
Peng B, Zhu R, Li M, Tang Z. "Bending vibration suppression of a flexible multispan shaft using smart spring support." Shock and Vibration. 2017;2017. Abstract
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Magutu, Peterson Obara; Lelei JK; NAO. "The benefits and challenges of electronic data interchange.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Many organizations are applying Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to improve operational efficiency, enhance information quality, and achieve reductions in processing time of critically important business information. EDI today represents an opportunity to improve business processes and business controls directly even though challenges are expected. It is in light of the opportunities and challenges that this study is done, specifically focusing on the benefits and challenges of implementation and application of EDI in Kenya considering the case of Kilindini Waterfront Project. Data was collected from 45 managers of the firms selected using convenient sampling. The respondents were asked about perceived benefits of EDI application and perceived challenges of EDI implementation and application. The questionnaires were mainly hand delivered to the respondents. The data collected was analyzed with the use of frequency tables, proportion, percentages, cross tabulations and factor analysis using SPSS. Majority of the firms that were studied had less than 1,000 employees which may possibly mean the firms are less labor intensive and therefore relying more on automated processes. This study also show that most of the respondents were experienced with EDI implementation and application and therefore had the necessary knowledge sought for. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the benefits of EDI application, the deduction drawn indicates that firms that apply EDI benefited. Some of the benefits include reduced errors, access to information, enhanced competitive capacity and improved trading partner relationship. Despite the benefits of EDI application, it was also found that there are several challenges encountered in the implementation of EDI. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the challenges in the EDI implementation, the deduction drawn indicates some of the challenges to be lack of top management support, negative staff attitude, inadequate IT staff training and inadequate non IT staff training. This study also indicated that there were challenges encountered in the application of EDI. From the factor analysis carried out on the variables of the challenges of EDI application, the deductions drawn indicate some of the challenges to be inadequate non IT staff training, lack of trust of other EDI partners, lack of flexibility, lack of maintainability and lack of awareness of benefits of EDI.

and Mureithi S. M., Verdoodt A. NGVRJTCKK. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating A Degraded Semi-Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2341.. 2014.
Wairore JN, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi-Arid Rangeland in Private Enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya." Land Degradation & Development. 2015. Abstract
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Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Gachene CKK, Ranst EV. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Communal Enclosures, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2014.
Wairore JN, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Nyberg G. "Benefits Derived from Rehabilitating a Degraded Semi‐Arid Rangeland in Private Enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development. 2015.
Mbali KK, Mutembei HM MJK. "BENEFITS OF ADOPTING BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY IN." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(3):87-92.mutembei-mbali-benefits-2018.pdf
Khoda A, Moturi CA. "Benefits of Adopting Knowledge Management in the Key Contributor to the Kenyan Economy." African Journal of Business and Management (AJBUMA). 2012;2. AbstractWebsite

This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.

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